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Sample records for characterizing multisegment foot

  1. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    PubMed Central

    Sawacha, Zimi; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guarneri, Gabriella; Corazza, Stefano; Donà, Giulia; Denti, Paolo; Facchinetti, Andrea; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation) were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate the major sources of

  2. Custom-Molded Foot-Orthosis Intervention and Multisegment Medial Foot Kinematics During Walking

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Stephen C.; Tis, Laurie L.; Johnson, Jeffrey T.; Wang, Yong “Tai”; Geil, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Foot-orthosis (FO) intervention to prevent and treat numerous lower extremity injuries is widely accepted clinically. However, the results of quantitative gait analyses have been equivocal. The foot models used, participants receiving intervention, and orthoses used might contribute to the variability. Objective: To investigate the effect of a custom-molded FO intervention on multisegment medial foot kinematics during walking in participants with low-mobile foot posture. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University biomechanics and ergonomics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen participants with low-mobile foot posture (7 men, 9 women) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 FO groups. Interventions : After a 2-week period to break in the FOs, individuals participated in a gait analysis that consisted of 5 successful walking trials (1.3 to 1.4 m/s) during no-FO and FO conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Three-dimensional displacements during 4 subphases of stance (loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance, preswing) were computed for each multisegment foot model articulation. Results: Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed that rearfoot complex dorsiflexion displacement during midstance was greater in the FO than the no-FO condition (F1,14 = 5.24, P = .04, partial η2 = 0.27). Terminal stance repeated-measures ANOVA results revealed insert-by-insert condition interactions for the first metatarsophalangeal joint complex (F1,14 = 7.87, P = .01, partial η2 = 0.36). However, additional follow-up analysis did not reveal differences between the no-FO and FO conditions for the balanced traditional orthosis (F1,14 = 4.32, P = .08, partial η2 = 0.38) or full-contact orthosis (F1,14 = 4.10, P = .08, partial η2 = 0.37). Conclusions: Greater rearfoot complex dorsiflexion during midstance associated with FO intervention may represent improved foot kinematics in people with low-mobile foot postures. Furthermore, FO intervention might

  3. The feasibility of a modified shoe for multi-segment foot motion analysis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Halstead, J; Keenan, A M; Chapman, G J; Redmond, A C

    2016-01-01

    The majority of multi-segment kinematic foot studies have been limited to barefoot conditions, because shod conditions have the potential for confounding surface-mounted markers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a shoe modified with a webbed upper can accommodate multi-segment foot marker sets without compromising kinematic measurements under barefoot and shod conditions. Thirty participants (15 controls and 15 participants with midfoot pain) underwent gait analysis in two conditions; barefoot and wearing a shoe (shod) in a random order. The shod condition employed a modified shoe (rubber plimsoll) with a webbed upper, allowing skin mounted reflective markers to be visualised through slits in the webbed material. Three dimensional foot kinematics were captured using the Oxford multi-segment foot model whilst participants walked at a self-selected speed. The foot pain group showed greater hindfoot eversion and less hindfoot dorsiflexion than controls in the barefoot condition and these differences were maintained when measured in the shod condition. Differences between the foot pain and control participants were also observed for walking speed in the barefoot and in the shod conditions. No significant differences between foot pain and control groups were demonstrated at the forefoot in either condition. Subtle differences between pain and control groups, which were found during barefoot walking are retained when wearing the modified shoe. The novel properties of the modified shoe offers a potential solution for the use of passive infrared based motion analysis for shod applications, for instance to investigate the kinematic effect of foot orthoses.

  4. The effects of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Isherwood, Josh; Taylor, Paul J

    2015-02-01

    Chronic injuries are a common complaint in recreational runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective for the treatment of running injuries but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aims to examine the influence of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m · s(-1) with and without orthotics. Multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain were obtained during the stance phase and contrasted using paired t tests. Relative coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot relative to the rearfoot was significantly reduced with orthotics (1.0°) compared to without (2.2°). Similarly, relative transverse plane range of motion was significantly lower with orthotics (1.1°) compared to without (1.8°). Plantar fascia strain did not differ significantly between orthotic (7.1) and nonorthotic (7.1) conditions. This study shows that although orthotics did not serve to reduce plantar fascia strain, they are able to mediate reductions in coronal and transverse plane rotations of the midfoot.

  5. Correlation between static radiographic measurements and intersegmental angular measurements during gait using a multisegment foot model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Kyoung Min; Farber, Daniel C; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic examination is a widely used evaluation method in the orthopedic clinic. However, conventional radiography alone does not reflect the dynamic changes between foot and ankle segments during gait. Multiple 3-dimensional multisegment foot models (3D MFMs) have been introduced to evaluate intersegmental motion of the foot. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between static radiographic indices and intersegmental foot motion indices. One hundred twenty-five females were tested. Static radiographs of full-leg and anteroposterior (AP) and lateral foot views were performed. For hindfoot evaluation, we measured the AP tibiotalar angle (TiTA), talar tilt (TT), calcaneal pitch, lateral tibiocalcaneal angle, and lateral talcocalcaneal angle. For the midfoot segment, naviculocuboid overlap and talonavicular coverage angle were calculated. AP and lateral talo-first metatarsal angles and metatarsal stacking angle (MSA) were measured to assess the forefoot. Hallux valgus angle (HVA) and hallux interphalangeal angle were measured. In gait analysis by 3D MFM, intersegmental angle (ISA) measurements of each segment (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, arch) were recorded. ISAs at midstance phase were most highly correlated with radiography. Significant correlations were observed between ISA measurements using MFM and static radiographic measurements in the same segment. In the hindfoot, coronal plane ISA was correlated with AP TiTA (P < .001) and TT (P = .018). In the hallux, HVA was strongly correlated with transverse ISA of the hallux (P < .001). The segmental foot motion indices at midstance phase during gait measured by 3D MFM gait analysis were correlated with the conventional radiographic indices. The observed correlation between MFM measurements at midstance phase during gait and static radiographic measurements supports the fundamental basis for the use of MFM in analysis of dynamic motion of foot segment during gait. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Reliability and minimal detectable difference in multisegment foot kinematics during shod walking and running.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Brindle, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest recently in measuring kinematics within the foot during gait. While several multisegment foot models have appeared in the literature, the Oxford foot model has been used frequently for both walking and running. Several studies have reported the reliability for the Oxford foot model, but most studies to date have reported reliability for barefoot walking. The purpose of this study was to determine between-day (intra-rater) and within-session (inter-trial) reliability of the modified Oxford foot model during shod walking and running and calculate minimum detectable difference for common variables of interest. Healthy adult male runners participated. Participants ran and walked in the gait laboratory for five trials of each. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted and foot and ankle joint angle time series data were calculated. Participants returned for a second gait analysis at least 5 days later. Intraclass correlation coefficients and minimum detectable difference were determined for walking and for running, to indicate both within-session and between-day reliability. Overall, relative variables were more reliable than absolute variables, and within-session reliability was greater than between-day reliability. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficients were comparable to those reported previously for adults walking barefoot. It is an extension in the use of the Oxford foot model to incorporate wearing a shoe while maintaining marker placement directly on the skin for each segment. These reliability data for walking and running will aid in the determination of meaningful differences in studies which use this model during shod gait.

  7. A comparison of different over-the-counter foot orthotic devices on multi-segment foot biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Ferber, Reed; Hettinga, Blayne A

    2016-12-01

    Over-the-counter foot orthoses are a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. However, few studies have compared over-the-counter devices and most biomechanical research involving orthoses has focused on rearfoot biomechanics. To determine changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics during shod walking in three commercially available over-the-counter devices: SOLE, SuperFeet and Powerstep when compared to no orthotic. Repeated measures, cross-sectional study. Retroreflective markers were placed on the right limb of 18 participants representing forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot and shank segments. Three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using an eight-camera motion capture system while participants walked on a treadmill and the order of condition was randomized between four conditions: SOLE, SuperFeet, Powerstep and no orthotic. All over-the-counter devices exhibited significant decreases in plantar fascia strain compared to no orthotic and only Powerstep exhibited significant decreases in peak rearfoot eversion. Medial longitudinal arch deformation was not reduced for any over-the-counter device. Different over-the-counter devices exhibited specific alterations in rearfoot kinematics and all reduced plantar fascia strain by varying amounts. These over-the-counter-specific kinematic changes should be taken into consideration when recommending these devices as a treatment option. Over-the-counter orthoses are a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. We demonstrated that three commonly used over-the-counter devices influence foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain differently. Clinicians can use these results to provide more tailored treatment options for their patients. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  8. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  9. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  10. In-shoe multi-segment foot kinematics of children during the propulsive phase of walking and running.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Caleb; Greene, Andrew; Burns, Joshua; Hunt, Adrienne E; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Smith, Richard M

    2015-02-01

    Certain styles of children's shoes reduce 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and midfoot motion during propulsion of walking. However, no studies have investigated if the splinting effect of shoes on children's 1st MTPJ and midfoot motion occurs during running. This study investigated the effect of sports shoes on multi-segment foot kinematics of children during propulsion of walking and running. Twenty children walked and ran at a self-selected velocity while barefoot and shod in a random order. Reflective markers were used to quantify sagittal plane motion of the 1st MTPJ and three-dimensional motion of the midfoot and ankle. Gait velocity increased during shod walking and running and was considered a covariate in the statistical analysis. Shoes reduced 1st MTPJ motion during propulsion of walking from 36.0° to 10.7° and during running from 31.5° to 12.6°. Midfoot sagittal plane motion during propulsion reduced from 22.5° to 6.2° during walking and from 27.4° to 9.6° during running. Sagittal plane ankle motion during propulsion increased during shod running from 26.7° to 34.1°. During propulsion of walking and running, children's sports shoes have a splinting effect on 1st MTPJ and midfoot motion which is partially compensated by an increase in ankle plantarflexion during running.

  11. Multisegmented FeCo/Cu nanowires: electrosynthesis, characterization, and magnetic control of biomolecule desorption.

    PubMed

    Özkale, Berna; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Hoop, Marcus; Gramm, Fabian; Chen, Xiangzhong; Martí, Xavi; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva; Pané, Salvador

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of FeCo/Cu multisegmented nanowires by means of pulse electrodeposition in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide arrays supported on silicon chips. By adjustment of the electrodeposition conditions, such as the pulse scheme and the electrolyte, alternating segments of Cu and ferromagnetic FeCo alloy can be fabricated. The segments can be built with a wide range of lengths (15-150 nm) and exhibit a close-to-pure composition (Cu or FeCo alloy) as suggested by energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results. The morphology and the crystallographic structure of different nanowire configurations have been assessed thoroughly, concluding that Fe, Co, and Cu form solid solution. Magnetic characterization using vibrating sample magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy reveals that by introduction of nonmagnetic Cu segments within the nanowire architecture, the magnetic easy axis can be modified and the reduced remanence can be tuned to the desired values. The experimental results are in agreement with the provided simulations. Furthermore, the influence of nanowire magnetic architecture on the magnetically triggered protein desorption is evaluated for three types of nanowires: Cu, FeCo, and multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm. The application of an external magnetic field can be used to enhance the release of proteins on demand. For fully magnetic FeCo nanowires the applied oscillating field increased protein release by 83%, whereas this was found to be 45% for multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm nanowires. Our work suggests that a combination of arrays of nanowires with different magnetic configurations could be used to generate complex substance concentration gradients or control delivery of multiple drugs and macromolecules.

  12. Determining the maximum diameter for holes in the shoe without compromising shoe integrity when using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo.

  13. A comparison of subtalar joint motion during anticipated medial cutting turns and level walking using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Jenkyn, T R; Shultz, R; Giffin, J R; Birmingham, T B

    2010-02-01

    The weight-bearing in-vivo kinematics and kinetics of the talocrural joint, subtalar joint and joints of the foot were quantified using optical motion analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were studied during level walking and anticipated medial turns at self-selected pace. A multi-segment model of the foot using skin-mounted marker triads tracked four foot segments: the hindfoot, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot. The lower leg and thigh were also tracked. Motion between each of the segments could occur in three degrees of rotational freedom, but only six inter-segmental motions were reported in this study: (1) talocrural dorsi-plantar-flexion, (2) subtalar inversion-eversion, (3) frontal plane hindfoot motion, (4) transverse plane hindfoot motion, (5) forefoot supination-pronation twisting and (6) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch. The motion at the subtalar joint during stance phase of walking (eversion then inversion) was reversed during a turning task (inversion then eversion). The external subtalar joint moment was also changed from a moderate eversion moment during walking to a larger inversion moment during the turn. The kinematics of the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot were similar between these two tasks. During a medial turn, the subtalar joint may act to maintain the motions in the foot and talocrural joint that occur during level walking. This is occurring despite the conspicuously different trajectory of the centre of mass of the body. This may allow the foot complex to maintain its function of energy absorption followed by energy return during stance phase that is best suited to level walking.

  14. Growth and Characterization of Multisegment Chalcogenide Alloy Nanostructures for Photonic Applications in a Wide Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkdogan, Sunay

    In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. In the first part of my research, I selected chalcogenides (such as CdS and CdSe) for a comprehensive study in growing two-segment axial nanowires and radial nanobelts/sheets using the ternary CdSxSe1-x alloys. I demonstrated simultaneous red (from CdSe-rich) and green (from CdS-rich) light emission from a single monolithic heterostructure with a maximum wavelength separation of 160 nm. I also demonstrated the first simultaneous two-color lasing from a single nanosheet heterostructure with a wavelength separation of 91 nm under sufficiently strong pumping power. In the second part, I considered several combinations of source materials with different growth methods in order to extend the spectral coverage of previously demonstrated structures towards shorter wavelengths to achieve full-color emissions. I achieved this with the growth of multisegment heterostructure nanosheets (MSHNs), using ZnS and CdSe chalcogenides, via our novel growth method. By utilizing this method, I demonstrated the first growth of ZnCdSSe MSHNs with an overall lattice mismatch of 6.6%, emitting red, green and blue light simultaneously, in a single furnace run using a simple CVD system. The key to this growth method is the dual ion exchange process which converts nanosheets rich in CdSe to nanosheets rich in ZnS, demonstrated for the first time in this work. Tri-chromatic white light emission with different correlated color temperature values was achieved under different growth conditions. We demonstrated multicolor (191 nm total wavelength separation) laser from a single monolithic semiconductor nanostructure for the first time. Due to the difficulties associated with growing semiconductor materials of differing composition on a given substrate using traditional planar

  15. Generation of subject-specific, dynamic, multisegment ankle and foot models to improve orthotic design: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. Methods/Design Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices. The patient group will include individuals with metarsalgia, flexible flat foot and drop foot. Each participant will undergo a clinical foot function assessment, 3D surface scans of the foot under different loading conditions, and detailed gait analysis including kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity and plantar pressure measurements in both barefoot and shod conditions. Following this each participant will undergo computed tomography (CT) imaging of their foot and ankle under a range of loads and positions while plantar pressures are recorded. A further subgroup of participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foot and ankle. Imaging data will be segmented to derive the geometry of the bones and the orientation of the joint axes. Insertion points of muscles and ligaments will be determined from the MRI and CT-scans and soft tissue material properties computed from the loaded CT data in combination with the plantar pressure measurements. Gait analysis data will be used to drive the models and in combination with the 3D surface scans for scaling purposes. Predicted plantar pressures and muscle activation patterns predicted from the models will be compared to determine the validity of the models. Discussion This protocol will lead to the generation of unique datasets which will be used to develop linked inverse

  16. Generation of subject-specific, dynamic, multisegment ankle and foot models to improve orthotic design: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Telfer, Scott; Tørholm, Søren; Carbes, Sylvain; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W; Macduff, Ross; Meijer, Kenneth; Woodburn, Jim

    2011-11-10

    Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices. The patient group will include individuals with metarsalgia, flexible flat foot and drop foot.Each participant will undergo a clinical foot function assessment, 3D surface scans of the foot under different loading conditions, and detailed gait analysis including kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity and plantar pressure measurements in both barefoot and shod conditions. Following this each participant will undergo computed tomography (CT) imaging of their foot and ankle under a range of loads and positions while plantar pressures are recorded. A further subgroup of participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foot and ankle.Imaging data will be segmented to derive the geometry of the bones and the orientation of the joint axes. Insertion points of muscles and ligaments will be determined from the MRI and CT-scans and soft tissue material properties computed from the loaded CT data in combination with the plantar pressure measurements. Gait analysis data will be used to drive the models and in combination with the 3D surface scans for scaling purposes. Predicted plantar pressures and muscle activation patterns predicted from the models will be compared to determine the validity of the models. This protocol will lead to the generation of unique datasets which will be used to develop linked inverse dynamic and forward dynamic

  17. A method to investigate the effect of shoe-hole size on surface marker movement when describing in-shoe joint kinematics using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Chris; Arnold, John B; Fraysse, Francois; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    To investigate in-shoe foot kinematics, holes are often cut in the shoe upper to allow markers to be placed on the skin surface. However, there is currently a lack of understanding as to what is an appropriate size. This study aimed to demonstrate a method to assess whether different diameter holes were large enough to allow free motion of marker wands mounted on the skin surface during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Eighteen participants underwent an analysis of foot kinematics whilst walking barefoot and wearing shoes with different size holes (15 mm, 20mm and 25 mm). The analysis was conducted in two parts; firstly the trajectory of the individual skin-mounted markers were analysed in a 2D ellipse to investigate total displacement of each marker during stance. Secondly, a geometrical analysis was conducted to assess cluster deformation of the hindfoot and midfoot-forefoot segments. Where movement of the markers in the 15 and 20mm conditions were restricted, the marker movement in the 25 mm condition did not exceed the radius at any anatomical location. Despite significant differences in the isotropy index of the medial and lateral calcaneus markers between the 25 mm and barefoot conditions, the differences were due to the effect of footwear on the foot and not a result of the marker wands hitting the shoe upper. In conclusion, the method proposed and results can be used to increase confidence in the representativeness of joint kinematics with respect to in-shoe multi-segment foot motion during walking.

  18. Tibialis posterior tenosynovitis and associated pes plano valgus in rheumatoid arthritis: electromyography, multisegment foot kinematics, and ultrasound features.

    PubMed

    Barn, Ruth; Turner, Deborah E; Rafferty, Daniel; Sturrock, Roger D; Woodburn, James

    2013-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG), kinematic, kinetic, and ultrasound (US) features of pes plano valgus associated with US-confirmed tibialis posterior (TP) tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy control subjects. In this cross-sectional study, patients with RA and US-confirmed tenosynovitis of TP underwent gait analysis, including 3-dimensional kinematics, kinetics, and intramuscular EMG of TP, and findings were compared with a group of healthy individuals. The RA group also underwent B mode and power Doppler US scanning of the TP tendon to assess and score levels of pathology. Ten patients with RA, median (range) disease duration of 3 years (1-18 years), and 5 control subjects were recruited. Compared to control subjects, the RA patients walked slower and presented with moderate levels of foot-related disability. The mean ± SD Disease Activity Score in 28 joints was 4.6 ± 1.6. Increased magnitude of TP activity was recorded in the RA group compared to controls in the contact period of stance (P = 0.007), in conjunction with reduced ankle joint power (P = 0.005), reduced navicular height in the medial arch (P = 0.023), and increased forefoot dorsiflexion (P = 0.027). TP tendon thickening, fluid, and power Doppler signal were observed in the majority of patients. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, increased TP EMG activity in the presence of US-confirmed TP tenosynovitis in RA. Altered muscle function occurred in conjunction with suboptimal mechanics, moderate levels of tendon pathology, and active disease. Targeted therapy may be warranted to reduce inflammation and mechanically off-load diseased tendon states. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model during anterior and lateral step down tests.

    PubMed

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Contani, Luciane Beatriz Grohs; Lima, Bruna; Rabelo, Nayra Deise dos Anjos; Ferreira, Cintia Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Pulpio Silva; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the reproducibility of the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) when used with healthy adults during two clinical tests, i.e., the Anterior Step Down Test (SDA) and the Lateral Step Down Test (SDL). Five healthy participants (one male and four females, 10 limbs in total) with a mean age of 22.2 (19-30) years were assessed in four sessions of tests conducted at intervals of one week. Two independent examiners performed two of the sessions of each of the tests. For each session (intra-day), nine repetitions of each clinical test (SDA and SDL) were performed. After an interval of three hours, the data were collected again. The tests were conducted again after an interval of one week using the same experimental conditions. The intra- and inter-session repeatabilities of the ranges of motion of the feet were determined according to the standard error of measurement (SEM) for each examiner and for the differences between the examiners. The repeatabilities of the results were high for both of the conducted tests. The SEM results were as follows: 0.47-1.94° for the intra-examiner assessment (SDA), 0.55-2.01° for the inter-examiner comparison (SDA), 0.44-2.43° for the intra-examiner assessment (SDL), and 0.54-1.89° for the inter-examiner comparison (SDL). The OFM model was shown to be reproducible in terms of assessing the range of motion of healthy adults during functional tests (SDA and SDL). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative characterization of gait kinematics in patients with hallux rigidus using the Milwaukee foot model.

    PubMed

    Canseco, Karl; Long, Jason; Marks, Richard; Khazzam, Michael; Harris, Gerald

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the changes that occur in the foot and ankle during the gait of patients with hallux rigidus. Using a 15-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System, gait analysis was conducted on a population of 22 patients with hallux rigidus and compared to that of 25 healthy ambulators. Weight-bearing radiographs were measured to index marker positions to underlying bony anatomy. The Milwaukee Foot Model was used to perform three-dimensional analysis of dynamic foot and ankle motion, and temporal-spatial parameters were also calculated. Values were compared to controls using unpaired parametric methods (Student t-test, p < 0.002). The hallux rigidus population showed significant alterations in gait patterns as compared to controls in various planes in all segments (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, and tibia) of the foot and ankle, particularly in the range of motion of the hallux and the forefoot. Prolonged stance phase was also observed. As reports regarding the quantitative study of the multisegment foot and ankle are limited, this study was useful in providing characterization of gait patterns in patients with hallux rigidus. (c) 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of multisegmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Kuan-Ying; Ng, Inn-Khuan; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah

    2012-11-27

    Electrochemical deposition has emerged as a promising route for nanostructure fabrication in recent years due to the many inherent advantages it possesses. This study focuses on the synthesis of high-aspect-ratio multisegmented Au/Ni nanowires using template-directed sequential electrochemical deposition techniques. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods of predetermined lengths was obtained. Alternatively, the sacrificial Ni segments in the nanowires can be galvanically displaced with Bi and Te to form barbells structures with Bi{sub x}Te{sub y} nanotubes attached to neighbouring gold segments. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy, diffraction and probebased techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  2. Electroplating and magnetostructural characterization of multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowires from single electrochemical bath in anodic alumina templates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly hexagonally ordered hard anodic aluminum oxide membranes, which have been modified by a thin cover layer of SiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition method, were used as templates for the synthesis of electrodeposited magnetic Co-Ni nanowire arrays having diameters of around 180 to 200 nm and made of tens of segments with alternating compositions of Co54Ni46 and Co85Ni15. Each Co-Ni single segment has a mean length of around 290 nm for the Co54Ni46 alloy, whereas the length of the Co85Ni15 segments was around 430 nm. The composition and crystalline structure of each Co-Ni nanowire segment were determined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The employed single-bath electrochemical nanowire growth method allows for tuning both the composition and crystalline structure of each individual Co-Ni segment. The room temperature magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Co-Ni nanowire arrays is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. PMID:23735184

  3. Characterization of multidrug-resistant diabetic foot ulcer enterococci.

    PubMed

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Mottola, Carla; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Cavaco-Silva, Patrícia; Tavares, Luís; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent chronic progressive disease with complications that include diabetic-foot ulcers. Enterococci isolated from diabetic-foot infections were identified, evaluated by macro-restriction analysis, and screened for virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance. All isolates were considered multidrug-resistant, cytolysin and gelatinase producers, and the majority also demonstrated the ability to produce biofilms. These results indicate the importance of enterococci in diabetic-foot infection development and persistence, especially regarding their biofilm-forming ability and resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  5. Integrated kinematics-kinetics-plantar pressure data analysis: a useful tool for characterizing diabetic foot biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Annamaria; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental cause of lower-extremity complications in diabetes is chronic hyperglycemia leading to diabetic foot ulcer pathology. While the relationship between abnormal plantar pressure distribution and plantar ulcers has been widely investigated, little is known about the role of shear stress. Moreover, the mutual relationship among plantar pressure, shear stress, and abnormal kinematics in the etiology of diabetic foot has not been established. This lack of knowledge is determined by the lack of commercially available instruments which allow such a complex analysis. This study aims to develop a method for the simultaneous assessment of kinematics, kinetics, and plantar pressure on foot subareas of diabetic subjects by means of combining three commercial systems. Data were collected during gait on 24 patients (12 controls and 12 diabetic neuropathics) with a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates and two baropodometric systems. A four segment three-dimensional foot kinematics model was adopted for the subsegment angles estimation together with a three segment model for the plantar sub-area definition during gait. The neuropathic group exhibited significantly excessive plantar pressure, ground reaction forces on each direction, and a reduced loading surface on the midfoot subsegment (p<0.04). Furthermore the same subsegment displayed excessive dorsiflexion, external rotation, and eversion (p<0.05). Initial results showed that this methodology may enable a more appropriate characterization of patients at risk of foot ulcerations, and help planning prevention programs.

  6. Design and characterization of a biologically inspired quasi-passive prosthetic ankle-foot.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.

  7. Thermal recovery measurements on multi-segment amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Rotter, M.D.; McCracken, R.W.; Erlandson, A.C.; Brown, D.

    1995-09-21

    We present the results of a series of experiments to measure the thermal recovery times of a flashlamp-pumped, Nd:Glass multi-segment laser amplifier. In particular, we investigated the thermal recovery times under the following cooling options: (1) passive cooling; (2) active cooling of the flashlamp cassettes, and (3) active cooling of the flashlamp cassettes and gas flow in the pump cavity.

  8. Low voltage electrophoresis chip with multi-segments synchronized scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wenwen; Wen, Zhiyu; Xu, Yi

    2017-03-01

    For low voltage electrophoresis chip, there is always a problem that the samples are truncated and peaks are broadened, as well as longer time for separation. In this paper, a low voltage electrophoresis separation model was established, and the separation conditions were discussed. A new driving mode was proposed for applying low voltage, which was called multi-segments synchronized scanning. By using this driving mode, the reversed electric field that existed between the multi-segments can enrich samples and shorten the sample zone. The low voltage electrophoresis experiments using multi-segments synchronized scanning were carried out by home-made silicon-PDMS-based chip. The fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled lysine and phenylalanine mixed samples with the concentration of 10-4 mol/L were successfully separated under the optimal conditions of 10 mmol/L borax buffer (pH = 10.0), 200 V/cm separation electric field and electrode switch time of 2.5 s. The separation was completed with a resolution of 2.0, and the peak time for lysine and phenylalanine was 4 min and 6 min, respectively.

  9. Characterization and Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs in the Tube Foot of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA with average length of 22 nucleotides, participating in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by next generation sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Through the bioinformatic analysis, we identified 260 conserved miRNAs and six novel miRNAs from the tube foot small RNA transcriptome. Quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to characterize the specific expression in the tube foot. The results indicated that four miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-2005 and miR-278-3p, were significantly up-regulated in the tube foot. The target genes of the four specifically expressed miRNAs were predicted in silico and validated by performing qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses with the target genes of these four miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the tube foot. This is the first study to profile the miRNA transcriptome of the tube foot in sea cucumber. This work will provide valuable genomic resources to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the tube foot, and will be useful to assist the molecular breeding in sea cucumber. PMID:25372871

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of microRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdi; Liu, Shikai; Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA with average length of 22 nucleotides, participating in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by next generation sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Through the bioinformatic analysis, we identified 260 conserved miRNAs and six novel miRNAs from the tube foot small RNA transcriptome. Quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to characterize the specific expression in the tube foot. The results indicated that four miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-2005 and miR-278-3p, were significantly up-regulated in the tube foot. The target genes of the four specifically expressed miRNAs were predicted in silico and validated by performing qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses with the target genes of these four miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the tube foot. This is the first study to profile the miRNA transcriptome of the tube foot in sea cucumber. This work will provide valuable genomic resources to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the tube foot, and will be useful to assist the molecular breeding in sea cucumber.

  11. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (P<0.05), decreased contact surface on the hindfoot (P<0.03). While results indicated the important role of foot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions.

  12. First isolation and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Benin.

    PubMed

    Gorna, Kamila; Houndjè, Evelyne; Romey, Aurore; Relmy, Anthony; Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra; Kpodékon, Marc; Saegerman, Claude; Moutou, François; Zientara, Stephan; Bakkali Kassimi, Labib

    2014-06-25

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting livestock animals. In West Africa, where constant circulation of FMD virus (FMDV) is assumed, very few studies on the characterization of circulating strains have been published. This study describes the first isolation and characterization of FMDV in Benin. FMDV was isolated from 42 samples. Antigen Capture Elisa (Ag-ELISA) and VP1 coding sequence analysis revealed 33 strains of serotype O and 9 strains of serotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequence revealed two different groups of type O isolates and one group of A isolates. VP1 sequence comparison with the sequences available in the GenBank database revealed a close relationship of the Benin isolates with topotype O of West Africa and with African topotype A of genotype VI. Knowledge of the recent strains circulating in Benin should contribute to better selection of vaccine strains and enable the updating of molecular epidemiology data available for West Africa in general.

  13. Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.

    1990-01-01

    Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.

  14. Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.

    1990-01-01

    Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.

  15. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot A A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  16. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Teens > Athlete's Foot A A A ... your skin, hair, and nails. What Is Athlete's Foot? The medical name for athlete's foot is tinea ...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Patch, Jared R; Kenney, Mary; Pacheco, Juan M; Grubman, Marvin J; Golde, William T

    2013-08-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Although these efforts have yielded much success, challenges remain, including little cross-serotype protection and inadequate duration of immunity. Commonly, viral infections are characterized by induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), yet the function of CTL in FMDV immunity is poorly defined. We developed an assay for detection of CTL specific for FMDV and reported that a modified adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine could induce CTL activity. This allowed us to determine whether FMDV-specific CTL responses are induced during infection and to test further whether vaccine-induced CTL could protect against challenge with FMDV. We now show the induction of antigen-specific CTL responses after infection of swine with FMDV strain A24 Cruizero. In addition, we developed a vaccination strategy that induces FMDV-specific CTL in the absence of significant neutralizing antibody. Animals vaccinated using this protocol showed delayed clinical disease and significantly suppressed viremia compared to control animals, suggesting a role for CTLs in the control of virus shedding. These results provide new insights showing induction of CTL responses to FMDV following infection or vaccination, and create the potential for improving vaccine performance by targeting cellular immunity.

  19. Development of an artificial multifunctional foot: A project review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, João; Ferreira, Maria José; Lobarinhas, Pedro; Silva, Luís F.; Leite, Abílio; Araújo, Alfredo; Sousa, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this project is the development of a multifunctional artificial foot, capable of duplicate a human foot in a laboratory environment, in order to evaluate and simulate footwear's performance under certain conditions. This foot is used as a laboratory prototype and is multisegmented, in order that each section is controlled independently in terms of heat generation and sweating rate, therefore it is possible to simulate more accurately the real behaviour of a human foot. The device produces thermal insulation values that will help to design footwear with better ability in terms of thermal comfort, replacing human volunteers in thermal comfort perception tests, which are very subjective. The prototype was already tested, and preliminary results indicated that thermal insulation values are within the range of expected values produced by other foot thermal manikins and by human volunteers' tests. This fact suggests that this lab prototype can be used infuture thermal comfort evaluations.

  20. Multisegment Kinematics of the Spinal Column: Soft Tissue Artifacts Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mahallati, Sara; Rouhani, Hossein; Preuss, Richard; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge in the assessment of intersegmental spinal column angles during trunk motion is the inherent error in recording the movement of bony anatomical landmarks caused by soft tissue artifacts (STAs). This study aims to perform an uncertainty analysis and estimate the typical errors induced by STA into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model during trunk bending in different directions by modeling the relative displacement between skin-mounted markers and actual bony landmarks during trunk bending. First, we modeled the maximum displacement of markers relative to the bony landmarks with a multivariate Gaussian distribution. In order to estimate the distribution parameters, we measured these relative displacements on five subjects at maximum trunk bending posture. Then, in order to model the error depending on trunk bending angle, we assumed that the error grows linearly as a function of the bending angle. Second, we applied our error model to the trunk motion measurement of 11 subjects to estimate the corrected trajectories of the bony landmarks and investigate the errors induced into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model. For this purpose, the trunk was modeled as a seven-segment rigid-body system described using 23 reflective markers placed on various bony landmarks of the spinal column. Eleven seated subjects performed trunk bending in five directions and the three-dimensional (3D) intersegmental angles during trunk bending were calculated before and after error correction. While STA minimally affected the intersegmental angles in the sagittal plane (<16%), it considerably corrupted the intersegmental angles in the coronal (error ranged from 59% to 551%) and transverse (up to 161%) planes. Therefore, we recommend using the proposed error suppression technique for STA-induced error compensation as a tool to achieve more accurate spinal column kinematics measurements. Particularly, for intersegmental

  1. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foot Conditions More Americans are developing drug-resistant staph infections, known as MRSA, from common, relatively minor foot ... two types of gangrene are wet (caused by... Staph Infections of the Foot Staphylococcus aureus is a type ...

  2. Foot pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  3. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  4. Overview of post Cohen-Boyer methods for single segment cloning and for multisegment DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Sands, Bryan; Brent, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, Cohen and coworkers published a foundational paper describing the cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors. In it, they used DNA segments made by digestion with restriction enzymes and joined these in vitro with DNA ligase. These methods established working recombinant DNA technology and enabled the immediate start of the biotechnology industry. Since then, "classical" recombinant DNA technology using restriction enzymes and DNA ligase has matured. At the same time, researchers have developed numerous ways to generate large, complex, multisegment DNA constructions that offer advantages over classical techniques. Here, we provide an overview of "post-Cohen-Boyer" techniques used for cloning single segments into vectors (T/A, Topo cloning, Gateway and Recombineering) and for multisegment DNA assembly (Biobricks, Golden Gate, Gibson, Yeast homologous recombination in vivo, and Ligase Cycling Reaction). We compare and contrast these methods and also discuss issues that researchers should consider before choosing a particular multisegment DNA assembly method.

  5. Overview of post Cohen-Boyer methods for single segment cloning and for multisegment DNA assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Bryan; Brent, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, Cohen and coworkers published a foundational paper describing the cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors. In it, they used DNA segments made by digestion with restriction enzymes and joined these in vitro with DNA ligase. These methods established working recombinant DNA technology and enabled the immediate start of the biotechnology industry. Since then, “classical” recombinant DNA technology using restriction enzymes and DNA ligase has matured. At the same time, researchers have developed numerous ways to generate large, complex, multisegment DNA constructions that offer advantages over classical techniques. Here, we provide an overview of “post-Cohen-Boyer” techniques used for cloning single segments into vectors (T/A, Topo cloning, Gateway and Recombineering) and for multisegment DNA assembly (Biobricks, Golden Gate, Gibson, Yeast homologous recombination in vivo, and Ligase Cycling Reaction). We compare and contrast these methods and also discuss issues that researchers should consider before choosing a particular multisegment DNA assembly method. PMID:27152131

  6. Kinematic foot types in youth with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Krzak, Joseph J.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Damiano, Diane L.; Graf, Adam; Hedeker, Donald; Smith, Peter A.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated kinematic variability of the foot and ankle segments exists during gait among individuals with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Clinicians have previously addressed such variability by developing classification schemes to identify subgroups of individuals based on their kinematics. Objective To identify kinematic subgroups among youth with equinovarus secondary to CP using 3-dimensional multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics during locomotion as inputs for principal component analysis (PCA), and K-means cluster analysis. Methods In a single assessment session, multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics using the Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM) were collected in 24 children/adolescents with equinovarus and 20 typically developing children/adolescents. Results PCA was used as a data reduction technique on 40 variables. K-means cluster analysis was performed on the first six principal components (PCs) which accounted for 92% of the variance of the dataset. The PCs described the location and plane of involvement in the foot and ankle. Five distinct kinematic subgroups were identified using K-means clustering. Participants with equinovarus presented with variable involvement ranging from primary hindfoot or forefoot deviations to deformtiy that included both segments in multiple planes. Conclusion This study provides further evidence of the variability in foot characteristics associated with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic CP. These findings would not have been detected using a single segment foot model. The identification of multiple kinematic subgroups with unique foot and ankle characteristics has the potential to improve treatment since similar patients within a subgroup are likely to benefit from the same intervention(s). PMID:25467429

  7. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of an aeroelastic system with multi-segmented moment in the pitch degree-of-freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Rui; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a multi-segmented nonlinearity in the pitch degree of freedom on the behavior of a two-degree of freedom aeroelastic system are investigated. The aeroelastic system is free to plunge and pitch and is supported by linear translational and nonlinear torsional springs and is subjected to an incoming flow. The unsteady representation based on the Duhamel formulation is used to model the aerodynamic loads. Using modern method of nonlinear dynamics, a nonlinear characterization is performed to identify the system's response when increasing the wind speed. It is demonstrated that four sudden transitions take place with a change in the system's response. It is shown that, in the first transition, the system's response changes from simply periodic (only main oscillating frequency) to two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 2). In the second transition, the response of the system changes from two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 2) to a period-1. The results also show that the third transition is accompanied by a change in the system's response from simply periodic to two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 3). After this transition, chaotic responses take place and then the fourth transition is accompanied by a sudden change in the system's response from chaotic to two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 3). The results show that these transitions are caused by the tangential contact between the trajectory and the multi-segmented nonlinearity boundaries and with a zero-pitch speed incidence. This observation is associated with the definition of grazing bifurcation.

  8. Unusual behavior of the magnetization reversal in soft/hard multisegmented nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, Rosa M.; Basaran, Ali C.; Escrig, Juan; Altbir, Dora

    2017-09-01

    The magnetization reversal mechanisms in soft/hard multisegmented nanowires have been investigated using numerical simulations. In most of the studied systems the magnetization reversal process starts at the ends. However in short soft/hard/soft nanowires, the magnetization reversal process starts at the center of the wire, generating an unusual behavior of the coercivity as a function of the length.

  9. Design and Characterization of a Quasi-Passive Pneumatic Foot-Ankle Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey D; Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J

    2017-07-01

    The majority of commercially available passive prosthetic feet are not capable of providing joint mechanics that match that of the intact human ankle. Due to their cantilever design, their stiffness characteristics contrast with what has been observed in the biological ankle, namely, an increase in stiffness during the stance phase of walking. In this paper, we introduce the design and control of a pneumatic foot-ankle prosthesis that attempts to provide biomimetic mechanics. The prosthesis is comprised of a pneumatic cylinder in series with a fiberglass leaf spring, and a solenoid valve to control the flow of air between the two sides of the cylinder. The solenoid valve acts as a mechanical clutch, enabling resetting of the ankle's equilibrium position. By adjusting the pressure inside the cylinder, the prosthesis can be customized to provide a range of ankle mechanics. A mechanical testing machine is used to compare the torque-angle curve of the pneumatic prosthesis with a low-profile passive prosthetic foot. Finally, data are presented of one transtibial amputee walking with the prosthesis at 1.2 m/s. The testing shows that the pneumatic prosthesis is capable of providing an appropriate range of motion as well a maximum torque of 94 Nm, while returning approximately 11.5 J of energy.

  10. Characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Seago, Julian; Jackson, Terry; Doel, Claudia; Fry, Elizabeth; Stuart, David; Harmsen, Michiel M; Charleston, Bryan; Juleff, Nicholas

    2012-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. Although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processes are technically demanding and expensive. Consequently, there is large variation in the quality of vaccines distributed in FMD-endemic countries compared with those manufactured for emergency use in FMD-free countries. Here, we have used reverse genetics to introduce haemagglutinin (HA) and FLAG tags into the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid. HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were infectious, with a plaque morphology similar to the non-tagged parental infectious copy virus and the field virus. The tagged viruses utilized integrin-mediated cell entry and retained the tag epitopes over serial passages. In addition, infectious HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were readily purified from small-scale cultures using commercial antibodies. Tagged FMDV offers a feasible alternative to the current methods of vaccine concentration and purification, a potential to develop FMD vaccine conjugates and a unique tool for FMDV research.

  11. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    PubMed

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot.

  12. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection that usually begins ... closely related to other fungal infections such as ringworm and jock itch. It can be treated with ...

  13. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  14. Characterization of the Test Section Walls at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Charles B.; Graves, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    The test section walls of the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are known to move under thermal and pressure loads. Videogrammetry was used to measure wall motion during the summer of 2002. In addition, a laser distancemeter was used to measure the relative distance between the test section walls at a single point. Distancemeter and videogrammetry results were consistent. Data were analyzed as a function of temperature and pressure to determine their effects on wall motion. Data were collected between 50 and 100 F, 0 and 0.315 Mach, and dynamic pressures of 0 and 120 psf. The overall motion of each wall was found to be less than 0.25 in. and less than facility personnel anticipated. The results show how motion depends on the temperature and pressure inside the test section as well is the position of the boundary layer vane. The repeatability of the measurements was +/-0.06 in. This report describes the methods used to record the motion of the test section walls and the results of the data analysis. Future facility plans include the development of a suitable wall restraint system and the determination of the effects of the wall motion on tunnel calibration.

  15. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. De novo assembly and characterization of foot transcriptome and microsatellite marker development for Paphia textile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Jiakai; Xiao, Shijun; Liu, Xiande

    2016-01-15

    Paphia textile is an important, aquaculture bivalve clam species distributed mainly in China, Philippines, and Malaysia. Recent studies of P. textile have focused mainly on artificial breeding and nutrition analysis, and the transcriptome and genome of P. textile have rarely been reported. In this work, the transcriptome of P. textile foot tissue was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. A total of 20,219,795 reads were generated, resulting in 4.08 Gb of raw data. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 54,852 unigenes with an N50 length of 829 bp. Of these unigenes, 38.92% were successfully annotated based on their matches to sequences in seven public databases. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,571 were assigned Gene Ontology terms, 5448 were classified to Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories, and 6738 were mapped to 228 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. For functional marker development, 5605 candidate simple sequence repeats were identified in the transcriptome and 80 primer pairs were selected randomly and amplified in a wild population of P. textile. A total of 36 loci that exhibited obvious repeat length polymorphisms were detected. The transcriptomic data and microsatellite markers will provide valuable resources for future functional gene analyses, genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci mapping in P. textile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Bran, C; Ivanov, Yu P; Kosel, J; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O; Vazquez, M

    2017-03-03

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  18. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian F.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.; Hall, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  19. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Hall, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  20. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran, C.; Ivanov, Yu P.; Kosel, J.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vazquez, M.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  1. Construction and characterization of 3A-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-04-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most FMDVs examined to date. Specific deletion in the FMDV 3A protein has been associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. However, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed epitope-tagged FMDVs containing an 8 aa FLAG epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (HA) epitope, and a 10 aa c-Myc epitope to substitute residues 94-101, 93-101, and 93-102 of 3A protein, respectively, using a recently developed O/SEA/Mya-98 FMDV infectious cDNA clone. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the epitope-tagged viruses stably maintained and expressed the foreign epitopes even after 10 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The epitope-tagged viruses displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in BHK-21 cells. However, the epitope-tagged viruses exhibited lower growth rates and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the decreased ability of FMDV to replicate in primary bovine cells was not associated with the length of 3A, and the genetic determinant thought to play key role in decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cells could be reduced from 93-102 residues to 8 aa residues at positions 94-101 in 3A protein.

  2. Numerical research and optimization of convective heat transfer for multi-segment amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Jianqiang; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-04-01

    Optimized convective heat transfer is applied to accelerate the thermal recovery of a large aperture multi-segment amplifier. The paper proposes a novel project of changing the structural parameters of the inlet jet to the Nd:glass slab in the multi-segment amplifier at the same flow rate. The convective heat transfer coefficient depends on the diameter of the inlet jet, as well as on the number of inlet jets. The simulation calculations indicate that at the same flow rate, different numbers of inlet jet lead to different temperature gradient contours and flow field distributions on the Nd:glass slab surface in the multi-segment amplifier. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient increases with the decrease of inlet diameter. This work analyzes the path of the coolant air over the slab surface to lessen the eddy and to achieve better convective heat transfer, as well as to determine the optimized number of inlet jets (5) and the optimized diameter (5 mm).

  3. The foot of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H.; Throckmorton, Z.; Congdon, K. A.; Zipfel, B.; Deane, A. S.; Drapeau, M. S. M.; Churchill, S. E.; Berger, L. R.; DeSilva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  4. The foot of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Throckmorton, Z; Congdon, K A; Zipfel, B; Deane, A S; Drapeau, M S M; Churchill, S E; Berger, L R; DeSilva, J M

    2015-10-06

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo.

  5. A novel theoretical framework for the dynamic stability analysis, movement control, and trajectory generation in a multisegment biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kamran; Roy, Anindo

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simplified characterization of the postural control system that embraces two broad components: one representing the musculoskeletal dynamics in the sagittal plane and the other representing proprioceptive feedback and the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, a planar four-segment neuromusculoskeletal model consisting of the ankle, knee, and hip degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) is described in this paper. The model includes important physiological constructs such as Hill-type muscle model, active and passive muscle stiffnesses, force feedback from the Golgi tendon organ, muscle length and rate feedback from the muscle spindle, and transmission latencies in the neural pathways. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for each individual DOF is assumed to represent the CNS analog in the modeling paradigm. Our main hypothesis states that all stabilizing PID controllers for such multisegment biomechanical models can be parametrized and analytically synthesized. Our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed representation adequately shapes a postural control that (a) possesses good disturbance rejection and trajectory tracking, (b) is robust against feedback latencies and torque perturbations, and (c) is flexible to embrace changes in the musculoskeletal parameters. We additionally present detailed sensitivity analysis to show that control under conditions of limited or no proprioceptive feedback results in (a) significant reduction in the stability margins, (b) substantial decrease in the available stabilizing parameter set, and (c) oscillatory movement trajectories. Overall, these results suggest that anatomical arrangement, active muscle stiffness, force feedback, and physiological latencies play a major role in shaping motor control processes in humans.

  6. Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from Afghanistan in 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Kate R; Knowles, Nick J; Davies, Paul R; Midgley, Rebecca J; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Raoufi, Abdul Quader; McKenna, Thomas S; Hurtle, William; Burans, James P; Martin, Barbara M; Rodriguez, Luis L; Beckham, Tammy R

    2008-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from various geographic locations in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 coding region. Three serotypes of FMDV (types A, O, and Asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in Afghanistan during this period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type A viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in Iran during 2002-2004. This is the first published report of serotype A in Afghanistan since 1975, therefore indicating the need for inclusion of serotype A in vaccine formulations that will be used to control disease outbreaks in this country. Serotype O virus isolates were closely related to PanAsia strains, including those that originated from Bhutan and Nepal during 2003-2004. The Asia 1 viruses, collected along the northern and eastern borders of Afghanistan, were most closely related to FMDV isolates collected in Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. Data obtained from this study provide valuable information on the FMDV serotypes circulating in Afghanistan and their genetic relationship with strains causing FMD in neighboring countries.

  7. Genetic and antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1998 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeou-Liang; Jong, Ming-Hwa; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Shieh, Happy K; Chang, Poa-Chun

    2010-09-28

    A devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by a porcinophilic serotype O virus, occurred in Taiwan in March 1997. This outbreak was brought under control by means of a stamping-out policy and vaccination. Although mandatory vaccination was conducted in Taiwan between 1997 and 2007, sporadic outbreaks of FMD occurred between 1998 and 2009; however, the viruses that caused these outbreaks remain uncharacterized. This article reports the genetic and antigenic characterization of FMD viruses isolated in Taiwan during this period. Sequence analysis of the VP1 coding region showed that the viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1998 and 2009 were most similar to viruses isolated in Taiwan in 1997 and to viruses isolated from Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1991-1996. The results of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the viruses isolated in Taiwan in 1998-2009 were derived from the viruses isolated in Taiwan in 1997. However, substantial mutations were found in the viruses isolated in 2009, and some of these changes may have resulted from vaccine pressure in the field. Serum neutralization tests confirmed that viruses isolated in 2009 showed a significant change in antigenicity. This is the first report of changes in the VP1 sequence and antigenicity of porcinophilic FMD viruses isolated from an area in which long-term mandatory vaccination against FMD was practiced.

  8. Genetic characterization of vaccine and field strains of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus from India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, J K; Pawar, S S; Tosh, C; Subramaniam, S; Palsamy, R; Sanyal, A; Hemadri, D; Pattnaik, B

    2011-01-01

    Extreme antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) population has resulted in change of vaccine strains in India twice in the last decade. In such a situation, complete characterization of the vaccine strains is imperative. With regard to the frequent outbreaks of this disease, FMDV field strains are also of interest. Therefore three vaccine strains and two field strains of type A FMDV from India were completely sequenced and the obtained sequences were subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Based on the complete coding region, all the Indian strains clustered in the Asia topotype and exhibited a more than 11% nt divergence from the other Asian strains. The 5'-UTR of some Indian strains revealed block deletions of 43 and 86 nt corresponding to the pseudoknot region. Amino acids S44 in VP2 and F164 in VP1 were found to be the exclusive signatures for the Asia topotype. The vaccine strains differed at 65 aa positions in the capsid region, 13 of them antigenically critical. Variability at such positions is likely to affect the antigenic profile of these strains. Complete genome sequences of the vaccine strains presented here could serve as the reference for any comparative genomics in future.

  9. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.

    1986-03-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambdaPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in /sup 35/S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro.

  10. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P. D.; Berka, Reginald B.

    1993-01-01

    A concept of multisegment robot (of a class of large space cranes) is developed for use in space-based construction operations. The robot consists of a collection of segments, which are pinned together to form a snakelike configuration, with a single degree of freedom representing rotation being retained at each pinned connection and with reaction flywheels suspended within each segment for the control necessary to position each body segment. Algorithms are developed for positioning this serpentine robot to a prescribed location and orientation. A multibody dynamics simulation is used to investigate the behavior and interactions of the robot, demonstrating its viability.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Serotypes A and Asia-1 Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses in Balochistan, Pakistan, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Ullah, A; Jamal, S M; Romey, A; Gorna, K; Kakar, M A; Abbas, F; Ahmad, J; Zientara, S; Bakkali Kassimi, L

    2017-10-01

    This study reports characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in samples collected from Balochistan, Pakistan. FMDV was detected by pan-FMDV real-time RT-PCR in 31 samples (epithelial and oral swabs) collected in 2011 from clinical suspect cases. Of these, 29 samples were serotyped by serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays and were confirmed by sequencing the VP1 coding region. Sixteen samples were found positive for serotype A and eight for serotype Asia-1, whereas five samples were found positive for both serotypes A and Asia-1. Two serotype A positive samples were found positive for two different strains of serotype A FMDV each. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype A FMDVs showed circulation of at least three different sublineages within the A-Iran05 lineage. These included two earlier reported sublineages, A-Iran05(HER)(-10) and A-Iran05(FAR)(-11) , and a new sublineage, designated here as A-Iran05(BAL)(-11) . This shows that viruses belonging to the A-Iran05 lineage are continuously evolving in the region. Viruses belonging to the A-Iran05(FAR)(-11) sublineage showed close identity with the viruses circulating in 2009 in Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, viruses belonging to the A-Iran05(HER)(-10) detected in Balochistan, Pakistan, showed close identity with the viruses circulating in Kyrgyzstan, Iran and Kazakhstan in 2011 and 2012, showing that viruses responsible for outbreak in these countries have a common origin. Serotype Asia-1 FMDVs reported in this study all belonged to the earlier reported Group-VII (Sindh-08), which is currently a dominant strain in the West Eurasian region. Detection of two different serotypes of FMDV or/and two different strains of the same serotype in one animal/sample shows complexity in occurrence of FMD in the region. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be advised by a podiatrist, depending on your test results or a specific medical condition. Postoperative Care The type of foot surgery performed determines the length and kind of aftercare required ...

  13. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... to dyes or adhesives in shoes, eczema, and psoriasis, may mimic athlete's foot. Causes The warmth and ... leave a comment Related Content Warts Sweaty Feet Psoriasis Find a Podiatrist ZIP Code More Options Mile ...

  14. Charcot Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to severe deformity, disability and even amputation. Because of its seriousness, it is important that ... of Charcot foot, development of ulcers and possibly amputation. In cases with significant deformity, bracing is also ...

  15. Multitaper and multisegment spectral estimation of line-edge roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yao; Savari, Serap A.

    2017-03-01

    Line-edge roughness (LER) has important impacts on the quality of semiconductor device performance, and power spectrum estimates are useful tools in characterizing it. These estimates are often obtained by taking measurements of many lines and averaging a classical power spectrum estimate from each one. While this approach improves the variance of the estimate there are disadvantages to the collection of many measurements with current microscopy techniques. We propose techniques with widespread application in other fields which simultaneously reduce data requirements and variance of LER power spectrum estimates over current approaches at the price of computational complexity. Multitaper spectral analysis uses an orthogonal collection of data windowing functions or tapers on a set of data to obtain a set of approximately statistically independent spectrum estimates. The Welch overlapped segment averaging spectrum estimate is an earlier approach to reusing data. There are known techniques to calculate error bars for these families of spectrum estimators, and we experiment with random rough lines simulated by Mack's technique based on the Thorsos method.

  16. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  17. Charcot's foot.

    PubMed

    Serra, F; Mancini, L; Ghirlanda, G; Ruotolo, V

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic osteoarthropathy is a chronic progressive arthropathy involving the bones and joints being constantly associated to somatic and autonomic peripheral neuropathy. The pathogenesis is related to sensory and motor neuropathy with morphologic foot alterations, relaxation and abnormal position on walking till complete collapse of the foot shown by the depressed longitudinal medial arch. Bone reabsorption due to osteoclasis and increased blood flow until osteomalacia appears, is characteristic of this arthropathy. The clinical features vary according to the location and severity of articular impairment and the stage of identification. The metatarsophalangeal or tarsometatarsal joint may be involved. The typical manifestation of Charcot's foot is plantar ulcer of variable location according to the weight-bearing area. Treatment tends to reduce the abnormal stress predisposing to ulceration with tailored footwear and orthoses.

  18. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cavus Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A ... problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to reduce ...

  20. Foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Lockard, M A

    1988-12-01

    This review article describes shoe inserts and provides information to assist physical therapists to identify patients who may benefit from foot orthoses. The article discusses goals for and types of shoe inserts, in addition to the materials and methods that can be used in fabricating appliances. Clinical considerations for the use of shoe inserts and application to specific patient populations are presented.

  1. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the best ways to exercise and keep fit. Structure of the Foot Each of your feet contains 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 120 muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. These all work together to support the weight of your body, act as shock ...

  2. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and infections. Serious cases may even lead to amputation. Damage to the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It ...

  3. [Surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar scoliosis with multi-segment lumbar spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiaping; Tang, Xun; Xu, Yongqing; Zhou, Tianhua; Shi, Jian; Cui, Yi; Xiang, Qili; Cai, Zhijun; Zhao, Qingkai; Yang, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Caihua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the surgical indications, decompression and fusion method, and fusion level selection of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and multi-segment lumbar spinal stenosis. Between April 2000 and November 2011, 46 cases of DLS and multi-segment lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with multi-level decompression by fenestration and crept enlargement plus internal fixation by interbody and posterior-lateral bone graft fusion (5 segments or above). Of 46 cases, 25 were male and 21 were female, with a mean age of 70.2 years (range, 65-81 years) and with a mean disease duration of 6.4 years (range, 4 years and 6 months to 13 years). X-ray films showed that the lumbar Cobb angle was (26.7 ± 10.0) degrees, and the lumbar lordotic angle was (20.3 ± 8.8)degrees. The lumbar CT and MRI images showed three-segment stenosis in 24 cases, four-segment stenosis in 17 cases, and five-segment stenosis in 5 cases. A total of 165 stenosed segments included 12 L1,2, 34 L2,3, 43 L3,4, 45 L4,5, and 31 L5 and S1. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score (29 points) were employed to evaluate effectiveness. Thirteen patients had leakage of cerebrospinal fluid during operation, and no infection was found after corresponding treatment; pulmonary infection and urinary system infection occurred in 4 and 2 patients respectively, who relieved after received antibiotic therapy; 8 patients with poor wound healing received dressing change, adequate drainage, debridement and suture. No death, paralysis, central nervous system infection, or other complication was observed in these patients. Forty-six cases were followed up 12-72 months (mean, 36.2 months). Lumbago and backache and intermittent claudication of lower extremity were obviously improved. During follow-up, no screw incising, loosening and broken screws, or pseudarthrosis was noted under X-ray film and CT scanning. At last follow-up, the lumbar Cobb angle was

  4. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  5. Multisegment one-step RT-PCR fluorescent labeling of influenza A virus genome for use in diagnostic microarray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasin, A. V.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Plotnikova, M. A.; Klotchenko, S. A.; Chervyakova, O. V.; Strochkov, V. M.; Taylakova, E. T.; Elpaeva, E. A.; Komissarov, A. B.; Egorov, V. V.; Koshemetov, J. K.; Kiselev, O. I.; Mamadaliev, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Microarray technology is one of the most challenging methods of influenza A virus subtyping, which is based on the antigenic properties of viral surface glycoproteins - hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. On the example of biochip for detection of influenza A/H5N1 virus we showed the possibility of using multisegment RTPCR method for amplification of fluorescently labeled cDNA of all possible influenza A virus subtypes with a single pair of primers in influenza diagnostic microarrays.

  6. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  7. The characterization of a full-thickness excision open foot wound model in n5-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats that mimics diabetic foot ulcer in terms of reduced blood circulation, higher C-reactive protein, elevated inflammation, and reduced cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Caroline Oi-Ling; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lam, Francis Fu-Yuen; Ng, Ethel Sau-Kuen; Lau, Kit-Man; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Delayed foot wound healing is a major complication attributed to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and these wounds may develop into foot ulcers. There are at least two types of DM wound models used in rodents to study delayed wound healing. However, clinically relevant animal models are not common. Most models use type 1 DM rodents or wounds created on the back rather than on the foot. An open full-thickness excision wound on the footpad of type 2 DM rats is more clinically relevant, but such a model has not yet been characterized systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize how DM affected a full-thickness excision open foot wound in n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced type 2 DM rats. We hypothesized that elevated inflammation, reduced blood circulation, and cell proliferation due to hyperglycemia could delay the wound healing of DM rats. The wounds of DM rats were compared with those of non-DM rats (Ctrl) at Days 1 and 8 post wounding. The wound healing process of the DM rats was significantly delayed compared with that of the Ctrl rats. The DM rats also had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and lower blood circulation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DM wounds. This confirmed that elevated inflammation and reduced blood flow and cell proliferation delayed foot wound healing in the n5-STZ rats. Hence, this open foot wound animal model provides a good approach to study the process of delayed wound healing. PMID:28413186

  8. The characterization of a full-thickness excision open foot wound model in n5-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats that mimics diabetic foot ulcer in terms of reduced blood circulation, higher C-reactive protein, elevated inflammation, and reduced cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Caroline Oi-Ling; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lam, Francis Fu-Yuen; Ng, Ethel Sau-Kuen; Lau, Kit-Man; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2017-08-05

    Delayed foot wound healing is a major complication attributed to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and these wounds may develop into foot ulcers. There are at least two types of DM wound models used in rodents to study delayed wound healing. However, clinically relevant animal models are not common. Most models use type 1 DM rodents or wounds created on the back rather than on the foot. An open full-thickness excision wound on the footpad of type 2 DM rats is more clinically relevant, but such a model has not yet been characterized systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize how DM affected a full-thickness excision open foot wound in n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced type 2 DM rats. We hypothesized that elevated inflammation, reduced blood circulation, and cell proliferation due to hyperglycemia could delay the wound healing of DM rats. The wounds of DM rats were compared with those of non-DM rats (Ctrl) at Days 1 and 8 post wounding. The wound healing process of the DM rats was significantly delayed compared with that of the Ctrl rats. The DM rats also had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and lower blood circulation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DM wounds. This confirmed that elevated inflammation and reduced blood flow and cell proliferation delayed foot wound healing in the n5-STZ rats. Hence, this open foot wound animal model provides a good approach to study the process of delayed wound healing.

  9. The prevention of diabetic foot ulceration: how biomechanical research informs clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    DiLiberto, Frank E.; Baumhauer, Judith F.; Nawoczenski, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Implementation of interprofessional clinical guidelines for the prevention of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration has demonstrated positive effects regarding ulceration and amputation rates. Current foot care recommendations are primarily based on research regarding the prevention of ulcer recurrence and focused on reducing the magnitude of plantar stress (pressure overload). Yet, foot ulceration remains to be a prevalent and debilitating consequence of Diabetes Mellitus. There is limited evidence targeting the prevention of first-time ulceration, and there is a need to consider additional factors of plantar stress to supplement current guidelines. Objectives The first purpose of this article is to discuss the biomechanical theory underpinning diabetic foot ulcerations and illustrate how plantar tissue underloading may precede overloading and breakdown. The second purpose of this commentary is to discuss how advances in biomechanical foot modeling can inform clinical practice in the prevention of first-time ulceration. Discussion Research demonstrates that progressive weight-bearing activity programs to address the frequency of plantar stress and avoid underloading do not increase ulceration risk. Multi-segment foot modeling studies indicate that dynamic foot function of the midfoot and forefoot is compromised in people with diabetes. Emerging research demonstrates that implementation of foot-specific exercises may positively influence dynamic foot function and improve plantar stress in people with diabetes. Conclusion Continued work is needed to determine how to best design and integrate activity recommendations and foot-specific exercise programs into the current interprofessional paradigm for the prevention of first-time ulceration in people with Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:27849290

  10. The mechanics of the gibbon foot and its potential for elastic energy storage during bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Evie E; Aerts, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The mechanics of the modern human foot and its specialization for habitual bipedalism are well understood. The windlass mechanism gives it the required stability for propulsion generation, and flattening of the arch and stretching of the plantar aponeurosis leads to energy saving. What is less well understood is how an essentially flat and mobile foot, as found in protohominins and extant apes, functions during bipedalism. This study evaluates the hypothesis that an energy-saving mechanism, by stretch and recoil of plantar connective tissues, is present in the mobile gibbon foot and provides a two-dimensional analysis of the internal joint mechanics of the foot during spontaneous bipedalism of gibbons using a four-link segment foot model. Available force and pressure data are combined with detailed foot kinematics, recorded with a high-speed camera at 250 Hz, to calculate the external joint moments at the metatarsophalangeal (MP), tarsometatarsal (TM) and talocrural (TC) joints. In addition, instantaneous joint powers are estimated to obtain insight into the propulsion-generating capacities of the internal foot joints. It is found that, next to a wide range of motion at the TC joint, substantial motion is observed at the TM and MP joint, underlining the importance of using a multi-segment foot model in primate gait analyses. More importantly, however, this study shows that although a compliant foot is less mechanically effective for push-off than a ;rigid' arched foot, it can contribute to the generation of propulsion in bipedal locomotion via stretch and recoil of the plantarflexor tendons and plantar ligaments.

  11. Multisegmented Nanowires: a Step towards the Control of the Domain Wall Configuration.

    PubMed

    Berganza, E; Jaafar, M; Bran, C; Fernández-Roldán, J A; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O; Vázquez, M; Asenjo, A

    2017-09-14

    Cylindrical nanowires synthesized by controlled electrodeposition constitute excellent strategic candidates to engineer magnetic domain configurations. In this work, multisegmented CoNi/Ni nanowires are synthesized for tailoring a periodic magnetic structure determined by the balance between magnetocrystalline and magnetostatic energies. High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy confirms the segmented growth and the sharp transition between layers. Although both CoNi and Ni segments have similar fcc cubic crystal symmetry, their magnetic configuration is quite different as experimentally revealed by Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) imaging. While the Ni segments are single domain with axial magnetization direction, the CoNi segments present two main configurations: a single vortex state or a complex multivortex magnetic configuration, which is further interpreted with the help of micromagnetic simulations. This original outcome is ascribed to the tight competition between anisotropies. The almost monocrystalline fcc structure of the CoNi segments, as revealed by the electron diffraction patterns, which is atypical for its composition, contributes to balance the magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies. The results of MFM measurements performed under in-plane magnetic field demonstrate that it is possible to switch from the multivortex configuration to a single vortex configuration with low magnetic fields.

  12. Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Leah; Ostovari, Saam; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Talke, Kurt A.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Rahimi, Amin; Hart, Abraham B.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    2015-05-01

    A novel, multi-segmented magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative motion connect front and rear driving modules, so the robot can twist and turn. This permits its navigation over surface discontinuities while maintaining its adhesion to the hull. During operation, the magnetic crawler receives forward and turning velocity commands from either a tele-operator or high-level, autonomous control computer. A low-level, embedded microcomputer handles the commands to the driving motors. This paper presents the development of a simple, low-level, leader-follower controller that permits the rear module to follow the front module. The kinematics and dynamics of the two-module magnetic crawler robot are described. The robot's geometry, kinematic constraints and the user-commanded velocities are used to calculate the desired instantaneous center of rotation and the corresponding central-linkage angle necessary for the back module to follow the front module when turning. The commands to the rear driving motors are determined by applying PID control on the error between the desired and measured linkage angle position. The controller is designed and tested using Matlab Simulink. It is then implemented and tested on an early two-module magnetic crawler prototype robot. Results of the simulations and experimental validation of the controller design are presented.

  13. Multi-segment trunk kinematics during a loaded lifting task for elderly and young subjects.

    PubMed

    Burgess, R J; Hillier, S; Keogh, D; Kollmitzer, J; Oddsson, L

    2009-02-01

    The trunk is frequently modelled as one fixed segment ignoring possible multi-segmental contributions during manual handling. This study compared segmental trunk motion in a young and older population during a lifting task. Twelve elderly and 19 young subjects repeatedly lifted a 5 kg box from bench to shelf under two stance conditions. Displacement and angular trunk segment kinematics were recorded with an electromagnetic tracker system and then analysed. The elderly subjects displayed significantly increased pelvic and trunk displacement and significantly reduced pelvic and lower thorax (T10-L1) range of motion in both stance conditions. Upper thorax (C7-T10) motion was at times greater than lumbar motion and opposite to the lower segments and was related to the task while the lower segments contributed to both equilibrium and task requirements. Decreased segmental trunk angular kinematics may contribute to increased displacement kinematics and place the elderly at increased risk of injury and falling. The pelvis, lumbar spine, low thorax (T10-L1), upper thorax (C7-10) contributed uniquely and synchronously to trunk (C7-S2) mechanics during a lifting task. Reduced angular kinematics of the pelvis and low thorax contributed to increased displacement kinematics and hence increased the risk of falling in the elderly compared to the young. Investigations of trunk mechanics should include multi-segment analysis.

  14. An impedance device for study of multisegment hemodynamic changes during orthostatic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Hanish, H. M.; Marker, R. A.

    1989-11-01

    Definition of multisegment hemodynamic changes that take place in the body would provide a more complete understanding of the physiologic responses to various orthostatic stress techniques. A self-contained impedance device is described which may be used to measure the electrical transmission characteristics produced by blood flow and volume changes in six segments of the human body during head-up tilt, bed rest, and lower body negative pressure. The device consists of a module that contains the electronics for the impedance system, a separate controller/multiplexer, a personal computer interface/analog to digital conversion/power supply system, and the associated computer control softwave. The instrument is linear over a range of 0 to 200 ohms; provides analog outputs of base impedance, phase angle, pulsatile impedance change, and the first derivative of the pulsatile impedance changes; and can be used to automatically record basal impedance values into spread-sheet format with cycle times between 12 s and 1 h. Typical results are presented to illustrate its application in aerospace research.

  15. Analytical and experimental studies of an optimum multisegment phased liner noise suppression concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawdy, D. T.; Beckemeyer, R. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from detailed analytical studies made to define methods for obtaining improved multisegment lining performance by taking advantage of relative placement of each lining segment. Properly phased liner segments reflect and spatially redistribute the incident acoustic energy and thus provide additional attenuation. A mathematical model was developed for rectangular ducts with uniform mean flow. Segmented acoustic fields were represented by duct eigenfunction expansions, and mode-matching was used to ensure continuity of the total field. Parametric studies were performed to identify attenuation mechanisms and define preliminary liner configurations. An optimization procedure was used to determine optimum liner impedance values for a given total lining length, Mach number, and incident modal distribution. Optimal segmented liners are presented and it is shown that, provided the sound source is well-defined and flow environment is known, conventional infinite duct optimum attenuation rates can be improved. To confirm these results, an experimental program was conducted in a laboratory test facility. The measured data are presented in the form of analytical-experimental correlations. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment verifies and substantiates the analytical prediction techniques. The results indicate that phased liners may be of immediate benefit in the development of improved aircraft exhaust duct noise suppressors.

  16. Magnetic behaviour of multisegmented FeCoCu/Cu electrodeposited nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, A.; Pérez, L.; Abuín, M.; Araujo, J. P.; Proenca, M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the magnetic behaviour of multisegmented nanowires (NWs) is a major key for the application of such structures in future devices. In this work, magnetic/non-magnetic arrays of FeCoCu/Cu multilayered NWs electrodeposited in nanoporous alumina templates are studied. Contrarily to most reports on multilayered NWs, the magnetic layer thickness was kept constant (30 nm) and only the non-magnetic layer thickness was changed (0 to 80 nm). This allowed us to tune the interwire and intrawire interactions between the magnetic layers in the NW array creating a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic system without the need to change the template characteristics. Magnetic hysteresis loops, measured with the applied field parallel and perpendicular to the NWs’ long axis, showed the effect of the non-magnetic Cu layer on the overall magnetic properties of the NW arrays. In particular, introducing Cu layers along the magnetic NW axis creates domain wall nucleation sites that facilitate the magnetization reversal of the wires, as seen by the decrease in the parallel coercivity and the reduction of the perpendicular saturation field. By further increasing the Cu layer thickness, the interactions between the magnetic segments, both along the NW axis and of neighbouring NWs, decrease, thus rising again the parallel coercivity and the perpendicular saturation field. This work shows how one can easily tune the parallel and perpendicular magnetic properties of a 3D magnetic layer system by adjusting the non-magnetic layer thickness.

  17. A multi-segment soft actuator for biomedical applications based on IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Luo, Meng; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing

    2015-04-01

    With rapid progress of biomedical devices towards miniaturization, flexibility, multifunction and low cost, the restrictions of traditional mechanical structures become particularly apparent, while soft materials become research focus in broad fields. As one of the most attractive soft materials, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) is widely used as artificial muscles and actuators, with the advantages of low driving-voltage, high efficiency of electromechanical transduction and functional stabilization. In this paper, a new intuitive control method was presented to achieve the omnidirectional bending movements and was applied on a representative actuation structure of a multi-degree-offreedom soft actuator composed of two segments bar-shaped IPMC with a square cross section. Firstly, the bar-shaped IPMCs were fabricated by the solution casting method, reducing plating, autocatalytic plating method and cut into shapes successively. The connectors of the multi-segment IPMC actuator were fabricated by 3D printing. Then, a new control method was introduced to realize the intuitive mapping relationship between the actuator and the joystick manipulator. The control circuit was designed and tested. Finally, the multi-degree-of-freedom actuator of 2 segments bar-shaped IPMCs was implemented and omnidirectional bending movements were achieved, which could be a promising actuator for biomedical applications, such as endoscope, catheterism, laparoscopy and the surgical resection of tumors.

  18. High-throughput templated multisegment synthesis of gold nanowires and nanorods.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Jared; Alonas, Eric; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Rege, Kaushal; Wang, Joseph

    2009-02-11

    A cost-effective, high-throughput method for generating gold nanowires and/or nanorods based on a multisegment template electrodeposition approach is described. Using this method, multiple nanowires/nanorods can be generated from a single pore of alumina template membranes by alternately depositing segments of desirable (e.g., gold) and non-desirable metals (e.g., silver), followed by dissolution of the template and the non-desirable metal. Critical cost analysis indicates substantial savings in material requirements, processing times, and processing costs compared to the commonly used single-segment method. In addition to solid gold nanowires/nanorods, high yields of porous gold nanowires/nanorods are obtained by depositing alternate segments of gold-silver alloy and silver from the same gold-silver plating solution followed by selective dissolution of the silver from both segments. It is anticipated that this high-throughput method for synthesizing solid and porous gold nanowires and nanorods will accelerate their use in sensing, electronic, and biomedical applications.

  19. Characterization of enterovirus 71 infection and associated outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Shawo of China in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michelle Y.; Liu, Jin; Lai, Weijian; Luo, Jun; Liu, Yingle; Vu, Gia-Phong; Yang, Zhu; Trang, Phong; Li, Hongjian; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) are recognized as emerging public health issues worldwide. Hundreds of thousands of children are annually infected with EV71 and develop HFMD in China alone. Studies of EV71 infection are critical to the treatment and prevention of the associated HFMD outbreaks. In this report, we studied an outbreak of 105 HFMD cases in Shawo Township of China between September to October 2012. More than 90% of cases were children younger than 9 years old, with over 50% of cases aged 3–6 years old. Laboratory studies detected a high prevalence of EV71 and suggested EV71 as the most common enterovirus causing HFMD in Shawo. Sequencing analysis showed that the EV71 strains from Shawo belong to the C4 subgenotype, and are phylogenetically more related to those from the distant city of Nanchang than those from the nearby city of Wuhan with distinct variations. More girls were found to be associated with EV71 in Shawo whereas more boys were associated with EV71 in Wuhan and Nanchang. Our studies further the understanding of the molecular epidemiological features of HFMD and infection by enteroviruses in China. PMID:27941929

  20. Characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT2 in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayali, Ghazi; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Darwish, Mohamed; Gaffar, Alkhateib; Younes, Abdelgayed; Farag, Tarek; Kutkat, Mohamed A; Ali, Mohamed A

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (UTR) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Only FMDV-SAT2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. Complete VP1- and leader-proteinase-coding sequences, obtained from three isolates from three different governorates, were compared with previously reported sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that the circulating viruses were homogeneous and were closely related to topotype VII. Importantly, the newly emerged viruses were genetically closely related to strains isolated from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea and Cameroon between 2000 and 2010, suggesting the dominant nature of this virus and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences.

  1. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase.

    PubMed

    Uddowla, Sabena; Pacheco, Juan M; Larson, Christopher; Bishop, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Luis L; Rai, Devendra K; Arzt, Jonathan; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). This study examined if the BRBV leader proteinase (L(pro) ) could functionally replace that of FMDV. A mutant A24LBRV3DYR FMDV engineered with the BRBV L(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3D polymerase exhibited growth properties and eIF4G cleavage similar to parental A24WT virus. The A24LBRV3DYR type I interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of A24LL virus that lacks L(pro), but this effect was less pronounced for A24LBRV3DYR infected porcine cells. In vivo studies showed that the A24LBRV3DYR virus was attenuated in cattle, and exhibited low virulence in pigs exposed by direct contact. The mutant virus induced protective immunity in cattle against challenge with parental A24WT. These results provide evidence that L(pro) of different Aphthoviruses are not fully functionally interchangeable and have roles that may depend on the nature of the infected host.

  2. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

  3. Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Thomas J.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function. Methods Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and center of pressure excursion index from plantar pressure scans were used to create foot posture and function subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios of having each specific disorder were calculated for foot posture and function subgroups relative to a referent 3 quintiles. Results Pes planus foot posture was associated with increased odds of hammer toes and overlapping toes. Cavus foot posture was not associated with the foot disorders evaluated. Odds of having hallux valgus and overlapping toes were significantly increased in those with pronated foot function, while odds of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were significantly decreased in those with supinated function. Conclusions Foot posture and foot function were associated with the presence of specific foot disorders. PMID:24040231

  4. Detection and characterization of viruses causing hand, foot and mouth disease from children in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ling, Beh Poay; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Harmal, Nabil Saad; Yubbu, Putri; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection among infants and children. The major causative agents of HFMD are enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). Recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) infections were reported in neighboring countries. Infected infants and children may present with fever, mouth/throat ulcers, rashes and vesicles on hands and feet. Moreover, EV71 infections might cause fatal neurological complications. Since 1997, EV71 caused fatalities in Sarawak and Peninsula Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the viruses which detected from the patients who presenting clinical signs and symptoms of HFMD in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. From December 2012 until July 2013, a total of 28 specimens were collected from patients with clinical case definitions of HFMD. The HFMD viruses were detected by using semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (snRT-PCR). The positive snRT-PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the viruses were performed. 12 of 28 specimens (42.9%) were positive in snRT-PCR, seven are CVA6 (58.3%), two CVA16 (16.7%) and three EV71 (25%). Based on phylogenetic analysis studies, EV71 strains were identified as sub-genotype B5; CVA16 strains classified into sub-genotype B2b and B2c; CVA6 strains closely related to strains in Taiwan and Japan. In this study, HFMD in Seri Kembangan were caused by different types of Enterovirus, which were EV71, CVA6 and CVA16.

  5. Planus Foot Posture and Pronated Foot Function are Associated with Foot Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Methods Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study who completed foot examinations in 2002–2008. Foot pain (generalized and at six locations) was based on the response to the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?” Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Results Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 – 0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00). Conclusion Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. PMID:23861176

  6. Center of mass control and multi-segment coordination in children during quiet stance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhua; McKay, Sandra; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to apply an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to investigate how children utilize the variability of multiple body segment movement to facilitate the center of mass (COM) control during quiet stance. Three groups of participants were included in this study: younger children (YC, mean age 6.3 years), older children (OC, mean age 10.3 years), and young adults (YA, mean age 20.5 years). Participants stood on a force platform with their hands on the iliac crests for 40 s in each trial. Two visual conditions were examined including eyes-open and eyes-closed and three trials were collected for each condition. Results showed that all three groups partitioned more variability of multi-segment movement into the UCM subspace (maintaining the mean COM position) than into the ORT subspace (a subspace orthogonal to the UCM subspace, causing the deviation of the COM from its mean position) in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Furthermore, both the YC and OC groups partitioned a significantly higher percentage of variability into the UCM subspace than the YA group regardless of visual condition. In addition, results of conventional COM variables indicated that only the YC group produced significantly faster sway velocity and greater standard deviation than the YA group. All the results together suggest that children at 6-10 years of age use a similar variability-partitioning strategy (a greater V(UCM) and a smaller V(ORT)) like young adults in quiet stance to facilitate the COM control, but it takes more than 10 years for children to refine this strategy and achieve an adult-like variability-partitioning capability (i.e., UCM ratio). It also suggests that postural development may include two phases in which children learn to regulate the position and movement of multiple body segments and the COM first and gain an adult-like variability-partitioning capability later.

  7. Foot function is well preserved in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who are optimally managed

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Gordon J.; Rafferty, Danny; Barn, Ruth; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Turner, Debbie E.; Woodburn, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare disease activity, impairments, disability, foot function and gait characteristics between a well described cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and normal healthy controls using a 7-segment foot model and three-dimensional gait analysis. Methods Fourteen patients with JIA (mean (standard deviation) age of 12.4 years (3.2)) and a history of foot disease and 10 healthy children (mean (standard deviation) age of 12.5 years (3.4)) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis and plantar pressure analysis to measure biomechanical foot function. Localised disease impact and foot-specific disease activity were determined using the juvenile arthritis foot disability index, rear- and forefoot deformity scores, and clinical and musculoskeletal ultrasound examinations respectively. Mean differences between groups with associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the t distribution. Results Mild-to-moderate foot impairments and disability but low levels of disease activity were detected in the JIA group. In comparison with healthy subjects, minor trends towards increased midfoot dorsiflexion and reduced lateral forefoot abduction within a 3–5° range were observed in patients with JIA. The magnitude and timing of remaining kinematic, kinetic and plantar pressure distribution variables during the stance phase were similar for both groups. Conclusion In children and adolescents with JIA, foot function as determined by a multi-segment foot model did not differ from that of normal age- and gender-matched subjects despite moderate foot impairments and disability scores. These findings may indicate that tight control of active foot disease may prevent joint destruction and associated structural and functional impairments. PMID:23142184

  8. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  9. Effect of taping on foot kinematics in persons with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Kevin; Dingenen, Bart; Pans, Femke; Van Bavel, Isabelle; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Staes, Filip

    2016-07-01

    To investigate differences in rigid-foot and multi-segmental foot kinematics between healthy (control) and chronic ankle instability (CAI) participants during running and to evaluate the effect of low-Dye (LD) and high-Dye (HD) taping on foot kinematics of CAI subjects. Cross-sectional, comparative study. Kinematic data of 12 controls and 15 CAI participants were collected by a 3D motion analysis system during running. CAI participants performed barefoot (CAI_BF) running trials as well as trials with taping. A rigid Plug-in gait Model and the Rizzoli 3D Multi-Segment Foot Model were used. Groups were compared using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. An increased inversion, a decreased dorsiflexion between the foot and tibia and a decreased external foot progression angle were found during terminal swing and early stance in the CAI_BF group. With respect to the taped conditions, post-hoc SPM{t} calculations highlighted a more dorsiflexed rearfoot (38-46% running cycle) in the CAI_HD compared to the CAI_LD, and a more inverted Mid-Met angle (6-24% running cycle) in the CAI_LD compared to the CAI_BF condition. This study revealed significant differences in rigid foot and multi-segmental foot kinematics between all groups. As high-dye taping embraces shank-rearfoot and forefoot, it seems to have better therapeutic features with respect to low-dye taping as the latter created a more inverted forefoot which may not be recommended in this population. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Osteosarcoma of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Edward; Martin-Carreras, Teresa; Bornstein, Gerald; Wasyliw, Christopher W; Scherer, Kurt F; Bancroft, Laura W

    2015-11-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a large and painful right foot mass. The patient reported a history of a recurrent right foot mass treated elsewhere with 3 prior surgical excisions. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... work and the pounding their feet endure from... Foot Injuries in Olympic Athletes and Beyond Foot and ankle ... making them... Athletes Living with Diabetes Face More Foot Injuries Than Athletes Without Foot and ankle injuries are ...

  12. Prevention of foot blisters.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  13. Foot sprain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... or weeks after your injury: Rest. Stop any physical activity that causes pain, and keep your foot still when possible. Ice your foot for 20 minutes 2 to 3 times a day. DO NOT apply ice directly to your skin. Keep your foot raised to help keep swelling ...

  14. Foot pathology in patients with Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anita E; O'Neill, Terence W; Mercer, Sylvia; Toro, Brigitte; Nester, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic bone deformities associated with advanced Paget's disease of bone may result in abnormal gait and plantar foot pressures, which contribute to the development of pressure-related skin problems. This study aimed to characterize the foot problems and foot-care needs in this patient group and to investigate the effect of disease distribution on the occurrence of foot pathology. One hundred thirty-four patients with Paget's disease were assessed clinically, and the Foot Structure Index was completed for each patient. Patients completed self-administered questionnaires concerning foot function (Foot Function Index) and quality of life (12-Item Short Form). The results of this study suggest that foot-health and footwear problems are common in patients with Paget's disease. Forty percent of the patients required professional foot care in addition to those already receiving it. The site of pagetic involvement did not affect the occurrence of foot pathology. Further research is required on the impact of the extent of any femoral or tibial deformity on foot symptoms and pathology. Biomechanical studies of the forces and motion in the foot related to different degrees of femoral and tibial deformity might also help determine the impact of deformity on foot pathology.

  15. Inter-segmental motions of the foot in healthy adults: Gender difference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Kyoung Min; Choi, In Ho

    2016-11-01

    Multi-segment Foot Models (MFM) have increased in use for both clinical and research applications; however, little is known about the gender differences of inter-segmental motions within the foot and ankle during gait. The objectives of this study were to analyze the gender differences of inter-segmental foot motion during gait in healthy young adults using a MFM with a 15-marker set. One hundred healthy adults (50 males, 50 females) between 20 and 35 years of age who had normal function and no radiographic abnormality, were evaluated. Inter-segmental angles (ISA) (hindfoot, forefoot, and hallux) were calculated at each time point. The ISAs at specific phases of the gait cycle, the change in ISAs between the phases, and the range of motion for each ISA across the entire gait cycle were compared between genders. The kinematic curve of the inter-segmental foot motions showed a characteristic pattern during the whole gait cycle. Although the hallux of female was aligned in a more valgus angulation during gait, the overall patterns of the inter-segmental foot motions were quite similar for both genders. Most differences in the inter-segmental foot motions between men and women were observed in the range of motion. Considering the stance phase of gait-cycle, the range of motion in the sagittal and transverse plane of the hindfoot was greater in females than in males. The sagittal range of motion of the hallux was also greater in females, mainly due to higher plantar flexion. The gender differences of the inter-segmental foot motion were investigated during gait in healthy young adults using a MFM with a 15-marker set. Females had a larger range of motion in the sagittal plane of the hallux and in the sagittal and transverse plane of the hindfoot. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-joint foot kinetics during walking in people with Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    DiLiberto, Frank E; Tome, Josh; Baumhauer, Judith F; Quinn, Jill R; Houck, Jeff; Nawoczenski, Deborah A

    2015-10-15

    Neuropathic tissue changes can alter muscle function and are a primary reason for foot pathologies in people with Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DMPN). Understanding of foot kinetics in people with DMPN is derived from single-segment foot modeling approaches. This approach, however, does not provide insight into midfoot power and work. Gaining an understanding of midfoot kinetics in people with DMPN prior to deformity or ulceration may help link foot biomechanics to anticipated pathologies in the midfoot and forefoot. The purpose of this study was to evaluate midfoot (MF) and rearfoot (RF) power and work in people with DMPN and a healthy matched control group. Thirty people participated (15 DMPN and 15 Controls). An electro-magnetic tracking system and force plate were used to record multi-segment foot kinematics and ground reaction forces during walking. MF and RF power, work, and negative work ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Findings demonstrated that the DMPN group had greater negative peak power and reduced positive peak power at the MF and RF (all p≤0.05). DMPN group negative work ratios were also greater at the MF and RF [Mean difference MF: 9.9%; p=0.24 and RF: 18.8%; p<0.01]. In people with DMPN, the greater proportion of negative work may negatively affect foot structures during forward propulsion, when positive work and foot stability should predominate. Further study is recommended to determine how both MF and RF kinetics influence the development of deformity and ulceration in people with DMPN.

  17. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events.

  18. Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Eleanor; Harvala, Heli; Österback, Riikka; Sreenu, Vattipally B.; Thomson, Emma; Waris, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H associated with eczema herpeticum cases in Edinburgh in 2014. Comparison of phylogenies and divergence of complete genome sequences of CVA6 identified recombination breakpoints in 2A–2C, within VP3, and between 5′ untranslated region and VP1. A Bayesian temporal reconstruction of CVA6 evolution since 2004 provided estimates of dates and the actual recombination events that generated more recently appearing recombination groups (RF-E, -F, -G and -H). Associations were observed between recombination groups and clinical presentations of herpangina, aHFMD and eczema herpeticum, but not with VP1 or other structural genes. These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection. PMID:25614593

  19. Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Eleanor; Harvala, Heli; Österback, Riikka; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Thomson, Emma; Waris, Matti; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H associated with eczema herpeticum cases in Edinburgh in 2014. Comparison of phylogenies and divergence of complete genome sequences of CVA6 identified recombination breakpoints in 2A-2C, within VP3, and between 5' untranslated region and VP1. A Bayesian temporal reconstruction of CVA6 evolution since 2004 provided estimates of dates and the actual recombination events that generated more recently appearing recombination groups (RF-E, -F, -G and -H). Associations were observed between recombination groups and clinical presentations of herpangina, aHFMD and eczema herpeticum, but not with VP1 or other structural genes. These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species.

  1. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-01-17

    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment.

  2. [Bunion foot].

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Zoran; Mikić, Nadan

    2012-01-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a complex chronic progressive disease primarily characterized by a lateral great toe deviation and deformity of the first metatarsophalageal joint. Numerous etiological factors are related with the expression of this disease, and they are divided into two categories: endogenous and exogenous. Complexity of the hallux valgus deformity is reflected with the progression of the disease that gives rise to numerous forefoot deformities. The diagnosis is first of all affirmed by clinical examination and x-ray of the feet in a standing position. Treatment could be either operative or conservative. Conservative treatment has shown to be totally unsuccessful. Before decision making on the type of operative treatment, the patient's complaints, age, profession, clinical and x-ray findings must be taken into consideration. Until now, over two hundred different operative procedures have been described, which clearly supports the observation that there is no single method which could resolve all clinical varieties of this deformity. Therefore, today, when making a choice on the surgical procedure of hallux valgus deformity, the utilization of surgical algorithm is recommended.

  3. [Foot reflex zone massage].

    PubMed

    Kesselring, A

    1994-01-01

    Foot reflexology is defined as massage of zones on the feet which correspond to different parts of the body. A medline-search yielded no literature in the field of foot reflexology. Indications for and results of foot reflexology have been extrapolated from case-descriptions and two pilot studies with small samples. One study (Lafuente et al.) found foot reflexology to be as helpful to patients with headaches as medication (flunarizine), yet foot reflexology was fraught with less side-effects than medication. In a second study (Eichelberger et al.) foot reflexology was used postoperatively on gynecological patients. The intervention group showed a lesser need for medication to enhance bladder tonus than did the control group. The literature describes foot reflexology as enhancing urination, bowel movements and relaxation.

  4. Characterization of Coxsackievirus A6- and Enterovirus 71-Associated Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing, China, from 2013 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Sun, Ying; Du, Yiwei; Yan, Yuxiang; Huo, Da; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fen; Lin, Changying; Liang, Zhichao; Jia, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Quanyi; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Etiology surveillance of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing showed that Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) became the major pathogen of HFMD in 2013 and 2015. In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of CVA6-associated HFMD, a comparison study among CVA6-, EV71- (Enterovirus 71), and CVA16- (Coxsackievirus A16) associated HFMD was performed. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations among CVA6-, EV71- and CVA16-associated mild or severe cases were compared from 2013 to 2015. VP1 gene of CVA6 and EV71 from mild cases, severe cases were sequenced, aligned, and compared with strains from 2009 to 2015 in Beijing and strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbor-joining method. CVA6 became the predominant causative agent of HFMD and accounted for 35.4 and 36.9% of total positive cases in 2013 and 2015, respectively. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 305 severe cases and 7 fatal cases were reported. CVA6 and EV71 were responsible for 57.5% of the severe cases. Five out six samples from fatal cases were identified as EV71. High fever, onychomadesis, and decrustation were the typical symptoms of CVA6-associated mild HFMD. CVA6-associated severe cases were characterized by high fever with shorter duration and twitch compared with EV71-associated severe cases which were characterized by poor mental condition, abnormal pupil, and vomiting. Poor mental condition, lung wet rales, abnormal pupil, and tachycardia were the most common clinical features of fatal cases. The percentage of lymphocyte in CVA6-associated cases was significantly lower than that of EV71. High percentage of lymphocyte and low percentage of neutrophils were the typical characteristics of fatal cases. VP1 sequences between CVA6- or EV71-associated mild and severe cases were highly homologous. CVA6 became one of the major pathogens of HFMD in 2013 and 2015 in Beijing. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical

  5. Characterization of Coxsackievirus A6- and Enterovirus 71-Associated Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing, China, from 2013 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Sun, Ying; Du, Yiwei; Yan, Yuxiang; Huo, Da; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fen; Lin, Changying; Liang, Zhichao; Jia, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Quanyi; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Etiology surveillance of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing showed that Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) became the major pathogen of HFMD in 2013 and 2015. In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of CVA6-associated HFMD, a comparison study among CVA6-, EV71- (Enterovirus 71), and CVA16- (Coxsackievirus A16) associated HFMD was performed. Methods: Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations among CVA6-, EV71- and CVA16-associated mild or severe cases were compared from 2013 to 2015. VP1 gene of CVA6 and EV71 from mild cases, severe cases were sequenced, aligned, and compared with strains from 2009 to 2015 in Beijing and strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbor-joining method. Results: CVA6 became the predominant causative agent of HFMD and accounted for 35.4 and 36.9% of total positive cases in 2013 and 2015, respectively. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 305 severe cases and 7 fatal cases were reported. CVA6 and EV71 were responsible for 57.5% of the severe cases. Five out six samples from fatal cases were identified as EV71. High fever, onychomadesis, and decrustation were the typical symptoms of CVA6-associated mild HFMD. CVA6-associated severe cases were characterized by high fever with shorter duration and twitch compared with EV71-associated severe cases which were characterized by poor mental condition, abnormal pupil, and vomiting. Poor mental condition, lung wet rales, abnormal pupil, and tachycardia were the most common clinical features of fatal cases. The percentage of lymphocyte in CVA6-associated cases was significantly lower than that of EV71. High percentage of lymphocyte and low percentage of neutrophils were the typical characteristics of fatal cases. VP1 sequences between CVA6- or EV71-associated mild and severe cases were highly homologous. Conclusion: CVA6 became one of the major pathogens of HFMD in 2013 and 2015 in Beijing

  6. The diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are responsible for nearly 50% of all diabetes-related hospital bed days. Approximately 10-15% of diabetic patients developed foot ulcers at some state in their life and 15% of all load in amputations are performed in patients with diabetes. There is a need to provide extensive education to both primary care physicians and the patients regarding the relationship between glucose control and complications encountered in the foot and ankle. The management of diabetic foot disease is focussed primarily on avoiding amputation of lower extremities and should be carried out through three main strategies; identification of the "at risk" foot, treatment of acutely diseased foot, and prevention of further problems. These are several obstacles in the management of DFI that include poor knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its complications, lack of appropriate podiatry services. These goals are possible only by the establishment of a dedicated team of podiatrist, endocrinologist, vascular surgeon and a pedorthist. The plastic surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons & diabetes teaching nurses/educator dedicated to foot care could be a part of the team. Identifying the patients with diabetes at risk for ulceration requires feet examination, including the vascular & neurological systems, skin conditions, and foot structure. Conservative management of foot problems has dramatically reduced the risk of amputation by simple procedures, such as appropriate foot wear, cleanliness, aggressive surgical debridement, regular wound dressing by simple wet-to-dry saline guage, and ulcer management. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SKITTER foot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Gene; Jones, David L.; Morris, James; Parham, Martin; Stephens, Jim; Yancey, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    A mechanical design team was formed to design a foot for the lunar utility vehicle SKITTER. The primary design was constrained to be a ski pole design compatible with the existing femur-tibia design legs. The lunar environment had several important effects on the foot design. Three materials were investigated for the SKITTER foot: aluminum alloys, cold worked stainless steel alloys, and titanium alloys. Thin film coatings were investigated as a method of wear reduction for the foot. The performance of the foot is dependent on the action of the legs. The range of motion for the legs was determined to be vertical to 15 degrees above horizontal. An impact analysis was performed for the foot movement, but the results were determined to be inconclusive due to unknown soil parameters. The initial foot design configuration consisted of an annulus attached to the pointed pole. The annulus was designed to prevent excess sinkage. Later designs call for a conical shaped foot with a disk at the point of the tibia attachment. The conical design was analyzed for strength and deflection by two different approaches. A deformable body analysis was performed for the foot under crane load in crane position, and also under actuator load in the vertical position. In both cases, the deflection of the foot was insignificant and the stresses well below the strength of the titanium alloy.

  8. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  9. Implementation of a three-dimensional stereo image capture system based on the multi-segment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Park, Jaebyung; Tumenjargal, Enkhbaatar; Badarch, Luubaatar; Kwon, Hyeokjae

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new model of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera using combinations of several pin hole camera models, and its validity is verified by using synthesized stereo images based on OpenGL software. Our embedded three-dimensional (3-D) image capturing hardware system consists of five motor controllers and two CMOS camera modules based on an S3C6410 processor. An optimal alignment for capturing nine segment images that have their own convergence planes is implemented using a pi controller based on the measures of alignment and sharpness. A new synthesizing fusion with the optimized nine segmentation images is proposed for the best 3-D depth perception. Based on the experimental results of the disparity values in each of the nine segments, the multi-segment method proposed in this paper is a good method to improve the perception of 3-D depth in stereo images.

  10. Anatomical masking of pressure footprints based on the Oxford Foot Model: validation and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Stebbins, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Plantar pressure analysis is widely used in the assessment of foot function. In order to assess regional loading, a mask is applied to the footprint to sub-divide it into regions of interest (ROIs). The most common masking method is based on geometric features of the footprint (GM). Footprint masking based on anatomical landmarks of the foot has been implemented more recently, and involves the integration of a 3D motion capture system, plantar pressure measurement device, and a multi-segment foot model. However, thorough validation of anatomical masking (AM) using pathological footprints has not yet been presented. In the present study, an AM method based on the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was compared to an equivalent GM. Pressure footprints from 20 young healthy subjects (HG) and 20 patients with clubfoot (CF) were anatomically divided into 5 ROIs using a subset of the OFM markers. The same foot regions were also identified by using a standard GM method. Comparisons of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV) showed that the OFM-based AM was at least as reliable as the GM for all investigated pressure parameters in all foot regions. Clinical relevance of AM was investigated by comparing footprints from HG and CF groups. Contact time, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area proved to be sensitive parameters that were able to distinguish HG and CF groups, using both AM and GM methods However, the AM method revealed statistically significant differences between groups in 75% of measured variables, compared to 62% using a standard GM method, indicating that the AM method is more sensitive for revealing differences between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Vuorisalo, S; Venermo, M; Lepäntalo, M

    2009-06-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a major health care problem. Complications of foot ulcers are a leading cause of hospitalization and amputation in diabetic patients. Diabetic ulcers result from neuropathy or ischemia. Neuropathy is characterized by loss of protective sensation and biomechanical abnormalities. Lack of protective sensation allows ulceration in areas of high pressure. Autonomic neuropathy causes dryness of the skin by decreased sweating and therefore vulnerability of the skin to break down. Ischemia is caused by peripheral arterial disease, not by microangiopathy. Poor arterial inflow decreases blood supply to ulcer area and is associated with reduced oxygenation, nutrition and ulcer healing. Necrotic tissue is laden with bacteria apt to grow in such an environment, which also impairs general defence mechanisms against infection. Infections often complicate existing ulcers, but are seldom the cause for ulcers. Protective footwear helps to reduce ulceration in diabetic feet at risk. Relieving pressure on the ulcer area is necessary to allow healing. Blood supply needs to be improved by revascularisation whenever compromised. Systemic antibiotics are helpful in treating acute foot infections, but not uninfected ulcers. Osteomyelitis may underlie a diabetic ulcer and is often treated by resection of the infected bone and always by antibiotics, the mode and length of treatment depending on the adequacy of the debridement. The aim of ulcer bed preparation is to convert the molecular and cellular environment of the chronic ulcer to that of an acute healing wound by debridement, irrigating and cleaning. Moist dressings maintain wound environment favorable for healing. All attempts should be done to prevent diabetic foot ulceration and treat existing ulcers by multidisciplinary teams in order to decrease amputations. Indeed, improvement in ulcer healing has been observed with primary healing rates of 65-85% in mixed series. Even when healed, diabetic foot should be

  12. Genetic characterization of the cell-adapted PanAsia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 isolated from swine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to Office International Des Epizooties (OIE) Bulletin, the PanAsia strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) was invaded into the People's Republic of China in May 1999. It was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in Tibet, Hainan and Fujian provinces. In total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic control. To investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determined the complete genomic sequence of FMDV swine-isolated O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 strain. In addition, a molecular modeling was carried out with the external capsid proteins. Results The pathogenicity study showed that O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 had high virulence with respect to infection in 3-day-old suckling-mice (LD50 = 10-8.3), compared to O/Tibet/CHA/1/99 (LD50 = 10-7.0) which isolated from bovine. The plaque assay was distinguishable between O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 and O/Tibet/CHA/1/99 by their plaque phenotypes. O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 formed large plaque while O/Tibet/CHA/1/99 formed small plaque. The 8,172 nucleotides (nt) of O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 was sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was generated from the complete nucleotide sequences of VP1 compared with other FMDV reference strains. The identity data showed that O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 is closely related to O/AS/SKR/2002 (94.1% similarity). Based on multiple sequence alignments, comparison of sequences showed that the characteristic nucleotide/amino acid mutations were found in the whole genome of O/Fujian/CHA/5/99. Conclusion Our finding suggested that C275T substitution in IRES of O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 may induce the stability of domain 3 for the whole element function. The structure prediction indicated that most of 14 amino acid substitutions are fixed in the capsid of O/Fujian/CHA/5/99 around B-C loop and E-F loop of VP2 (antigenic site 2), and G-H loop of VP1 (antigenic site 1), respectively. These results implicated that these

  13. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  14. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  15. Chronic laminitis: foot management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Scott

    2010-08-01

    Laminitis is a disease of the suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx, which can advance to the chronic stage with varying degrees of structural failure. Because the disease may ultimately lead to mechanical failure of the digit, a foot management plan is required to effectively and mechanically treat these cases. Many laminitis cases can be successfully rehabilitated back to athletic soundness, light use, breeding, or pasture soundness, whereas others suffer from permanent instability and never enjoy an acceptable level of comfort. To understand how to minimize damage in the acute laminitic foot or rehabilitate the chronic laminitic foot, the veterinarian should have an understanding of the normal supporting structures of the digit, the biomechanical forces acting on the foot, and the structural failure that results when these otherwise normal forces act on a diseased, damaged foot.

  16. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  17. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV

  18. Diabetic foot disease.

    PubMed

    Younes, Nidal A; Ahmad, Azmi T

    2006-01-01

    To review the spectrum of foot problems in patients with diabetes and the underlying etiologic factors. In this review, the term "diabetic foot disease" (DFD) will be used (previously referred to as simply "diabetic foot"). The relevant anatomy of the foot is discussed, the clinical evaluation and severity of DFD are outlined, and the role of both systemic control and local measures in the management of DFD is addressed. DFD is linked with a wide variety of etiologic associations, pathologic forms, and clinical severity. The causes of DFD include such factors as diabetic neuropathy, vascular insufficiency, and the presence of underlying bone deformity. The pathologic forms range from superficial skin lesions, soft tissue infections, joint swellings, and deformities to frank necrosis and gangrene. The clinical severity ranges from mild, self-resolving disease to fulminant, rapidly progressive disease that usually eventuates in amputation. The heterogeneity of patients whose illness is grouped collectively under the diagnosis of DFD has contributed to the persisting confusion and controversy regarding the optimal classification system for diabetes-related foot problems and their appropriate management. Optimal management of DFD involves a multimodality approach directed at regular foot care, blood glucose control, and early recognition of foot problems. Appropriate surgical management, administration of systemic antibiotics, and off-loading techniques are necessary to prevent the progression of DFD.

  19. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  20. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Lee, S W; Song, W; Torrez-Martinez, N; Song, J W; Yanagihara, R; Gavrilovskaya, I; Mackow, E R

    1995-01-01

    The complete M segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States and from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, from New York were 99% identical and differed from those of Four Corners virus by 23%. The serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the Four Corners virus G1 glycoprotein. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. leucopus harbors a genetically and antigenically distinct hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:7494337

  1. The Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the principles of good foot care. If time for teaching is limited, this task must be delegated to a podiatrist or a diabetes nurse educator in a diabetes day centre. It is the physician's responsibility to confirm foot care by personal inspection of the feet of all diabetic patients at every visit. PMID:21234002

  2. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  3. Foot pain causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 58. LeCursi N. Sports shoes and orthoses. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ... Ligamentous Injuries of the Foot and Ankle. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  4. [Infection and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Senneville, E

    2008-09-01

    The large number of factors that influence the outcome of patients with diabetic foot infections calls for a multidisciplinary management of such patients. Infection is always the consequence of a preexisting foot wound whose chronicity is facilitated by the diabetic peripheral neuropathy, whereas peripheral vascular disease is a factor of poor outcome, especially regarding the risk for leg amputation. Primary and secondary prevention of IPD depends both on the efficacy of wound off-loading. Antibiotic treatment should only be considered for clinically infected foot wounds for which diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed by international consensus. The choice of the antibiotic regimen should take into account the risk for selecting bacterial resistance, and as a consequence, agents with a narrow spectrum of activity should be preferred. Respect of the measures for preventing the spread of bacterial resistance in diabetic foot centers is particularly important.

  5. Fancy Foot Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blattner, Bunny; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-six Fort Lauderdale third, fourth, and fifth graders spent an entire day researching, measuring, comparing, and creating fantasies about feet. This article describes "Foot Day" and presents the activity sheets used by the students. (Author/SJL)

  6. Twelve Foot Subsatellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-04-25

    Engineer and 12 foot Beacon showing NACA emblem on inflated satelloon . For related information see, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA from Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA SP-4308, 1995. p. 173.

  7. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infographic (English) Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Nerve Damage (Diabetic Neuropathies) Diabetic Kidney Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems Diabetic ... time, diabetes may cause nerve damage, also called diabetic neuropathy , that can cause tingling and pain, and can ...

  8. Does foot pitch at ground contact affect parachute landing technique?

    PubMed

    Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark; Munro, Bridget J

    2009-08-01

    The Australian Defence Force Parachute Training School instructs trainees to make initial ground contact using a flat foot whereas United States paratroopers are taught to contact the ground with the ball of the foot first. This study aimed to determine whether differences in foot pitch affected parachute landing technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were analyzed for 28 parachutists who performed parachute landings (vertical descent velocity = 3.4 m x s(-1)) from a monorail apparatus. Independent t-tests were used to determine significant (p < 0.05) differences between variables characterizing foot pitch. Subjects who landed flat-footed displayed less knee and ankle flexion, sustained higher peak ground reaction forces, and took less time to reach peak force than those who landed on the balls of their feet. Although forefoot landings lowered ground reaction forces compared to landing flat-footed, further research is required to confirm whether this is a safer parachute landing strategy.

  9. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  10. Capability of new multi-segment winding configurations in HTS transformer to mitigate electromagnetic forces under short-circuit condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabeli, Asef; Besmi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    The consequences of short-circuit forces for high-temperature superconductor (HTS) transformers are much more detrimental than conventional ones. That is because on one hand, HTS windings have less mechanical robustness than copper ones and on the other hand, the effects of extreme axial forces on HTS windings are irreversible and may cause irreparable damages to HTS transformers. In this paper, capability of new concentric multi-segment winding configurations in HTS transformers, proposed in Ghabeli et al. (2015), to mitigate high axial and radial electromagnetic forces due to short-circuit fault is investigated. The studied winding configurations include concentric PSP (Primary-Secondary-Primary), symmetrical and asymmetrical PSPSP (Primary-Secondary-Primary-Secondary-Primary). The study is realized with an advanced numerical method using accurate and nonlinear E-J power law via FEM-based software Flux 2D. Profiles of axial and radial electromagnetic forces in each sub-winding have been presented, analyzed and compared to each other in detail. For accurate calculation of axial and radial forces in each sub-winding, a collection of points along the longitudinal and transverse axes in the center of each sub-winding was considered. The maximum of radial and axial electromagnetic forces decrease remarkably in PSPSP winding configuration compared to PSP winding configuration. In addition, the asymmetrical winding configurations mitigate these forces more than symmetrical ones.

  11. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    PubMed

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  12. Foot screening for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Chionh, Siok Bee; Tay, Patricia L M; Aziz, Zameer; Teng, Janelle W H; Rajeswari, K; Erasmus, Adriaan; Nambiar, Ajay

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the results of foot screening performed in a study population of 2137 diabetics (3926 feet) screened from 2006 to 2008 by the National University Hospital (NUH) multi-disciplinary team for diabetic foot problems. A standardised protocol was designed. Foot screening consisted of detailed history taking and clinical examination including assessment for sensory neuropathy by Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWMF) and neurothesiometer and assessment of vasculopathy by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and total body irradiation (TBI). The foot screening was performed by a trained staff nurse. All patients were classified according to King's College Classification. Majority of the patients were in the fifth (27.9%) and sixth (30.0%) decades of life. Two thousand sixty-four had type II diabetes, and only 73 had type I diabetes. Neuropathy was found in 1307 (33.3%) feet based on 5.07 SWMF. Vasculopathy was recorded in 510 (13.0%) and 546 (13.9%) feet based on ABI <0.8 and TBI <0.7. According to King's Classification, 1069 (50.0%) were Stage 1: Normal and 615 (28.8%) were Stage 2: At-Risk. Foot screening should be performed as early as possible to detect "At-Risk" feet and prevent the development of diabetic foot complications, thereby further reducing the risk of major amputations.

  13. Construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O/JPN/2010 isolated in Japan in 2010.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Onozato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Seiichi; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manabu; Morioka, Kazuki; Kanno, Toru

    2016-06-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan was constructed and designated pSVL-f02. Transfection of Cos-7 or IBRS-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. The recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. Pigs were experimentally infected with the parental virus or the recombinant virus recovered from pSVL-f02 transfected cells. There were no significant differences in clinical signs or antibody responses between the two groups, and virus isolation and viral RNA detection from clinical samples were similar. Virus recovered from transfected cells therefore retained the in vitro characteristics and the in vivo pathogenicity of their parental strain. This cDNA clone should be a valuable tool to analyze determinants of pathogenicity and mechanisms of virus replication, and to develop genetically engineered vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [The hyperostotic foot].

    PubMed

    Claustre, J; Simon, L

    1982-01-01

    Clinical and radiological examination of the foot in 25 cases of ankylosing verteral hyperostosis revealed signs of the disease in 16 cases: eleven patients had painful symptoms (predominantly pain in the heel, 9 cases) and and five had radiological changes in the feet which led to the discovery of the characteristic vertebral involvement. As for other extra-vertebral sites of vertebral hyperostosis, the foot warrants careful examination. The radiological lesions consist of osteophytic proliferations of the calcaneum (sometimes pathognomonic), scattered ossifications in the ligaments of the inferior and posterior aspects of this bone, the neck of the talus, the dorsum of the mid-foot, the internal aspect of the tarsal scaphoid or the external face of the styloid apophysis of the 5th metatarsal, and a bony proliferation enlarging the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe.

  15. Molecular characterization of serotype Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic Group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Syed M; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. Diverse strains of FMDV, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. Characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks. The present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia-1 viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during the period 1998-2009. Phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type Asia-1 revealed that three different genetic Groups of serotype Asia-1 have circulated in Pakistan during this time. These are Group-II, -VI and, recently, a novel Group (designated here as Group-VII). This new Group has not been detected in neighbouring Afghanistan during the study period but viruses from Groups I and -II are in circulation there. Using near complete genome sequences, from FMD viruses of serotypes Asia-1 and A that are currently circulating in Pakistan, we have identified an interserotypic recombinant virus, which has the VP2-VP3-VP1-2A coding sequences derived from a Group-VII Asia-1 virus and the remainder of the genome from a serotype A virus of the A-Iran05(AFG-07) sub-lineage. The Asia-1 FMDVs currently circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan are not efficiently neutralized by antisera raised against the Asia-1/Shamir vaccine strain. Thus, new Asia-1 vaccine strains may be required to block the spread of the current Asia-1 viruses.

  16. Real-time visual communication to aid disaster recovery in a multi-segment hybrid wireless networking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    When natural disasters or other large-scale incidents occur, obtaining accurate and timely information on the developing situation is vital to effective disaster recovery operations. High-quality video streams and high-resolution images, if available in real time, would provide an invaluable source of current situation reports to the incident management team. Meanwhile, a disaster often causes significant damage to the communications infrastructure. Therefore, another essential requirement for disaster management is the ability to rapidly deploy a flexible incident area communication network. Such a network would facilitate the transmission of real-time video streams and still images from the disrupted area to remote command and control locations. In this paper, a comprehensive end-to-end video/image transmission system between an incident area and a remote control centre is proposed and implemented, and its performance is experimentally investigated. In this study a hybrid multi-segment communication network is designed that seamlessly integrates terrestrial wireless mesh networks (WMNs), distributed wireless visual sensor networks, an airborne platform with video camera balloons, and a Digital Video Broadcasting- Satellite (DVB-S) system. By carefully integrating all of these rapidly deployable, interworking and collaborative networking technologies, we can fully exploit the joint benefits provided by WMNs, WSNs, balloon camera networks and DVB-S for real-time video streaming and image delivery in emergency situations among the disaster hit area, the remote control centre and the rescue teams in the field. The whole proposed system is implemented in a proven simulator. Through extensive simulations, the real-time visual communication performance of this integrated system has been numerically evaluated, towards a more in-depth understanding in supporting high-quality visual communications in such a demanding context.

  17. Multi-segment kinematic model to assess three-dimensional movement of the spine and back during gait.

    PubMed

    Needham, Robert; Naemi, Roozbeh; Healy, Aoife; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2016-10-01

    Relatively little is known about spine during gait compared to movement analysis of the lower extremities. The trunk is often regarded and analysed as a single rigid segment and there is a paucity of information on inter-segmental movement within the spine and its relationship to pelvis and lower limbs. To develop and validate a new multi-segment kinematic model to assess regional three-dimensional movement of the lumbar, lower thoracic and upper thoracic spine during gait. Observational study. The study was conducted in two parts: (1) to provide validation measures on the kinematic model built in commercially available software and (2) to apply the marker configuration to the spine at T3, T8 and L3 during gait analysis on 10 healthy male volunteers. Proposed model revealed excellent concurrent validation measures between an applied input angle to the recorded output angle from the kinematic model. A high reliability was observed during gait analysis, both during a single session and between sessions for all participants. The thoracic region of the spine should not be modelled as a single rigid segment and the proposed three-dimensional cluster is reliable and repeatable to assess the inter-segmental movement of the spine. Reliable kinematic data can be collected using the three-dimensional cluster technique, thus, allowing researchers to accurately distinguish between movement patterns of healthy individuals to those with a clinical condition, and provide confidence in data acquisition during the monitoring process of an implemented rehabilitation intervention programme. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  18. [The diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, P; Z'Brun, A; Brunner, D

    1998-10-01

    Problems of the diabetic foot are frequent. The magnitude of the clinical picture and morbidity mirrors the severity and complexity of the underlying pathobiology. The three pathogenetic mechanism involved are ischemia, neuropathy and infection. Seldom do these mechanisms work in isolation, rather most foot problems result from a complex interplay among all three. The clinical picture of the diabetic foot reaches from the neuropathic deformity with diminished or absent sensation of pain to limited gangrene or superficial ulcer. The polymicrobial infection leads to extensive tissue destruction (plantarphlegmone) with osteomyelitis. The patients often notes no pain and may become aware of the infection only through the presence of drainage or a foul odor. These infections are usually more extensive than would be predicted by clinical signs and symptoms. These lesions must be debrided and drained promptly and completely. This often requires amputations of one or more toes, combined with an incision along the entire course of the infected track on the plantar or dorsal aspect of the foot. Cultures should be taken from the depth of the wound. Initial treatment should be with broad-spectrum antibiotics, with subsequent adjustment based on culture results. The diabetic foot is a clinical problem that can be solved with a high degree of success when the approached by an interdisciplinary team (specialists in infectious and vascular disease, podiatry and diabetology). Arterial reconstruction should be designed to restore maximum perfusion to the foot. The most effective result can be obtained with infra-inguinal vein bypass with distal anastomosis to the most proximal artery with direct continuity to the ischemic territory. The single most important factor in the achievement of the reduction of amputation is the autologous vein bypass. The overall outcome in the diabetic patient in terms of graft patency and limb salvage is equal to that in the nondiabetic.

  19. Phillips during FOOT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-16

    ISS011-E-13101 (16 Sept. 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA space station science officer and flight engineer, balances on the footplate of a special track attached to the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station to perform Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) / Electromyography (EMG) calibration operations. Phillips is wearing the Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), the cycling tights outfitted with 20 sensors, which measures forces on joints and muscle activity.

  20. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... also be a contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  1. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  2. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.

  3. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Indian foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates collected during the period 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, S; Madhanmohan, M; Nagendrakumar, S B; Kumar, Ralla; Subramanian, B Mohana; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Srinivasan, V A

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences of the 39 type O foot and mouth virus (FMDV) isolates collected from different regions of India during the year of 2001-12 revealed that all isolates belonged to the Middle East - South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. Based on the amount of divergence among the isolates, the viruses were further classified into three distinct lineages namely Ind 2001, PanAsia and PanAsia-2 as well as a minor, unnamed group. Ind 2001 lineage viruses accounted for most of the current type O outbreaks. At the nucleotide level these isolates showed a divergence of 2% to 14% with an average sequence variation of ~9.9%. The serological spectrum of the current vaccine strain was studied by using bovine vaccinate serum (BVS) raised against O/IND/R2/75. All the current field isolates (n=24) were homologous ('r' value 0.4 to 1.0) to the vaccine strain. Examination of the amino acid sequences for selection pressure revealed the positive selection at amino acid sites 13 and 45.

  4. Immunoglobulin VH and VK genes of the BALB/c anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (O1) VP1 response: cloning, characterization and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Conrad, U; Becker, K; Ziegner, M; Walter, G

    1991-11-01

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes were isolated from BALB/c antibody responses to the capsid protein VP1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain O1. According to antigen binding measured by ELISA a weak-binding (81D10, IgM) and a strong-binding antibody (113C12, IgG2a) were selected. As RNA sequencing of productive immunoglobulin VH and VK genes turned out, both chains of the weak-binding antibody (81D10) are encoded by germline (i.e. not mutated) genes whereas the gene encoding the strong-binding antibody (113C12) k chain is mutated at several sites. Therefore, rearranged VH and VK genes of 81D10 were cloned, expressed in immunoglobulin non-producing plasmacytoma cells, and mice transgenic for the 81D10 k gene were produced. These mice provide a first step in the development of a transgenic mouse model for genetical investigations in the affinity maturation of anti-viral immunoglobulin variable genes.

  5. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  6. Foot Operation of Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    in which the maximum force may be applied ’. 2.6. Foot versus Hand Operation of Controls Grether (1946) investigated tracking accuracy with...airplane controls. Technical Note 550, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, D.C. GRETHER , W. P., 1946, A study of several

  7. Adult cavovarus foot.

    PubMed

    Younger, Alastair S E; Hansen, Sigvard T

    2005-09-01

    Cavovarus foot deformity, which often results from an imbalance of muscle forces, is commonly caused by hereditary motor sensory neuropathies. Other causes are cerebral palsy, cerebral injury (stroke), anterior horn cell disease (spinal root injury), talar neck injury, and residual clubfoot. In cavovarus foot deformity, the relatively strong peroneus longus and tibialis posterior muscles cause a hindfoot varus and forefoot valgus (pronated) position. Hindfoot varus causes overload of the lateral border of the foot, resulting in ankle instability, peroneal tendinitis, and stress fracture. Degenerative arthritic changes can develop in overloaded joints. Gait examination allows appropriate planning of tendon transfers to correct stance and swing-phase deficits. Inspection of the forefoot and hindfoot positions determines the need for soft-tissue release and osteotomy. The Coleman block test is invaluable for assessing the cause of hindfoot varus. Prolonged use of orthoses or supportive footwear can result in muscle imbalance, causing increasing deformity and irreversible damage to tendons and joints. Rebalancing tendons is an early priority to prevent unsalvageable deterioration of the foot. Muscle imbalance can be corrected by tendon transfer, corrective osteotomy, and fusion. Fixed bony deformity can be addressed by fusion and osteotomy.

  8. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  9. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  10. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-06-10

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations.

  11. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in this ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. Prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in East Africa using site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Fufa Dawo; Parida, Satya; Asfor, Amin S.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Reeve, Richard; Paton, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mAb) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype A FMDV. Previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from Asia, Europe and Latin America. In this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in African serotype A FMDVs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. Twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to be of antigenic significance by analysing the capsid sequences (n = 56) using in silico methods, and six residues by correlating capsid sequence with serum–virus neutralization data. The predicted residues were distributed on the surface-exposed capsid regions, VP1–VP3. The significance of residue changes at eight of the predicted epitopes was tested by site-directed mutagenesis using a cDNA clone resulting in the generation of 12 mutant viruses involving seven sites. The effect of the amino acid substitutions on the antigenic nature of the virus was assessed by virus neutralization (VN) test. Mutations at four different positions, namely VP1-43, VP1-45, VP2-191 and VP3-132, led to significant reduction in VN titre (P value = 0.05, 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the antigenic regions encompassing amino acids VP1-43 to -45 (equivalent to antigenic site 3 in serotype O), VP2-191 and VP3-132 have been predicted as epitopes and evaluated serologically for serotype A FMDVs. This identifies novel capsid epitopes of recently circulating serotype A FMDVs in East Africa. PMID:25614587

  13. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.

    PubMed

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham J; Dhikusooka, Moses T; Wekesa, Sabenzia N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Siegismund, Hans R; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

  14. Characterization of recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus pentamer-like structures expressed by baculovirus and their use as diagnostic antigens in a blocking ELISA.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Yong-Joo; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Park, Jee-Yong; Song, Hee-Jong

    2007-05-16

    Non-infectious recombinant pentamer-like structures of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were expressed by baculovirus, and the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the proteins were analyzed in a blocking ELISA for the detection of FMDV antibodies. The recombinant pentamer-like structures were produced in insect (Sf9) cells that were inoculated with recombinant baculoviruses that expressed, simultaneously, the genes for the P1 and 3C proteins of FMDV from individual promoters. The FMDV pentamer-like structures were processed by viral 3C protease, as shown in Western blots, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivities in an indirect ELISA. Analysis by CsCl gradient centrifugation showed that the pentamer-like structures were similar to authentic pentameric subunits from FMDV in terms of sedimentation velocity. Furthermore, the pentamer-like structures induced high levels of FMDV-specific antibodies in mice following immunization. Observations made under the electron microscope revealed that the pentamer-like structures expressed by insect cells self-assembled to form pentameric subunits of 7-8 nm in diameter, which resemble the authentic FMDV (23+/-2 nm in diameter). The results indicate that these pentamer-like structures are as antigenic and immunogenic as authentic FMDV, although the former are smaller in size. Based on these results, a blocking ELISA was developed using the recombinant pentamer-like structure. The ELISA showed specificity of 99.5% and sensitivity of 98.5% when tested with FMDV antibody-negative and -positive sera, respectively. This blocking ELISA is highly specific and offers many advantages over the current ELISAs that use inactivated FMDV antigen. This is the first report of the production and diagnostic application of recombinant pentameric subunits of FMDV.

  15. Characterization of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan Cattle Outbreaks during 2012-2013: Evidence for Circulation of Multiple Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham J.; Dhikusooka, Moses T.; Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Muwanika, Vincent B.; Siegismund, Hans R.; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012–2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered. PMID:25664876

  16. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05). Methods. Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). Conclusion. These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. PMID:24049103

  17. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study.

    PubMed

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002-05). Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain.

  18. Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Rishi; Chan, Claire Shu-Yi; Nather, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis (OM) is a common complication of diabetic foot ulcers and/or diabetic foot infections. This review article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of OM in the diabetic foot. Clinical features that point to the possibility of OM include the presence of exposed bone in the depth of a diabetic foot ulcer. Medical imaging studies include plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy. A high index of suspicion is also required to make the diagnosis of OM in the diabetic foot combined with clinical and radiological studies. PMID:25147627

  19. Comparative Anthropometry of the Foot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    height, angular orientatior of metatarsal heads, lateral foot contour, plantar arch height, dorsal arch height, breadth of instep, instep girth...with ball length and ball girth, namely the dorsal and plantar arch heights, foot flare, and the angular orientation of the heads of the metatarsals, may...57. RIVARIATE TABE OF BALL OF FOOT CIRCUMFERENCE AND FOOT BREADTH FOR U. S. ARMY WOMEN (1977) FOOT BREADTH Centimeters 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5

  20. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement.

  1. The athlete's foot.

    PubMed

    Resnik, S S; Lewis, L A; Cohen, B H

    1977-09-01

    In general, painful feet can affect the performance of an athlete in any sport. To prevent skin diseases of the feet, the "Athlete's Foot" should be kept clean and dry with toenails trimmed. Properly fitting athletic shoes should be worn to avoid the formation of blisters. Wearing of sandals in locker and shower rooms, which prevents intimate contact with infecting organisms, can alleviate many of the problems that affect the feet.

  2. [Foot specific orthotic devices].

    PubMed

    Goldcher, Alain

    2010-03-20

    For each foot pathology, whatever its nature and aetiology, there is an orthesis, the best mechanical treatment. For toe pathologies due to or worsened by the footwear, we must recommend wearing other shoes and sometimes an orthoplasty which is not covered by health insurance. Sole orthesis are quite effective for most pathologies causing pain when walking, and involving the foot sole or starting in the foot. Realised by an approved splint technician, they are covered by health insurance for a lump sum, but patients are telling us their cost is becoming more and more difficult to bear Mass-produced shoes, therapeutic or not, deserve a special place in the therapeutic arsenal of podiatry. Temporary used shoes improve post-operation situation and some specifically located discharges. More and more shoes are available for longer use, most of them not approved but better looking, and at least as effective as and not costlier than the few models covered by health insurance.They can provide footwear that are not standard and can't be helped by bespoke shoes reserved for precise medical indications.

  3. The neuropathic diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, and result in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are likely to be of neuropathic origin and, therefore, are eminently preventable. Individuals with the greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of their feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb-threatening, or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identification of causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with nonremovable casts, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patient's adherence to the strategy used for pressure relief.

  4. The adaptive drop foot stimulator - Multivariable learning control of foot pitch and roll motion in paretic gait.

    PubMed

    Seel, Thomas; Werner, Cordula; Schauer, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Many stroke patients suffer from the drop foot syndrome, which is characterized by a limited ability to lift (the lateral and/or medial edge of) the foot and leads to a pathological gait. In this contribution, we consider the treatment of this syndrome via functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the peroneal nerve during the swing phase of the paretic foot. A novel three-electrodes setup allows us to manipulate the recruitment of m. tibialis anterior and m. fibularis longus via two independent FES channels without violating the zero-net-current requirement of FES. We characterize the domain of admissible stimulation intensities that results from the nonlinearities in patients' stimulation intensity tolerance. To compensate most of the cross-couplings between the FES intensities and the foot motion, we apply a nonlinear controller output mapping. Gait phase transitions as well as foot pitch and roll angles are assessed in realtime by means of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). A decentralized Iterative Learning Control (ILC) scheme is used to adjust the stimulation to the current needs of the individual patient. We evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in experimental trials with drop foot patients walking on a treadmill and on level ground. Starting from conventional stimulation parameters, the controller automatically determines individual stimulation parameters and thus achieves physiological foot pitch and roll angle trajectories within at most two strides. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diabetic neuropathy and foot complications.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Andrew J M

    2014-01-01

    Foot ulceration and Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) are well recognized and documented late sequelae of diabetic peripheral, somatic, and sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The neuropathic foot, however, does not ulcerate spontaneously: it is a combination of loss of sensation due to neuropathy together with other factors such as foot deformity and external trauma that results in ulceration and indeed CN. The commonest trauma leading to foot ulcers in the neuropathic foot in Western countries is from inappropriate footwear. Much of the management of the insensate foot in diabetes has been learned from leprosy which similarly gives rise to insensitive foot ulceration. No expensive equipment is required to identify the high risk foot and recently developed tests such as the Ipswich Touch Test and the Vibratip have been shown to be useful in identifying the high risk foot. A comprehensive screening program, together with education of high risk patients, should help to reduce the all too high incidence of ulceration in diabetes. More recently another very high risk group has been identified, namely patients on dialysis, who are at extremely high risk of developing foot ulceration; this should be preventable. The most important feature in management of neuropathic foot ulceration is offloading as patients can easily walk on active foot ulcers due to the loss of pain sensation. Infection should be treated aggressively and if there is any evidence of peripheral vascular disease, arteriography and appropriate surgical management is also indicated. CN often presents with a unilateral hot, swollen foot and any patient presenting with these features known to have neuropathy should be treated as a Charcot until this is proven otherwise. Most important in the management of acute CN is offloading, often in a total contact cast.

  6. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI) values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems. PMID:21244705

  7. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  8. Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; HOUCK, JEFF

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process. CASE DESCRIPTION A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used. OUTCOMES In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with

  9. Foot placement of the equine forelimb: Relationship between foot conformation, foot placement and movement asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A; Agass, R; Vaux, S; Sherlock, E; Day, P; Pfau, T; Weller, R

    2016-01-01

    Hoof conformation, foot placement and movement asymmetry are routinely assessed as part of the lameness examination. However, to date, few studies have described these parameters, or the interplay between them, in the general horse population. To assess foot conformation and foot placement in the forelimbs of a group of general purpose horses and investigate the relationships between foot placement, foot conformation and movement asymmetry. Observational cross-sectional study. Forty-three horses were included in the study. Measurements were taken from photographs of each forelimb to assess foot conformation. Video footage was recorded simultaneously from perpendicular cameras at both walk and trot and used to categorise foot placement. Inertial sensor data were used to assess head movement asymmetry in trot. There was a high degree of variation in foot placement between and within horses, but a 'lateral heel' placement was most common in walk and a 'lateral' placement most common in trot. Foot placement was associated with dorsal and palmar hoof angles but there was no relationship between foot placement and the other conformation parameters, nor with movement asymmetry. Moderate negative correlations were found between several of the conformation parameters and movement asymmetry. A relationship exists between foot conformation and movement asymmetry with decreasing hoof width and hoof length related to increasing amount of movement asymmetry. In the population of horses studied here--deemed to be 'well functioning' by their owners/riders--foot placement was found to be independent of movement asymmetry and, to a large extent, independent of foot conformation. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  11. Glomus Tumors in the Foot: Case Series.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Samir K; Soukup, Dylan S; Mintz, Douglas N; Perino, Giorgio; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    Glomus tumors are painful, benign neoplasms that frequently are associated with delayed diagnosis. Commonly in the hand, they rarely present in the foot. The purpose of this case series is to characterize the clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, and surgical outcomes associated with foot glomus tumors. We reviewed our pathology database for patients with foot glomus tumors diagnosed between 1995 and 2013. Medical records including physician notes, pathology, and radiology were reviewed. Eleven patients had foot glomus tumors excised at our institution during the study period. The mean age was 45.4 (range = 28-60) years. One patient was lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up for the remaining 10 patients was 44.7 (range = 3-142) months. Ten tumors were located in the subungual region, while 1 was located in the plantar pulp of the distal phalanx. All patients presented with pain. Point tenderness, cold hypersensitivity, and nail abnormalities were variably documented but frequently present. Four patients had had prior surgery for an ingrown toenail prior to presentation at our institution. Six patients had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies, which were diagnostic of glomus tumor in all cases except one. Radiographs failed to provide diagnosis in all 8 patients for whom they were obtained. Postoperatively, all patients had complete symptom relief with no recurrences.In conclusion, this case series demonstrates that foot glomus tumors frequently present with classic symptoms including pain, point tenderness, and cold hypersensitivity. When clinically suspected, magnetic resonance imaging should be obtained. Marginal excision results in symptom relief and cure. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. [Diabetic foot: detection and prevention].

    PubMed

    Martini, J

    2008-09-01

    Foot care prevention programs can reduce the occurrence of foot ulcerations and amputations. The most important factor related to the development of foot ulcer is peripheral neuropathy, associated with loss of pain. Neuropathy can be associated with peripheral vascular disease and foot deformities. Five cornerstones for prevention should be respected, including regular examination of the feet and footwear, identification of high-risk patients, education of the patient and family, appropriate footwear, and treatment of nonulcerative pathology. After examination of the foot using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, each patient can be assigned to one of the four risk categories to guide management. Foot care programs should be provided to high-risk categories of patients. Education plays an important role in prevention. The aim is to increase motivation and skills and enhance compliance with footwear advice. Items may include daily feet inspection and regular washing. Appropriate foot wear should protect against trauma. High-risk patients should participate in a foot care program set up by a multidisciplinary foot care team.

  13. [The diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Hartemann-Heurtier, Agnès; Ha Van, Georges

    2003-05-15

    Diabetic patients are concerned with foot complications when a peripheral neuropathy is present. Screening of predisposed patients may be annually assessed using monofilament testing. Peripheral arterial disease, when associated, increases amputation risk. Ideal treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with a first-line medical treatment including an optimal off-loading of the diabetic ulcer, ulcer dertersion, glycemic control, and if necessary antibiotic therapy. In case of associated osteomyelitis, a limited surgical resection of the infected bone may be performed. In case of associated arterial disease, a revascularization procedure precede bone resection.

  14. A dynamic model of the windlass mechanism of the foot: evidence for early stance phase preloading of the plantar aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Pataky, Todd; Goulermas, John Y; Savage, Russel; Crompton, Robin

    2009-08-01

    In the present study we have estimated the temporal elongation of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) during normal walking using a subject-specific multi-segment rigid-body model of the foot. As previous studies have suggested that muscular forces at the ankle can pre-load the PA prior to heel-strike, the main purpose of the current study was to test, through modelling, whether there is any tension present in the PA during early stance phase. Reflective markers were attached to bony landmarks to track the kinematics of the calcaneus, metatarsus and toes during barefoot walking. Ultrasonography measurements were performed on three subjects to determine both the location of the origin of the PA on the plantar aspect of the calcaneus, and the radii of the metatarsal heads. Starting with the foot in a neutral, unloaded position, inverse kinematics allowed calculation of the tension in the five slips of the PA during the whole duration of the stance phase. The results show that the PA experienced tension significantly above rest during early stance phase in all subjects (P<0.01), thus providing support for the PA-preloading hypothesis. The amount of preloading and the maximum elongation of the slips of the PA decreased from medial to lateral. The mean maximum tension exerted by the PA was 1.5 BW (body weight) over the three subjects.

  15. Multisegment coherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Tucker, Steve D.; Morgan, R.; Smith, Tony G.; Warren, Mial E.; Gruetzner, James K.; Rosenthal, R. R.; Bentley, A. E.

    1995-08-01

    Scaling laser systems to large sizes for power beaming and other applications can sometimes be simplified by combining a number of smaller lasers. However, to fully utilize this scaling, coherent beam combination is necessary. This requires measuring and controlling each beam's pointing and phase relative to adjacent beams using an adaptive optical system. We have built a sub-scale brass-board to evaluate various methods for beam-combining. It includes a segmented adaptive optic and several different specialized wavefront sensors that are fabricated using diffractive optics methods. We have evaluated a number of different phasing algorithms, including hierarchical and matrix methods, and have demonstrated phasing of several elements. The system is currently extended to a large number of segments to evaluate various scaling methodologies.

  16. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    A researcher is launching a model into the tunnel airstream of the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman wrote in NASA TR No. 557: 'After the observations have been made, the model is lowered into a net held in the air stream by one of the operators or into a large bowl-shaped net at the bottom of the test section. When lowered into the large net, the model is retrieved with a long- handled clamp.' (p. 267) 'The models used are generally 1/10 to 1/16 scale. The size of the models is limited by the wing span and the wing loading. The maximum allowable span is about 36 inches; the maximum wing loading is about 1.3 pounds per square foot.' (p. 266) 'Balsa wood is the usual structural material because of its low density. It is necessary to hollow out the after portion of the fuselage and to cut out a large portion of the wood in the wings to permit proper mass distribution. The wing cut-outs are covered with silk tissue paper. The leading and trailing edges and tips of the wings are fitted with strips of spruce, pattern pine, or bamboo inset into the edge of the balsa to prevent disfigurement from accidental blows or from striking the safety netting. Lead is used for ballast.' (p. 266)

  17. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    Interior view of model in 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman wrote in NASA TR No. 557: 'After the observations have been made, the model is lowered into a net held in the air stream by one of the operators or into a large bowl-shaped net at the bottom of the test section. When lowered into the large net, the model is retrieved with a long-handled clamp.' (p. 267) 'The models mused are generally 1/10 to 1/16 scale. The size of the models is limited by the wing span and the wing loading. The maximum allowable span is about 36 inches; the maximum wing loading is about 1.3 pounds per square foot.' (p. 266) 'Balsa wood is the usual structural material because of its low density. It is necessary to hollow out the after portion of the fuselage and to cut out a large portion of the wood in the wings to permit proper mass distribution. The wing cut-outs are covered with silk tissue paper. The leading and trailing edges and tips of the wings are fitted with strips of spruce, pattern pine, or bamboo inset into the edge of the balsa to prevent disfigurement from accidental blows or from striking the safety netting. Lead is used for ballast.' (p. 266)

  18. [Neurogenic foot deformities].

    PubMed

    Senst, S

    2010-01-01

    There is a multitude of neurological diseases which may lead to neuro-orthopaedic problems and subsequently to neurogenic foot deformities. For this reason the diagnostician will be consistently surprised that there is a great multitude of different foot abnormalities and that not only the typical spastic talipes equines dominates. Of particular significance here is that these deformities almost always develop progressively, whereas most diseases persist per se, cerebral palsy being a typical case in point. However, in MMC (myelomeningocele) patients, there is also the danger of a worsening of the basic problem in the case of tethered cord syndrome. Unlike congenital talipes equinovarus, neuro-orthopaedic talipes equinovarus often shows over- or undercorrection postoperatively due to a shift in muscle imbalance. It is important, therefore, that the basis of conservative therapy include regular physiotherapy and orthoses during the day and, if necessary, at night. Botulinum toxin has been established as an additional measure for spasticity; however, this cannot always prevent surgical intervention, but is able to delay this to a better point in the development of the child/patient. The present article describes the diversity of neurological deformities and presents conservative as well as surgical therapeutic approaches.

  19. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  20. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  1. Foot-type analysis and plantar pressure differences between obese and nonobese adolescents during upright standing.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Capodaglio, Paolo; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pau, Massimiliano; Patrizi, Alessandra; Tringali, Gabriella; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of obesity on foot-type and plantar pressure distribution in adolescents. Ten obese adolescents (obese group; BMI: 35.45±4.73 kg/m) and eight normal-weighted adolescents (control group; BMI: 18.67±2.46 kg/m) were recruited. Both groups were evaluated while standing using the Pedar-X in-shoe system. Foot-ground contact was characterized using contact area, peak of force and pressure calculated for the subareas of the foot. The analysis showed that obese participants had significantly higher area of contact in forefoot and midfoot (only in medial area) regions in comparison with the control group, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed for the rearfoot region. As far as the maximum pressure and force was concerned, similar results were obtained for both groups. Obese participants showed higher values for all the regions, with the exception of medial rearfoot area, for which the values were similar between the two groups. The analysis of foot-type distribution displayed that in the obese group high percentage of participants presented flat foot (70%) respect to cavus foot (20%) and normal foot (10%); on the contrary, in the control group, foot-types were markedly different, with 25% of participants with flat foot, 25% with cavus foot and 50% with normal foot. These results are important from a clinical perspective to develop and enhance the rehabilitative options in these patients and to avoid a worsening of their foot abnormalities. Untreated flat foot can in fact be disabling and over time can result in significant difficulties for the patient.

  2. Challenges for Serology-Based Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Endemic Areas; Identification of Two Separate Lineages of Serotype O FMDV in Uganda in 2011.

    PubMed

    Namatovu, A; Belsham, G J; Ayebazibwe, C; Dhikusooka, M T; Wekesa, S N; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B; Tjørnehøj, K

    2015-10-01

    Control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda by ring vaccination largely depends on costly trivalent vaccines, and use of monovalent vaccines could improve the cost effectiveness. This, however, requires application of highly specific diagnostic tests. This study investigated outbreaks of FMD in seven Ugandan districts, during 2011, using the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA, solid-phase blocking ELISAs (SPBEs) and virus neutralization tests (VNTs), together with virological analyses for characterization of the responsible viruses. Two hundred and eighteen (218) cattle and 23 goat sera as well as 82 oropharyngeal fluid/epithelial tissue samples were collected. Some 50% of the cattle and 17% of the goat sera were positive by the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA, while SPBEs identified titres ≥80 for antibodies against serotype O FMD virus (FMDV) in 51% of the anti-NSP positive cattle sera. However, 35% of the anti-NSP positive cattle sera had SPBE titres ≥80 against multiple serotypes, primarily against serotypes O, SAT 1 and SAT 3. Comparison of SPBEs and VNTs for the detection of antibodies against serotypes O, SAT 1 and SAT 3 in 72 NSP positive cattle sera showed comparable results against serotype O (P = 0.181), while VNTs detected significantly fewer samples positive for antibodies against SAT 1 and SAT 3 than the SPBEs (P < 0.001). Detection of antibodies against serotype O was consistent with the isolation of serotype O FMDVs from 13 samples. Four of these viruses were sequenced and belonged to two distinct lineages within the East Africa-2 (EA-2) topotype, each differing from the currently used vaccine strain (EA-1 topotype). The relationships of these lineages to other serotype O viruses in the Eastern Africa region are discussed. To enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need to improve the specificity of the SAT-SPBEs, perform vaccine matching and implement improved regional FMD control.

  3. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in Ecuador during 2009-2010 and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Perez Beascoechea, Claudia; Malirat, Viviana; Salgado, Gustavo; Seki, Cristina; Pedemonte, Andrea; Bonastre, Paula; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Rodríguez Toledo, Jorge; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2011-10-26

    During the years 2009 and 2010 relevant epidemic waves of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O occurred in Ecuador, representing a great drawback for the last stages of the ongoing eradication program in South America. This study describes the molecular and antigenic characterizations of 29 isolates collected from various regions in the country and their relationship to the vaccine strain. The phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the complete VP(1) protein showed that, despite the widespread origin of the viruses, they were all related among themselves and to previous isolates occurring in 2008, with around 10% difference with the vaccine strain O1/Campos. The high level of sequence conservation among different isolates in the various regions of Ecuador pointed to a common origin, suggesting animal movements as possible sources of viral spread. Monoclonal antibody profiling grouped the isolates in two major reactivity patterns which differed from that of the vaccine strain. Both profiles showed loss of reactivity with the same four MAbs, three of them with neutralizing properties. Additional sites were lost in the profile representing most of the 2010s viral samples. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine against the field strains assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies also pointed to an increased temporal pattern of loss of a protective response. Moreover, results obtained with in vivo challenge in the protection against podal generalization test in cattle, clearly indicated lack of appropriate protection of the Ecuadorian field strains by the vaccine virus in use, which in the case of a 2010 variant was observed even after revaccination.

  4. Community health and foot health.

    PubMed

    Brodie, B S

    1989-01-01

    The limiting factor in health and mobility for many seniors is the state of their feet. The origins of their foot problems can often be traced back to childhood and years of wearing badly fitting or inappropriate footwear. Well-fitting footwear is essential if mobility and independence are to be retained. The chiropodist (or podiatrist) is a health professional specializing in the treatment of conditions of the foot. Some common foot conditions, together with their treatments, are described. Although numbers of chiropodists in Canada are limited, their role is being increasingly recognized in maintaining or restoring mobility, and also their place in the community health team.

  5. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  6. FOOT experiment (Foot/Ground Reaction Forces during Space Flight)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-29

    ISS011-E-09825 (29 June 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, enters data into a computer while participating in the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Phillips wore the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors, during the experiment.

  7. FOOT experiment (Foot/Ground Reaction Forces during Space Flight)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-29

    ISS011-E-09822 (29 June 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, uses the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) while participating in the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Phillips wore the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors, during the experiment.

  8. FOOT experiment (Foot/Ground Reaction Forces during Space Flight)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-29

    ISS011-E-09831 (29 June 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, works at the Canadarm2 controls while participating in the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Phillips wore the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors, during the experiment.

  9. Foot pressure distribution in children with cerebral palsy while standing.

    PubMed

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Pau, Massimiliano; Leban, Bruno; Brunner, Reinald; Albertini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformity is a major component of impaired functioning in cerebral palsy (CP). While gait and balance issues related to CP have been studied extensively, there is little information to date on foot-ground interaction (i.e. contact area and plantar pressure distribution). This study aimed to characterize quantitatively the foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing in hemiplegia and diplegia. We studied 64 children with hemiplegia (mean age 8.2 years; SD 2.8 years) and 43 with diplegia (mean age 8.8 years; SD 2.3 years) while standing on both legs statically on a pressure sensitive mat. We calculated pressure data for the whole foot and sub-regions (i.e. rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot) and average contact pressure. The Arch Index (AI) served for classifying the feet as flat, normal or cavus feet. The data were compared with those from a sample of age- and gender-matched participants (control group, 68 children). Most of the feet showed very high AI values, thus indicating a flat foot. This deformity was more common in diplegia (74.4%) than in hemiplegia (54.7%). In both diplegic and hemiplegic children, average plantar pressure was significantly increased in the forefoot and midfoot and decreased in the rearfoot (p<0.001). The present data indicate an increased load on the front parts of the foot, which may be due to plantarflexor overactivity or knee flexion, combined with an increased incidence of low foot arches. As a low foot arch does not necessarily increase forefoot load, this deformity can be regarded as secondary.

  10. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Control panel below the test section of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST). Authorized July 17, 1933, construction of the 8-Foot HST was paid for with funds from the Federal Public Works Administration. Manly Hood and Russell Robinson designed the unusual facility which could produce a 500 mph wind stream across an 8-Foot test section. The concrete shell was not part of the original design. Like most projects funded through New Deal programs, the PWA restricted the amount of money which could be spent on materials. The majority of funds were supposed to be expended on labor. Though originally, Hood and Robinson had planned a welded steel pressure vessel around the test section, PWA officials proposed the idea of concrete. This picture shows the test section inside the igloo-like structure with walls of 1-foot thick reinforced concrete. The thick walls were needed 'because of the Bernoulli effect, [which meant that] the text chamber had to withstand powerful, inwardly directed pressure. Operating personnel located inside the igloo were subjected to pressures equivalent to 10,000-foot altitude and had to wear oxygen masks and enter through airlocks. A heat exchanger removed the large quantities of heat generated by the big fan.'

  11. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  12. Correction of postaxial metatarsal polydactyly of the foot by percutaneous ray amputation and osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2013-01-01

    Polydactyly of the foot is a congenital anomaly characterized by the appearance of all or part of 1 or more additional rays. The patient with this condition might complain of an abnormal cosmetic appearance or difficulty with footwear. A minimally invasive technique for correction of postaxial metatarsal polydactyly of the foot is presented in this techniques report.

  13. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  14. Rear foot inversion/eversion during gait relative to the subtalar joint neutral position.

    PubMed

    Pierrynowski, M R; Smith, S B

    1996-07-01

    Clinicians often fabricate foot orthotic devices at the subtalar joint neutral position (STNP) to mimic the position of the rear foot during midstance. However, rear foot motion during gait, relative to the resting standing foot position, not the STNP, is often reported in the literature. The motion of the rear foot relative to a valid estimate of the STNP is unknown. In this study, six experienced foot care specialists manually placed the rear part of the feet of nine subjects at the STNP seven or eight times to obtain a valid estimate of each subject's STNP. The worst-case mean and 95% confidence interval of the STNP estimate for any one subject was 0.0 degree +/- 0.7 degree. These nine subjects then walked on a motor-driven treadmill, set at 0.89 meters/sec, and three-dimensional estimates of each subject's rear foot inversion/eversion motion were obtained, then averaged over 6 to 26 strides. For most subjects, the rear foot was always everted during stance with mean and standard deviation maximal eversion (7.2 degrees +/- 1.2 degrees) occurring at 44% of the total gait cycle. The inversion/eversion orientation during swing was characterized by 1 degree to 2 degrees of eversion, with a small amount of inversion in early swing. These findings have implications for the fabrication of foot orthoses, since the rear foot is rarely near the STNP during stance.

  15. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.312 Footings. (a) Materials approved... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... use in the soil classification at the site. (ii) ABS footing pads must be listed or labeled for...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.312 Footings. (a) Materials approved... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... use in the soil classification at the site. (ii) ABS footing pads must be listed or labeled for...

  17. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  18. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  19. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  20. Effect of taping on multi-segmental foot kinematic patterns during walking in persons with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Dingenen, Bart; Deschamps, Kevin; Delchambre, Frauke; Van Peer, Evelien; Staes, Filip F; Matricali, Giovanni A

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate multi-segmental foot kinematic patterns in chronic ankle instability (CAI) participants during walking, and to investigate the influence of high-Dye and low-Dye taping on these kinematic patterns. Cross-sectional study. Kinematic data of 12 non-injured controls and 15 CAI participants were measured with a three-dimensional motion analysis system during barefoot walking. In addition, the CAI participants walked with high-Dye and low-Dye taping. A rigid Plug-in gait model and the Rizzoli 3D Multi-Segment Foot Model were used to measure multi-segmental foot kinematic patterns. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping was used to compare barefoot walking of the control and CAI group, and to evaluate differences between walking barefoot and walking with high-Dye and low-Dye taping within the CAI group. Compared to the control group, CAI participants showed a decreased ankle dorsiflexion during loading response (p=0.025) and a more inverted calcaneus in relation to the shank during the initial swing phase (p=0.024). A more inverted position of the metatarsus in relation to the midfoot was observed after low-Dye taping during almost the entire stance phase (p=0.017). No significant differences were found for high-Dye taping. Significant differences in kinematic patterns were found in the ankle joint and rearfoot, but not in the mid- and forefoot in CAI participants. The application of low-Dye taping resulted in a significantly increased inverted position of the forefoot, which can be considered as a less desirable effect for patients with CAI. No other effects of high-Dye and low-Dye taping on kinematic patterns were revealed. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Freeing the foot: integrating the foot core system into rehabilitation for lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Fourchet, François

    2015-04-01

    The intrinsic muscles of the foot play a critical role in the regulation of absorption and propulsion during dynamic activities. Dysfunction of these may lead to an increased demand on the remaining components within the foot core system to maintain dynamic foot control, leading to a more rapid breakdown of these contributors and those proximal to the foot. Training the intrinsic foot muscles through a systematic progression of isolation via the short foot exercise offers the opportunity to reincorporate their contribution into the foot core system. This article discusses the function of the intrinsic foot muscles, their contributions to dynamic foot control, and a progressive training paradigm.

  2. Foot Push-Up Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visit a Foot & Ankle Surgeon Preparing for Your Surgery Videos & Tools ... arches are performing their important functions. In bare feet, stand facing a kitchen counter. Place your palms on the counter with ...

  3. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  4. Broken Ankle/Broken Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a condition such as osteoporosis or a stress fracture. You may be at higher risk of a broken foot or ankle if you: Participate in high-impact sports. The stresses, direct blows and twisting injuries ...

  5. Homosexual foot fetishism.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M S; Williams, C J; Calhan, C

    1994-12-01

    262 respondents from an organization for homosexual foot fetishists provide information from a broader sample than clinical cases and allow examination of the effects of sexual preference on fetishism. Data show a wide range of feet/footwear objects to be arousing. Such interests were often associated with particular types of men, yet interests were subject to change over time. Fetishistic arousal rested on both sensual and symbolic aspects of the fetish. Symbolically, it was the theme of "masculinity" that made male feet/footwear arousing, showing parallels to "femininity" evoked by female feet/footwear for male heterosexual fetishists. For many of the respondents, fetishism did not seem to be a substitute for living persons. Respondents had intimate relationships and were able to incorporate their fetish interests into stable relationships and less intimate ones. Considerable involvement in sadomasochistic practices was also found as was involvement in the gay world. Finally, nothing about a fetishistic interest seemed to preclude the development of subcultural forms around the practice.

  6. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  7. Mouth in Foot Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Daniel C; Agee, Willie A; Pires, Valerie L; Yim, Duke G; Ngauy, Viseth

    2015-01-01

    Toothpicks are commonly used household items that rarely cause serious injury or infection. Toothpick-related injuries often occur due to ingestion with subsequent trauma/infection at distal sites within the gastrointestinal tract; however, cardiovascular, pleural, and soft tissue infections have been reported. Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus found in oral flora associated with bite wound infections. A few case reports describe E. corrodens osteomyelitis from toothpick puncture wounds. We report a case of foot cellulitis and abscess in an elderly diabetic after toothpick puncture injury that was unresponsive to empiric antibiotics. Wound cultures grew E. corrodens and rare Peptostreptococcus species. E. corrodens is resistant to first-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and metronidazole. This case highlights the insidious nature of E. corrodens infections and the need to tailor empiric antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections based on the mechanism of injury. In addition, this case stresses the importance of protective footwear in diabetics and serves as a cautionary tale regarding the use of seemingly innocuous toothpicks. PMID:26793413

  8. Nine toes; Mirror Foot Deformity.

    PubMed

    Vlahovic, Aleksandar M; Pistignjat, Boris S; Vlahovic, Natasa S

    2015-01-01

    Mirror foot is a very rare congenital anomaly, with only a few papers presenting definitive treatment for this entity. There are limited management recommendations. Most cases are treated before walking age. In our case, there were no associated developmental defects of the leg. The child underwent complex rays resection with medial foot reconstruction. After 7.5 years of followup, definitive surgical treatment was performed with satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome.

  9. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Control panel below the test section of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST). Authorized July 17, 1933, construction of the 8-Foot HST was paid for with funds from the Federal Public Works Administration. Manly Hood and Russell Robinson designed the unusual facility which could produce a 500 mph wind stream across an 8-Foot test section. The concrete shell was not part of the original design. Like most projects funded through New Deal programs, the PWA restricted the amount of money which could be spent on materials. The majority of funds were supposed to be expended on labor. Though originally, Hood and Robinson had planned a welded steel pressure vessel around the test section, PWA officials proposed the idea of concrete. This picture shows the test section inside the igloo-like structure with walls of 1-foot thick reinforced concrete. The thick walls were needed 'because of the Bernoulli effect, [which meant that] the text chamber had to withstand powerful, inwardly directed pressure. Operating personnel located inside the igloo were subjected to pressures equivalent to 10,000-foot altitude and had to wear oxygen masks and enter through airlocks. A heat exchanger removed the large quantities of heat generated by the big fan.'

  10. [Update on diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Pascale, Renato; Vitale, Mario; Esposito, Silvano; Noviello, Silvana

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common non-transmitted disease and currently 346 million people are affected in the world. According to the World Health Organization about 15% of diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer in need of medical care. Infection is a serious complication and in the western world it is the major responsible cause of lower limb amputation. In the 84% of cases amputation is the final step in the treatment of a non-healing foot ulcer. So, it's clear that, in order to reduce amputation rate, it's important to prevent foot ulcer formation and improve the treatment of lesion. In this review we report the most recent international literature as regards epidemiology, etiology, classification, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers. The purpose of our work is to remark the multifactorial features of this pathology and the role of infectious disease specialist in a multidisciplinary team for the treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers. The knowledge of microbiology on one hand, and the need of a complex and long term antibiotic therapy on the other, point out the importance of infectious disease specialist to facilitate, if possible, the healing of a infected diabetic foot ulcers.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G; El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abd El-Rahman, Adel Omar; Soliman, Hatem M; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Statham, Robert J; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2007-10-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  12. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M.; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East. PMID:18258017

  13. Construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sreenivasa, B. P.; Tamilselvan, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2B, 3B and 3Cpro and its characterization. Materials and Methods: FMD viral RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to synthesize expression cassettes (P1-2AB3BCwt and P1-2AB3BCm) followed by cloning in pShuttle-CMV vector. Chemically competent BJ5183-AD-1 cells were transformed with the recombinant pShuttle-CMV to produce recombinant adenoviral plasmids. HEK-293 cells were transfected with the recombinant adenoviral plasmids to generate recombinant adenoviruses (hAd5/P1-2AB3BCwt and hAd5/P1-2AB3BCm). Expression of the target proteins was analyzed by sandwich ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The recombinant adenoviruses were purified and concentrated by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. Growth kinetics and thermostability of the recombinant adenoviruses were compared with that of non-recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (dAd5). Results: The recombinant adenoviruses containing capsid protein genes of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were generated and amplified in HEK-293 cells. The titer of the recombinant adenoviruses was approximately 108, 109.5 and 1011 TCID50/ml in supernatant media, cell lysate and CsCl purified preparation, respectively. Expression of the FMDV capsid protein was detectable in sandwich ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. Growth kinetics of the recombinant adenoviruses did not reveal a significant difference when compared with that of dAd5. A decrement of up to 10-fold at 4°C and 21-fold at 37°C was recorded in the virus titers during 60 h incubation period and found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing capsid proteins of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were constructed and produced in high titers. In vitro expression of the target proteins in the adenovirus vector system was detected by

  14. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Syed M; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. Ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays were developed for specific detection and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnostic assays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of O-PanAsia, A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08)). In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 sublineage were also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV and detected the RNA from the target viruses with cycle threshold (CT) values comparable with those obtained with the serotype-independent pan-FMDV diagnostic assays. No cross-reactivity was observed in these assays between the heterotypic viruses circulating in the region. The assays reported here have higher diagnostic sensitivity (100% each for serotypes O and Asia-1, and 92% [95% CI = 81.4-100%] for serotype A positive samples) and specificity (100% each for serotypes O, A and Asia-1 positive samples) for the viruses currently circulating in West Eurasia compared to the serotyping assays reported earlier. Comparisons of the sequences of the primers and probes used in these assays and the corresponding regions of the circulating viruses provided explanations for the poor

  15. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    PubMed

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  16. Multi-segment trunk models used to investigate the crunch factor in golf and their relationship with selected swing and launch parameters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Chivers, Paola; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus

    2016-10-01

    The use of multi-segment trunk models to investigate the crunch factor in golf may be warranted. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the trunk and lower trunk for crunch factor-related variables (trunk lateral bending and trunk axial rotation velocity). The second aim was to determine the level of association between crunch factor-related variables with swing (clubhead velocity) and launch (launch angle). Thirty-five high-level amateur male golfers (Mean ± SD: age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years, registered golfing handicap = 5 ± 1.9) without low back pain had kinematic data collected from their golf swing using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 500 Hz. Clubhead velocity and launch angle were collected using a validated real-time launch monitor. A positive relationship was found between the trunk and lower trunk for axial rotation velocity (r(35) = .47, P < .01). Cross-correlation analysis revealed a strong coupling relationship for the crunch factor (R(2) = 0.98) between the trunk and lower trunk. Using generalised linear model analysis, it was evident that faster clubhead velocities and lower launch angles of the golf ball were related to reduced lateral bending of the lower trunk.

  17. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  18. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  19. Biomechanics of the Ankle-Foot System during Stair Ambulation: Implications for Design of Advanced Ankle-Foot Prostheses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    A.H., 2007. Effect of ankle–foot orthosis on roll-over shape in adults with hemiplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 44 (1), 11...20. Gates, D.H., 2004. Characterizing Ankle Function During Stair Ascent, Descent, And Level Walking For Ankle Prosthesis And Orthosis Design. M.S

  20. Do you know this syndrome? Hand-foot syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Braghiroli, Cintia Santos; Ieiri, Rodrigo; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Paschoalini, Rafael Bispo; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    Hand-foot syndrome is a common cutaneous adverse effect associated with certain systemic chemotherapy drugs. It is characterized by erythema, edema, and burning sensation, especially over palmoplantar surfaces. We report the case of an elderly patient undergoing chemotherapy after a breast cancer surgery who developed symptoms two months after the start of the regimen. There are no studies that explore specific therapies. Suggestive therapy include reducing agent dosage, increasing the interval between cycles, or even stopping chemotherapy. Emollients, analgesics, and cold packs are described as effective. After alopecia and mucositis, hand-foot syndrome is the most common adverse dermatologic reaction to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:28225974

  1. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson’s Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. Results The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Conclusion Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson’s Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner. PMID:28571173

  2. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  3. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  4. Pedographic classification and ulcer detection in the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Waldecker, Ute

    2012-03-01

    Plantar pressure is a cause of foot ulceration in diabetes. Attempts to determine a pressure threshold have failed. The aim of this study was to determine a pedographic classification to identify patients at risk for a foot ulcer. 210 diabetics and controls categorized into 4 groups with deformities of the forefoot were analyzed. For the pedographic measurement peak pressure, force and their integrals were analyzed using a percentage and an anatomic mask. A multivariant logistic regression analysis was performed. Logistic regression analysis using pedographic variables of a percentage mask revealed a combination of 4 variables (pressure time integral forefoot, peak pressure midfoot, pressure time integral heel, and peak pressure heel) identifying the foot ulcer with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 87%. The analysis using an anatomic mask identified 8 variables (pressure time integral mask 4 (metatarsal 2), force mask 9 (2. toe), force time integral mask 8 (great toe), peak pressure mask 6 (metatarsal 4), pressure time integral mask 6 (metatarsal 4), peak pressure mask 8 (great toe), peak pressure mask 7 (metatarsal 5), and force mask 6 (metatarsal 4)) that characterized a pedal ulcer with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 90%. This screening method identifies diabetics who are at risk for a foot ulcer. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Foot Comfort for the Fashionable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Modellista Footwear's new shoe line uses Tempur(TM) material, which conforms to each wearer's unique foot shape to absorb shock and cushion the foot. The foam's properties allow the shoe to change with the wearer's foot as it shrinks and swells throughout the day. Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center originally developed temper foam in the early 1970s to relieve the intense pressure of G-forces experienced by astronauts during rocket launches. Tempur-Pedic, Inc., further developed the foam and granted Modellista a license to use it in footwear. The Modellista collection is the first shoe design and construction to be certified by the Space Awareness Alliance. The shoes, with designs ranging from traditional clog shapes to sling backs and open-toe sandals, are currently available nationwide at select specialty shoe stores and through catalogs. Tempur(TM) is a registered trademark of Tempur-Pedic, Inc.

  6. [Operative treatment of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Hintermann, B

    1999-07-08

    The majority of diabetic foot ulcers are the results of repetitive pressure that exceeds the threshold of soft-tissue tolerance, leading to mechanical destruction of the tissue. Progression of plantar ulcers can rapidly lead to osteomyelitis that may result in loss of the foot through amputation. In order to prevent such a disaster, surgical treatment should be taken into consideration when conservative treatment remains without success. The goal of surgical treatment of an infected ulcer is debridement of the soft-tissue and removal of the underlying pressure by careful bone resection or correction of a deformity by arthrodesis. Various authors have recently reported successful surgical reconstruction of neuroarthropathic foot deformity and instability. Apparently arthrodesis is a viable alternative to amputation for patients with unstable deformity or recurrent ulceration. Proper preoperative evaluation is mandatory. The indications are not well defined yet.

  7. Mediolateral foot placement ability during ambulation in individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Stine, Rebecca; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2014-04-01

    Mediolateral (ML) foot placement is an effective way to redirect the lateral trajectory of the body center of mass (BCoM) during ambulation, but has only been partly characterized in the chronic post-stroke population despite their increased risk for falling [1]. During able-bodied gait, the locomotor system coordinates lower limb swing phase kinematics such that an appropriate ML foot placement occurs upon foot contact. Muscle weakness and abnormal motor patterns may impair foot placement ability post-stroke. The purpose of this study was to characterize ML foot placement ability during post-stroke ambulation by quantifying ML foot placement accuracy and precision, for the both sound and affected feet. Age matched able-bodied individuals were recruited for comparison. All participants were instructed to target step widths ranging from 0 to 45% leg length, as marked on the laboratory floor. Results of this study confirmed that ML foot placement accuracy and precision were significantly lower for the post-stroke group as compared to the control group (p=0.0). However, ML foot placement accuracy and precision were not significantly different between the affected and sound limbs in the post-stroke group. The lowest accuracy for post-stroke subjects was observed at both extreme step width targets (0 and 45%). Future work should explore potential mechanisms underlying these findings such as abnormal motor coordination, lower limb muscle strength, and abnormal swing phase movement patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Illiteracy and diabetic foot complications.

    PubMed

    Al-Kaabi, Juma M; Al Maskari, Fatma; Cragg, Paul; Afandi, Bachar; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes is especially common in the United Arab Emirates. Its complications in patients residing in the region have yet to be fully explored. This study reports on foot problems in our diabetic patients, with emphasis on the impact of illiteracy on foot care and complications due to diabetes. Adults were randomly recruited from the Diabetes Center at Tawam-John Hopkins affiliated hospital. A questionnaire addressing foot care and problems was completed for all patients. In addition, an examination was performed by a trained nurse, an endocrinologist, and a podiatrist. Four hundred twenty-two adults with type 2 (93%) or type 1 (7%) diabetes were enrolled; 67% were females. Patients' mean age was 52 ± 13 years and duration of diabetes ≥ 1 year. Illiterate patients were 51% and were less likely to practice foot care (p=0.002), recognize foot risk factors (p=0.004), use proper footwear (p=0.010), and being physically active (p<0.001). In addition, they were more likely to have diabetic complications, such as neuropathy (p=0.027), eye disease (p=0.032), hypertension (p<0.001), obesity (p=0.003), increased body fat percentage (p<0.001), reduced capillary refill time (p=0.002), reduced monofilament (p=0.003), and reduced vibration (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed literates [OR=2.4, CI=1.1-5.4, p=0.031], female gender [OR=2.7, CI=1.1-6.2, p=0.023], and history of foot ulcer [OR=6.0, CI=2.1-17.2, p=0.001] were predictors of practicing foot care. Illiteracy invoked significant challenges to diabetic attentiveness and imposed increased foot complications. Physicians should realize that illiterate patients are vulnerable and require effective strategies to improve their education about the disease and reduce their diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetic foot ulcers: practical treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    When treating diabetic foot ulcers it is important to be aware of the natural history of the diabetic foot, which can be divided into five stages: stage 1, a normal foot; stage 2, a high risk foot; stage 3, an ulcerated foot; stage 4, an infected foot; and stage 5, a necrotic foot. This covers the entire spectrum of foot disease but emphasises the development of the foot ulcer as a pivotal event in stage 3, which demands urgent and aggressive management. Diabetic foot care in all stages needs multidisciplinary management to control mechanical, wound, microbiological, vascular, metabolic and educational aspects. Achieving good metabolic control of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure is important in each stage, as is education to teach proper foot care appropriate for each stage. Ideally, it is important to prevent the development of ulcers in stages 1 and 2. In stage 1, the normal foot, it is important to encourage the use of suitable footwear, and to educate the patient to promote healthy foot care and footwear habits. In stage 2, the foot has developed one or more of the following risk factors for ulceration: neuropathy, ischaemia, deformity, swelling and callus. The majority of deformities can be accommodated in special footwear and as callus is an important precursor of ulceration it should be treated aggressively, especially in the neuropathic foot. In stage 3, ulcers can be divided into two distinct entities: those in the neuropathic foot and those in the neuroischaemic foot. In the neuropathic foot, ulcers commonly develop on the plantar surface of the foot and the toes, and are associated with neglected callus and high plantar pressures. In the neuroischaemic foot, ulcers are commonly seen around the edges of the foot, including the apices of the toes and back of the heel, and are associated with trauma or wearing unsuitable shoes. Ulcers in stage 3 need relief of pressure (mechanical control), sharp debridement and dressings (wound control), and

  10. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    PubMed

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week @ ACFAS Poll Results Arthroscopy e-Book The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery Read some of the latest research from the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of ACFAS, The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery ( ...

  12. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  13. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the ... completed a four-year program in Osteopathic Medicine. Diabetic foot - Diabetes affects the feet in a profound way ...

  14. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Surgical revascularization techniques for diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Siva Krishna; Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Sahoo, Satyajit; Mohapatra, Sudeep; Modi, Kirtikumar Dharmsibhai

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. The diabetic foot is characterized by the presence of arteriopathy and neuropathy. The vascular damage includes non-occlusive microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Diabetic foot wounds are responsible for 5–10% of the cases of major or minor amputations. In fact, the risk of amputation of the lower limbs is 15–20% higher in diabetic populations than in the general population. The University of Texas classification is the reference classification for diabetic wounds. It distinguishes non-ischemic wounds from ischemic wounds which are associated with a higher rate of amputation. The first principles of treatment are the control of pain of an eventual infection. When ischemia is diagnosed, restoration of pulsatile blood flow by revascularization may be considered for salvaging the limb. The treatment options are angioplasty with or without stenting and surgical bypass or hybrid procedures combining the two. Distal reconstructions with anastomosis to the leg or pedal arteries have satisfactory limb-salvage rates. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique. It could be suggested for elderly patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for a conventional bypass or angioplasty. The current article would focus on the various revascularization procedures. PMID:24027360

  16. Puncture wounds of the foot.

    PubMed

    Racz, Roger S; Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Puncture wounds are common injuries of the foot. Although most puncture wounds are benign, devastating complications are possible without adequate treatment. These injuries can occur in all age groups and in various circumstances. Early diagnosis and appropriate medical and surgical management is paramount in achieving successful outcomes.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  18. Estimation of stature from radiographic measurement of foot dimensions: Truncated foot length may be more reliable than full foot length.

    PubMed

    Gwani, Abdullahi Suleiman; Salihu, Abubakar Tijjani; Garba, Isa Sa'idu; Rufa'i, Adamu Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Foot length has been shown to be a reliable dimension for estimation of stature. However, phalanges of the foot are very small bones and their length may not be proportional to person's stature. Thus, we hypothesized that foot length measured excluding the phalanges, the truncated foot length, may be more reliable in stature estimation than full foot length. This study, therefore, aimed at comparing the accuracy of the regression equations derived from the truncated foot length and the full foot length. The study recruited a sample of 32 young adults (16 males and 16 females) aged from 20 to 35 years. Lateral radiographs of the right feet were obtained for each subject in a bilateral standing position while maintaining equal weight on both feet. Standing height of the participants was measured with a stadiometer. Truncated foot length and full foot length were measured on the lateral radiographs of the foot. Independent t-test was used to check for mean differences in the dimensions between genders. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the equations for stature estimation. Intra and inter-observer reliability were calculated from four precision estimates: absolute technical error of measurement (aTEM), relative technical error of measurement (rTEM), coefficient of reliability (Rr) and coefficient of variation (Cv). All the dimensions measured were significantly larger in males than females. Linear regression equations were derived for estimation of stature using both the truncated foot length and full foot length. The regression equations derived from truncated foot length have larger correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, adjusted coefficient of determination as well as smaller standard error of estimation than those derived from full foot length. All the precision estimates showed that the measurement errors are within acceptable limits. This study suggests that even if the full foot length is available, excluding the phalanges may

  19. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Jenna had been ... pins and needles." But why would your foot fall asleep? Many people say this is because you' ...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a)...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a)...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... use in the soil classification at the site. (ii) ABS footing pads must be listed or labeled for the... support and anchoring. (2) Monolithic slab systems. A monolithic slab is permitted above the frost line...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... use in the soil classification at the site. (ii) ABS footing pads must be listed or labeled for the... support and anchoring. (2) Monolithic slab systems. A monolithic slab is permitted above the frost line...

  8. Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....

  9. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  12. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  15. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  18. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? A A A Jenna had been ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  19. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  4. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  5. Repeatability of the modified Oxford foot model during gait in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia J; Arnold, Brent L; Coffey, Timothy G; Pidcoe, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford foot model (OFM) is a multi-segment model for calculating hindfoot and forefoot motion. Limited information is available regarding the repeatability and error of this model in adults. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the intra-tester reliability of OFM hindfoot and forefoot gait kinematics in adults at initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO). Seventeen healthy adults (age=25.1±4.8 years, height=1.75±0.10m, weight=74.0±12.4kg) were tested on a single visit, during which 1 examiner recorded 2 sessions. For each session, 10 walking trials were recorded using a 12-camera motion analysis system (Vicon, Oxford, UK). Markers were removed and re-applied between sessions. Dynamic hindfoot and forefoot angles were calculated both with and without referencing to neutral stance (assuming neutral stance angles are zero in all planes). Using the 10 trial average, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,k)) and standard errors of the measurement were calculated for each reference condition, anatomical plane, and joint (hindfoot, forefoot). Referencing to neutral stance resulted in good reliability (ICC≥0.83) and small error (≤2.45°) for hindfoot and forefoot angle in all planes. Without referencing to neutral stance, sagittal and transverse plane reliability were also good (ICC≥0.90) and error small (≤3.14°); however, frontal plane reliability was poor (ICC≤0.77), with large error (≥4.86°). Our results show that overall the OFM is reliable during adult gait. Reliability for adults is higher than previously reported in children. Referencing joint angles to neutral stance decreased error by up to 2° from previous reports. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure and seismic hazard of the Ventura Avenue anticline and Ventura fault, California: Prospect for large, multisegment ruptures in the Western Transverse Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Judith; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; McAuliffe, Lee J.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    The Ventura Avenue anticline is one of the fastest uplifting structures in southern California, rising at ∼5  mm/yr. We use well data and seismic reflection profiles to show that the anticline is underlain by the Ventura fault, which extends to seismogenic depth. Fault offset increases with depth, implying that the Ventura Avenue anticline is a fault‐propagation fold. A decrease in the uplift rate since ∼30±10  ka is consistent with the Ventura fault breaking through to the surface at that time and implies that the fault has a recent dip‐slip rate of ∼4.4–6.9  mm/yr.To the west, the Ventura fault and fold trend continues offshore as the Pitas Point fault and its associated hanging wall anticline. The Ventura–Pitas Point fault appears to flatten at about 7.5 km depth to a detachment, called the Sisar decollement, then step down on a blind thrust fault to the north. Other regional faults, including the San Cayetano and Red Mountain faults, link with this system at depth. We suggest that below 7.5 km, these faults may form a nearly continuous surface, posing the threat of large, multisegment earthquakes.Holocene marine terraces on the Ventura Avenue anticline suggest that it grows in discrete events with 5–10 m of uplift, with the latest event having occurred ∼800 years ago (Rockwell, 2011). Uplift this large would require large earthquakes (Mw 7.7–8.1) involving the entire Ventura/Pitas Point system and possibly more structures along strike, such as the San Cayetano fault. Because of the local geography and geology, such events would be associated with significant ground shaking amplification and regional tsunamis.

  7. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  8. Shape characteristics of the foot arch: dynamics in the pregnancy period.

    PubMed

    Jelen, Karel; Tetkova, Zuzana; Halounova, Lena; Pavelka, Karel; Koudelka, Tomas; Ruzicka, Pavel

    2005-12-01

    The aim is data detection and finding some load consequences generated by various mechanical or physiological changes in the interaction of the end segment of the body--the foot--and the environment. Shape instability of the foot caused by e.g. loading of the foot by long-term frequency loads--walking, by extreme loads--sport, by hormonal changes--pregnancy, by aging, by pathologies, etc. The footprint surface was numerically described in 3D by means of stereo-photo-gram-metrical method--DMR digital relief model. Density of discrete points--250-400 per one print. Detailed DMR was constructed by means of triangular web including contour picture with the use of Atlas program. The specified generated web is characterized by triangles with a cca 1 mm side in the number of up to 4,500 elements per one footprint model. The results enable us to deduce shape characteristics of DMR--the shape of the interactive boundary of the foot--the rest surface, to solve foot arch straining, to solve issues of discomfort and distribution of the pressure at the boundary of the foot--the rest surface, the shoe, etc. The gained findings can be interpreted in the field of prevention, therapy, orthopedics, podology, and enable us to come up with recommendations for the orthopedic practice and industrial use in the footwear production, etc. THE MAIN FINDINGS: The difference between volume reductions of the space under the foot arch characterizes the level of "fall" of the arch. This criterion is independent of the foot size, and is in 3D. Shape characteristics of footprints in pregnant women and in the period after childbirth were calculated on the basis of the defined criterion. The results of the group of four women tested in three periods suggest that there is no clear tendency towards the foot arch falling/increasing of the foot arch "fall" during the pregnancy period.

  9. Complex trauma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M

    1997-12-01

    Following complex foot injuries (incidence up to 52 %) in the multiply-injured patient the ultimate goal remains the same as for all significant foot injuries: the restoration of a painless, stable and plantigrade foot to avoid corrective procedures with moderate results. In the case of a complex trauma of the foot (5 point-score) - e. g. a crush injury - primary amputation in the multiply-injured patient (PTS 3-4) is indicated. Limb salvage (PTS 1-2) depends on the intraoperative aspect during the second look (within 24-48 hours after injury): the debridement has to be radical, the selection of amputation level should be at the most distal point compatible with tissue viability and wound healing. A free tissue transfer should be done early if necessary. Single lesions presenting with a compartment syndrome need an immediate dorsal fasciotomy, in the case of a multiply-injured patient as soon as possible. Open fractures are reduced following radical debridement and temporarily stabilized with K-wires and/or tibiotarsal transfixation with an external fixateur until the definitive ORIF. Dislocation-fractures of the talus type 3 and 4 according to Hawkins' classification need open reduction and internal fixation by screws (titan). Open fractures of the calcaneus are stabilized temporarily by a medial external fixateur after debridement until the definitive treatment. If there is a compartment syndrome an immediate dermatofasciotomy is essential. Like closed, calcanear fractures in multiply-injured patients dislocation-fractures of the Chopart's joint need immediate open reduction only if it is an open fracture or associated with a compartment syndrome. The incidence of a compartment syndrome in the case of dislocation fractures of the Lisfranc's joint is high and therefore a dorsal dermatofasciotomy without delay is critical. Open reduction and internal fixation are achieved either by 1.8 mm K-wires or 3.5 mm cortical screws. To avoid further soft tissue damage a

  10. [Complex trauma of the foot].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M

    1997-12-01

    Following complex foot injuries (incidence up to 52%) in the multiply-injured patient the ultimate goal remains the same as for all significant foot injuries: the restoration of a painless, stable and plantigrade foot to avoid corrective procedures with moderate results. In the case of a complex trauma of the foot (5 point-score)--e.g. a crush injury--primary amputation in the multiply-injured patient (PTS 3-4) is indicated. Limb salvage (PTS 1-2) depends on the intraoperative aspect during the second look (within 24-48 hours after injury): the debridement has to be radical, the selection of amputation level should be at the most distal point compatible with tissue viability and wound healing. A free tissue transfer should be done early if necessary. Single lesions presenting with a compartment syndrome need an immediate dorsal fasciotomy, in the case of a multiply-injured patient as soon as possible. Open fractures are reduced following radical debridement and temporarily stabilized with K-wires and/or tibiotarsal transfixation with an external fixateur until the definitive ORIF. Dislocation-fractures of the talus type 3 and 4 according to Hawkins' classification need open reduction and internal fixation by screws (titan). Open fractures of the calcaneus are stabilized temporarily by a medial external fixateur after debridement until the definitive treatment. If there is a compartment syndrome an immediate dermatofasciotomy is essential. Like closed, calcanear fractures in multiply-injured patients dislocation-fractures of the Chopart's joint need immediate open reduction only if it is an open fracture or associated with a compartment syndrome. The incidence of a compartment syndrome in the case of dislocation fractures of the Lisfranc's joint is high and therefore a dorsal dermatofasciotomy without delay is critical. Open reduction and internal fixation are achieved either by 1.8 mm K-wires or 3.5 mm cortical screws. To avoid further soft tissue damage a delayed

  11. Strength of footing with punching shear preventers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested.

  12. [Orthopaedic footwear against foot ulcers in diabetes].

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2014-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, foot ulcers are a major problem because they increase the risk of a foot infection and amputation and reduce quality of life. After a foot ulcer has healed, the risk of recurrence is high. Orthopaedic shoes and orthotics are often prescribed to high risk patients and aim to reduce the mechanical pressure on the plantar surface of the foot. Orthopaedic footwear that is modified to reduce pressure is not much more effective in preventing foot ulcer recurrence than orthopaedic footwear that did not undergo such modification, unless the shoes are worn as recommended. In that case, the risk of ulcer recurrence is reduced by 46%. In patients with a history of ulceration, compliance in wearing orthopaedic shoes at home is low, while these patients walk more inside the house than outside the house. Foot pressure measurements should be part of the prescription and evaluation of orthopaedic footwear for patients at high risk for foot ulceration.

  13. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  14. Regional musculoskeletal conditions: foot and ankle disorders.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Géza P; Korda, Judit; Hangody, László; Bálint, Péter V

    2003-02-01

    Foot pain is very common, especially in women, owing to inappropriate footwear. Overuse, repetitive strain and minor, easily forgettable injuries may result in chronic foot and ankle pain. Rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies and gout frequently affect the foot, often as a first presentation. Charcot's joints and foot infections are not rare in diabetes. The rheumatologist should be familiar with foot disorders, either localized or as manifestations of generalized disease. History taking, physical examination, identification of the source of pain by intra-articularly given local anaesthetics and imaging methods should be used to reveal the underlying disorder. Correct diagnosis and efficient therapy-including local steroid injections, physiotherapy, orthoses, surgery-are necessary not only for treatment but also for preventing biomechanical chain reactions. This chapter gives an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of foot pain and foot disorders caused by both local and generalized diseases.

  15. Neuropathic ulcers of the foot.

    PubMed

    Lang-Stevenson, A I; Sharrard, W J; Betts, R P; Duckworth, T

    1985-05-01

    We report a prospective study of the causes and treatment of 26 long-standing neuropathic ulcers of the foot in 21 patients. The most important causal factor, well illustrated by pressure studies, was the presence of a dynamic or static deformity leading to local areas of peak pressure on insensitive skin. All but one of the 26 ulcers had healed after an average of 10 weeks of treatment in a light, skin-tight plaster cast, with the prohibition of weight-bearing. Recurrent ulceration was prevented in all but one foot by early operation to correct the causative deformity; this was performed after the ulcer had healed and before allowing weight-bearing on the limb. Pressure studies after operation confirmed that pressure points had been relieved.

  16. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals.

  17. A chronic, destructive mycetoma infection in a diabetic foot in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Malone, M; Gannass, Al; Bowling, F

    2011-03-01

    This case study describes the presentation of a tropical foot infection that presented in a 38-year-old male farm worker from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia who contracted the fungal infection that is Madurella mycetomatis. Mycetomas or Madura foot is characterized by a slow progressive infection that can result in severe soft tissue and muscle involvement along with destruction of the underlying bone. This foot pathology is rare in the United States and across Europe; however, the increasing influx of a migrant population means that a heightened awareness of its existence is needed.

  18. [Diabetic foot infections: microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Isabella; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Silvano; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of wound infection is based on clinical signs and local and/or systemic inflammation. Therefore, the examination has a major role in the diagnosis of infected lesions of the foot. Once the clinical diagnosis of infection is made, the next step is to determine the etiology with the aim to undertake a rational and appropriate treatment. The most reliable method for assessing microbiological etiology is the specimen of material from infected lesion to perform a bacterioscopic examination and culture. The microorganisms involved in the etiology of diabetic foot depends on the type of injury and on specific patient features (antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalization). The most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections are mostly caused by Gram positive cocci, with a prevalence of S. aureus. Moderate infections are mostly supported by pyogenic Gram positive cocci, but also Gram-negative bacteria can be involved. In severe infections the etiology is polymicrobial. As regards the involvement of fungi in diabetic foot infections data are few and mostly conflicting.

  19. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  20. Atypical task-invariant organization of multi-segment tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease during manual tracking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Shan; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Wang, Chun-Hou; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2009-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the interplay between involuntary tremulous activities and task performance under volitional control for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during position tracking. A volunteer sample of nine untreated patients and nine age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. They performed a sinusoidal tracking maneuver with a shoulder and a static pointing task; meanwhile, a position trace of the index and accelerometer data in the upper limb were recorded to characterize tracking performance and postural-kinetic tremors. In reference to postural tremor, the kinetic tremor of control subjects during tracking was considerably modulated, leading to a lower regularity and greater spectral deviation. In contrast, patients with PD demonstrated greater postural and kinetic tremors than control subjects, and tremulous movements of the patients were comparatively task-invariant. The prominent coherence peak, which occurred at 8-12 Hz in control subjects, was atypically presented at 5-8 Hz for PD patients with poorer tracking performance. Functionally, congruency of position tracking was related to amplitude of kinetic tremor after subtracting from amplitude of postural tremor. In conclusion, task-dependent organization of tremulous movements was impaired in patients with PD. The inferior tracking performance of the patients correlated implicitly with kinetic tremor, signifying some sharing of neural substrates for manual tracking and tremor generation.

  1. Biomechanics of the ankle-foot system during stair ambulation: implications for design of advanced ankle-foot prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sinitski, Emily H; Hansen, Andrew H; Wilken, Jason M

    2012-02-02

    Unilateral lower limb prosthesis users display temporal, kinematic, and kinetic asymmetries between limbs while ascending and descending stairs. These asymmetries are due, in part, to the inability of current prosthetic devices to effectively mimic normal ankle function. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive set of biomechanical data for able-bodied and unilateral transtibial amputee (TTA) ankle-foot systems for level-ground (LG), stair ascent (SA), and stair descent (SD), and to characterize deviations from normal performance associated with prosthesis use. Ankle joint kinematics, kinetics, torque-angle curves, and effective shapes were calculated for twelve able-bodied individuals and twelve individuals with TTA. The data from this study demonstrated the prosthetic limb can more effectively mimic the range of motion and power output of a normal ankle-foot during LG compared to SA and SD. There were larger differences between the prosthetic and able-bodied limbs during SA and SD, most evident in the torque-angle curves and effective shapes. These data can be used by persons designing ankle-foot prostheses and provide comparative data for assessment of future ankle-foot prosthesis designs.

  2. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  3. [Hand and foot infections in children].

    PubMed

    Lucas, A P; Leal, M J

    1995-01-01

    Hand and Foot anatomic and physiologic characteristics make the infections, located there, acquire specific aspects. Seventy seven in-patients admitted and/or with follow-up at the out-patient clinic of Dona Estefãnia Hospital with Hand (25) and Foot (52) infections, were reviewed during the period between January 1991 and January 1994. We treated, out-patients with paronychia (7 of the hand and 42 of the foot), one patient with hand pulpitis, and one with dorsum hand cellulitis. The remaining 16 with hand infection (64%) and 15 with foot infection (29%) were being treated with splint in the position of rest, elevation of the affected limb and endovenous antibiotic therapy. In all abscess cases, surgical drainage was conducted, 16 the of hand and 22 of the foot. There were no sequels in hand infection. In foot infection there was one osteitis of the first metatarsus and a cutaneous fistula.

  4. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Zayegh, Aladin; Begg, Rezaul K.; Wahab, Yufridin

    2012-01-01

    Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. PMID:23012576

  5. Earthquake Scenarios of a Multi-Segment Fault Systems along the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is a major active fault system with about 250 km length, which divides the Japan islands into northeast and southwest. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion reports that the central part of the ISTL with the Gofukuji fault, will cause a M8-class earthquake with 14% in the next 30 years. It is particularly perilous area in Japan which has been suffered from a number of earthquake disasters. Thus, it is important to assess the strong ground motions for the forthcoming earthquake along the ISTL. In this study, we have constructed four source fault models for the earthquake scenarios along the ISTL based on the seismic profiling and the geomorphological observations obtained from the Integrated Research Project for Active Fault System along the ISTL (2005-2009). Since the results of the surveys offer multiple possibilities for the fault shape, we prepared two sets of outer fault parameters; one is based on the seismic profiles, and the other is based on the geomorphology and structural geology data. Both of them show the existence of segment boundary around the Suwa lake. The former consists of six segments with three east-dipping and three west-dipping faults, where the dips are turned over at the Suwa lake. Most segments are characterized by low-angle reverse faulting. On the other hand, the latter has different fault system around the Suwa lake where strike slip faults are defined. We assumed four earthquake scenarios for the seismic hazard assessment around the ISTL. (1) all the fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with Mw 7.7, (2) all the fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the geomorphological observations with Mw 7.6, (3) three northern east-dipping fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with Mw 7.1, (4) three southern west-dipping fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with

  6. The hand-foot-genital (hand-foot-uterus) syndrome: family report and update.

    PubMed

    Halal, F

    1988-07-01

    Four individuals from three generations of a family had the Hand-Foot-Genital (Hand-Foot-Uterus) syndrome. Affected females had urologic abnormalities confirming that the latter are part of the syndrome.

  7. Complications of Pediatric Foot and Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Denning, Jaime R

    2017-01-01

    Ankle fractures account for 5% and foot fractures account for approximately 8% of fractures in children. Some complications are evident early in the treatment or natural history of foot and ankle fractures. Other complications do not become apparent until weeks, months, or years after the original fracture. The incidence of long-term sequelae like posttraumatic arthritis from childhood foot and ankle fractures is poorly studied because decades or lifelong follow-up has frequently not been accomplished. This article discusses a variety of complications associated with foot and ankle fractures in children or the treatment of these injuries.

  8. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical outcome. However, several aspects related to offloading are underexposed. First, in the management of foot complications, offloading is mostly studied as a single entity, whereas it should be analysed in a broader perspective of contributing factors to better predict clinical outcome. This includes assessment of patient behavioural factors such as type and intensity of daily physical activity and adherence to prescribed treatment. Second, a large gap exists between evidence-based recommendations and clinical practice in the use of offloading for ulcer treatment, and this gap needs to be bridged. Possible ways to achieve this are discussed in this article. Third, our knowledge about the efficacy and role of offloading in treating complicated and non-plantar neuropathic foot ulcers needs to be expanded because these ulcers currently dominate presentation in multidisciplinary foot practice. Finally, foot ulcer prevention is underexposed when compared with ulcer treatment. Prevention requires a larger focus, in particular regarding the efficacy of therapeutic footwear and its relative role in comparison with other preventative strategies. These priorities need the attention of clinicians, scientists and professional societies to improve our understanding of offloading and to improve clinical outcome in the management of the diabetic foot.

  9. Prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jonathan Zhang Ming; Ng, Natasha Su Lynn; Thomas, Cecil

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes estimated at 3.6 million people in the UK represents a major public health and socioeconomic burden to our National Health Service. Diabetes and its associated complications are of a growing concern. Diabetes-related foot complications have been identified as the single most common cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. The complicating factor of underlying peripheral vascular disease renders the majority of diabetic foot ulcers asymptomatic until latter evidence of non-healing ulcers become evident. Therefore, preventative strategies including annual diabetic foot screening and diabetic foot care interventions facilitated through a multidisciplinary team have been implemented to enable early identification of diabetic patients at high risk of diabetic foot complications. The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit reported significant variability and deficiencies of care throughout England and Wales, with emphasis on change in the structure of healthcare provision and commissioning, improvement of patient education and availability of healthcare access, and emphasis on preventative strategies to reduce morbidities and mortality of this debilitating disease. This review article aims to summarise major risk factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. It also considers the key evidence-based strategies towards preventing diabetic foot ulcer. We discuss tools used in risk stratification and classifications of foot ulcer.

  10. The impact of foot insole on the energy consumption of flat-footed individuals during walking.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Fereshtehnejad, Niloofar; Pool, Fatemeh

    2013-02-01

    The human foot contains one of the most variable structures of the body, which is the medial longitudinal arch. Decrease in the height of this arch results in a flat foot. Although there is some evidence regarding the influence of flat foot on gait performance of flat-footed individuals, there is no strong evidence to support the theory that being flat-footed has an effect on energy consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find the relationship between flat foot and energy consumption. Two groups of normal and flat-footed participants were recruited in this research project. They were selected from the staff and students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The foot indexes of both groups were obtained using the footprint method with help of Solid worker software. The physiological cost index (PCI) of the participants was measured by the use of a heart rate monitoring system (Polar Electro, Finland). The differences between the PCIs of both groups of participants was determined using a t test. In addition, the influence of using an insole was evaluated using a paired t test. The energy consumption of flat-footed individuals differed significantly from that of normal individuals (the PCIs of normal and flat-footed individuals were 0.357 and 0.368 beats/m, respectively). Using a foot insole improved the performance of the flat-footed individuals during walking. The PCI of flat-footed individuals is more than that of normal participants as a result of misalignment of foot structure. Moreover, using a foot insole improved foot alignment and decreased energy consumption.

  11. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  12. Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Vereecke, Evie E; D'Août, Kristiaan; Payne, Rachel; Aerts, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos, and compares it with the human foot. Gibbons and bonobos are both highly arboreal species, yet they have a different locomotor behaviour. Gibbon locomotion is almost exclusively arboreal and is characterized by speed and mobility, whereas bonobo locomotion entails some terrestrial knuckle-walking and both mobility and stability are important. We examine if these differences in locomotion are reflected in their foot myology. Therefore, we have executed detailed dissections of the lower hind limb of two bonobo and three gibbon cadavers. We took several measurements on the isolated muscles (mass, length, physiological cross sectional area, etc.) and calculated the relative muscle masses and belly lengths of the major muscle groups to make interspecific comparisons. An extensive description of all foot and ankle muscles is given and differences between gibbons, bonobos and humans are discussed. No major differences were found between the foot and ankle musculature of both apes; however, marked differences were found between the ape and human foot. The human foot is specialized for solely one type of locomotion, whereas ape feet are extremely adaptable to a wide variety of locomotor modes. Apart from providing interesting anatomical data, this study can also be helpful for the interpretation of fossil (pre)hominids. PMID:15857366

  13. 3D finite element model of the diabetic neuropathic foot: a gait analysis driven approach.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2014-09-22

    Diabetic foot is an invalidating complication of diabetes that can lead to foot ulcers. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) allows characterizing the loads developed in the different anatomical structures of the foot in dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a subject specific 3D foot FE model (FEM) of a diabetic neuropathic (DNS) and a healthy (HS) subject, whose subject specificity can be found in term of foot geometry and boundary conditions. Kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressure (PP) data were extracted from the gait analysis trials of the two subjects with this purpose. The FEM were developed segmenting bones, cartilage and skin from MRI and drawing a horizontal plate as ground support. Materials properties were adopted from previous literature. FE simulations were run with the kinematics and kinetics data of four different phases of the stance phase of gait (heel strike, loading response, midstance and push off). FEMs were then driven by group gait data of 10 neuropathic and 10 healthy subjects. Model validation focused on agreement between FEM-simulated and experimental PP. The peak values and the total distribution of the pressures were compared for this purpose. Results showed that the models were less robust when driven from group data and underestimated the PP in each foot subarea. In particular in the case of the neuropathic subject's model the mean errors between experimental and simulated data were around the 20% of the peak values. This knowledge is crucial in understanding the aetiology of diabetic foot.

  14. [Hand, foot and mouth disease].

    PubMed

    Barriere, H; Berger, M; Billaudel, S

    1976-11-16

    Two characteristic cases encountered in young adults led the authors to present the hand foot and mouth syndrome. They report the characteristic distribution and vesicular appearance of the lesions. The course was benign. The viral origin of the disease was more or less easily confirmed by cell culture, inoculation in new born mice and demonstration of antibodies. Usually the virus was a Coxackie A 16. However in one of the authors cases, an Echo 11 was demonstrated. The apparent rareness of the disease may be explained by lack of recognition.

  15. Comparison of Foot Bathing and Foot Massage in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ranhee; Park, Chaisoon

    2015-01-01

    In a clinical setting, patients have been observed to complain of discomfort and to discontinue treatment because of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), but few data exist regarding the quality of life in these patients in Korea. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to analyze the effects of foot bathing and massage in patients with CIPN. Subjects included 48 patients with CIPN, who were hospitalized in C University Hospital. The subjects were alternately assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to their registration order. The interventions consisted of 8 treatments of foot bathing or massage over a period of 2 weeks, at 30 minutes per session, every other day. The foot skin temperature increased significantly in the foot bathing group, whereas it decreased significantly in the massage group. Quality of life was significantly increased in the foot bathing group, whereas it was significantly decreased in the massage group. Although foot bathing and foot massage are both supportive care techniques for CIPN patients, foot bathing was more effective than foot massage on skin temperature, grade of neurotoxicity, and quality of life. Additional well-designed studies are recommended, so that the effectiveness of foot bathing and foot massage is confirmed. Foot bathing is more useful as supportive care with respect to nonpharmacologic interventions for alleviating CIPN and promoting the quality of life in cancer patients.

  16. Foot Pain and Pronated Foot Type are Associated with Self-Reported Mobility Limitations in Older Adults: the Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Katz, Patricia; Hannan, Marian T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The foot plays an important role in supporting the body when undertaking weight bearing activities. Aging is associated with an increased prevalence of foot pain and a lowering of the arch of the foot, both of which may impair mobility. Objective To examine the associations of foot pain, foot posture and dynamic foot function with self-reported mobility limitations in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Foot examinations were conducted on 1,860 members of the Framingham Study in 2002–2005. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements, and foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using dynamic pressure measurements. Participants were asked whether they had foot pain and any difficulty performing a list of nine weight bearing tasks. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression models were used to examine the associations of foot pain, posture, function and ability to perform these activities. Results After adjusting for age, sex, height and weight, foot pain was significantly associated with difficulty performing all nine weight bearing activities. Compared to those with normal foot posture and function, participants with planus foot posture were more likely to report difficulty remaining balanced (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.85; p=0.018) and individuals with pronated foot function were more likely to report difficulty walking across a small room (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.22; p=0.045). Foot pain and planus foot posture were associated with an overall mobility limitation score combining performances on each measure. Conclusion Foot pain, planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with self-reported difficulty undertaking common weight bearing tasks. Interventions to reduce foot pain and improve foot posture and function may therefore have a role in improving mobility in older adults. PMID:26645379

  17. A new ankle foot orthosis for running.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Moore, Allan; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2009-09-01

    Traumatic knee injuries in automobile accidents and sports often lead to damage of the peroneal nerve. A lack of control of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve due to this damage, results in the inability to dorsiflex and evert the foot and to extend the toes. This condition is commonly known as foot drop. Foot drop reduces the stability in the body while walking and running and may also cause injury due to lack of foot clearance during the swing phase of the gait. Traditionally, an ankle foot orthosis (AFO), comprised of a moulded sheet of plastic that conforms around the posterior calf and distally contains all or part of the calcaneous as well as the plantar foot, is used to treat foot drop. The intent of this orthosis is to dorsiflex the foot to provide clearance during the swing phase of walking and running. Traditional AFO results in increased pressures due to a decrease in dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle and make the orthosis increasingly uncomfortable to wear. Several other existing designs of foot drop AFO suffer from similar inadequacies. To address these issues, a new AFO was developed. The device was successfully used by one person with foot drop without issues for more than one year. This new design conforms to the lower anterior shin and dorsum of the foot using dorsiassist Tamarack ankle joints to allow for greater plantar and dorsiflexion range of motion. While still limiting ankle inversion it does allow for more ankle eversion. This orthosis can be discretely worn inside shoes due to its smaller size, and can be worn for a longer period of time without discomfort.

  18. The madura foot: looking deep.

    PubMed

    Venkatswami, Sandhya; Sankarasubramanian, Anandan; Subramanyam, Shobana

    2012-03-01

    "Mycetoma" means a fungal tumor. Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous, subcutaneous tissue infection caused by both bacteria (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma). This chronic infection was termed Madura foot and eventually mycetoma, owing to its etiology. Inoculation commonly follows minor trauma, predominantly to the foot and hence is seen more among the barefoot-walking populations, common among adult males aged 20 to 50 years. The hallmark triad of the disease includes tumefaction, fistulization of the abscess, and extrusion of colored grains. The color of these extruded grains in the active phase of the disease offers a clue to diagnosis. Radiology, ultrasonology, cytology, histology, immunodiagnosis, and culture are tools used in diagnosis. Recently, DNA sequencing has also been used successfully. Though both infections manifest with similar clinical findings, Actinomycetoma has a rapid course and can lead to amputation or death secondary to systemic spread. However, actinomycetomas are more responsive to antibiotics, whereas eumycetomas require surgical excision in addition to antifungals. Complications include secondary bacterial infections that can progress to full-blown bacteremia or septicemia, resulting in death. With extremely disfiguring sequelae, following the breakdown of the nodules and formation of discharging sinuses, it poses a therapeutic challenge.

  19. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  20. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    PubMed

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  1. Cold-Weather Foot Care Key for Diabetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163022.html Cold-Weather Foot Care Key for Diabetics It's important to ... potentially serious foot problems, especially during the cold weather, a foot and ankle specialist warns. "When it ...

  2. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  3. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  4. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  5. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104...

  7. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33...

  8. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33...

  9. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  12. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact on feet can increase risk of damage. Stress fractures of the foot are becoming more common in runners, especially first-time marathoners.The growing popularity of... Founded in 1942, the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons is a specialty ...

  13. Expedition 10 Preflight Training, Foot Nominal Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-11

    JSC2004-E-35439 (11 August 2004) --- Astronaut Leroy Chiao, Expedition 10 commander and NASA ISS science officer, participates in Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) Integrated nominal operations during Human Research Facility (HRF) training in the International Space Station (ISS) Destiny laboratory mockup/trainer at Johnson Space Center’s Space Vehicle Mockup Facility.

  14. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  15. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear...

  16. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear...

  17. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear...

  18. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Gökhan; Birsel, Olgar; Güven, Mehmet Fatih; Öğüt, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require in-depth investigations of its enigmatic nature to establish useful guidelines. Yet, this goal seems to be beyond reach, without a holistic view of the immense literature concerning the pathophysiology of the disorder. The primary objective of this article is to put together and review the recent advancements about the etiology and intrinsic mechanisms of diabetic Charcot foot. PMID:23919113

  19. Tumours of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeeshan; Hussain, Shakir; Carter, Simon R

    2015-09-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumours and particularly rarer in the foot and ankle region. The complex anatomy of the foot and ankle makes it unique and hence poses a challenge to the surgeon for limb salvage surgery. Other lesions found in the foot and ankle region are benign bone and soft tissue tumours, metastasis and infection. The purpose of this article is to discuss the relevance of the complex anatomy of the foot and ankle in relation to tumours, clinical features, their general management principles and further discussion about some of the more common bone and soft tissue lesions. Discussion of every single bone and soft tissue lesion in the foot and ankle region is beyond the scope of this article.

  20. The cost of living in the membrane: A case study of hydrophobic mismatch for the multi-segment protein LeuT

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sayan; Khelashvili, George; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel

    2013-01-01

    K288A mutant. The involvement of hydrophobic mismatch is somewhat different in the functionally distinct conformations (outward-open, occluded, inward-open) of LeuT, and the differences are shown to connect to structural elements (e.g., TM1a) known to play key roles in transport. This finding suggests a mechanistic hypothesis for the enhanced transport activity observed for the K288A mutant, suggesting that the unfavorable hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions hinder the motion of TM1a in the functionally-relevant conformational transition to the inward-open state. Various extents of such unfavorable interactions, involving exposure to the lipid environment of adjacent hydrophobic and polar residues, are common in multi-segment transmembrane proteins, and must be considered to affect functionally relevant conformational transitions. PMID:23376428

  1. The cost of living in the membrane: a case study of hydrophobic mismatch for the multi-segment protein LeuT.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sayan; Khelashvili, George; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel

    2013-04-01

    K288A mutant. The involvement of hydrophobic mismatch is somewhat different in the functionally distinct conformations (outward-open, occluded, inward-open) of LeuT, and the differences are shown to connect to structural elements (e.g., TM1a) known to play key roles in transport. This finding suggests a mechanistic hypothesis for the enhanced transport activity observed for the K288A mutant, suggesting that the unfavorable hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions hinder the motion of TM1a in the functionally relevant conformational transition to the inward-open state. Various extents of such unfavorable interactions, involving exposure to the lipid environment of adjacent hydrophobic and polar residues, are common in multi-segment transmembrane proteins, and must be considered to affect functionally relevant conformational transitions.

  2. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Foot health needs in people with systemic sclerosis: an audit of foot health care provision.

    PubMed

    Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Siddle, Heidi J; Buch, Maya H; Emery, Paul; Hashmi, Farina; Redmond, Anthony C

    2011-12-01

    The vascular and cutaneous alterations evident in systemic sclerosis/scleroderma (SSc) place the foot at risk of ulceration. The UK Podiatry Rheumatic Care Association (PRCA)/Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Alliance standards of care recommend that all people with SSc should receive at least basic information about their foot health, and that those with foot problems should have access to self-management advice and care where needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate foot health services offered in Leeds (UK) for people with SSc, against nationally agreed standards of care. Ninety-one consecutive patients with SSc were selected from either the connective tissue disease outpatient clinic (n = 70) or the specialist rheumatology foot health clinic (n = 21) at Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. All the patients completed a disease-specific audit tool developed by the UK PRCA that evaluates provision of foot health care for patients with SSc. Sixty-one patients (67%) reported having had foot problems at some point in time and 54 (59%) had current foot problems. Of these 54 patients, 17 (32%) had not received any foot care. Only 36 (39%) of the 91 patients had received any foot health information. This audit demonstrates that patients with SSc have a relatively high prevalence of self-reported foot problems. Foot health care and information are inadequate for people with SSc and foot problems, and preventative information is almost non-existent. Improved foot health information will better empower patients to self-manage low risk problems, and help identify high risk problems which require specialist care.

  4. The immersion foot syndrome. 1946.

    PubMed

    Ungley, C C; Channell, G D; Richards, R L

    2003-01-01

    1. Prolonged exposure of the extremities to cold insufficient to cause tissue freezing produces a well-defined syndrome. 'Immersion foot' is one of the descriptive but inaccurate terms applied to this syndrome. The clinical features, aetiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of immersion foot are considered in detail. A discussion on pathogenesis is also included. 2. In the natural history of a typical case of immersion foot there are four stages: the period of exposure and the pre-hyperaemic, hyperaemic, and post-hyperaemic stages. 3. During exposure and immediately after rescue the feet are cold, numb, swollen, and pulseless. Intense vasoconstriction sufficient to arrest blood-flow is believed to be the predominant factor during this phase. 4. This is followed by a period of intense hyperaemia, increased swelling, and severe pain. Hyperaemia is due to the release in chilled and ischaemic tissues of relatively stable vasodilator metabolites; pain may be the result of relative anoxia of sensory nerve-endings. 5. Within 7-10 days of rescue the intense hyperaemia and swelling subside and pain diminishes in intensity. A lesser degree of hyperaemia may persist for several weeks. Objective disturbances of sensation and sweating and muscular atrophy and paralysis now become apparent. These findings are correlated with damage to the peripheral nerves. 6. After several weeks the feet become cold-sensitive; when exposed to low temperature they cool abnormally and may remain cold for several hours. Hyperhidrosis frequently accompanies this cold-sensitivity. The factors responsible for these phenomena are incompletely understood; several possible explanations are considered. 7. Severe cases may develop blisters and gangrene. The latter is usually superficial and massive loss of tissue is rare. 8. The hands may be affected but seldom as severely as the feet. The essential features of immersion hand are the same as those of immersion foot. 9. Prognosis depends upon

  5. Processing of the VP1/2A junction is not necessary for production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids and infectious viruses: characterization of "self-tagged" particles.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham J

    2013-11-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by 3C(pro) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1, and the peptide 2A. The capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2A. In a cell culture-adapted strain of FMDV (O1 Manisa [Lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (E83K, S134C, and K210E) were identified within the VP1 region of the P1-2A precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). Expression of the O1 Manisa P1-2A (wt or with the S134C substitution in VP1) plus 3C(pro), using a transient expression system, resulted in efficient capsid protein production and self-assembly of empty capsid particles. Removal of the 2A peptide from the capsid protein precursor had no effect on capsid protein processing or particle assembly. However, modification of E83K alone abrogated particle assembly with no apparent effect on protein processing. Interestingly, the K210E substitution, close to the VP1/2A junction, completely blocked processing by 3C(pro) at this cleavage site, but efficient assembly of "self-tagged" empty capsid particles, containing the uncleaved VP1-2A, was observed. These self-tagged particles behaved like the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is not essential for virus viability. The production of such engineered self-tagged empty capsid particles may facilitate their purification for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccines.

  6. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    PubMed

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (p<0.01), respectively. Foot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (p<0.01), respectively. The lower the initial TcpO(2) level, the more the TcpO(2) level increased. The foot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

  7. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    PubMed

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice.

  8. Three cases of melorheostosis with foot and ankle involvement.

    PubMed

    Pino, Alejandro E; Temple, H Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare and poorly understood condition of bone and soft tissue with a wide range of clinical presentations. This condition is typically characterized by cortical hyperostosis and pain in the involved extremity, but can also be associated with soft-tissue masses and limb deformities that may be additional sources of disability for those affected by this disease. Characteristic radiographic findings can aid in establishing an accurate diagnosis and the condition should not be mistaken for more aggressive neoplasms. This chronic condition is typically managed nonoperatively, but more invasive measures may be necessary when nonoperative measures fail. In cases of surgical intervention, physicians and patients should be aware that this disease has a high recurrence rate. Although there are only a few reports of melorheostosis in the foot and ankle, it is important to be aware of the difficulties the condition may cause in this anatomical location. Melorheostosis can be a source of significant morbidity when the foot and ankle are involved, especially when complicated by symptomatic soft-tissue masses. In this article, we report 3 cases of melorheostosis in the foot and ankle with distinct presentations and variations in outcomes.

  9. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration. PMID:11398715

  10. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  11. Pedorthic management of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Janisse, Dennis; Janisse, Erick

    2015-02-01

    Conservative pedorthic management of the diabetic foot has been shown to be an effective method to prevent ulcers, amputations, and re-amputations. This article exhibits why and how pedorthics plays such an important role via modalities such as footwear, shoe modifications, custom foot orthoses, and partial foot prostheses. The objective of this article is to demonstrate how pedorthics has been shown to be an integral part of conservative diabetic foot care. The authors' goal was to educate the reader about the different modalities that are available for use. This article is based largely on review of previously published research and scholarly articles, augmented by the more than 60 years of pedorthic and orthotic clinical experience of the authors. Approximately 60 journal articles and book chapters were reviewed by the authors. Articles were located via online resources such as PubMed as well as the authors' own libraries. It was repeatedly noted that pedorthic modalities such as shoes, foot orthoses, and shoe modifications may be utilized in the treatment and prevention of diabetic foot wounds and other complications. Pedorthic devices may be successfully integrated into a comprehensive treatment plan for patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. This information is of special interest to those who treat patients with diabetes. The article demonstrates the efficacy of pedorthic intervention through the compilation and review of relevant previously published data. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  12. Quantifying foot deformation using finite helical angle.

    PubMed

    Pothrat, Claude; Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Vigouroux, Laurent; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-10-15

    Foot intrinsic motion originates from the combination of numerous joint motions giving this segment a high adaptive ability. Existing foot kinematic models are mostly focused on analyzing small scale foot bone to bone motions which require both complex experimental methodology and complex interpretative work to assess the global foot functionality. This study proposes a method to assess the total foot deformation by calculating a helical angle from the relative motions of the rearfoot and the forefoot. This method required a limited number of retro-reflective markers placed on the foot and was tested for five different movements (walking, forefoot impact running, heel impact running, 90° cutting, and 180° U-turn) and 12 participants. Overtime intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the helical angle pattern repeatability for each movement. Our results indicated that the method was suitable to identify the different motions as different amplitudes of helical angle were observed according to the flexibility required in each movement. Moreover, the results showed that the repeatability could be used to identify the mastering of each motion as this repeatability was high for well mastered movements. Together with existing methods, this new protocol could be applied to fully assess foot function in sport or clinical contexts.

  13. Ultrasound evaluation of foot deformities in infants.

    PubMed

    Miron, Marie-Claude; Grimard, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Foot deformity in infants is the most common congenital musculoskeletal condition. A precise diagnosis can sometimes be impossible to establish clinically. Radiologic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities. However conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiographs of the foot, are of very little help in this age group because of the lack of ossification of the tarsal bones. US presents a significant advantage because it permits the visualization of cartilaginous structures. This leads to the detailed assessment of foot deformities in infants. Furthermore, US can also be used as a dynamic imaging modality. Different scanning views are beneficial to evaluate the complete anatomy of the foot; depending on the suspected clinical diagnosis, some planes are more informative to display the pathological features of a specific deformity. We describe the US findings of five of the most common foot deformities referred to our pediatric orthopedic clinic (clubfoot, simple metatarsus adductus, skewfoot, and oblique and vertical talus). For each deformity we propose a specific imaging protocol based on US to provide an accurate diagnosis. US is a complementary tool to the clinical examination for determining the diagnosis and the severity of the deformity and also for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Radiologists investigating foot deformities in infants should consider using US for the detailed assessment of the foot in this age group.

  14. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    PubMed

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  15. Osteomyelitis in diabetic foot: A comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Giurato, Laura; Meloni, Marco; Izzo, Valentina; Uccioli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Foot infection is a well recognized risk factor for major amputation in diabetic patients. The osteomyelitis is one of the most common expression of diabetic foot infection, being present approximately in present in 10%-15% of moderate and in 50% of severe infectious process. An early and accurate diagnosis is required to ensure a targeted treatment and reduce the risk of major amputation. The aim of this review is to report a complete overview about the management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are widely described according to scientific reccomendations and our experience. PMID:28465790

  16. Surgical treatment of the Charcot foot.

    PubMed

    Pinzur, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    With the increased number of diabetics worldwide and the increased incidence of morbid obesity in more prosperous cultures, there has become an increased awareness of Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle. Outcome studies would suggest that patients with deformity associated with Charcot Foot arthropathy have impaired health related quality of life. This awareness has led reconstructive-minded foot and ankle surgeons to develop surgical strategies to treat these acquired deformities. This article outlines the current clinical approach to this disabling medical condition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Foot and ankle problems in dancers.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The dancer's foot and ankle are subjected to high forces and unusual stresses in training and performance. Injuries are common in dancers, and the foot and ankle are particularly vulnerable. Ankle sprains, ankle impingement syndromes, flexor hallucis longus tendonitis, cuboid subluxation, stress fractures, midfoot injuries, heel pain, and first metatarsophalangeal joint problems including hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, and sesamoid injuries will be reviewed. This article will discuss these common foot and ankle problems in dancers and give typical clinical presentation and diagnostic and treatment recommendations.

  18. Trench foot: the medical response in the first World War 1914-18.

    PubMed

    Atenstaedt, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The approaching 90-year anniversary of United States entry into the Great War is an apt time to examine the response to trench foot (now called nonfreezing cold injury [NFCI]) in this conflict. Trench foot appeared in the winter of 1914, characterized by pedal swelling, numbness, and pain. It was quickly recognized by military-medical authorities. There was little debate over whether it was frostbite or new condition, and it was quickly accepted as a specific disease. The major etiologies proposed were exposure, diet, and infection. The opinion emerged that it was caused by circulatory changes in the foot caused by cold, wet, and pressure. Predisposing factors included dietary inadequacy and fatigue. A number of labels were first given to the disease. However, the name "trench foot" was eventually officially sanctioned. Trench foot became a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 75 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. Therapy for trench foot involved a number of conventional, tried-and-tested, and conservative methods. Some more innovative techniques were used. Amputation was only used as a last resort. Prevention involved general measures to improve the trench environment; modification of the footwear worn by the men; and the provision of greases to protect them from moisture. The medical reaction to this condition seems to have been relatively effective. The causation was identified, and prophylactic measures were introduced to fit this model; these seem to have been successful in reducing the prevalence of the condition by 1917-18.

  19. Intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to control deformation of the longitudinal arch

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Luke A.; Cresswell, Andrew G.; Racinais, Sebastien; Whiteley, Rodney; Lichtwark, Glen

    2014-01-01

    The human foot is characterized by a pronounced longitudinal arch (LA) that compresses and recoils in response to external load during locomotion, allowing for storage and return of elastic energy within the passive structures of the arch and contributing to metabolic energy savings. Here, we examine the potential for active muscular contribution to the biomechanics of arch deformation and recoil. We test the hypotheses that activation of the three largest plantar intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum and quadratus plantae is associated with muscle stretch in response to external load on the foot and that activation of these muscles (via electrical stimulation) will generate sufficient force to counter the deformation of LA caused by the external load. We found that recruitment of the intrinsic foot muscles increased with increasing load, beyond specific load thresholds. Interestingly, LA deformation and muscle stretch plateaued towards the maximum load of 150% body weight, when muscle activity was greatest. Electrical stimulation of the plantar intrinsic muscles countered the deformation that occurred owing to the application of external load by reducing the length and increasing the height of the LA. These findings demonstrate that these muscles have the capacity to control foot posture and LA stiffness and may provide a buttressing effect during foot loading. This active arch stiffening mechanism may have important implications for how forces are transmitted during locomotion and postural activities as well as consequences for metabolic energy saving. PMID:24478287

  20. Tendinopathies of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Michael R; Howard, Thomas M

    2009-11-15

    Because our understanding of tendinopathy has evolved in recent years, the condition is now considered a degenerative process; this affects the approach to treatment. Initial therapy should always involve relative rest and modification of physical activity, use of rehabilitative exercises, and evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of injury. The posterior tibial tendon is a dynamic arch stabilizer; injury to this tendon can cause a painful flat-footed deformity with hindfoot valgus and midfoot abduction (characterized by the too many toes sign). Treatment of posterior tibial tendinopathy is determined by its severity and can include immobilization, orthotics, physical therapy, or subspecialty referral. Because peroneal tendinopathy is often misdiagnosed, it can lead to chronic lateral ankle pain and instability and should be suspected in a patient with either of these symptoms. Treatment involves physical therapy and close monitoring for surgical indications. Achilles tendinopathy is often caused by overtraining, use of inappropriate training surfaces, and poor flexibility. It is characterized by pain in the Achilles tendon 4 to 6 cm above the point of insertion into the calcaneus. Evidence from clinical trials shows that eccentric strengthening of the calf muscle can help patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy is most common among ballet dancers. Patients may complain of an insidious onset of pain in the posteromedial aspect of the ankle; treatment involves correcting physical training errors, focusing on body mechanics, and strengthening the body's core. Anterior tibial tendinopathy is rare, but is typically seen in patients older than 45 years. It causes weakness in dorsiflexion of the ankle; treatment involves short-term immobilization and physical therapy.

  1. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  2. Effects of water temperature on cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation during foot immersion (foot bath)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, M.; Ono, K.; Onodera, S.

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to make clear the effects of water temperature during foot immersion (foot bath) on heart rate, blood pressure, rectal temperature and autonomic nervous system modulation. The subjects performed foot immersion at 25, 35, 41 and 45 degrees Celsius at random, during different days, but always at the same time. Cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation was estimated with the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability by using the Fast Fourier Transformation. The two frequency components of HRV was measured by integrate low frequency (LF; 0.04- 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF; 0.15- 0.40 Hz). HF was used as an indicator of cardiac vagal modulation and was showed logarithmically (LogHF). LogHF during foot immersion at 35 and 41 degrees Celsius was significantly increased. These data indicate that cardiac vagal activity was affected by water temperature during foot immersion (foot bath).

  3. Foot Progression Angle Walking Test

    PubMed Central

    Ranawat, Anil S.; Gaudiani, Michael A.; Slullitel, Pablo A.; Satalich, James; Rebolledo, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Determining an accurate clinical diagnosis for nonarthritic hip pain may be challenging, as symptoms related to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip instability can be difficult to elucidate with current testing methods. In addition, commonly utilized physical examination maneuvers are static and do not include a dynamic or weightbearing assessment to reproduce activity-related symptoms. Therefore, implementing a dynamic assessment for FAI and hip instability could help to improve diagnostic accuracy for routine clinical examinations of patients with nonarthritic hip pain. Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a novel diagnostic foot progression angle walking (FPAW) test for identifying hip pathology related to FAI or hip instability. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This prospective study included 199 consecutive patients who were evaluated for unilateral hip pain and who underwent FPAW testing along with standard physical examination testing. Demographic data, including age, sex and hip laterality, were collected from each patient. FPAW testing was performed with directed internal and external foot progression angles from their baseline measurements, with a positive test reproducing pain and/or discomfort. Comparisons were then made with flexion adduction internal rotation (FADIR) and flexion abduction external rotation (FABER) tests as the designated diagnostic standard examinations for FAI and hip instability, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity, along with the McNemar chi-square test for group comparison, were used to generate summary statistics. In addition, areas under the combined receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of test performance were calculated for both FPAW and the designated standard examination tests (FADIR, FABER). Radiographic imaging was used subsequently to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The average age of the study cohort was 35.4 ± 11.8 years, with 114 patients being

  4. Shoes, orthoses, and prostheses for partial foot amputation and diabetic foot infection.

    PubMed

    Janisse, Dennis J; Janisse, Erick J

    2010-09-01

    Amputations in patients with diabetes, while often preventable, are unfortunately a far too common outcome. The roles of the certified or licensed pedorthist, certified orthotist, and the certified prosthetist should not be undervalued in the prevention of diabetic foot complications (eg, amputations, revisions, and foot infections secondary to skin ulcerations) and in returning the patient a normal, active, and productive lifestyle in the event of an amputation. This article highlights the roles these specialists play in treating patients with partial foot amputation.

  5. The Occurrence of Ipsilateral or Contralateral Foot Disorders and Hand Dominance: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D. T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Positano, Rock G.; Dines, Joshua S.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Gagnon, David R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders among community-dwelling older men and women Methods Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (n=2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on a validated foot examination. Generalized linear models with GEE was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for intra-person variability. Results Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral, but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral foot disorder versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s Neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a 2-fold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s Bunion, and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus. Conclusion For the 2089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral while other foot disorders were contralateral to the dominant hand. It is possible that the side of the dominant hand was a proxy for biomechanics of the dominant foot that may explain some of the associations with ipsilateral forefoot disorders. PMID:23328848

  6. Associations of Foot Posture and Function to Lower Extremity Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, JL; Dufour, AB; Hagedorn, TJ; Hillstrom, Howard; Casey, VA; Hannan, MT

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Methods Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the NHANES-type question, “On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your [hips, knees, ankles, or feet]?” Modified Arch Index (MAI) classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent) or cavus foot posture. Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI) classified participants as having over-pronated, normal (referent) or over-supinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, gender, BMI) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Results Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (1.57, 95% CI: 1.24– 1.99) or ankle (1.47, 95% CI: 1.05–2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (7.56, 95% CI: 1.99–28.8) and pain at one lower extremity site (1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant, except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an over-supinated foot function (0.69, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93). Conclusions These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. PMID:24591410

  7. Foot Reaction Forces during Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.; Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Kuklis, M. M.; Humphreys, B.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Musculoskeletal changes, particularly in the lower extremities, are an established consequence of long-duration space flight despite exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that disuse and reduction in load bearing are key to these physiological changes, but no quantitative data characterizing the on-orbit movement environments currently exist. Here we present data from the Foot Experiment (E318) regarding astronaut activity on the ground and on-orbit during typical days from 4 International Space Station (ISS) crew members who flew during increments 6, 8, 11, and 12.

  8. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Smaller Toes How To... Foot Health Foot Injury Footwear News Videos Find a Surgeon Información en ... all ages. They perform reconstructive procedures, treat sports injuries, and manage and treat trauma of the foot and ankle. Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons work ...

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. However, in some countries in Asia, outbreaks are large and occur often. Thousands of ... learn more about outbreaks occurring in countries in Asia, visit the World Health Organization . Podcast: Hand, Foot, ...

  10. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgeons warn against taking part in growing surgery trend. Getting excited over a snazzy pair of Jimmy ... a stand and calling this an ill-advised trend. Cosmetic foot surgery runs the gamut, from injectable ...

  11. Managing diabetic foot infection in India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Rao, V Narayan

    2013-06-01

    The burden of diabetic foot complications, in terms of both physical and socioeconomical constraints, poses a heavy challenge both to the patient and the physician, especially in developing countries, where the number of people living with diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate compared with the developed world. In developing countries like India, there are specific causes and risk factors that increase the burden of diabetic foot infections (DFIs), for example, sociocultural risk factors such as barefoot walking, using improper footwear, poor knowledge of foot care practices, lack of adequate and timely access to podiatry services, and poor health care resources. Management of DFI in light of these limitations is quite a challenge to health care professionals. Several techniques and strategies are required to address this problem and should be combined with a multidisciplinary team effort to reduce the burgeoning epidemic of diabetic foot disease. This review is intended to address some of the major aspects of management of DFI in India.

  12. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteoarthritis develops as a result of abnormal foot mechanics, such as flat feet or high arches. A ... prescribed to provide support to improve the foot’s mechanics or cushioning to help minimize pain. Bracing. Bracing, ...

  13. Diabetic foot infections: current concept review

    PubMed Central

    Hobizal, Kimberlee B.; Wukich, Dane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a current concept review on the diagnosis and management of diabetic foot infections which are among the most serious and frequent complications encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature review on diabetic foot infections with emphasis on pathophysiology, identifiable risk factors, evaluation including physical examination, laboratory values, treatment strategies and assessing the severity of infection has been performed in detail. Diabetic foot infections are associated with high morbidity and risk factors for failure of treatment and classification systems are also described. Most diabetic foot infections begin with a wound and once an infection occurs, the risk of hospitalization and amputation increases dramatically. Early identification of infection and prompt treatment may optimize the patient's outcome and provide limb salvage. PMID:22577496

  14. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most likely culprit is inactivity during a flight. Sitting with your feet on the floor for ... soft tissues. To relieve foot swelling during a flight: Wear loosefitting clothing Take a short walk every ...

  15. Foot and ankle injuries in dance.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy J

    2006-11-01

    Although dancers develop overuse injuries common in other athletes, they are also susceptible to unique injuries. This article reviews common foot and ankle problems seen in dancers and provides some basic diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  16. New insights in diabetic foot infection

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jean-Louis; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Foot ulcers are common in diabetic patients, have a cumulative lifetime incidence rate as high as 25% and frequently become infected. The spread of infection to soft tissue and bone is a major causal factor for lower-limb amputation. For this reason, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential, including treatment which is both local (of the foot) and systemic (metabolic), and this requires coordination by a multidisciplinary team. Optimal treatment also often involves extensive surgical debridement and management of the wound base, effective antibiotic therapy, consideration for revascularization and correction of metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia. This article focuses on diagnosis and management of diabetic foot infections in the light of recently published data in order to help clinicians in identification, assessment and antibiotic therapy of diabetic foot infections. PMID:21537457

  17. Diabetic foot ulcer management: the podiatrist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Turns, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot complications result from two broad pathologies-neuropathic and neuro-ischaemic feet. It is important for diabetic patients to have at least a yearly review of foot ulcer risk factors, and they should have a corresponding risk classification agreed based on this assessment. Diabetic foot ulcer assessment should include a wound classification tool, which can give an indication of wounds at greater risk of non-healing or amputation. The treatment of diabetic foot ulcers should be part of a comprehensive care plan that should also include treatment of infection, frequent debridement (if deemed appropriate by a skilled specialist clinician), biomechanical offloading, blood glucose control and treatment of comorbidities. Clinicians should base dressing selection on the wound's location, size and depth, amount of exudate, presence of infection or necrosis and the condition of the surrounding tissue.

  18. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    PubMed

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  19. Combined Ankle-Foot Energetics are Conserved When Distal Foot Energy Absorption is Minimized.

    PubMed

    Arch, Elisa S; Fylstra, Bretta L

    2016-12-01

    The large, late-stance energy generated by the ankle is believed to be critical during gait. However, the distal foot absorbs/dissipates a considerable amount of energy during the same phase. Thus, the energy generated by the combined ankle-foot system is more modest, which raises questions regarding the necessity of such a large ankle power and the interplay between foot and ankle energetics. This study aimed to evaluate our conservation of energy hypothesis, which predicted if distal foot energy absorption/dissipation was reduced, then less energy would be generated at the ankle and thus the same combined ankle-foot energetics would be achieved. Motion analysis data were collected as healthy subjects walked under 2 conditions (Shoes, Footplate). In the Footplate condition, the shoe was replaced with a customized, rigid footplate with a rocker profile. In support of the hypothesis, there was significantly less positive ankle and less negative distal foot work with footplate use, resulting in very similar combined ankle-foot work between conditions. These findings suggest that there is an interplay between the energy generated by the ankle and absorbed by the foot. This interplay should be considered when designing orthotic and prosthetic ankle-foot systems and rehabilitation programs for individuals with weakened ankle muscles.

  20. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist.

  1. Functional anatomy and imaging of the foot.

    PubMed

    Ridola, C; Palma, A

    2001-01-01

    The foot is constituted from a series of small bones making a segmented structure with multiple joints, likened to a dome, in contact with the ground in three points: posteriorly the calcanear tuberosity; anteriorly and medially the head of 1st metatarsum, and anteriorly and laterally the head of 5th metatarsum. In fact, each foot presents a semi-arch whose base is represented by the lateral border and the summit by the medial border of the foot. The foot has been likened to a half-dome, so that when the medial borders of the two feet are placed together, a complete dome is formed. In the foot are present two longitudinal arches: the medial consists of the calcaneus, the talus, the navicular, the three cuneiform bones and the first three metatarsal bones. It is more arcuated and elastic then the lateral, that consist of the calcaneus, the cuboid and the 4th and 5th metatarsus. This is flattened and in contact with the ground. We can identify two transverse arches between longitudinal arches, extending from the medial to the lateral borders of the foot: the first is a lancet dome, between midfoot and forefoot, at the tarsometatarsal joint level; it consists of the bases of the metatarsal bones and the cuboid and the three cuneiform bones; the second is at flat dome, in correspondence of forefoot, at the metatarsophalangeal joint level; it consists of the bases of the proximal phalanges of the fingers and the head of five metatarsal bones. Longitudinal and transversal arches are supported from: the shape of stones of the structure (foot bones); the long and short plantar ligaments, larger and stronger than the dorsal ligaments, tie together the lower edges of the bones; a beam (the plantar aponeurosis and the plantar muscles and tendons) connecting the ends of the bridge effectively prevents separation of the pillars and consequent sagging of the arch; the maintenance of the arch depends on multiple support (ligaments, tendons of extrinsic muscles of the foot

  2. [Charcot arthropathy and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    López-Gavito, E; Parra-Téllez, P; Vázquez-Escamilla, J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic degenerative disease, which currently is taking on alarming proportions in the population of our country. Neuropathic arthropathy is one of the most interesting degenerative joint disorders and increasingly common within the orthopedic pathology. It is defined as a progressive degenerative arthropathy, chronic and affecting one or more peripheral joints, and develops as a result of the lack of sensory perception normal in the innervation of joints. As a result the joints of the feet are subjected to trauma and repetitive injury causing a neurotraumatic effect with progressive damage to the joints of the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. Diagnosis includes a proper medical history, careful examination of the affected limb, conventional X-ray, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in some cases. Conservative treatment includes: drugs, rest of the affected limb, and the use of appliances like total-contact cast, orthotics or special shoes. Surgical treatment depends on the stage of the disease, and may require one or more surgical procedures, in order to achieve a full foot plantar support to prevent ulcers. One of the surgeries performed most often is the fusion of damaged joints. Surgery must be performed only in the coalescence phase of the disease, using internal, or external fixation or both.

  3. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control strategies. The etiologic agent, FMD virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is examined in detail at the genetic, structural, and biochemical levels and in terms of its antigenic diversity. The virus replication cycle, including virus-receptor interactions as well as unique aspects of virus translation and shutoff of host macromolecular synthesis, is discussed. This information has been the basis for the development of improved protocols to rapidly identify disease outbreaks, to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, and to begin to identify and test novel vaccine candidates. Furthermore, this knowledge, coupled with the ability to manipulate FMDV genomes at the molecular level, has provided the framework for examination of disease pathogenesis and the development of a more complete understanding of the virus and host factors involved. PMID:15084510

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  5. Foot and ankle infections: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Anakwenze, Oke A; Milby, Andrew H; Gans, Itai; Stern, John J; Levin, L Scott; Wapner, Keith L

    2012-11-01

    Infections of the foot are a common source of morbidity, disability, and potential limb loss. A large proportion of lower extremity infections occurs in the setting of diabetic neuropathy, with or without circulatory compromise, and are potentially preventable with regular surveillance. Adequate diagnosis and treatment of foot infections can be challenging. Successful treatment is dependent on factors such as etiology; vascular, neurologic, and immune status; and the identity of the offending organism.

  6. Care of the pediatric foot in myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Noonan, K J; Didelot, W P; Lindseth, R E

    2000-06-01

    Foot deformity is present in almost all patients paralyzed by myelomeningocele. This article outlines the pertinent pathoanatomy resulting in differing foot deformities and their effects on normal gait. Treatment of these deformities is discussed, and the most common deformities present for the different levels of paralysis are outlined. Emphasis is placed on surgical and orthotic treatments, which result in functional improvements for the pediatric patient with spina bifida.

  7. Neuropathic foot ulceration in patients with myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Maynard, M J; Weiner, L S; Burke, S W

    1992-01-01

    To determine if a significant relationship existed between type of operation and eventual development of pedal skin breakdown in a spina bifida patient population, 72 feet in 36 ambulatory patients with low lumbar or sacral myelomeningocele were followed for an average of 14 years 5 months. Using a clinical classification for foot suppleness and position, we determined that foot rigidity, nonplantigrade position, and performance of surgical arthrodesis were clinical indicators that had a strong statistical relationship with eventual development of neuropathic skin changes.

  8. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9.

  9. The management of the infected diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Carlo; Sganzaroli, Adriana; Galenda, Paolo; Bassetti, Matteo; Ferraresi, Roberto; Gabrielli, Livio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with a worldwide increasing trend. Foot complications, closely related to neuropathy and obstructive peripheral vascular disease, are responsible for more than 1 million of leg amputations every year. Foot infection can dramatically increase the risk of amputation. Although many ulcer classification systems have been proposed to stratify the severity of the infectious process, the definition of a specific therapeutic approach still remains an unsolved problem. A Diabetic Foot Triage and an Integrated Surgical Protocol are proposed to identify a diagnostic flowchart and a step-by-step surgical protocol that can be applied in the treatment of diabetic foot infection. Considering the rapid climbing of multidrug resistant strains it is very important to rationalize the use of antibiotics utilizing them only for the treatment of true infected ulcers. PAD is widely considered the most important factor conditioning the outcome of a diabetic foot ulcer. Currently no randomized control trials are reported in the international literature directly comparing open versus endovascular revascularisation in diabetic patients with CLI. Insufficient data are available to demonstrate whether open bypass surgery or endovascular interventions are more effective in these patients. A decisional flow chart in choosing the best revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with CLI is proposed. Goals and technical aspects of emergency and elective surgical procedures in diabetic foot are analysed to evaluate critical aspects and to suggest proper surgical choices.

  10. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  11. [Fundoscopic alterations and diabetic foot in patients of Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes/UFRN].

    PubMed

    Chacon, Damaso de Araújo; Chaves, Andréa Dore da Silva Magalhães; Duarte, Raquel Amorim; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Amorim; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha

    2005-01-01

    To identify diabetic foot abnormal changes caused by microvascular events and fundoscopy eye lesions due to diabetic retinopathy. A survey was performed with 76 diabetic patients from the Hospital Onofre Lopes out-patient department of ophtalmology and vascular surgery. To evaluate the diabetic foot the patients were submitted to an individual interview using Fontaine classification. The vascular test used was Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Refraction and eye fundoscopy were acomplished in all patients to arrange the diabetic retinopathy. The study results consisted in characterized the group as age,time of disease and glicose level. The second analyse was performed with association tests among the selected secondary study results. "Statística Versão 5,1997" was the software available. From 76 diabetics patients 97% had age higher than 40 years. 65% had more than 10 years of time disease. 72.72% obtained glicose level > 100 mg/dl. 55.5% had some degree of diabetic retinopathy against 44.74% had not. About the diabetic foot abnormalities, 59.93% had ischemic damages and 41.07% had not signs. 58.82% had neuropathic foot and there were 41,18% patients without diabetic neuropathy signs. Talking about the diabetic retinopathy population, 78.,57% had ischemic foot and 47.62% had neuropathic foot. It was seen 80% of no proliferative diabetic retinopathy in all diabetics foot (isquemic and neuropathic). The patients with retinopathy 60.46% of them had foot biomechanics abnormalities. Light no proliferative diabetic retinopathy was most common in patients with ischemic diabetic foot. The severe no proliferative diabetic retinopathy was most common in patients with neuropathic diabetic foot.

  12. Footwear and foot care knowledge as risk factors for foot problems in Indian diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chandalia, H B; Singh, D; Kapoor, V; Chandalia, S H; Lamba, P S

    2008-10-01

    We assessed 300 diabetic and 100 age- and sex-matched controls for correlating foot wear practices and foot care knowledge and the presence of foot complications. A structured questionnaire evaluated the knowledge about foot care, type of footwear used, education level, association of tobacco abuse, and any associated symptoms of foot disease. Clinical evaluation was done by inspection of feet for presence of any external deformities, assessment of sensory function (vibration perception threshold, VPT), vascular status (foot pulses and ankle brachial ratio) and presence of any infection.In the diabetes category, 44.7% patients had not received previous foot care education. 0.6% walked barefoot outdoors and 45% walked barefoot indoors. Fourteen (4.7%) patients gave history of foot ulceration in the past and comprised the high risk group; only 2 out of 14 had received foot care education, 6 gave history of tobacco abuse, 8 had symptoms of claudication, 9 had paresthesias, 2 walked barefoot indoors. Average duration of diabetes in the high-risk and low-risk diabetes group was 10.85 +/- 6.53 and 9.83 +/- 7.99 years, respectively. In the high- and low-risk diabetic groups, VPT was 19.57 +/- 11.26 and 15.20 +/- 10.21V (P < 0.02), ankle brachial ratio was 1.05 +/- 0.19 and 1.14 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.05), and the questionnaire scores was 40.8% and 57%, respectively.In the diabetic and the control group, VPT was 15.62 +/- 10.39 and 8.36 +/- 3.61 V (P < 0.01), ankle brachial ratio was 1.14 +/- 0.18 and 1.15 +/- 0.12, and the questionnaire scores were 57% and 40.3%, respectively.In conclusion, poor knowledge of foot care and poor footwear practices were important risk factors for foot problems in diabetes.

  13. Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of the current study was to characterize serological and virological parameters of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state at two farms in Nainital District, Uttarakhand State in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in ...

  14. Differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a let...

  15. Natural killer cell dysfunction during acute infection with foot-and-mouth diseaase virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural killer cells (NK) provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. The role of these cells in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is unknown. Previously, we characterized the phenotype and function of NK cells fr...

  16. The influence of foot orthoses on foot mobility magnitude and arch height index in adults with flexible flat feet.

    PubMed

    Sheykhi-Dolagh, Roghaye; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mohammad; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Derayatifar, Amir A; Curran, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flat foot is described as a reduction in the height of the medial longitudinal arch and may occur from abnormal foot pronation. A foot orthosis is thought to modify and control excessive pronation and improve arch height. To compare the immediate effect of three types of orthoses on foot mobility and the arch height index in subjects with flexible flat feet. A quasi-experimental study. The dorsal arch height, midfoot width, foot mobility and arch height index were assessed in 20 participants with flexible flat feet (mean age = 23.2 ± 3 years) for three different foot orthosis conditions: soft, semi-rigid and rigid University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL). Maximum midfoot width at 90% with arch mobility in the coronal plane was shown in the semi-rigid orthosis condition. The semi-rigid orthosis resulted in the highest mean foot mobility in 90% of weight bearing, and the rigid orthosis (UCBL) had the lowest mean foot mobility. The soft orthosis resulted in foot mobility between that of the rigid and the semi-rigid orthosis. UCBL orthosis showed the highest arch height index, and the semi-rigid orthosis showed the lowest mean arch height index. Due to its rigid structure and long medial-lateral walls, the UCBL orthosis appears to limit foot mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to make an orthosis that facilitates foot mobility in the normal range of the foot arch. Future studies should address the dynamic mobility of the foot with using various types of foot orthoses. Although there are many studies focussed on flat foot and the use of foot orthoses, the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study explored foot mobility and the influence of foot orthoses and showed that a more rigid foot orthosis should be selected based on foot mobility. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. Diabetic foot: the orthopedic surgery angle.

    PubMed

    Besse, J-L; Leemrijse, T; Deleu, P-A

    2011-05-01

    As diabetes takes on pandemic proportions, it is crucial for the orthopedic surgeon to be aware of the issues involved in diabetic foot. Ulceration is related to neuropathy and to arterial disease, a vital prognostic factor for healing; infection plays an aggravating role, increasing the risk of amputation. At-risk feet need to be screened for. Ulcer classification is essential, to set treatment strategy and determine prognosis. Before any treatment is decided on, neuropathy, vascular insufficiency and infection should individually be assessed by clinical examination and appropriate additional work-up. Despite the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot recommendations, management of diabetic foot in Europe still varies greatly from country to country, very few of which have established reference centers. Management of diabetic foot remains multidisciplinary; but it has been shown that the orthopedic surgeon should play a central role, providing a biomechanical perspective so as to avoid complications recurrence. Strategy notably includes prevention of at-risk foot, revascularization surgery (which should systematically precede orthopedic surgery in case of critical vascular insufficiency), and treatment of ulcers, whether these latter are associated with osteitis or not. Indications for "minor" amputation should be adequate, and meticulously implemented. "Acute foot" is a medical emergency, entailing massive empirically selected I.V. antibiotics to "cool" the lesion. Prophylactic surgery to limit further risks of ulceration is to be indicated with caution and only when clearly justified. France urgently requires accredited specialized multidisciplinary centers to manage severe lesions: deep and infected ulceration, advanced arteriopathy, and Charcot foot arthropathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  19. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    PubMed Central

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15% under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  20. Diagnostic considerations of lateral column foot pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Traister, Eric; Simons, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foot maladies are often classified descriptively by general foot locations, i.e., forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot. However, common vernacular verbiage, implicating a common biomechanical purpose, also applies pathology to the medial or lateral foot column. Although imprecisely defined, lateral column injuries to the foot encompass conditions that affect any of the lateral side of the foot from the calcaneus to the toes. The lateral column of the foot includes the calcaneus, the cuboid, the fourth and fifth metatarsals as well as the calcaneocuboid, cuboido-metatarsal, and intermetatarsal joints. It may be helpful to think in a "lateral column" fashion when evaluating and treating certain lateral foot injuries, load patterns, and biomechanical or anatomical faults. Misdiagnosed injuries in this area of the foot can be a source of great morbidity to the athlete. It is important for the clinician to be aware of common conditions presenting as pain to the lateral side of the foot.

  1. Foot Pain and Mobility Limitations in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Foot pain is very common in the general population and has been shown to have a detrimental impact on health-related quality of life. This is of particular concern in older people as it may affect activities of daily living and exacerbate problems with balance and gait. The objective of this study is to evaluate the independent relationships between foot pain and mobility limitation in a population of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants (n = 1,544) from the Framingham Foot Study (2002–2008) were assessed for physical performance. Foot pain was documented using the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching, or stiffness in either foot?” Mobility limitation was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery, dichotomized using 1–9 as an indicator of mobility limitation and 10–12 as no mobility limitation. Results. Foot pain was reported by 19% of men and 25% of women. After adjusting for age, obesity, smoking status, and depression, foot pain was significantly associated with mobility limitation in both men (odds ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.14 – 3.50; p = .016) and women (odds ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.03 – 2.46; p = .037). Conclusion. In our study of older adults from the Framingham Foot Study, foot pain was associated with an increased odds of having mobility limitation in both men and women. Clinicians should consider assessment of foot pain in general examinations of older adults who are at risk of mobility limitation. PMID:23704204

  2. How visual perceptual grouping influences foot placement

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, John; Goodwin, Charlotte; Burn, Jeremy F.; Leonards, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Everybody would agree that vision guides locomotion; but how does vision influence choice when there are different solutions for possible foot placement? We addressed this question by investigating the impact of perceptual grouping on foot placement in humans. Participants performed a stepping stone task in which pathways consisted of target stones in a spatially regular path of foot falls and visual distractor stones in their proximity. Target and distractor stones differed in shape and colour so that each subset of stones could be easily grouped perceptually. In half of the trials, one target stone swapped shape and colour with a distractor in its close proximity. We show that in these ‘swapped’ conditions, participants chose the perceptually groupable, instead of the spatially regular, stepping location in over 40% of trials, even if the distance between perceptually groupable steps was substantially larger than normal step width/length. This reveals that the existence of a pathway that could be traversed without spatial disruption to periodic stepping is not sufficient to guarantee participants will select it and suggests competition between different types of visual input when choosing foot placement. We propose that a bias in foot placement choice in favour of visual grouping exists as, in nature, sudden changes in visual characteristics of the ground increase the uncertainty for stability. PMID:26587273

  3. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Semi-automatic readout equipment installed in the 1950s used for data recording and reduction in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST). A 1957 NACA report on wind tunnel facilities at Langley included these comments on the data recording and reduction equipment for the 8-foot HST: 'The data recording and reduction equipment used for handling steady force and pressure information at the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is similar to that described for the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Very little dynamic data recording equipment, however, is available.' The description of the 16-foot transonic tunnel equipment is as follows: 'A semiautomatic force data readout system provides tabulated raw data and punch card storage of raw data concurrent with the operation of the wind tunnel. Provision is made for 12 automatic channels of strain gage-data output, and eight channels of four-digit manually operated inputs are available for tabulating and punching constants, configuration codes, and other information necessary for data reduction and identification. The data are then processed on electronic computing machines to obtain the desired coefficients. These coefficients and their proper identification are then machine tabulated to provide a printed record of the results. The punched cards may also be fed into an automatic plotting device for the preparation of plots necessary for data analysis.'

  4. Foot pathology in insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S J; Shield, J P; Potter, M J; Baum, J D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Foot pathology is a major source of morbidity in adults with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if children with insulin dependent diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology compared with non-diabetic children. DESIGN--Questionnaire, clinical examination, and biomechanical assessment. SUBJECTS--67 diabetic children and a comparison group matched for age, sex, and social class. RESULTS--We found significantly more foot pathology in the children with diabetes (52 children) than the comparison group (28 children); with more biomechanical anomalies (58 children with diabetes, 34 comparison group); and a higher incidence of abnormal skin conditions (53 children with diabetes, 27 comparison group). Forty two children with diabetes had received foot health education compared with 27 in the comparison group, but the study revealed ignorance and misconceptions among the diabetic group, and previous contact with a podiatrist was minimal. CONCLUSIONS--The survey suggests that children with diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology justifying greater input of podiatric care in the hope of preventing later problems. PMID:7574860

  5. Nursing care of the aging foot.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel

    2009-01-01

    Feet are not necessarily the most attractive part of the body as it ages, and given the choice, most older adults would rather ignore them. In fact, many older adults cannot even see them, reach them, or care for them properly. And when they ache or look misshapen and oddly colored; well, that's just part of growing old, isn't it? The feet are important for weight bearing, balance, and mobility. Over an average life span, the feet are subject to considerable stress and trauma. Age-related changes of the foot predispose the older adult to discomfort if not pain, fungal infection, reduced range of motion, and itchy dry skin. More than three fourths of older adults (i.e., those age over 65 years) complain of foot pain that is associated with a significant foot problem and have evidence of arthritic changes on x-ray. Impaired ambulation can make the difference between independence versus dependency on others, engagement versus isolation. Assisted living is about choices. Being unable to get where one wants to go or do what one wants to do because of foot problems is a barrier to full enjoyment of the opportunities in assisted living communities. This article describes foot problems associated with aging, diabetes, nursing assessment of the feet, and nursing interventions in the service of accessing and optimizing choices for quality of life.

  6. Rear-foot, mid-foot and fore-foot motion during the stance phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Leardini, A; Benedetti, M G; Berti, L; Bettinelli, D; Nativo, R; Giannini, S

    2007-03-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol designed to track a large number of foot segments during the stance phase of gait with the smallest possible number of markers, with particular clinical focus on coronal plane alignment of the rear-foot, transverse and sagittal plane alignment of the metatarsal bones, and changes at the medial longitudinal arch. The shank, calcaneus, mid-foot and metatarsus were assumed to be 3D rigid bodies. The longitudinal axis of the first, second and fifth metatarsal bones and the proximal phalanx of the hallux were also tracked independently. Skin markers were mounted on bony prominences or joint lines, avoiding the course of main tendons. Trajectories of the 14 markers were collected by an eight-camera motion capture system at 100 Hz on a population of 10 young volunteers. Three-dimensional joint rotations and planar angles were calculated according to anatomically based reference frames. The marker set was well visible throughout the stance phase of gait, even in a camera configuration typical of gait analysis of the full body. The time-histories of the joint rotations and planar angles were well repeatable among subjects and consistent with clinical and biomechanical knowledge. Several dynamic measurements were originally taken, such as elevation/drop of the medial longitudinal arch and of three metatarsal bones, rear-foot to fore-foot rotation and transverse plane deformation of the metatarsus. The information obtained from this protocol, consistent with previous clinical knowledge, enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of the human foot during stance.

  7. The clinical management of diabetic foot in the elderly and medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Bruttocao, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot is a complex and challenging pathological state, characterized by high complexity of management, morbidity and mortality. The elderly present peculiar problems which interfere on one hand with the patient's compliance and on the other with their diagnostic-therapeutic management. Difficult clinical management may result in medico-legal problems, with criminal and civil consequences. In this context, the authors present a review of the literature, analysing aspects concerning the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot in the elderly which may turn out to be a source of professional responsibility. Analysis of these aspects provides an opportunity to discuss elements important not only for clinicians and medical workers but also experts (judges, lawyers, medico-legal experts) who must evaluate hypotheses of professional responsibility concerning diabetic foot in the elderly.

  8. [A creative approach to teaching diabetic foot examinations].

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hui; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2012-12-01

    Foot infections are a common chronic complication and a major reason for hospitalization in patients with diabetes. Performing foot examinations correctly and thoroughly may reduce diabetic foot risks and save patients from amputation and death. To assist professional nurses to learn the procedures and tools involved in foot examination, this study proposes that nurse trainers use creative thinking methods, such as those of Mandala, and mind mapping to conduct divergent thinking and analysis of training content define feasible training strategies. This study also proposes the use of rhymes and graphics such as creative mnemonics to help professional nurses expedite their learning of foot examination and preventive foot care techniques.

  9. Outpatient assessment and management of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    DiPreta, John A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are at risk for foot deformities and mechanical imbalance of the lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy leads to an insensate foot that puts the patient at risk for injury. When combined with deformity due to neuropathic arthropathy, or Charcot foot, the risks of impending ulceration, infection, and amputation are significant to the diabetic patient. Education of proper foot care and shoe wear cannot be overemphasized. For those with significant malalignment or deformity of the foot and ankle, referral should be made immediately to an orthopedic foot and ankle specialist.

  10. Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus 1

    PubMed Central

    Rossaneis, Mariana Angela; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Mathias, Thaís Aidar de Freitas; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate differences with regard to foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 1,515 individuals with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years old or older. Poisson regression models were used to identity differences in foot self-care deficit and lifestyle between sexes, adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: foot self-care deficit, characterized by not regularly drying between toes; not regularly checking feet; walking barefoot; poor hygiene and inappropriately trimmed nails, was significantly higher among men, though men presented a lower prevalence of feet scaling and use of inappropriate shoes when compared to women. With regard to lifestyle, men presented less healthy habits, such as not adhering to a proper diet and taking laboratory exams to check for lipid profile at the frequency recommended. Conclusion: the nursing team should take into account gender differences concerning foot self-care and lifestyle when implementing educational activities and interventions intended to decrease risk factors for foot ulceration. PMID:27533270

  11. Approach to managing diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, John A. A.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Of an estimated 1.7 to 2 million Canadians with diabetes, approximately 10% will present each year to their family doctors with plantar ulcers. Nearly 3500 will require major lower extremity amputations. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Most of the recommendations outlined in this paper are based on level I evidence from excellent bench research and epidemiologic studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics develop foot infections. These patients are on average 60 years old and have had diabetes for more than 10 years. Physicians who insist on excellent blood sugar control, provide ongoing patient education on diabetic foot care, prescribe appropriate shoes, and practise an aggressive multidisciplinary approach to wound care can reduce the rate of lower extremity amputations by more than 50%. CONCLUSION: Foot problems remain one of the main challenges associated with diabetes, but family physicians can manage them successfully. PMID:15116801

  12. [Mycetoma of the foot: a case report].

    PubMed

    Iniesta, A; Baptista, C; Guinard, D; Legré, R; Gay, A

    2015-04-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous and subcutaneous pathology caused by either a fongic (eumycetoma) or bacterial (actinomycetoma) infection, which lead to a granulomatous tumefaction with multiple sinuses. When localized in the foot this infection is named "Madura foot". This infection is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions and rarely occurs in western countries. A historical case in Europe of a foot mycetoma evolving since 20 years without any treatment is presented. A histopathologic diagnosis of actinomycetoma has been done in 1987. The patient presented a severe Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteitis leading to a trans-tibial amputation. This case allows to present this infection which, even if rarely presented in France, can be meet especially among a migrant's population. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Radiologic evaluation of chronic foot pain.

    PubMed

    Joong, Mo Ahn; El-Khoury, Georges Y

    2007-10-01

    Chronic foot pain is a common and often disabling clinical complaint that can interfere with a patient's routine activities. Despite careful and detailed clinical history and physical examination, providing an accurate diagnosis is often difficult because chronic foot pain has a broad spectrum of potential causes. Therefore, imaging studies play a key role in diagnosis and management. Initial assessment is typically done by plain radiography; however, magnetic resonance imaging has superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, which makes it important in the early diagnosis of ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases when initial radiographic findings are inconclusive. Computed tomography displays bony detail in stress fractures, as well as in arthritides and tarsal coalition. Bone scanning and ultrasonography also are useful tools for diagnosing specific conditions that produce chronic foot pain.

  14. The VSPA Foot: A Quasi-Passive Ankle-Foot Prosthesis with Continuously Variable Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Max K; Rouse, Elliott J

    2017-09-07

    Most commercially available prosthetic feet do not exhibit a biomimetic torque-angle relationship, and are unable to modulate their mechanics to assist with other mobility tasks, such as stairs and ramps. In this work, we present a quasi-passive ankle-foot prosthesis with a customizable torque-angle curve and an ability to quickly modulate ankle stiffness between tasks. The customizable torque-angle curve is obtained with a cam-based transmission and a fiberglass leaf spring. To achieve variable stiffness, the leaf spring's support conditions can be actively modulated by a small motor, shifting the torque-angle curve to be more or less stiff. We introduce the design, characterize the available torque-angle curves, and present kinematics from a transtibial amputee subject performing level-ground walking, stair ascent/descent, and ramp ascent/descent. The subject exhibited a more normative range of motion on stairs and ramps at lower stiffness levels, and preferred different stiffness levels for each task. Paired with an appropriate intent recognition system, our novel ankle prosthesis could improve gait biomechanics during walking and many other mobility tasks.

  15. Biomechanics and pathophysiology of flat foot.

    PubMed

    Van Boerum, Drew H; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2003-09-01

    When the foot works properly it is an amazing, adaptive, powerful aid during walking, running, jumping, and in locomotion up or down hill and over uneven ground. Dysfunction of the foot can often arise from the foot losing its normal structural support, thus altering is shape. An imbalance in the forces that tend to flatten the arch and those that support the arch can lead to loss of the medial longitudinal arch. An increase in the arch-flattening effects of the triceps surae or an increase in the weight of the body will tend to flatten the arch. Weakness of the muscular, ligamentous, or bony arch supporting structures will lead to collapse of the arch. The main factors that contribute to an acquired flat foot deformity are excessive tension in the triceps surae, obesity, PTT dysfunction, or ligamentous laxity in the spring ligament, plantar fascia, or other supporting plantar ligaments. Too little support for the arch or too much arch flattening effect will lead to collapse of the arch. Acquired flat foot most often arises from a combination of too much force flattening the arch in the face of too little support for the arch. Treatment of the adult acquired flat foot is often difficult. The clinician should remember the biomechanics of the normal arch and respond with a treatment that strengthens the supporting structures of the arch or weakens the arch-flattening effects on the arch. After osteotomies or certain hindfoot fusions, the role of the supporting muscles of the arch, in particular the PTT, play less of a role in supporting the arch. Rebalancing the forces that act on the arch can improve function and lessen the chance for further or subsequent development of deformity.

  16. Development of a Composite Antenna Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnes, Lionel

    2012-07-01

    MECANO ID develops and produces composite parts using RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) and LRI (Liquid Resin Infusion) processes. In collaboration with THALES ALENIA SPACE and ONERA, this project aims at replacing titanium antenna feet, which interface the Earth deck antenna of a telecommunication satellite to its support panel, with composite feet. The objectives of the presentation are to detail: - The methodology applied to develop the composite antenna foot - The experimental validation of the foot sizing This project was granted by the French state and the region Midi-Pyrénées.

  17. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  18. Biomechanics of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Morris, J M

    1977-01-01

    The human foot evolved to provide: (1) mechanisms to limit the excursion of the center of mass during ambulation and thereby minimize the expenditure of energy; (2) a base of support of sufficien dimensions for the stability necessary to maintain the upright position without excessive muscular activity; (3) mechanisms for flexibility to absorb the shock of the body weight and for accommodation to uneven terrain; (4) rigidity of the foot when it acts as a lever in the push-off period of stance.

  19. Percutaneous Pediatric Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Uglow, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    The techniques for performing percutaneous osteotomies in treating deformities of the foot in children are presented along with a detailed description of the operative details. The author's use of minimal-access surgery for tibial, os calcis, and midfoot osteotomies is described using a cooled side-cutting burr that has not previously been described for use in the child's foot. The cancellous nature of the bones in the child are easily cut with the burr and the adjacent soft tissues are not damaged. The early experience of the healing times are not impaired and the complications associated with percutaneous scars seem to be negligible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Foot and ankle injuries in theatrical dancers.

    PubMed

    Hardaker, W T; Margello, S; Goldner, J L

    1985-10-01

    The theatrical dancer is a unique combination of athlete and artist. The physical demands of dance class, rehearsal, and performance can lead to injury, particularly to the foot and ankle. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Chronic injuries predominate and relate primarily to the repeated impact loading of the foot and ankle on the dance floor. Contributing factors include anatomic variation, improper technique, and fatigue. Early and aggressive conservative management is usually successful and surgery is rarely indicated. Orthotics play a limited but potentially useful role in treatment. Following treatment, a structured rehabilitation program is fundamental to the successful return to dance.

  1. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  3. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  4. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  5. Assessing foot care knowledge in a rural population with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Neil, Janice A

    2002-01-01

    In people with insensate extremities, such as those with diabetes mellitus, daily foot care and inspection can prevent the development of foot ulcers and the subsequent complications that may lead to amputation--one of the biggest threats to adults with diabetes. Preventive behaviors focus on not going barefoot, performing/receiving proper foot care, and wearing properly fitting shoes. This descriptive study of footcare practices involved a convenience sample of 61 adult men and women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, 24 with existing foot ulcers and 37 without foot ulcers, who resided in a rural area of a southeastern state. The questionnaire was divided into four categories: foot inspection, foot cleaning, nail care, and use of footwear. Out of a possible score of 20, those with foot ulcers scored an average of 13.88 and those without ulcers averaged 13.57. These results reveal that those without foot ulcers have similar foot care practices to those with foot ulcers. This instrument is useful in assessing current foot care practices on a point-in-time basis. Preventive practices must be stressed and reinforced so those without foot ulcers do not develop ulcers.

  6. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    van Schie, C H M

    2005-09-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to increased plantar foot pressure, which is a predictive risk factor for the development of diabetic foot ulceration. Prevention of diabetic foot ulceration is possible by early identification of the insensitive foot, therefore a foot "at risk," and by protecting the foot from abnormal biomechanical loading. Abnormal foot pressures can be reduced using several different approaches, including callus debridement, prescription of special footwear, injection of liquid silicone, Achilles tendon lengthening, and so forth. Off-loading of the diabetic wound is a key factor in successful wound healing, as it is associated with reduced inflammatory and accelerated repair processes. Pressure relief can be achieved using various off-loading modalities including accommodative dressing, walking splints, ankle-foot orthosis, total contact cast, and removable and irremovable cast walkers.

  7. Determination of free bilirubin and its binding capacity by HSA using a microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis device with a multi-segment circular-ferrofluid-driven micromixing injection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Nie, Zhou; Fung, Ying Sing

    2010-09-01

    A PMMA microfluidic chip-CE device with a multi-segment circular-ferrofluid-driven micromixing injector has been developed for the determination of free bilirubin and its binding capacity by HSA at equilibrium. The design of the device and its fabrication by a low cost CO(2) laser are discussed for intended applications. Under optimized conditions, the total binding capacity of HSA for bilirubin was determined as 16.3±1.4 mg/l00 mL human serum (n=3) and residual binding capacity for bilirubin 9.8 mg/100 mL (n=3) in normal infants. To assess risk of hyperbilirubinemia, free bilirubin and residual binding capacity by HSA provide a better indicator than total bilirubin, as neonates with impaired bilirubin binding capacity could be detected. In addition, residual binding capacity provides an advanced indicator to predict the onset of hyperbilirubinemia before the appearance of free bilirubin. HSA down to 94 nL is used in each titration and a full assay of four titrations takes up 376 nL HSA, sufficient for newborns with HSA in microliter range. The device has shown capable to provide adequate margin of protection to detect an early rising level of bilirubin and impaired binding capacity prior to the onset of jaundice condition.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Encyclopedia: Hypospadias Encyclopedia: Urinary Tract Infection Health Topic: Foot Injuries and Disorders Health Topic: Hand Injuries and Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Hand foot uterus syndrome Educational Resources (5 links) American Society ...

  9. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  10. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  11. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations.

  14. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control.

  15. Outcomes of a Nurse-Managed Diabetes Foot Clinic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    foot wound prevention in patients with diabetes have used primarily non - experimental or quasi-experimental designs. Thus, using an experimental... diabetic foot wounds occurred in non -study patients who received little to no foot care. At the lowest estimate of the average cost of treating a...gap exists in the overall foot care of patients with diabetes , as demonstrated by the 46 admissions to BAMC during the study period of non -study

  16. Puncture wounds of the foot: can infective complications be avoided?

    PubMed Central

    Pennycook, A; Makower, R; O'Donnell, A M

    1994-01-01

    The bacteriological flora of the foot and shoe was studied concurrently in 200 volunteers without foot injuries, and 80 patients with puncture wounds of the foot. Seven of 28 child patients developed clinical infections, three with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of 52 adult patients also developed infections. No patients developed infection if oral antibiotics were given within the first 24 h after injury (P < 0.05). Oral antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for puncture wounds of the foot. PMID:7966102

  17. Puncture wounds of the foot: can infective complications be avoided?

    PubMed

    Pennycook, A; Makower, R; O'Donnell, A M

    1994-10-01

    The bacteriological flora of the foot and shoe was studied concurrently in 200 volunteers without foot injuries, and 80 patients with puncture wounds of the foot. Seven of 28 child patients developed clinical infections, three with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of 52 adult patients also developed infections. No patients developed infection if oral antibiotics were given within the first 24 h after injury (P < 0.05). Oral antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for puncture wounds of the foot.

  18. McArthur performs FOOT setup operations during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-10

    ISS012-E-14518 (10 Jan. 2006) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur, Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, talks to Mission Control Center while holding the Total Force Foot Ground Interface (TF-FGI) during Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment set-up operations in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The Foot Ground Interface Flight Calibration Unit (FGI-GCU) is visible at right.

  19. Characterization of a type O foot-and-mouth disease virus re-emerging in the year 2011 in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Malirat, Viviana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Benitez, Elizabeth Oviedo; Pedemonte, Andrea; Seki, Cristina; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Balette, Cristina I; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Toledo, Jorge Rodríguez; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2013-03-23

    Molecular, antigenic and vaccine matching studies, including protective response in vivo, were conducted with a foot-and-mouth disease type O virus isolated during the outbreak in September 2011 in San Pedro, Paraguay, country internationally recognized as free with vaccination in 1997. The phylogenetic tree derived from complete VP(1) sequences as well as monoclonal antibody profiling indicated that this isolate was related to viruses responsible for previous emergencies in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America occurring sporadically between the years 2000 and 2006. Marked differences with the vaccine strain O(1)/Campos, including the loss of reactivity with neutralizing MAbs, were recognized. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine containing the O(1)/Campos strain against the San Pedro virus and the virus responsible for the previous emergency in 2006 in the Southern Cone assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies pointed to an insufficient protective response 30 days after vaccination (DPV), which was properly attained at 79 DPV or after revaccination. In agreement with the in vitro assessment, the in vivo challenge in the Protection against Podal Generalization test in cattle indicated appropriate protection for the San Pedro strain at 79 DPV or after revaccination. The complementary conclusions that can be derived from vaccine matching tests designed differently to fit the various objectives intended: prophylaxis, emergency vaccination or incorporation of new field strains into antigen banks, is evaluated. This is the first report of the antigenic and immunogenic characterization of the variants responsible for emergencies in the Southern Cone of South America and the putative impact of the changes on the cross protection conferred by the vaccine strain.

  20. Biomechanics of foot/ankle trauma with variable energy impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gallenberger, Kathryn; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 pendulum impacts to the plantar surface of 15 lower limb PMHS specimens were conducted. Impact conditions were chosen to obtain data from high velocity tests without injury. For 19 impacts the specimen was initially positioned in 20-deg of dorsiflexion. The remaining impacts used neutral positioning. The foot-ankle response was investigated based on impact energy and velocity. Response was characterized by heel pad and joint stiffness. For neutral tests, axial force vs compression corridors were developed for 2–3 m/s, 4–6 m/s, and 7–63 J impacts. For dorsiflexion tests corridors of 1–3 m/s, 6–8 m/s, 7–20 J, and 80–100 J were developed. These results indicate foot/ankle response is not more sensitive to impact energy than velocity. Injury risk curves were developed for both neutral and dorsiflexion positioning using logistic regression. Strain gage data were used to obtain uncensored force values for injury analysis. In neutral, 50% probability of injury occurred at 6800 N. In dorsiflexion, 50% probability occurred at 7900 N, but the regression was not statistically significant. These preliminary results indicate dorsiflexed specimens fracture at a higher force than neutral specimens. PMID:24406952

  1. Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Bates, K. T.; Savage, R.; Pataky, T. C.; Morse, S. A.; Webster, E.; Falkingham, P. L.; Ren, L.; Qian, Z.; Collins, D.; Bennett, M. R.; McClymont, J.; Crompton, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Footprints are the most direct source of evidence about locomotor biomechanics in extinct vertebrates. One of the principal suppositions underpinning biomechanical inferences is that footprint geometry correlates with dynamic foot pressure, which, in turn, is linked with overall limb motion of the trackmaker. In this study, we perform the first quantitative test of this long-standing assumption, using topological statistical analysis of plantar pressures and experimental and computer-simulated footprints. In computer-simulated footprints, the relative distribution of depth differed from the distribution of both peak and pressure impulse in all simulations. Analysis of footprint samples with common loading inputs and similar depths reveals that only shallow footprints lack significant topological differences between depth and pressure distributions. Topological comparison of plantar pressures and experimental beach footprints demonstrates that geometry is highly dependent on overall print depth; deeper footprints are characterized by greater relative forefoot, and particularly toe, depth than shallow footprints. The highlighted difference between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ footprints clearly emphasizes the need to understand variation in foot mechanics across different degrees of substrate compliance. Overall, our results indicate that extreme caution is required when applying the ‘depth equals pressure’ paradigm to hominin footprints, and by extension, those of other extant and extinct tetrapods. PMID:23516064

  2. Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?

    PubMed

    Bates, K T; Savage, R; Pataky, T C; Morse, S A; Webster, E; Falkingham, P L; Ren, L; Qian, Z; Collins, D; Bennett, M R; McClymont, J; Crompton, R H

    2013-06-06

    Footprints are the most direct source of evidence about locomotor biomechanics in extinct vertebrates. One of the principal suppositions underpinning biomechanical inferences is that footprint geometry correlates with dynamic foot pressure, which, in turn, is linked with overall limb motion of the trackmaker. In this study, we perform the first quantitative test of this long-standing assumption, using topological statistical analysis of plantar pressures and experimental and computer-simulated footprints. In computer-simulated footprints, the relative distribution of depth differed from the distribution of both peak and pressure impulse in all simulations. Analysis of footprint samples with common loading inputs and similar depths reveals that only shallow footprints lack significant topological differences between depth and pressure distributions. Topological comparison of plantar pressures and experimental beach footprints demonstrates that geometry is highly dependent on overall print depth; deeper footprints are characterized by greater relative forefoot, and particularly toe, depth than shallow footprints. The highlighted difference between 'shallow' and 'deep' footprints clearly emphasizes the need to understand variation in foot mechanics across different degrees of substrate compliance. Overall, our results indicate that extreme caution is required when applying the 'depth equals pressure' paradigm to hominin footprints, and by extension, those of other extant and extinct tetrapods.

  3. [Neuropad test in evaluation of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Vieru, Alexandra; Niţă, Otilia; Graur, Lidia Iuliana; Mazilu, Georgiana; Mihalache, Laura; Popescu, Raluca Maria; Graur, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the main cause of foot ulceration. One of the earliest modifications is the loss of normal sudomotor function, a sign of autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate sudomotor dysfunction using a new tool (Neuropad) in diabetic patients with foot ulceration. We included 58 diabetic patients with foot ulceration admitted in 2010 in the Clinical Center for Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases. We collected data regarding age, gender, type and duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), history of amputations and duration of hospital admission. Peripheral neuropathy was evaluated through the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) and autonomic neuropathy was tested through Neuropad. 95% of patients had NDS > or = 6, among which 76% had also positive Neuropad test. Patients with both peripheral and autonomic neuropathy had longer duration of diabetes (p = 0.027) but similar HbA1c as patients with only peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.09). The former also had longer duration of current admission (p = 0.022) and a higher percentage of these patients had history of amputations (p = 0.041). Neuropad is a reliable, easy to use test for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, which puts patients at greater risk for foot ulceration and amputation.

  4. Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.

    PubMed

    Burba, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds.

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  6. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  7. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  8. [Interdisciplinary treatment of diabetic foot syndrome].

    PubMed

    Eckardt, A; Kraus, O; Küstner, E; Neufang, A; Schmiedt, W; Meurer, A; Schöllner, C; Schadmand-Fischer, S

    2003-03-01

    The amputation rate in patients with diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) in Germany is still as high as 28,000 per year. Ischemia and osteomyelitis often complicate the DFS. Impaired wound healing frequently requires further surgery with a higher amputation level. The results of treating patients with DFS in our specialized foot care center were evaluated in order to assess our interdisciplinary strategy. Advanced diabetic foot wounds in patients with ischemia and osteomyelitis first require diagnostics concerning polyneuropathy, osteomyelitis, and blood supply. If peripheral arterial vessel disease is present, surgical revascularization by distal bypass grafting is the first and crucially important element of the interdisciplinary approach. Minor amputation or elective resection of the infected bone improves wound healing. Post-interventional care for wounds with secondary healing and prevention of new ulcers are provided in a foot care clinic specialized in diabetes. The clinical and radiological results of 77 patients who underwent this treatment algorithm including bypass surgery and bone resection within 1 year were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Those results were subjected to a historical comparison. Only three patients needed further intervention because of persisting ulcers and osteomyelitis. The frequency of major amputations in all patients with DFS and ischemia combined with osteomyelitis was low (10.3%). This interdisciplinary concept of treatment guarantees a high healing rate in patients even with osteomyelitis and ischemia and allows the reduction of the rate of major amputations. The data obtained allow a fact-based design for future studies.

  9. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  10. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  11. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the foot.

    PubMed

    Cisco, R W; McCormac, R M

    1994-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a rare benign reactive lesion usually found in thrombosed subcutaneous blood vessels. The lesion resembles malignant angiosarcoma clinically and histopathologically, and must be diagnosed correctly to avoid inappropriate treatment. The following is a case presentation involving the foot.

  12. Gas Gangrene of the Diabetic Foot.

    PubMed

    Kuy, SreyRam; Romero, Ramon A L; Kuy, SreyReath

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year old man presented with a painful left foot and a putrid odor. His past medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease. His surgical history included a prior right below-knee amputation for a diabetic foot infection three years prior, and a left third toe amputation for osteomyelitis one month ago. He was an active smoker. His laboratory data revealed a white blood count of 22 k/uL and a blood glucose of 381 mg/dL. Physical exam demonstrated an erythematous and edematous left foot with subcutaneous crepitus along the plantar surface. Plain film x-rays of the left foot demonstrated gas pockets in the soft tissue and acute osteomyelitis (Figure 1). The patient was diagnosed with gas gangrene and was taken emergently to the operating room. In order to obtain source control of this life threatening infection, a left below-knee amputation was performed and broad spectrum empiric antibiotics were initiated immediately with vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Cultures were not obtained at the time of surgery and the organisms causing this infection are unknown. The patient survived and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility.

  13. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  14. Work-up of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William B; Ledermann, Hans Peter

    2002-09-01

    Diabetes is a common disease with potentially devastating complications affecting the foot and ankle. A combination of vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and immunopathy results in a cascade of conditions including ischemia and infarction, tendinopathy, atrophy, edema, deformity, neuropathic osteoarthropathy, callus, ulceration, and infection. MRI is useful for evaluation of these complications, and assists the clinician in medical or surgical planning.

  15. Rare presentation of foot postaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Atif; Arshad, Ambreen; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polydactyly is a prevalent birth anomaly observed in the foot, and a number of classification systems have been suggested for this condition. Postaxial (fifth or little toe) polydactyly is the most common type. We encountered an exceedingly rare presentation of foot postaxial polydactyly that, to our inspection, had neither been previously classified nor described in published studies. In the present report, we have described an otherwise healthy 2-year-old female who had presented to our clinic with an isolated, extra little toe on her left foot. Foot radiographs revealed the presence of all 5 metatarsals; however, the fifth metatarsal was blocked and did not give rise to the fifth toe. Instead, the fifth (medial normal) and sixth (lateral extra) toes had originated from a single, separate accessory bud from the fourth metatarsal, and the main fourth metatarsal had given rise to the normal fourth toe. The lateral sixth toe was excised, and a periosteal sleeve of the excised extra toe was used for reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament. We propose that this heretofore unmentioned presentation of postaxial polydactyly be added to the existing systems of classification of pedal polydactyly. A review of the published data pertaining to pedal polydactyly has also been presented.

  16. Tumors of the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Shankman, S; Cisa, J; Present, D

    1994-02-01

    Although tumor and tumor-like conditions of the foot and ankle are unusual, certain bone and soft tissue lesions are more common than others. Conventional radiographs remain essential in all such cases and are especially specific for intraosseous tumors. MR imaging is more sensitive to the presence and extent of both bone and soft tissue lesions.

  17. The foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Zipfel, Bernhard; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Kidd, Robert S; Carlson, Kristian J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2011-09-09

    A well-preserved and articulated partial foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba, including an associated complete adult distal tibia, talus, and calcaneus, have been discovered at the Malapa site, South Africa, and reported in direct association with the female paratype Malapa Hominin 2. These fossils reveal a mosaic of primitive and derived features that are distinct from those seen in other hominins. The ankle (talocrural) joint is mostly humanlike in form and inferred function, and there is some evidence for a humanlike arch and Achilles tendon. However, Au. sediba is apelike in possessing a more gracile calcaneal body and a more robust medial malleolus than expected. These observations suggest, if present models of foot function are correct, that Au. sediba may have practiced a unique form of bipedalism and some degree of arboreality. Given the combination of features in the Au. sediba foot, as well as comparisons between Au. sediba and older hominins, homoplasy is implied in the acquisition of bipedal adaptations in the hominin foot.

  18. Health Update: Foot Problems of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses common foot problems of young children and ways parents, child caregivers, and physicians should deal with them. Particular attention is given to care and medical treatment for flat feet, peeling feet, and "w"-sitting in young children. (Author/BB)

  19. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... often fit poorly and irritate your skin. Buy shoes that fit properly. Buy comfortable shoes that provide support and cushioning for the heel, arch and ball of the foot. Avoid tightfitting shoes and high heels or narrow shoes that crowd ...

  20. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    PubMed

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  1. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Interior view of the slotted throat test section installed in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) in 1950. The slotted region is about 160 inches in length. In this photograph, the sting-type model support is seen straight on. In a NASA report, the test section is described as follows: 'The test section of the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is dodecagonal in cross section and has a cross-sectional area of about 43 square feet. Longitudinal slots are located between each of the 12 wall panels to allow continuous operation through the transonic speed range. The slots contain about 11 percent of the total periphery of the test section. Six of the twelve panels have windows in them to allow for schlieren observations. The entire test section is enclosed in a hemispherical shaped chamber.' John Becker noted that the tunnel's 'final achievement was the development and use in routine operations of the first transonic slotted throat. The investigations of wing-body shapes in this tunnel led to Whitcomb's discovery of the transonic area rule.' James Hansen described the origins of the the slotted throat as follows: 'In 1946 Langley physicist Ray H. Wright conceived a way to do transonic research effectively in a wind tunnel by placing slots in the throat of the test section. The concept for what became known as the slotted-throat or slotted-wall tunnel came to Wright not as a solution to the chronic transonic problem, but as a way to get rid of wall interference (i.e., the mutual effect of two or more meeting waves or vibrations of any kind caused by solid boundaries) at subsonic speeds. For most of the year before Wright came up with this idea, he had been trying to develop a theoretical understanding of wall interference in the 8-Foot HST, which was then being repowered for Mach 1 capability.' When Wright presented these ideas to John Stack, the response was enthusiastic but neither Wright nor Stack thought of slotted-throats as a solution to the transonic problem, only

  2. Risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Wasim; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Ghaffar, Salma; Al-Swailmi, Farhan Khasham; Khan, Ihsanullah

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus. Many risk factors are involved in its causation. This study was conducted to determine risk factors responsible for foot ulcer in diabetic patients. A total of 196 consecutive patients with diabetic foot were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical findings and investigations were recorded. Lesions were graded according to Wagner's classification, and appropriate medical and/or surgical treatment was carried out. Patients who did not consent to participate in the study had established gangrene of the foot, or had any medical co-morbidity especially chronic heart failure and chronic renal failure which could influence these risk factors were excluded from the study. Data were collected on a special proforma for analysis. Out of 196 patients 80.1% were male. One hundred and forty-six (74.48%) patients were in the range of 40-70) years. Right foot was more commonly involved (65.3%). 91.3% patients had diabetes of more than 5 years duration. No treatment had been received by 47.4% patients while 41.3% were on oral anti-diabetics; 11.2% patients were on insulin. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy was present in 51% patients, 62.8% had absent or diminished peripheral pulses, 43.4% had poorly controlled diabetes. According to the Wagner classification 30.6% patients had grade 1, 26.5% had grade 2, and 42.9% had grade 3 diabetic foot. Evidence of infection was seen in 85.7% patients: staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 43.4% patients. Osteomyelitis was present in 42.9% patients. Surgical intervention was performed in 85.7% patients. Direct relation was found between the duration of diabetes, sugar control, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease. grade of diabetic foot, evidence of osteomyelitis, intervention and the outcome of the disease. Neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, duration of diseases and undlerlying osteomylitis are the major risk factors and

  3. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  4. Footwear and foot care knowledge as risk factors for foot problems in Indian diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Chandalia, H. B.; Singh, D.; Kapoor, V.; Chandalia, S. H.; Lamba, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed 300 diabetic and 100 age- and sex-matched controls for correlating foot wear practices and foot care knowledge and the presence of foot complications. A structured questionnaire evaluated the knowledge about foot care, type of footwear used, education level, association of tobacco abuse, and any associated symptoms of foot disease. Clinical evaluation was done by inspection of feet for presence of any external deformities, assessment of sensory function (vibration perception threshold, VPT), vascular status (foot pulses and ankle brachial ratio) and presence of any infection. In the diabetes category, 44.7% patients had not received previous foot care education. 0.6% walked barefoot outdoors and 45% walked barefoot indoors. Fourteen (4.7%) patients gave history of foot ulceration in the past and comprised the high risk group; only 2 out of 14 had received foot care education, 6 gave history of tobacco abuse, 8 had symptoms of claudication, 9 had paresthesias, 2 walked barefoot indoors. Average duration of diabetes in the high-risk and low-risk diabetes group was 10.85 ± 6.53 and 9.83 ± 7.99 years, respectively. In the high- and low-risk diabetic groups, VPT was 19.57 ± 11.26 and 15.20 ± 10.21V (P < 0.02), ankle brachial ratio was 1.05 ± 0.19 and 1.14 ± 0.18 (P < 0.05), and the questionnaire scores was 40.8% and 57%, respectively. In the diabetic and the control group, VPT was 15.62 ± 10.39 and 8.36 ± 3.61 V (P < 0.01), ankle brachial ratio was 1.14 ± 0.18 and 1.15 ± 0.12, and the questionnaire scores were 57% and 40.3%, respectively. In conclusion, poor knowledge of foot care and poor footwear practices were important risk factors for foot problems in diabetes. PMID:20165597

  5. The Diabetic Foot: The Importance of Coordinated Care

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dean Y.; Wilkins, C. Jason; Evans, David R.; Ammar, Thoraya; Deane, Colin; Vas, Prashanth R.; Rashid, Hisham; Sidhu, Paul S.; Edmonds, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the severe morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes, diabetic foot care is an essential component of a peripheral vascular service. The goal of this article is to describe the vascular diabetic foot care pathway and how the coordinated foot care service for diabetic patients is delivered at King's College Hospital, London. PMID:25435655

  6. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  7. Systemic Blastomycosis with Osseous Involvement of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Mollano, Anthony V; Shamsuddin, Hala; Suh, Jin-Soo

    2005-01-01

    We report a patient who presented with three months of foot pain, lytic bone lesions in the foot, and a painless ipsilateral leg skin ulcer. Bone and skin biopsies revealed organisms compatible with Blastomyces. Systemic blastomycosis is rare, especially with bone involvement in the foot. PMID:16089073

  8. Northeastern forest survey revised cubic-foot volume equations

    Treesearch

    Charles T. Scott

    1981-01-01

    Cubic-foot volume equations are presented for the 17 species groups used in the forest survey of the 14 northeastern states. The previous cubic- foot volume equations were simple linear in form; the revised cubic-foot volume equations are nonlinear.

  9. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  10. Tendon Transfers Around the Foot: When and Where.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ken N; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Krzak, Joseph J; Smith, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Tendon transfers are invaluable in the treatment of severe children's foot deformities. They are often preferable to simple releases, lengthening, or fusion in surgical treatment because they provide an active motor function for deformity correction and, when properly selected, the procedures stabilize the foot against progressive deformity. The authors describe 4 commonly used tendon transfer procedures that are useful in children's foot deformity surgeries.

  11. 3D morphology of the rear foot from MRI data: technical validation and clinical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stindel, Eric; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Hirsch, Bruce E.; Odhner, Dewey; Couture, Christine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the 3D morphology of the bones of the rear foot using MR data. This work has two subaims: (1) to study the variability of the various computed architectural measures as a result of the subjectivity and variations in the various processing operations; (2) to study the morphology of the bones included in the peritalar complex. Each image data set utilized in this study consists of 60 longitudinal slices of the foot acquired on a 1.5 T commercial GE MR system. Our description of the rear foot morphology is based mainly on the principal axes, which represent the inertia axes of the bones, as well as on the bone surfaces. We use the live-wire method for segmenting and forming the surfaces of the bones. In the first part of this work, we focus on the dependence of the principal axes system on segmentation and on scan orientation. In the second part, we describe the normal morphology of the rear foot considering the four bones (calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, talus) and compare them to a population from the Upper Pleistocene. We conclude that this non-invasive method can be used in live patients to characterize the bone morphology or as a comparative method to classify population of bones. in spite of the variations involved in the various processing operations.

  12. Board-Foot and cubic-foot volume tables for Alaska-cedar in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Donald J. DeMars

    1996-01-01

    Four tables give cubic-foot and board-foot volume estimates for Alaska-cedar given breast-height diameter outside bark (DBHOB) and either total tree height or number of logs to a 6-inch top. The values for DBHOB and total tree height (or number of logs in the tree) that are in the tables have been limited to the ranges these variables had in the sample data.

  13. Board-foot and cubic-foot volume tables for western red cedar in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Donald J. DeMars

    1996-01-01

    Four tables give cubic-foot and board-foot volume estimates for western redcedar given breast height diameter outside bark (DBHOB) and either total tree height or number of logs to a 6-inch top. The values for DBHOB and total tree height (or number of logs in the tree) that are in the tables have been limited to the ranges these variables had in the sample data.

  14. Concordance in diabetic foot ulcer infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, E Andrea; Backhouse, Michael Ross; Bhogal, Moninder S; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Nixon, Jane; Brown, Sarah; Gray, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Accurate identification of pathogens, rather than colonising bacteria, is a prerequisite for targeted antibiotic therapy to ensure optimal patient outcome in wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers. Wound swabs are the easiest and most commonly used sampling technique but most published guidelines recommend instead removal of a tissue sample from the wound bed, which is a more complex process. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between culture results from wound swabs and tissue samples in patients with suspected diabetic foot infection. Methods and analysis Patients with a diabetic foot ulcer that is thought to be infected are being recruited from 25 sites across England in a cross-sectional study. The coprimary endpoints for the study are agreement between the two sampling techniques for three microbiological parameters: reported presence of likely isolates identified by the UK Health Protection Agency; resistance of isolates to usual antibiotic agents; and, the number of isolates reported per specimen. Secondary endpoints include appropriateness of the empiric antibiotic therapy prescribed and adverse events. Enrolling 400 patients will provide 80% power to detect a difference of 3% in the reported presence of an organism, assuming organism prevalence of 10%, discordance of 5% and a two-sided test at the 5% level of significance. Assumed overall prevalence is based on relatively uncommon organisms such as Pseudomonas. We will define acceptable agreement as κ>0.6. Ethics and dissemination Concordance in diabetic foot ulcer infection (CODIFI) will produce robust data to evaluate the two most commonly used sampling techniques employed for patients with a diabetic foot infection. This will help determine whether or not it is important that clinicians take tissue samples rather than swabs in infected ulcers. This study has been approved by the Sheffield NRES Committee (Ref: 11/YH/0078) and all sites have obtained local approvals prior

  15. [Diabetic foot osteomyelitis: is conservative treatment possible?].

    PubMed

    Jordano-Montañez, Queralt; Muñiz-Tatay, Montse; Viadé-Julià, Jordi; Jaen-Manzanera, Angeles; Royo-Serrando, Josep; Cuchí-Burgos, Eva; Anglada-Barceló, Jordi; de la Sierra-Iserte, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the proportion of foot ulcers, complicated by osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, that heal without amputation. Furthermore, an attempt is made to analyze the main clinical and microbiological characteristics of episodes, and to identify potential predictive factors leading to the failure of conservative treatment. A prospective observational study was carried out between 2007 and 2009 on diabetic patients with a foot lesion and attending a diabetic foot clinic. A percutaneous bone biopsy was required to be included in the study. A total of 81 episodes of diabetic foot osteomyelitis in 64 patients were evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus (28/81) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (22/81) were the most frequent organisms isolated. Among the gramnegative group (34/81), non-fermenting gram negative bacteria were the most prevalent organisms isolated (14/81). Conservative treatment was successful in 73% of episodes. After a logistic regression analysis using the most significant prognostic variables, only lesion size greater than 2cm independently predicted failure of conservative treatment. Culture guided antibiotic treatment was associated with a better prognosis. Conservative treatment, including culture-guided antibiotics, is successful without amputation in a large proportion of diabetic patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Considering empiric therapy directed at non-fermenting gramnegative bacteria could be advisable in some cases, because they are frequently isolated in our setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Foot Syndactyly: A Clinical and Demographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Byung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Syndactyly of the foot is the second most common congenital foot anomaly. In East Asia, however, no large case study has been reported regarding the clinical features of isolated foot syndactyly. In this study, we report a review of 118 patients during the last 25 years. Methods We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent surgical correction for foot syndactyly between January 1990 and December 2014. Operations were performed with a dorsal triangular flap and a full-thickness skin graft. The demographics of included patients and their clinical features were evaluated. Surgical outcomes and complications were analyzed. Results Among 118 patients with 194 webs (155 feet), 111 patients showed nonsyndromic cases and 7 patients showed syndromic cases. In 80 unilateral cases (72.1%), the second web was the most frequently involved (37.5%), followed by the fourth (30%), the first (15%), the third (15%), the first and second in combination (1.3%), and the second and third in combination (1.3%). Among 31 bilateral cases, 2 cases were asymmetric. Among the remaining 29 symmetric bilateral cases, the second web was the most frequently involved (45.2%), followed by the first (22.6%), and the fourth (6.5%). No specific postoperative complications were observed, except in the case of 1 patient (0.51%) who required a secondary operation to correct web creep. Conclusions This retrospective clinical study of 118 patients with both unilateral and bilateral foot syndactyly revealed that the second web was the most frequently involved. In addition, complete division and tension-free wound closure with a full-thickness skin graft of sufficient size showed good postoperative results. PMID:27896188

  17. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID

  18. Foot exercise and taping in patients with patellofemoral pain and pronated foot.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Yoon, Jangwhon; Cynn, Heonseock

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of three foot conditions (untreated, short foot [SF] exercise, and Tape) on knee and ankle muscle activity during forward descending of stairs in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and a pronated foot. Surface electromyography activities in the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and abductor hallucis (AbdH) were recorded during forward descending stairs; Surface electromyography data were expressed as percentages of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction. A total of 18 subjects (6 males and 12 females) with PFPS and a pronated foot participated in the current study. The SF exercise was associated with significantly greater AbdH muscle activity compared to the tape condition during forward descending stairs. However, there was no significant difference in VMO or VL muscle activity, or in the VMO/VL muscle activity ratio, among the three foot conditions. The SF exercise was the most effective method of increasing AbdH muscle activity during forward descending stairs in subjects with PFPS and a pronated foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing accuracy and reproducibility of body resistance measurements by foot-to-foot impedancemeters.

    PubMed

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Assadi, Imen

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of a BodySignal V2 (Tefal, France) foot-to-foot impedancemeter (FFI) was modified to display the foot-to-foot resistance instead of body fat. This device was connected to electrodes of different sizes mounted on a podoscope permitting photographs of subjects feet soles and electrodes in order to calculate the contact area between feet and electrodes. The foot-to-foot resistance was found to decrease when the contact area of feet with current and voltage electrodes increased. It was also sensitive to feet displacement and a backward move of 5 cm increased the mean resistance by 37 Ω. The resistance reproducibility was tested by asking the subject to repeat measurements 10-times by stepping up and down from the podoscope. The mean SD of these tests was 0.88% of mean resistance, but it fell to 0.47% when feet position was guided and to 0.29% with transverse voltage electrodes. For good reproducibility, it is important that voltage electrodes be small and that the scale design facilitates a correct position of heels on these electrodes.

  20. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  1. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer corrects the foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Dreher, T; Wolf, S I; Heitzmann, D; Fremd, C; Klotz, M C; Wenz, W

    2014-03-19

    The foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is commonly treated by tendon transfer to provide substitute foot dorsiflexion or by tenodesis to prevent the foot from dropping. Our goals were to use three-dimensional foot analysis to evaluate the outcome of tibialis posterior tendon transfer to the dorsum of the foot and to investigate whether the transfer works as an active substitution or as a tenodesis. We prospectively studied fourteen patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and cavovarus foot deformity in whom twenty-three feet were treated with tibialis posterior tendon transfer to correct the foot drop component as part of a foot deformity correction procedure. Five patients underwent unilateral treatment and nine underwent bilateral treatment; only one foot was analyzed in each of the latter patients. Standardized clinical examinations and three-dimensional gait analysis with a special foot model (Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method) were performed before and at a mean of 28.8 months after surgery. The three-dimensional gait analysis revealed significant increases in tibiotalar and foot-tibia dorsiflexion during the swing phase after surgery. These increases were accompanied by a significant reduction in maximum plantar flexion at the stance-swing transition but without a reduction in active range of motion. Passive ankle dorsiflexion measured in knee flexion and extension increased significantly without any relevant decrease in passive plantar flexion. The AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society) score improved significantly. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer was effective at correcting the foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, with the transfer apparently working as an active substitution. Although passive plantar flexion was not limited after surgery, active plantar flexion at push-off was significantly reduced and it is unknown whether

  2. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  3. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  4. Infrared Thermal Imaging for Automated Detection of Diabetic Foot Complications

    PubMed Central

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. Methods The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). Results No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. Conclusions With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. PMID:24124937

  5. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L.; Miller, Daniel J.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot. PMID:25326245

  6. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot.

  7. 18. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower cord pin connection, typical of the 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, where the vertical lace post joins the upper and lower chords. There are two pair of each 80 foot truss and a single pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. The view also shows the chord eye bar and eye rod along with the diagonal bar and rod members. The rod hanging diagonally to the left is a broken lateral member. A four inch conduit is also in view. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  8. [Onychomadesis associated with mouth, hand and foot disease].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Bruno; Taliercio, Vanina; Hornos, Lorena; Luna, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Larralde, Margarita

    2013-12-01

    Onychomadesis is the spontaneous, complete shedding of the nail from its proximal side, without pain or inflammation, following nail matrix arrest. This disorder is uncommon in children and it can occur in fingernails, toenails or both. It may be secondary to systemic disorders, Kawasaki disease, bullous dermatoses, drugs, paronychia, stress and radiotherapy. Since 2000, Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) has been described as a cause of onychomadesis, and has been associated with outbreaks of this condition in different regions of the world. HFMD is an infection characterized by vesicular and erosive stomatitis in combination with a vesicular eruption in palms and soles. It occurs in small children during summer and autumn months, and it is caused by coxsackie virus. We present a study that reflects the current situation of onychomadesis in Argentinian children and shows a strong association between this disorder and HFMD, suggesting that onychomadesis is a new manifestation of a previously known disease.

  9. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  10. Imaging findings in arthrofibrosis of the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Linklater, James M; Fessa, Chris K

    2012-07-01

    Arthrofibrosis is defined as joint pain and stiffness that does not allow functional range of motion and is due to adhesions or contracture of the joint. Arthrofibrosis is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of fibrous tissue that may be focal or diffuse and intra-articular or extra-articular. Trauma and surgery are the most common etiological factors. In the ankle and foot symptomatic arthrofibrosis is not uncommonly seen in the talocrural joint, posterior subtalar joint, and the metatarsophalangeal joints. Imaging can assist with diagnosis and planning treatment, most commonly using MRI and occasionally ultrasound. Typical imaging findings consist of capsular and pericapsular thickening and scarring, best demonstrated on proton-density MR images but also demonstrable on ultrasound. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Foot characteristics in association with inversion ankle injury.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Katherine E; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    To review the literature that provides information to assist in analyzing the role of the foot in acute and chronic lateral ankle injury. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, and SPORT Discus from 1965-2005 using the terms lateral, ankle, ligament, injury, risk factors, foot, subtalar joint, talocrural joint, gait analysis, and foot biomechanics. We found substantial information on the incidence and treatment of lateral ankle sprains in sport but very few articles that focused on risk factors associated with these injuries and even less information on the foot as it relates to this condition. Moreover, little information was available regarding the risk factors associated with the development of chronic instability after a lateral ankle sprain. We critically analyzed the foot articulations and the foot's role in the mechanism of injury to assist our clinical synopsis. An in-depth review of the foot complex in relation to lateral ankle sprains strongly suggested its importance when treating and preventing inversion ankle trauma. Throughout the literature, the only static foot measurements that show a significant correlation to this condition are an identified cavovarus deformity, increased foot width, and increased calcaneal eversion range of motion. Authors also provided dynamic measurements of the foot, which produced several significant findings that we discuss. Although our findings offer some insight into the relationship between foot characteristics and lateral ankle injuries, future research is needed to confirm the results of this review and expand this area of investigation.

  12. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patient was a 45-year-old man presented with acute bilateral foot drop, without any sign of the cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed L4-5 disc herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of acute bilateral foot drop without any signs of cauda equina syndrome caused by L4-5 disc herniation. The second patient was a 50-year-old man who was also presented with acute bilateral foot drop, and had T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension. Also this is the first presented case of T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension causing acute bilateral foot drop. We performed emergent decompressive laminectomy to both of the patients and extrude disc materials were excised. Both of the patients were recovered with favorable outcome. PMID:25972945

  13. Foot Disorders Associated with Over-Pronated and Over-Supinated Foot Function:The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of musculoskeletal foot disorders differs by race and obesity, and these disorders may be related to pronated (low arch) or supinated (high arch) foot function. This cross-sectional analysis examined relationships of foot disorders and foot function by race and obesity in a community-based observational study of adults 50+ years old with and without osteoarthritis. Methods Members of a prospective cohort study in North Carolina were included in this analysis (N=1466, 67.2% women, 29.5% African American, mean age 68.5 years). Foot disorders were identified with a validated assessment tool, and each foot was categorized as over-pronated, over-supinated, and referent using the center of pressure excursion index from foot pressure scans during normal-paced walking. Logistic regression models estimated associations between foot function and each foot disorder with age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and race as covariates. Results Compared to referent, an over-pronated foot was associated with hallux valgus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.65) and overlapping toes (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.64), especially in the obese. An over-supinated foot was inversely associated with hallux valgus (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97). An over-supinated foot was less likely to be associated with Tailor’s bunions among the obese and was more likely to be associated with plantar fasciitis in Caucasians. Conclusion Foot function was related to hallux valgus and overlapping toes, especially among the obese. In clinical patients as well as in the community of older adults, treatments for both the foot disorder and the pronated/supinated foot are needed. Level of Evidence Level II-2: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort study. PMID:25037712

  14. Foot placement during error and pedal applications in naturalistic driving.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqing; Boyle, Linda Ng; McGehee, Daniel; Roe, Cheryl A; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    Data from a naturalistic driving study was used to examine foot placement during routine foot pedal movements and possible pedal misapplications. The study included four weeks of observations from 30 drivers, where pedal responses were recorded and categorized. The foot movements associated with pedal misapplications and errors were the focus of the analyses. A random forest algorithm was used to predict the pedal application types based the video observations, foot placements, drivers' characteristics, drivers' cognitive function levels and anthropometric measurements. A repeated multinomial logit model was then used to estimate the likelihood of the foot placement given various driver characteristics and driving scenarios. The findings showed that prior foot location, the drivers' seat position, and the drive sequence were all associated with incorrect foot placement during an event. The study showed that there is a potential to develop a driver assistance system that can reduce the likelihood of a pedal error.

  15. The experience of foot problems and decisions to access foot care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Oonagh; Kirwan, John; Dures, Emma; Quest, Enid; Hewlett, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Although foot problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the consequences of foot problems from the patient perspective have not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to explore the experience of foot problems and decisions to access foot care services or not in patients with RA. Semi structured, one-to-one interviews with patients recruited from 2 UK rheumatology units, purposively sampled for self-reported foot problems and a range of personal/disease characteristics. Inductive thematic analysis was used, with rigour provided by multiple independent analysers. Emerging themes were discussed and agreed by all authors. Twelve patients participated: 7 female; mean age 56 years (29-72); mean disease duration 12 years (2-27), 5 had accessed foot care services. The 'Impact' of foot problems was substantial and formed the underpinning theme, comprising three organising themes: 'Foot symptoms'; 'Consequences'; and 'Cost'. Foot symptoms such as pain and numbness required self-management, and affected daily life (walking, working) leading to social and emotional costs. The global theme, 'Decision to access foot care or not', also comprised three organising themes: 'Access perceived unnecessary' (no problem, can cope); 'Access hindered by patients' perception'; and 'Access supported by patient and clinician'. Decisions to access foot care or not were complex and influenced by patient beliefs regarding possible treatments and how to access these, and hindered by patient perceptions that their feet were ignored by rheumatology clinicians. Positive experience of foot care encouraged continued utilisation but negative experiences contributed to patients' decisions to discontinue foot care services. Foot problems are important issues for patients and impact on many aspects of their physical, social and emotional lives. Patients who had accessed foot care services prioritised their foot problems as an important health care need. However, for others who would

  16. Characterization of scale-free properties of human electrocorticography in awake and slow wave sleep States.

    PubMed

    Zempel, John M; Politte, David G; Kelsey, Matthew; Verner, Ryan; Nolan, Tracy S; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Prior, Fred; Larson-Prior, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    Like many complex dynamic systems, the brain exhibits scale-free dynamics that follow power-law scaling. Broadband power spectral density (PSD) of brain electrical activity exhibits state-dependent power-law scaling with a log frequency exponent that varies across frequency ranges. Widely divergent naturally occurring neural states, awake and slow wave sleep (SWS), were used to evaluate the nature of changes in scale-free indices of brain electrical activity. We demonstrate two analytic approaches to characterizing electrocorticographic (ECoG) data obtained during awake and SWS states. A data-driven approach was used, characterizing all available frequency ranges. Using an equal error state discriminator (EESD), a single frequency range did not best characterize state across data from all six subjects, though the ability to distinguish awake and SWS ECoG data in individual subjects was excellent. Multi-segment piecewise linear fits were used to characterize scale-free slopes across the entire frequency range (0.2-200 Hz). These scale-free slopes differed between awake and SWS states across subjects, particularly at frequencies below 10 Hz and showed little difference at frequencies above 70 Hz. A multivariate maximum likelihood analysis (MMLA) method using the multi-segment slope indices successfully categorized ECoG data in most subjects, though individual variation was seen. In exploring the differences between awake and SWS ECoG data, these analytic techniques show that no change in a single frequency range best characterizes differences between these two divergent biological states. With increasing computational tractability, the use of scale-free slope values to characterize ECoG and EEG data will have practical value in clinical and research studies.

  17. Improved design and development of a functional moulded prosthetic foot.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Gnanasundaram, Saraswathy; Ranganathan, Mohan; Ranganathan, Rajaraman; Gopalakrishna, Gautham; Das, Bhabendra Nath; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2016-01-01

    In the Indian scenario, the Jaipur foot is a low-cost breakthrough that enabled the disabled person to adapt to the Indian environment. The aim of this study is to modify the present foot in terms of ankle support design and method of fabrication, foot moulds profile and the inner core material in order to improve the performance and durability. The optimized design of ankle support and flat foot profile moulds suitable for both left and right foot were developed through CAD/CAM and prosthetic feet were fabricated using ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam as an appropriate alternative core material for microcellular rubber (MCR). The developed prosthetic feet were tested for rigidity by load-deflection analysis in universal testing machine. EVA foot had shown better rigidity than conventional MCR foot, which will help in weight transfer during walking and increase the durability. The CAD modeled ankle support and single block EVA had made the manufacturing process easy and reduced the weight of foot and improved Gait to the person fitted with it due to improved flat foot profile. The new artificial foot had proven to be efficacious technically as well as functionally, which is clearly borne out from the extremely positive feedback given by the amputees. Implications of Rehabilitation Persons with below knee amputation are usually provided with transtibial prosthesis, which allows for easier ambulation and helps them to get back to their normal life. Transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a lower limb that is amputated below the knee. In our study, a new prosthetic foot with a modified ankle support and flat foot profile using better inner-core material than the conventional Jaipur foot was developed and the process was also optimized for mass production. The developed prosthetic foot can be fitted with both above and below knee exoskeleton type of prosthesis.

  18. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized

  19. Behaviors predicting foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Suico, J G; Marriott, D J; Vinicor, F; Litzelman, D K

    1998-07-01

    Associations between specific foot-care behaviors and foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively investigated. Data from a randomized controlled trial for preventing diabetic foot lesions were analyzed as a prospective cohort using logistic regression. Independent variables included foot-care behaviors, patient self-foot examination, going barefoot, availability of foot-care assistance, and visits to health-care providers. The dependent variable was a foot wound on each foot at follow-up. In the final multivariate model, patients who rarely lubricated their feet had an increased risk of foot lesions. Increasing patient use of emollients may be key to preventing foot lesions.

  20. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godha, S.; Lachapelle, G.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions.