Science.gov

Sample records for characterizing multisegment foot

  1. The effects of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Isherwood, Josh; Taylor, Paul J

    2015-02-01

    Chronic injuries are a common complaint in recreational runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective for the treatment of running injuries but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aims to examine the influence of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m · s(-1) with and without orthotics. Multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain were obtained during the stance phase and contrasted using paired t tests. Relative coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot relative to the rearfoot was significantly reduced with orthotics (1.0°) compared to without (2.2°). Similarly, relative transverse plane range of motion was significantly lower with orthotics (1.1°) compared to without (1.8°). Plantar fascia strain did not differ significantly between orthotic (7.1) and nonorthotic (7.1) conditions. This study shows that although orthotics did not serve to reduce plantar fascia strain, they are able to mediate reductions in coronal and transverse plane rotations of the midfoot.

  2. Reliability and minimal detectable difference in multisegment foot kinematics during shod walking and running.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Brindle, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest recently in measuring kinematics within the foot during gait. While several multisegment foot models have appeared in the literature, the Oxford foot model has been used frequently for both walking and running. Several studies have reported the reliability for the Oxford foot model, but most studies to date have reported reliability for barefoot walking. The purpose of this study was to determine between-day (intra-rater) and within-session (inter-trial) reliability of the modified Oxford foot model during shod walking and running and calculate minimum detectable difference for common variables of interest. Healthy adult male runners participated. Participants ran and walked in the gait laboratory for five trials of each. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted and foot and ankle joint angle time series data were calculated. Participants returned for a second gait analysis at least 5 days later. Intraclass correlation coefficients and minimum detectable difference were determined for walking and for running, to indicate both within-session and between-day reliability. Overall, relative variables were more reliable than absolute variables, and within-session reliability was greater than between-day reliability. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficients were comparable to those reported previously for adults walking barefoot. It is an extension in the use of the Oxford foot model to incorporate wearing a shoe while maintaining marker placement directly on the skin for each segment. These reliability data for walking and running will aid in the determination of meaningful differences in studies which use this model during shod gait.

  3. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  4. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  5. In-shoe multi-segment foot kinematics of children during the propulsive phase of walking and running.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Caleb; Greene, Andrew; Burns, Joshua; Hunt, Adrienne E; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Smith, Richard M

    2015-02-01

    Certain styles of children's shoes reduce 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and midfoot motion during propulsion of walking. However, no studies have investigated if the splinting effect of shoes on children's 1st MTPJ and midfoot motion occurs during running. This study investigated the effect of sports shoes on multi-segment foot kinematics of children during propulsion of walking and running. Twenty children walked and ran at a self-selected velocity while barefoot and shod in a random order. Reflective markers were used to quantify sagittal plane motion of the 1st MTPJ and three-dimensional motion of the midfoot and ankle. Gait velocity increased during shod walking and running and was considered a covariate in the statistical analysis. Shoes reduced 1st MTPJ motion during propulsion of walking from 36.0° to 10.7° and during running from 31.5° to 12.6°. Midfoot sagittal plane motion during propulsion reduced from 22.5° to 6.2° during walking and from 27.4° to 9.6° during running. Sagittal plane ankle motion during propulsion increased during shod running from 26.7° to 34.1°. During propulsion of walking and running, children's sports shoes have a splinting effect on 1st MTPJ and midfoot motion which is partially compensated by an increase in ankle plantarflexion during running.

  6. Determining the maximum diameter for holes in the shoe without compromising shoe integrity when using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo.

  7. Multisegmented FeCo/Cu nanowires: electrosynthesis, characterization, and magnetic control of biomolecule desorption.

    PubMed

    Özkale, Berna; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Hoop, Marcus; Gramm, Fabian; Chen, Xiangzhong; Martí, Xavi; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva; Pané, Salvador

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of FeCo/Cu multisegmented nanowires by means of pulse electrodeposition in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide arrays supported on silicon chips. By adjustment of the electrodeposition conditions, such as the pulse scheme and the electrolyte, alternating segments of Cu and ferromagnetic FeCo alloy can be fabricated. The segments can be built with a wide range of lengths (15-150 nm) and exhibit a close-to-pure composition (Cu or FeCo alloy) as suggested by energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results. The morphology and the crystallographic structure of different nanowire configurations have been assessed thoroughly, concluding that Fe, Co, and Cu form solid solution. Magnetic characterization using vibrating sample magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy reveals that by introduction of nonmagnetic Cu segments within the nanowire architecture, the magnetic easy axis can be modified and the reduced remanence can be tuned to the desired values. The experimental results are in agreement with the provided simulations. Furthermore, the influence of nanowire magnetic architecture on the magnetically triggered protein desorption is evaluated for three types of nanowires: Cu, FeCo, and multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm. The application of an external magnetic field can be used to enhance the release of proteins on demand. For fully magnetic FeCo nanowires the applied oscillating field increased protein release by 83%, whereas this was found to be 45% for multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm nanowires. Our work suggests that a combination of arrays of nanowires with different magnetic configurations could be used to generate complex substance concentration gradients or control delivery of multiple drugs and macromolecules.

  8. A comparison of subtalar joint motion during anticipated medial cutting turns and level walking using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Jenkyn, T R; Shultz, R; Giffin, J R; Birmingham, T B

    2010-02-01

    The weight-bearing in-vivo kinematics and kinetics of the talocrural joint, subtalar joint and joints of the foot were quantified using optical motion analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were studied during level walking and anticipated medial turns at self-selected pace. A multi-segment model of the foot using skin-mounted marker triads tracked four foot segments: the hindfoot, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot. The lower leg and thigh were also tracked. Motion between each of the segments could occur in three degrees of rotational freedom, but only six inter-segmental motions were reported in this study: (1) talocrural dorsi-plantar-flexion, (2) subtalar inversion-eversion, (3) frontal plane hindfoot motion, (4) transverse plane hindfoot motion, (5) forefoot supination-pronation twisting and (6) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch. The motion at the subtalar joint during stance phase of walking (eversion then inversion) was reversed during a turning task (inversion then eversion). The external subtalar joint moment was also changed from a moderate eversion moment during walking to a larger inversion moment during the turn. The kinematics of the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot were similar between these two tasks. During a medial turn, the subtalar joint may act to maintain the motions in the foot and talocrural joint that occur during level walking. This is occurring despite the conspicuously different trajectory of the centre of mass of the body. This may allow the foot complex to maintain its function of energy absorption followed by energy return during stance phase that is best suited to level walking.

  9. Generation of subject-specific, dynamic, multisegment ankle and foot models to improve orthotic design: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. Methods/Design Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices. The patient group will include individuals with metarsalgia, flexible flat foot and drop foot. Each participant will undergo a clinical foot function assessment, 3D surface scans of the foot under different loading conditions, and detailed gait analysis including kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity and plantar pressure measurements in both barefoot and shod conditions. Following this each participant will undergo computed tomography (CT) imaging of their foot and ankle under a range of loads and positions while plantar pressures are recorded. A further subgroup of participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foot and ankle. Imaging data will be segmented to derive the geometry of the bones and the orientation of the joint axes. Insertion points of muscles and ligaments will be determined from the MRI and CT-scans and soft tissue material properties computed from the loaded CT data in combination with the plantar pressure measurements. Gait analysis data will be used to drive the models and in combination with the 3D surface scans for scaling purposes. Predicted plantar pressures and muscle activation patterns predicted from the models will be compared to determine the validity of the models. Discussion This protocol will lead to the generation of unique datasets which will be used to develop linked inverse

  10. Growth and Characterization of Multisegment Chalcogenide Alloy Nanostructures for Photonic Applications in a Wide Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkdogan, Sunay

    In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. In the first part of my research, I selected chalcogenides (such as CdS and CdSe) for a comprehensive study in growing two-segment axial nanowires and radial nanobelts/sheets using the ternary CdSxSe1-x alloys. I demonstrated simultaneous red (from CdSe-rich) and green (from CdS-rich) light emission from a single monolithic heterostructure with a maximum wavelength separation of 160 nm. I also demonstrated the first simultaneous two-color lasing from a single nanosheet heterostructure with a wavelength separation of 91 nm under sufficiently strong pumping power. In the second part, I considered several combinations of source materials with different growth methods in order to extend the spectral coverage of previously demonstrated structures towards shorter wavelengths to achieve full-color emissions. I achieved this with the growth of multisegment heterostructure nanosheets (MSHNs), using ZnS and CdSe chalcogenides, via our novel growth method. By utilizing this method, I demonstrated the first growth of ZnCdSSe MSHNs with an overall lattice mismatch of 6.6%, emitting red, green and blue light simultaneously, in a single furnace run using a simple CVD system. The key to this growth method is the dual ion exchange process which converts nanosheets rich in CdSe to nanosheets rich in ZnS, demonstrated for the first time in this work. Tri-chromatic white light emission with different correlated color temperature values was achieved under different growth conditions. We demonstrated multicolor (191 nm total wavelength separation) laser from a single monolithic semiconductor nanostructure for the first time. Due to the difficulties associated with growing semiconductor materials of differing composition on a given substrate using traditional planar

  11. A method to investigate the effect of shoe-hole size on surface marker movement when describing in-shoe joint kinematics using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Chris; Arnold, John B; Fraysse, Francois; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    To investigate in-shoe foot kinematics, holes are often cut in the shoe upper to allow markers to be placed on the skin surface. However, there is currently a lack of understanding as to what is an appropriate size. This study aimed to demonstrate a method to assess whether different diameter holes were large enough to allow free motion of marker wands mounted on the skin surface during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Eighteen participants underwent an analysis of foot kinematics whilst walking barefoot and wearing shoes with different size holes (15 mm, 20mm and 25 mm). The analysis was conducted in two parts; firstly the trajectory of the individual skin-mounted markers were analysed in a 2D ellipse to investigate total displacement of each marker during stance. Secondly, a geometrical analysis was conducted to assess cluster deformation of the hindfoot and midfoot-forefoot segments. Where movement of the markers in the 15 and 20mm conditions were restricted, the marker movement in the 25 mm condition did not exceed the radius at any anatomical location. Despite significant differences in the isotropy index of the medial and lateral calcaneus markers between the 25 mm and barefoot conditions, the differences were due to the effect of footwear on the foot and not a result of the marker wands hitting the shoe upper. In conclusion, the method proposed and results can be used to increase confidence in the representativeness of joint kinematics with respect to in-shoe multi-segment foot motion during walking.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of multisegmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Kuan-Ying; Ng, Inn-Khuan; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah

    2012-11-27

    Electrochemical deposition has emerged as a promising route for nanostructure fabrication in recent years due to the many inherent advantages it possesses. This study focuses on the synthesis of high-aspect-ratio multisegmented Au/Ni nanowires using template-directed sequential electrochemical deposition techniques. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods of predetermined lengths was obtained. Alternatively, the sacrificial Ni segments in the nanowires can be galvanically displaced with Bi and Te to form barbells structures with Bi{sub x}Te{sub y} nanotubes attached to neighbouring gold segments. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy, diffraction and probebased techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  13. Electroplating and magnetostructural characterization of multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowires from single electrochemical bath in anodic alumina templates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly hexagonally ordered hard anodic aluminum oxide membranes, which have been modified by a thin cover layer of SiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition method, were used as templates for the synthesis of electrodeposited magnetic Co-Ni nanowire arrays having diameters of around 180 to 200 nm and made of tens of segments with alternating compositions of Co54Ni46 and Co85Ni15. Each Co-Ni single segment has a mean length of around 290 nm for the Co54Ni46 alloy, whereas the length of the Co85Ni15 segments was around 430 nm. The composition and crystalline structure of each Co-Ni nanowire segment were determined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The employed single-bath electrochemical nanowire growth method allows for tuning both the composition and crystalline structure of each individual Co-Ni segment. The room temperature magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Co-Ni nanowire arrays is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. PMID:23735184

  14. Integrated kinematics-kinetics-plantar pressure data analysis: a useful tool for characterizing diabetic foot biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Annamaria; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental cause of lower-extremity complications in diabetes is chronic hyperglycemia leading to diabetic foot ulcer pathology. While the relationship between abnormal plantar pressure distribution and plantar ulcers has been widely investigated, little is known about the role of shear stress. Moreover, the mutual relationship among plantar pressure, shear stress, and abnormal kinematics in the etiology of diabetic foot has not been established. This lack of knowledge is determined by the lack of commercially available instruments which allow such a complex analysis. This study aims to develop a method for the simultaneous assessment of kinematics, kinetics, and plantar pressure on foot subareas of diabetic subjects by means of combining three commercial systems. Data were collected during gait on 24 patients (12 controls and 12 diabetic neuropathics) with a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates and two baropodometric systems. A four segment three-dimensional foot kinematics model was adopted for the subsegment angles estimation together with a three segment model for the plantar sub-area definition during gait. The neuropathic group exhibited significantly excessive plantar pressure, ground reaction forces on each direction, and a reduced loading surface on the midfoot subsegment (p<0.04). Furthermore the same subsegment displayed excessive dorsiflexion, external rotation, and eversion (p<0.05). Initial results showed that this methodology may enable a more appropriate characterization of patients at risk of foot ulcerations, and help planning prevention programs.

  15. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  16. Design and characterization of a biologically inspired quasi-passive prosthetic ankle-foot.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of microRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdi; Liu, Shikai; Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA with average length of 22 nucleotides, participating in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by next generation sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Through the bioinformatic analysis, we identified 260 conserved miRNAs and six novel miRNAs from the tube foot small RNA transcriptome. Quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to characterize the specific expression in the tube foot. The results indicated that four miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-2005 and miR-278-3p, were significantly up-regulated in the tube foot. The target genes of the four specifically expressed miRNAs were predicted in silico and validated by performing qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses with the target genes of these four miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the tube foot. This is the first study to profile the miRNA transcriptome of the tube foot in sea cucumber. This work will provide valuable genomic resources to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the tube foot, and will be useful to assist the molecular breeding in sea cucumber.

  18. Thermal recovery measurements on multi-segment amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Rotter, M.D.; McCracken, R.W.; Erlandson, A.C.; Brown, D.

    1995-09-21

    We present the results of a series of experiments to measure the thermal recovery times of a flashlamp-pumped, Nd:Glass multi-segment laser amplifier. In particular, we investigated the thermal recovery times under the following cooling options: (1) passive cooling; (2) active cooling of the flashlamp cassettes, and (3) active cooling of the flashlamp cassettes and gas flow in the pump cavity.

  19. Low voltage electrophoresis chip with multi-segments synchronized scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wenwen; Wen, Zhiyu; Xu, Yi

    2017-03-01

    For low voltage electrophoresis chip, there is always a problem that the samples are truncated and peaks are broadened, as well as longer time for separation. In this paper, a low voltage electrophoresis separation model was established, and the separation conditions were discussed. A new driving mode was proposed for applying low voltage, which was called multi-segments synchronized scanning. By using this driving mode, the reversed electric field that existed between the multi-segments can enrich samples and shorten the sample zone. The low voltage electrophoresis experiments using multi-segments synchronized scanning were carried out by home-made silicon-PDMS-based chip. The fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled lysine and phenylalanine mixed samples with the concentration of 10‑4 mol/L were successfully separated under the optimal conditions of 10 mmol/L borax buffer (pH = 10.0), 200 V/cm separation electric field and electrode switch time of 2.5 s. The separation was completed with a resolution of 2.0, and the peak time for lysine and phenylalanine was 4 min and 6 min, respectively.

  20. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (P<0.05), decreased contact surface on the hindfoot (P<0.03). While results indicated the important role of foot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions.

  1. First isolation and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Benin.

    PubMed

    Gorna, Kamila; Houndjè, Evelyne; Romey, Aurore; Relmy, Anthony; Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra; Kpodékon, Marc; Saegerman, Claude; Moutou, François; Zientara, Stephan; Bakkali Kassimi, Labib

    2014-06-25

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting livestock animals. In West Africa, where constant circulation of FMD virus (FMDV) is assumed, very few studies on the characterization of circulating strains have been published. This study describes the first isolation and characterization of FMDV in Benin. FMDV was isolated from 42 samples. Antigen Capture Elisa (Ag-ELISA) and VP1 coding sequence analysis revealed 33 strains of serotype O and 9 strains of serotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequence revealed two different groups of type O isolates and one group of A isolates. VP1 sequence comparison with the sequences available in the GenBank database revealed a close relationship of the Benin isolates with topotype O of West Africa and with African topotype A of genotype VI. Knowledge of the recent strains circulating in Benin should contribute to better selection of vaccine strains and enable the updating of molecular epidemiology data available for West Africa in general.

  2. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot A A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  3. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Teens > Athlete's Foot A A A ... your skin, hair, and nails. What Is Athlete's Foot? The medical name for athlete's foot is tinea ...

  4. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Development of an artificial multifunctional foot: A project review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, João; Ferreira, Maria José; Lobarinhas, Pedro; Silva, Luís F.; Leite, Abílio; Araújo, Alfredo; Sousa, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this project is the development of a multifunctional artificial foot, capable of duplicate a human foot in a laboratory environment, in order to evaluate and simulate footwear's performance under certain conditions. This foot is used as a laboratory prototype and is multisegmented, in order that each section is controlled independently in terms of heat generation and sweating rate, therefore it is possible to simulate more accurately the real behaviour of a human foot. The device produces thermal insulation values that will help to design footwear with better ability in terms of thermal comfort, replacing human volunteers in thermal comfort perception tests, which are very subjective. The prototype was already tested, and preliminary results indicated that thermal insulation values are within the range of expected values produced by other foot thermal manikins and by human volunteers' tests. This fact suggests that this lab prototype can be used infuture thermal comfort evaluations.

  6. Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.

    1990-01-01

    Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.

  7. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  8. Foot pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  9. Charcot Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  10. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  11. Multisegment Kinematics of the Spinal Column: Soft Tissue Artifacts Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mahallati, Sara; Rouhani, Hossein; Preuss, Richard; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge in the assessment of intersegmental spinal column angles during trunk motion is the inherent error in recording the movement of bony anatomical landmarks caused by soft tissue artifacts (STAs). This study aims to perform an uncertainty analysis and estimate the typical errors induced by STA into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model during trunk bending in different directions by modeling the relative displacement between skin-mounted markers and actual bony landmarks during trunk bending. First, we modeled the maximum displacement of markers relative to the bony landmarks with a multivariate Gaussian distribution. In order to estimate the distribution parameters, we measured these relative displacements on five subjects at maximum trunk bending posture. Then, in order to model the error depending on trunk bending angle, we assumed that the error grows linearly as a function of the bending angle. Second, we applied our error model to the trunk motion measurement of 11 subjects to estimate the corrected trajectories of the bony landmarks and investigate the errors induced into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model. For this purpose, the trunk was modeled as a seven-segment rigid-body system described using 23 reflective markers placed on various bony landmarks of the spinal column. Eleven seated subjects performed trunk bending in five directions and the three-dimensional (3D) intersegmental angles during trunk bending were calculated before and after error correction. While STA minimally affected the intersegmental angles in the sagittal plane (<16%), it considerably corrupted the intersegmental angles in the coronal (error ranged from 59% to 551%) and transverse (up to 161%) planes. Therefore, we recommend using the proposed error suppression technique for STA-induced error compensation as a tool to achieve more accurate spinal column kinematics measurements. Particularly, for intersegmental

  12. Kinematic foot types in youth with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Krzak, Joseph J.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Damiano, Diane L.; Graf, Adam; Hedeker, Donald; Smith, Peter A.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated kinematic variability of the foot and ankle segments exists during gait among individuals with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Clinicians have previously addressed such variability by developing classification schemes to identify subgroups of individuals based on their kinematics. Objective To identify kinematic subgroups among youth with equinovarus secondary to CP using 3-dimensional multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics during locomotion as inputs for principal component analysis (PCA), and K-means cluster analysis. Methods In a single assessment session, multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics using the Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM) were collected in 24 children/adolescents with equinovarus and 20 typically developing children/adolescents. Results PCA was used as a data reduction technique on 40 variables. K-means cluster analysis was performed on the first six principal components (PCs) which accounted for 92% of the variance of the dataset. The PCs described the location and plane of involvement in the foot and ankle. Five distinct kinematic subgroups were identified using K-means clustering. Participants with equinovarus presented with variable involvement ranging from primary hindfoot or forefoot deviations to deformtiy that included both segments in multiple planes. Conclusion This study provides further evidence of the variability in foot characteristics associated with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic CP. These findings would not have been detected using a single segment foot model. The identification of multiple kinematic subgroups with unique foot and ankle characteristics has the potential to improve treatment since similar patients within a subgroup are likely to benefit from the same intervention(s). PMID:25467429

  13. Overview of post Cohen-Boyer methods for single segment cloning and for multisegment DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Sands, Bryan; Brent, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, Cohen and coworkers published a foundational paper describing the cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors. In it, they used DNA segments made by digestion with restriction enzymes and joined these in vitro with DNA ligase. These methods established working recombinant DNA technology and enabled the immediate start of the biotechnology industry. Since then, "classical" recombinant DNA technology using restriction enzymes and DNA ligase has matured. At the same time, researchers have developed numerous ways to generate large, complex, multisegment DNA constructions that offer advantages over classical techniques. Here, we provide an overview of "post-Cohen-Boyer" techniques used for cloning single segments into vectors (T/A, Topo cloning, Gateway and Recombineering) and for multisegment DNA assembly (Biobricks, Golden Gate, Gibson, Yeast homologous recombination in vivo, and Ligase Cycling Reaction). We compare and contrast these methods and also discuss issues that researchers should consider before choosing a particular multisegment DNA assembly method.

  14. Overview of post Cohen-Boyer methods for single segment cloning and for multisegment DNA assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Bryan; Brent, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, Cohen and coworkers published a foundational paper describing the cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors. In it, they used DNA segments made by digestion with restriction enzymes and joined these in vitro with DNA ligase. These methods established working recombinant DNA technology and enabled the immediate start of the biotechnology industry. Since then, “classical” recombinant DNA technology using restriction enzymes and DNA ligase has matured. At the same time, researchers have developed numerous ways to generate large, complex, multisegment DNA constructions that offer advantages over classical techniques. Here, we provide an overview of “post-Cohen-Boyer” techniques used for cloning single segments into vectors (T/A, Topo cloning, Gateway and Recombineering) and for multisegment DNA assembly (Biobricks, Golden Gate, Gibson, Yeast homologous recombination in vivo, and Ligase Cycling Reaction). We compare and contrast these methods and also discuss issues that researchers should consider before choosing a particular multisegment DNA assembly method. PMID:27152131

  15. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    PubMed

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot.

  16. Characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Seago, Julian; Jackson, Terry; Doel, Claudia; Fry, Elizabeth; Stuart, David; Harmsen, Michiel M; Charleston, Bryan; Juleff, Nicholas

    2012-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. Although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processes are technically demanding and expensive. Consequently, there is large variation in the quality of vaccines distributed in FMD-endemic countries compared with those manufactured for emergency use in FMD-free countries. Here, we have used reverse genetics to introduce haemagglutinin (HA) and FLAG tags into the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid. HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were infectious, with a plaque morphology similar to the non-tagged parental infectious copy virus and the field virus. The tagged viruses utilized integrin-mediated cell entry and retained the tag epitopes over serial passages. In addition, infectious HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were readily purified from small-scale cultures using commercial antibodies. Tagged FMDV offers a feasible alternative to the current methods of vaccine concentration and purification, a potential to develop FMD vaccine conjugates and a unique tool for FMDV research.

  17. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  18. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection that usually begins ... closely related to other fungal infections such as ringworm and jock itch. It can be treated with ...

  19. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of an aeroelastic system with multi-segmented moment in the pitch degree-of-freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Rui; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a multi-segmented nonlinearity in the pitch degree of freedom on the behavior of a two-degree of freedom aeroelastic system are investigated. The aeroelastic system is free to plunge and pitch and is supported by linear translational and nonlinear torsional springs and is subjected to an incoming flow. The unsteady representation based on the Duhamel formulation is used to model the aerodynamic loads. Using modern method of nonlinear dynamics, a nonlinear characterization is performed to identify the system's response when increasing the wind speed. It is demonstrated that four sudden transitions take place with a change in the system's response. It is shown that, in the first transition, the system's response changes from simply periodic (only main oscillating frequency) to two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 2). In the second transition, the response of the system changes from two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 2) to a period-1. The results also show that the third transition is accompanied by a change in the system's response from simply periodic to two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 3). After this transition, chaotic responses take place and then the fourth transition is accompanied by a sudden change in the system's response from chaotic to two periods (having the main oscillating frequency and its superharmonic of order 3). The results show that these transitions are caused by the tangential contact between the trajectory and the multi-segmented nonlinearity boundaries and with a zero-pitch speed incidence. This observation is associated with the definition of grazing bifurcation.

  20. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  1. De novo assembly and characterization of foot transcriptome and microsatellite marker development for Paphia textile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Jiakai; Xiao, Shijun; Liu, Xiande

    2016-01-15

    Paphia textile is an important, aquaculture bivalve clam species distributed mainly in China, Philippines, and Malaysia. Recent studies of P. textile have focused mainly on artificial breeding and nutrition analysis, and the transcriptome and genome of P. textile have rarely been reported. In this work, the transcriptome of P. textile foot tissue was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. A total of 20,219,795 reads were generated, resulting in 4.08 Gb of raw data. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 54,852 unigenes with an N50 length of 829 bp. Of these unigenes, 38.92% were successfully annotated based on their matches to sequences in seven public databases. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,571 were assigned Gene Ontology terms, 5448 were classified to Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories, and 6738 were mapped to 228 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. For functional marker development, 5605 candidate simple sequence repeats were identified in the transcriptome and 80 primer pairs were selected randomly and amplified in a wild population of P. textile. A total of 36 loci that exhibited obvious repeat length polymorphisms were detected. The transcriptomic data and microsatellite markers will provide valuable resources for future functional gene analyses, genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci mapping in P. textile.

  2. Characterization of the Test Section Walls at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Charles B.; Graves, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    The test section walls of the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are known to move under thermal and pressure loads. Videogrammetry was used to measure wall motion during the summer of 2002. In addition, a laser distancemeter was used to measure the relative distance between the test section walls at a single point. Distancemeter and videogrammetry results were consistent. Data were analyzed as a function of temperature and pressure to determine their effects on wall motion. Data were collected between 50 and 100 F, 0 and 0.315 Mach, and dynamic pressures of 0 and 120 psf. The overall motion of each wall was found to be less than 0.25 in. and less than facility personnel anticipated. The results show how motion depends on the temperature and pressure inside the test section as well is the position of the boundary layer vane. The repeatability of the measurements was +/-0.06 in. This report describes the methods used to record the motion of the test section walls and the results of the data analysis. Future facility plans include the development of a suitable wall restraint system and the determination of the effects of the wall motion on tunnel calibration.

  3. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05).

  4. Construction and characterization of 3A-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-04-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most FMDVs examined to date. Specific deletion in the FMDV 3A protein has been associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. However, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed epitope-tagged FMDVs containing an 8 aa FLAG epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (HA) epitope, and a 10 aa c-Myc epitope to substitute residues 94-101, 93-101, and 93-102 of 3A protein, respectively, using a recently developed O/SEA/Mya-98 FMDV infectious cDNA clone. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the epitope-tagged viruses stably maintained and expressed the foreign epitopes even after 10 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The epitope-tagged viruses displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in BHK-21 cells. However, the epitope-tagged viruses exhibited lower growth rates and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the decreased ability of FMDV to replicate in primary bovine cells was not associated with the length of 3A, and the genetic determinant thought to play key role in decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cells could be reduced from 93-102 residues to 8 aa residues at positions 94-101 in 3A protein.

  5. The foot of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H.; Throckmorton, Z.; Congdon, K. A.; Zipfel, B.; Deane, A. S.; Drapeau, M. S. M.; Churchill, S. E.; Berger, L. R.; DeSilva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  6. The foot of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Throckmorton, Z; Congdon, K A; Zipfel, B; Deane, A S; Drapeau, M S M; Churchill, S E; Berger, L R; DeSilva, J M

    2015-10-06

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo.

  7. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain begin after intense physical activity?YesNoDid your foot pain or swelling begin with an injury or accident?YesNoIs there swelling or redness on top of your foot?YesNoAre you unable to stand or walk on ...

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1998 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeou-Liang; Jong, Ming-Hwa; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Shieh, Happy K; Chang, Poa-Chun

    2010-09-28

    A devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by a porcinophilic serotype O virus, occurred in Taiwan in March 1997. This outbreak was brought under control by means of a stamping-out policy and vaccination. Although mandatory vaccination was conducted in Taiwan between 1997 and 2007, sporadic outbreaks of FMD occurred between 1998 and 2009; however, the viruses that caused these outbreaks remain uncharacterized. This article reports the genetic and antigenic characterization of FMD viruses isolated in Taiwan during this period. Sequence analysis of the VP1 coding region showed that the viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1998 and 2009 were most similar to viruses isolated in Taiwan in 1997 and to viruses isolated from Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1991-1996. The results of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the viruses isolated in Taiwan in 1998-2009 were derived from the viruses isolated in Taiwan in 1997. However, substantial mutations were found in the viruses isolated in 2009, and some of these changes may have resulted from vaccine pressure in the field. Serum neutralization tests confirmed that viruses isolated in 2009 showed a significant change in antigenicity. This is the first report of changes in the VP1 sequence and antigenicity of porcinophilic FMD viruses isolated from an area in which long-term mandatory vaccination against FMD was practiced.

  9. Genetic characterization of vaccine and field strains of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus from India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, J K; Pawar, S S; Tosh, C; Subramaniam, S; Palsamy, R; Sanyal, A; Hemadri, D; Pattnaik, B

    2011-01-01

    Extreme antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) population has resulted in change of vaccine strains in India twice in the last decade. In such a situation, complete characterization of the vaccine strains is imperative. With regard to the frequent outbreaks of this disease, FMDV field strains are also of interest. Therefore three vaccine strains and two field strains of type A FMDV from India were completely sequenced and the obtained sequences were subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Based on the complete coding region, all the Indian strains clustered in the Asia topotype and exhibited a more than 11% nt divergence from the other Asian strains. The 5'-UTR of some Indian strains revealed block deletions of 43 and 86 nt corresponding to the pseudoknot region. Amino acids S44 in VP2 and F164 in VP1 were found to be the exclusive signatures for the Asia topotype. The vaccine strains differed at 65 aa positions in the capsid region, 13 of them antigenically critical. Variability at such positions is likely to affect the antigenic profile of these strains. Complete genome sequences of the vaccine strains presented here could serve as the reference for any comparative genomics in future.

  10. Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from Afghanistan in 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Kate R; Knowles, Nick J; Davies, Paul R; Midgley, Rebecca J; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Raoufi, Abdul Quader; McKenna, Thomas S; Hurtle, William; Burans, James P; Martin, Barbara M; Rodriguez, Luis L; Beckham, Tammy R

    2008-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from various geographic locations in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 coding region. Three serotypes of FMDV (types A, O, and Asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in Afghanistan during this period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type A viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in Iran during 2002-2004. This is the first published report of serotype A in Afghanistan since 1975, therefore indicating the need for inclusion of serotype A in vaccine formulations that will be used to control disease outbreaks in this country. Serotype O virus isolates were closely related to PanAsia strains, including those that originated from Bhutan and Nepal during 2003-2004. The Asia 1 viruses, collected along the northern and eastern borders of Afghanistan, were most closely related to FMDV isolates collected in Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. Data obtained from this study provide valuable information on the FMDV serotypes circulating in Afghanistan and their genetic relationship with strains causing FMD in neighboring countries.

  11. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran, C.; Ivanov, Yu P.; Kosel, J.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vazquez, M.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  12. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian F.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.; Hall, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  13. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Hall, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  14. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Bran, C; Ivanov, Yu P; Kosel, J; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O; Vazquez, M

    2017-03-03

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  15. Design and Experimental Validation of a Simple Controller for a Multi-Segment Magnetic Crawler Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot Leah Kelley*a, Saam Ostovari**b, Aaron B...magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative...motion connect front and rear driving modules, so the robot can twist and turn. This permits its navigation over surface discontinuities while

  16. Numerical research and optimization of convective heat transfer for multi-segment amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Jianqiang; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-04-01

    Optimized convective heat transfer is applied to accelerate the thermal recovery of a large aperture multi-segment amplifier. The paper proposes a novel project of changing the structural parameters of the inlet jet to the Nd:glass slab in the multi-segment amplifier at the same flow rate. The convective heat transfer coefficient depends on the diameter of the inlet jet, as well as on the number of inlet jets. The simulation calculations indicate that at the same flow rate, different numbers of inlet jet lead to different temperature gradient contours and flow field distributions on the Nd:glass slab surface in the multi-segment amplifier. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient increases with the decrease of inlet diameter. This work analyzes the path of the coolant air over the slab surface to lessen the eddy and to achieve better convective heat transfer, as well as to determine the optimized number of inlet jets (5) and the optimized diameter (5 mm).

  17. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.

    1986-03-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambdaPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in /sup 35/S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro.

  18. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be advised by a podiatrist, depending on your test results or a specific medical condition. Postoperative Care The type of foot surgery performed determines the length and kind of aftercare required ...

  19. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... The fungus most commonly attacks the feet because shoes create a warm, dark, and humid environment which ... sweat mechanism, reaction to dyes or adhesives in shoes, eczema, and psoriasis, may mimic athlete's foot. Causes ...

  20. A novel theoretical framework for the dynamic stability analysis, movement control, and trajectory generation in a multisegment biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kamran; Roy, Anindo

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simplified characterization of the postural control system that embraces two broad components: one representing the musculoskeletal dynamics in the sagittal plane and the other representing proprioceptive feedback and the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, a planar four-segment neuromusculoskeletal model consisting of the ankle, knee, and hip degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) is described in this paper. The model includes important physiological constructs such as Hill-type muscle model, active and passive muscle stiffnesses, force feedback from the Golgi tendon organ, muscle length and rate feedback from the muscle spindle, and transmission latencies in the neural pathways. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for each individual DOF is assumed to represent the CNS analog in the modeling paradigm. Our main hypothesis states that all stabilizing PID controllers for such multisegment biomechanical models can be parametrized and analytically synthesized. Our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed representation adequately shapes a postural control that (a) possesses good disturbance rejection and trajectory tracking, (b) is robust against feedback latencies and torque perturbations, and (c) is flexible to embrace changes in the musculoskeletal parameters. We additionally present detailed sensitivity analysis to show that control under conditions of limited or no proprioceptive feedback results in (a) significant reduction in the stability margins, (b) substantial decrease in the available stabilizing parameter set, and (c) oscillatory movement trajectories. Overall, these results suggest that anatomical arrangement, active muscle stiffness, force feedback, and physiological latencies play a major role in shaping motor control processes in humans.

  1. Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  2. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  3. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury.

  4. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P. D.; Berka, Reginald B.

    1993-01-01

    A concept of multisegment robot (of a class of large space cranes) is developed for use in space-based construction operations. The robot consists of a collection of segments, which are pinned together to form a snakelike configuration, with a single degree of freedom representing rotation being retained at each pinned connection and with reaction flywheels suspended within each segment for the control necessary to position each body segment. Algorithms are developed for positioning this serpentine robot to a prescribed location and orientation. A multibody dynamics simulation is used to investigate the behavior and interactions of the robot, demonstrating its viability.

  5. Foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Lockard, M A

    1988-12-01

    This review article describes shoe inserts and provides information to assist physical therapists to identify patients who may benefit from foot orthoses. The article discusses goals for and types of shoe inserts, in addition to the materials and methods that can be used in fabricating appliances. Clinical considerations for the use of shoe inserts and application to specific patient populations are presented.

  6. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and infections. Serious cases may even lead to amputation. Damage to the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It ...

  7. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the best ways to exercise and keep fit. Structure of the Foot Each of your feet contains 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 120 muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. These all work together to support the weight of your body, act as shock ...

  8. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  9. The prevention of diabetic foot ulceration: how biomechanical research informs clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    DiLiberto, Frank E.; Baumhauer, Judith F.; Nawoczenski, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Implementation of interprofessional clinical guidelines for the prevention of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration has demonstrated positive effects regarding ulceration and amputation rates. Current foot care recommendations are primarily based on research regarding the prevention of ulcer recurrence and focused on reducing the magnitude of plantar stress (pressure overload). Yet, foot ulceration remains to be a prevalent and debilitating consequence of Diabetes Mellitus. There is limited evidence targeting the prevention of first-time ulceration, and there is a need to consider additional factors of plantar stress to supplement current guidelines. Objectives The first purpose of this article is to discuss the biomechanical theory underpinning diabetic foot ulcerations and illustrate how plantar tissue underloading may precede overloading and breakdown. The second purpose of this commentary is to discuss how advances in biomechanical foot modeling can inform clinical practice in the prevention of first-time ulceration. Discussion Research demonstrates that progressive weight-bearing activity programs to address the frequency of plantar stress and avoid underloading do not increase ulceration risk. Multi-segment foot modeling studies indicate that dynamic foot function of the midfoot and forefoot is compromised in people with diabetes. Emerging research demonstrates that implementation of foot-specific exercises may positively influence dynamic foot function and improve plantar stress in people with diabetes. Conclusion Continued work is needed to determine how to best design and integrate activity recommendations and foot-specific exercise programs into the current interprofessional paradigm for the prevention of first-time ulceration in people with Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:27849290

  10. The mechanics of the gibbon foot and its potential for elastic energy storage during bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Evie E; Aerts, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The mechanics of the modern human foot and its specialization for habitual bipedalism are well understood. The windlass mechanism gives it the required stability for propulsion generation, and flattening of the arch and stretching of the plantar aponeurosis leads to energy saving. What is less well understood is how an essentially flat and mobile foot, as found in protohominins and extant apes, functions during bipedalism. This study evaluates the hypothesis that an energy-saving mechanism, by stretch and recoil of plantar connective tissues, is present in the mobile gibbon foot and provides a two-dimensional analysis of the internal joint mechanics of the foot during spontaneous bipedalism of gibbons using a four-link segment foot model. Available force and pressure data are combined with detailed foot kinematics, recorded with a high-speed camera at 250 Hz, to calculate the external joint moments at the metatarsophalangeal (MP), tarsometatarsal (TM) and talocrural (TC) joints. In addition, instantaneous joint powers are estimated to obtain insight into the propulsion-generating capacities of the internal foot joints. It is found that, next to a wide range of motion at the TC joint, substantial motion is observed at the TM and MP joint, underlining the importance of using a multi-segment foot model in primate gait analyses. More importantly, however, this study shows that although a compliant foot is less mechanically effective for push-off than a ;rigid' arched foot, it can contribute to the generation of propulsion in bipedal locomotion via stretch and recoil of the plantarflexor tendons and plantar ligaments.

  11. Characterization of enterovirus 71 infection and associated outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Shawo of China in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michelle Y.; Liu, Jin; Lai, Weijian; Luo, Jun; Liu, Yingle; Vu, Gia-Phong; Yang, Zhu; Trang, Phong; Li, Hongjian; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) are recognized as emerging public health issues worldwide. Hundreds of thousands of children are annually infected with EV71 and develop HFMD in China alone. Studies of EV71 infection are critical to the treatment and prevention of the associated HFMD outbreaks. In this report, we studied an outbreak of 105 HFMD cases in Shawo Township of China between September to October 2012. More than 90% of cases were children younger than 9 years old, with over 50% of cases aged 3–6 years old. Laboratory studies detected a high prevalence of EV71 and suggested EV71 as the most common enterovirus causing HFMD in Shawo. Sequencing analysis showed that the EV71 strains from Shawo belong to the C4 subgenotype, and are phylogenetically more related to those from the distant city of Nanchang than those from the nearby city of Wuhan with distinct variations. More girls were found to be associated with EV71 in Shawo whereas more boys were associated with EV71 in Wuhan and Nanchang. Our studies further the understanding of the molecular epidemiological features of HFMD and infection by enteroviruses in China. PMID:27941929

  12. Characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT2 in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayali, Ghazi; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Darwish, Mohamed; Gaffar, Alkhateib; Younes, Abdelgayed; Farag, Tarek; Kutkat, Mohamed A; Ali, Mohamed A

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (UTR) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Only FMDV-SAT2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. Complete VP1- and leader-proteinase-coding sequences, obtained from three isolates from three different governorates, were compared with previously reported sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that the circulating viruses were homogeneous and were closely related to topotype VII. Importantly, the newly emerged viruses were genetically closely related to strains isolated from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea and Cameroon between 2000 and 2010, suggesting the dominant nature of this virus and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences.

  13. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase.

    PubMed

    Uddowla, Sabena; Pacheco, Juan M; Larson, Christopher; Bishop, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Luis L; Rai, Devendra K; Arzt, Jonathan; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). This study examined if the BRBV leader proteinase (L(pro) ) could functionally replace that of FMDV. A mutant A24LBRV3DYR FMDV engineered with the BRBV L(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3D polymerase exhibited growth properties and eIF4G cleavage similar to parental A24WT virus. The A24LBRV3DYR type I interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of A24LL virus that lacks L(pro), but this effect was less pronounced for A24LBRV3DYR infected porcine cells. In vivo studies showed that the A24LBRV3DYR virus was attenuated in cattle, and exhibited low virulence in pigs exposed by direct contact. The mutant virus induced protective immunity in cattle against challenge with parental A24WT. These results provide evidence that L(pro) of different Aphthoviruses are not fully functionally interchangeable and have roles that may depend on the nature of the infected host.

  14. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

  15. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  16. Multisegment one-step RT-PCR fluorescent labeling of influenza A virus genome for use in diagnostic microarray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasin, A. V.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Plotnikova, M. A.; Klotchenko, S. A.; Chervyakova, O. V.; Strochkov, V. M.; Taylakova, E. T.; Elpaeva, E. A.; Komissarov, A. B.; Egorov, V. V.; Koshemetov, J. K.; Kiselev, O. I.; Mamadaliev, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Microarray technology is one of the most challenging methods of influenza A virus subtyping, which is based on the antigenic properties of viral surface glycoproteins - hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. On the example of biochip for detection of influenza A/H5N1 virus we showed the possibility of using multisegment RTPCR method for amplification of fluorescently labeled cDNA of all possible influenza A virus subtypes with a single pair of primers in influenza diagnostic microarrays.

  17. An impedance device for study of multisegment hemodynamic changes during orthostatic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Hanish, H. M.; Marker, R. A.

    1989-11-01

    Definition of multisegment hemodynamic changes that take place in the body would provide a more complete understanding of the physiologic responses to various orthostatic stress techniques. A self-contained impedance device is described which may be used to measure the electrical transmission characteristics produced by blood flow and volume changes in six segments of the human body during head-up tilt, bed rest, and lower body negative pressure. The device consists of a module that contains the electronics for the impedance system, a separate controller/multiplexer, a personal computer interface/analog to digital conversion/power supply system, and the associated computer control softwave. The instrument is linear over a range of 0 to 200 ohms; provides analog outputs of base impedance, phase angle, pulsatile impedance change, and the first derivative of the pulsatile impedance changes; and can be used to automatically record basal impedance values into spread-sheet format with cycle times between 12 s and 1 h. Typical results are presented to illustrate its application in aerospace research.

  18. Magnetic behaviour of multisegmented FeCoCu/Cu electrodeposited nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, A.; Pérez, L.; Abuín, M.; Araujo, J. P.; Proenca, M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the magnetic behaviour of multisegmented nanowires (NWs) is a major key for the application of such structures in future devices. In this work, magnetic/non-magnetic arrays of FeCoCu/Cu multilayered NWs electrodeposited in nanoporous alumina templates are studied. Contrarily to most reports on multilayered NWs, the magnetic layer thickness was kept constant (30 nm) and only the non-magnetic layer thickness was changed (0 to 80 nm). This allowed us to tune the interwire and intrawire interactions between the magnetic layers in the NW array creating a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic system without the need to change the template characteristics. Magnetic hysteresis loops, measured with the applied field parallel and perpendicular to the NWs’ long axis, showed the effect of the non-magnetic Cu layer on the overall magnetic properties of the NW arrays. In particular, introducing Cu layers along the magnetic NW axis creates domain wall nucleation sites that facilitate the magnetization reversal of the wires, as seen by the decrease in the parallel coercivity and the reduction of the perpendicular saturation field. By further increasing the Cu layer thickness, the interactions between the magnetic segments, both along the NW axis and of neighbouring NWs, decrease, thus rising again the parallel coercivity and the perpendicular saturation field. This work shows how one can easily tune the parallel and perpendicular magnetic properties of a 3D magnetic layer system by adjusting the non-magnetic layer thickness.

  19. A multi-segment soft actuator for biomedical applications based on IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Luo, Meng; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing

    2015-04-01

    With rapid progress of biomedical devices towards miniaturization, flexibility, multifunction and low cost, the restrictions of traditional mechanical structures become particularly apparent, while soft materials become research focus in broad fields. As one of the most attractive soft materials, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) is widely used as artificial muscles and actuators, with the advantages of low driving-voltage, high efficiency of electromechanical transduction and functional stabilization. In this paper, a new intuitive control method was presented to achieve the omnidirectional bending movements and was applied on a representative actuation structure of a multi-degree-offreedom soft actuator composed of two segments bar-shaped IPMC with a square cross section. Firstly, the bar-shaped IPMCs were fabricated by the solution casting method, reducing plating, autocatalytic plating method and cut into shapes successively. The connectors of the multi-segment IPMC actuator were fabricated by 3D printing. Then, a new control method was introduced to realize the intuitive mapping relationship between the actuator and the joystick manipulator. The control circuit was designed and tested. Finally, the multi-degree-of-freedom actuator of 2 segments bar-shaped IPMCs was implemented and omnidirectional bending movements were achieved, which could be a promising actuator for biomedical applications, such as endoscope, catheterism, laparoscopy and the surgical resection of tumors.

  20. High-throughput templated multisegment synthesis of gold nanowires and nanorods.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Jared; Alonas, Eric; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Rege, Kaushal; Wang, Joseph

    2009-02-11

    A cost-effective, high-throughput method for generating gold nanowires and/or nanorods based on a multisegment template electrodeposition approach is described. Using this method, multiple nanowires/nanorods can be generated from a single pore of alumina template membranes by alternately depositing segments of desirable (e.g., gold) and non-desirable metals (e.g., silver), followed by dissolution of the template and the non-desirable metal. Critical cost analysis indicates substantial savings in material requirements, processing times, and processing costs compared to the commonly used single-segment method. In addition to solid gold nanowires/nanorods, high yields of porous gold nanowires/nanorods are obtained by depositing alternate segments of gold-silver alloy and silver from the same gold-silver plating solution followed by selective dissolution of the silver from both segments. It is anticipated that this high-throughput method for synthesizing solid and porous gold nanowires and nanorods will accelerate their use in sensing, electronic, and biomedical applications.

  1. Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Leah; Ostovari, Saam; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Talke, Kurt A.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Rahimi, Amin; Hart, Abraham B.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    2015-05-01

    A novel, multi-segmented magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative motion connect front and rear driving modules, so the robot can twist and turn. This permits its navigation over surface discontinuities while maintaining its adhesion to the hull. During operation, the magnetic crawler receives forward and turning velocity commands from either a tele-operator or high-level, autonomous control computer. A low-level, embedded microcomputer handles the commands to the driving motors. This paper presents the development of a simple, low-level, leader-follower controller that permits the rear module to follow the front module. The kinematics and dynamics of the two-module magnetic crawler robot are described. The robot's geometry, kinematic constraints and the user-commanded velocities are used to calculate the desired instantaneous center of rotation and the corresponding central-linkage angle necessary for the back module to follow the front module when turning. The commands to the rear driving motors are determined by applying PID control on the error between the desired and measured linkage angle position. The controller is designed and tested using Matlab Simulink. It is then implemented and tested on an early two-module magnetic crawler prototype robot. Results of the simulations and experimental validation of the controller design are presented.

  2. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... work and the pounding their feet endure from... Foot Injuries in Olympic Athletes and Beyond Foot and ankle ... making them... Athletes Living with Diabetes Face More Foot Injuries Than Athletes Without Foot and ankle injuries are ...

  3. Prevention of foot blisters.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  4. Cavus Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Smaller Toes How To... Foot Health Foot Injury Footwear News Videos Find a Surgeon Información en ... related problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The ... reduce other injuries such as repeated ankle sprains and broken bones. ...

  5. Foot sprain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... or weeks after your injury: Rest. Stop any physical activity that causes pain, and keep your foot still when possible. Ice your foot for 20 minutes 2 to 3 times a day. DO NOT apply ice directly to your skin. Keep your foot raised to help keep swelling ...

  6. Center of mass control and multi-segment coordination in children during quiet stance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhua; McKay, Sandra; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to apply an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to investigate how children utilize the variability of multiple body segment movement to facilitate the center of mass (COM) control during quiet stance. Three groups of participants were included in this study: younger children (YC, mean age 6.3 years), older children (OC, mean age 10.3 years), and young adults (YA, mean age 20.5 years). Participants stood on a force platform with their hands on the iliac crests for 40 s in each trial. Two visual conditions were examined including eyes-open and eyes-closed and three trials were collected for each condition. Results showed that all three groups partitioned more variability of multi-segment movement into the UCM subspace (maintaining the mean COM position) than into the ORT subspace (a subspace orthogonal to the UCM subspace, causing the deviation of the COM from its mean position) in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Furthermore, both the YC and OC groups partitioned a significantly higher percentage of variability into the UCM subspace than the YA group regardless of visual condition. In addition, results of conventional COM variables indicated that only the YC group produced significantly faster sway velocity and greater standard deviation than the YA group. All the results together suggest that children at 6-10 years of age use a similar variability-partitioning strategy (a greater V(UCM) and a smaller V(ORT)) like young adults in quiet stance to facilitate the COM control, but it takes more than 10 years for children to refine this strategy and achieve an adult-like variability-partitioning capability (i.e., UCM ratio). It also suggests that postural development may include two phases in which children learn to regulate the position and movement of multiple body segments and the COM first and gain an adult-like variability-partitioning capability later.

  7. [Foot reflex zone massage].

    PubMed

    Kesselring, A

    1994-01-01

    Foot reflexology is defined as massage of zones on the feet which correspond to different parts of the body. A medline-search yielded no literature in the field of foot reflexology. Indications for and results of foot reflexology have been extrapolated from case-descriptions and two pilot studies with small samples. One study (Lafuente et al.) found foot reflexology to be as helpful to patients with headaches as medication (flunarizine), yet foot reflexology was fraught with less side-effects than medication. In a second study (Eichelberger et al.) foot reflexology was used postoperatively on gynecological patients. The intervention group showed a lesser need for medication to enhance bladder tonus than did the control group. The literature describes foot reflexology as enhancing urination, bowel movements and relaxation.

  8. Multi-joint foot kinetics during walking in people with Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    DiLiberto, Frank E; Tome, Josh; Baumhauer, Judith F; Quinn, Jill R; Houck, Jeff; Nawoczenski, Deborah A

    2015-10-15

    Neuropathic tissue changes can alter muscle function and are a primary reason for foot pathologies in people with Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DMPN). Understanding of foot kinetics in people with DMPN is derived from single-segment foot modeling approaches. This approach, however, does not provide insight into midfoot power and work. Gaining an understanding of midfoot kinetics in people with DMPN prior to deformity or ulceration may help link foot biomechanics to anticipated pathologies in the midfoot and forefoot. The purpose of this study was to evaluate midfoot (MF) and rearfoot (RF) power and work in people with DMPN and a healthy matched control group. Thirty people participated (15 DMPN and 15 Controls). An electro-magnetic tracking system and force plate were used to record multi-segment foot kinematics and ground reaction forces during walking. MF and RF power, work, and negative work ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Findings demonstrated that the DMPN group had greater negative peak power and reduced positive peak power at the MF and RF (all p≤0.05). DMPN group negative work ratios were also greater at the MF and RF [Mean difference MF: 9.9%; p=0.24 and RF: 18.8%; p<0.01]. In people with DMPN, the greater proportion of negative work may negatively affect foot structures during forward propulsion, when positive work and foot stability should predominate. Further study is recommended to determine how both MF and RF kinetics influence the development of deformity and ulceration in people with DMPN.

  9. [Bunion foot].

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Zoran; Mikić, Nadan

    2012-01-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a complex chronic progressive disease primarily characterized by a lateral great toe deviation and deformity of the first metatarsophalageal joint. Numerous etiological factors are related with the expression of this disease, and they are divided into two categories: endogenous and exogenous. Complexity of the hallux valgus deformity is reflected with the progression of the disease that gives rise to numerous forefoot deformities. The diagnosis is first of all affirmed by clinical examination and x-ray of the feet in a standing position. Treatment could be either operative or conservative. Conservative treatment has shown to be totally unsuccessful. Before decision making on the type of operative treatment, the patient's complaints, age, profession, clinical and x-ray findings must be taken into consideration. Until now, over two hundred different operative procedures have been described, which clearly supports the observation that there is no single method which could resolve all clinical varieties of this deformity. Therefore, today, when making a choice on the surgical procedure of hallux valgus deformity, the utilization of surgical algorithm is recommended.

  10. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-01-17

    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment.

  11. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species.

  12. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events.

  13. SKITTER foot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Gene; Jones, David L.; Morris, James; Parham, Martin; Stephens, Jim; Yancey, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    A mechanical design team was formed to design a foot for the lunar utility vehicle SKITTER. The primary design was constrained to be a ski pole design compatible with the existing femur-tibia design legs. The lunar environment had several important effects on the foot design. Three materials were investigated for the SKITTER foot: aluminum alloys, cold worked stainless steel alloys, and titanium alloys. Thin film coatings were investigated as a method of wear reduction for the foot. The performance of the foot is dependent on the action of the legs. The range of motion for the legs was determined to be vertical to 15 degrees above horizontal. An impact analysis was performed for the foot movement, but the results were determined to be inconclusive due to unknown soil parameters. The initial foot design configuration consisted of an annulus attached to the pointed pole. The annulus was designed to prevent excess sinkage. Later designs call for a conical shaped foot with a disk at the point of the tibia attachment. The conical design was analyzed for strength and deflection by two different approaches. A deformable body analysis was performed for the foot under crane load in crane position, and also under actuator load in the vertical position. In both cases, the deflection of the foot was insignificant and the stresses well below the strength of the titanium alloy.

  14. Changes in multi-segmented body movements and EMG activity while standing on firm and foam support surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fransson, P A; Gomez, S; Patel, M; Johansson, L

    2007-09-01

    Postural control ensures stability during both static posture and locomotion by initiating corrective adjustments in body movement. This is particularly important when the conditions of the support surface change. We investigated the effects of standing on a compliant foam surface using 12 normal subjects (mean age 26 years) in terms of: linear movements at the head, shoulder, hip and knee; EMG activity of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles and torques towards the support surface. As subjects repeated the trials with eyes open or closed, we were also able to determine the effects of vision on multi-segmented body movements during standing upon different support surface conditions. As expected, EMG activity, torque variance values and body movements at all measured positions increased significantly when standing on foam compared with the firm surface. Linear knee and hip movements increased more, relative to shoulder and head movements while standing on foam. Vision stabilized the head and shoulder movements more than hip and knee movements while standing on foam support surface. Moreover, vision significantly reduced the tibialis anterior EMG activity and torque variance during the trials involving foam. In conclusion, the foam support surface increased corrective muscle and torque activity, and changed the firm-surface multi-segmented body movement pattern. Vision improved the ability of postural control to handle compliant surface conditions. Several essential features of postural control have been found from recording movements from multiple points on the body, synchronized with recording torque and EMG.

  15. Characterization of Coxsackievirus A6- and Enterovirus 71-Associated Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing, China, from 2013 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Sun, Ying; Du, Yiwei; Yan, Yuxiang; Huo, Da; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fen; Lin, Changying; Liang, Zhichao; Jia, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Quanyi; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Etiology surveillance of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing showed that Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) became the major pathogen of HFMD in 2013 and 2015. In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of CVA6-associated HFMD, a comparison study among CVA6-, EV71- (Enterovirus 71), and CVA16- (Coxsackievirus A16) associated HFMD was performed. Methods: Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations among CVA6-, EV71- and CVA16-associated mild or severe cases were compared from 2013 to 2015. VP1 gene of CVA6 and EV71 from mild cases, severe cases were sequenced, aligned, and compared with strains from 2009 to 2015 in Beijing and strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbor-joining method. Results: CVA6 became the predominant causative agent of HFMD and accounted for 35.4 and 36.9% of total positive cases in 2013 and 2015, respectively. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 305 severe cases and 7 fatal cases were reported. CVA6 and EV71 were responsible for 57.5% of the severe cases. Five out six samples from fatal cases were identified as EV71. High fever, onychomadesis, and decrustation were the typical symptoms of CVA6-associated mild HFMD. CVA6-associated severe cases were characterized by high fever with shorter duration and twitch compared with EV71-associated severe cases which were characterized by poor mental condition, abnormal pupil, and vomiting. Poor mental condition, lung wet rales, abnormal pupil, and tachycardia were the most common clinical features of fatal cases. The percentage of lymphocyte in CVA6-associated cases was significantly lower than that of EV71. High percentage of lymphocyte and low percentage of neutrophils were the typical characteristics of fatal cases. VP1 sequences between CVA6- or EV71-associated mild and severe cases were highly homologous. Conclusion: CVA6 became one of the major pathogens of HFMD in 2013 and 2015 in Beijing

  16. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  17. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  18. Foot Push-Up Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  19. Chronic laminitis: foot management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Scott

    2010-08-01

    Laminitis is a disease of the suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx, which can advance to the chronic stage with varying degrees of structural failure. Because the disease may ultimately lead to mechanical failure of the digit, a foot management plan is required to effectively and mechanically treat these cases. Many laminitis cases can be successfully rehabilitated back to athletic soundness, light use, breeding, or pasture soundness, whereas others suffer from permanent instability and never enjoy an acceptable level of comfort. To understand how to minimize damage in the acute laminitic foot or rehabilitate the chronic laminitic foot, the veterinarian should have an understanding of the normal supporting structures of the digit, the biomechanical forces acting on the foot, and the structural failure that results when these otherwise normal forces act on a diseased, damaged foot.

  20. Implementation of a three-dimensional stereo image capture system based on the multi-segment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Park, Jaebyung; Tumenjargal, Enkhbaatar; Badarch, Luubaatar; Kwon, Hyeokjae

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new model of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera using combinations of several pin hole camera models, and its validity is verified by using synthesized stereo images based on OpenGL software. Our embedded three-dimensional (3-D) image capturing hardware system consists of five motor controllers and two CMOS camera modules based on an S3C6410 processor. An optimal alignment for capturing nine segment images that have their own convergence planes is implemented using a pi controller based on the measures of alignment and sharpness. A new synthesizing fusion with the optimized nine segmentation images is proposed for the best 3-D depth perception. Based on the experimental results of the disparity values in each of the nine segments, the multi-segment method proposed in this paper is a good method to improve the perception of 3-D depth in stereo images.

  1. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  2. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  3. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV

  4. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  5. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  6. Foot pain causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 58. LeCursi N. Sports shoes and orthoses. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ... Ligamentous Injuries of the Foot and Ankle. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  7. The Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the principles of good foot care. If time for teaching is limited, this task must be delegated to a podiatrist or a diabetes nurse educator in a diabetes day centre. It is the physician's responsibility to confirm foot care by personal inspection of the feet of all diabetic patients at every visit. PMID:21234002

  8. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infographic (English) Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Nerve Damage (Diabetic Neuropathies) Diabetic Kidney Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems Diabetic ... time, diabetes may cause nerve damage, also called diabetic neuropathy , that can cause tingling and pain, and can ...

  9. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Lee, S W; Song, W; Torrez-Martinez, N; Song, J W; Yanagihara, R; Gavrilovskaya, I; Mackow, E R

    1995-01-01

    The complete M segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States and from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, from New York were 99% identical and differed from those of Four Corners virus by 23%. The serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the Four Corners virus G1 glycoprotein. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. leucopus harbors a genetically and antigenically distinct hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:7494337

  10. Construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O/JPN/2010 isolated in Japan in 2010.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Onozato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Seiichi; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manabu; Morioka, Kazuki; Kanno, Toru

    2016-06-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan was constructed and designated pSVL-f02. Transfection of Cos-7 or IBRS-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. The recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. Pigs were experimentally infected with the parental virus or the recombinant virus recovered from pSVL-f02 transfected cells. There were no significant differences in clinical signs or antibody responses between the two groups, and virus isolation and viral RNA detection from clinical samples were similar. Virus recovered from transfected cells therefore retained the in vitro characteristics and the in vivo pathogenicity of their parental strain. This cDNA clone should be a valuable tool to analyze determinants of pathogenicity and mechanisms of virus replication, and to develop genetically engineered vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

  11. [The hyperostotic foot].

    PubMed

    Claustre, J; Simon, L

    1982-01-01

    Clinical and radiological examination of the foot in 25 cases of ankylosing verteral hyperostosis revealed signs of the disease in 16 cases: eleven patients had painful symptoms (predominantly pain in the heel, 9 cases) and and five had radiological changes in the feet which led to the discovery of the characteristic vertebral involvement. As for other extra-vertebral sites of vertebral hyperostosis, the foot warrants careful examination. The radiological lesions consist of osteophytic proliferations of the calcaneum (sometimes pathognomonic), scattered ossifications in the ligaments of the inferior and posterior aspects of this bone, the neck of the talus, the dorsum of the mid-foot, the internal aspect of the tarsal scaphoid or the external face of the styloid apophysis of the 5th metatarsal, and a bony proliferation enlarging the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe.

  12. [The diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, P; Z'Brun, A; Brunner, D

    1998-10-01

    Problems of the diabetic foot are frequent. The magnitude of the clinical picture and morbidity mirrors the severity and complexity of the underlying pathobiology. The three pathogenetic mechanism involved are ischemia, neuropathy and infection. Seldom do these mechanisms work in isolation, rather most foot problems result from a complex interplay among all three. The clinical picture of the diabetic foot reaches from the neuropathic deformity with diminished or absent sensation of pain to limited gangrene or superficial ulcer. The polymicrobial infection leads to extensive tissue destruction (plantarphlegmone) with osteomyelitis. The patients often notes no pain and may become aware of the infection only through the presence of drainage or a foul odor. These infections are usually more extensive than would be predicted by clinical signs and symptoms. These lesions must be debrided and drained promptly and completely. This often requires amputations of one or more toes, combined with an incision along the entire course of the infected track on the plantar or dorsal aspect of the foot. Cultures should be taken from the depth of the wound. Initial treatment should be with broad-spectrum antibiotics, with subsequent adjustment based on culture results. The diabetic foot is a clinical problem that can be solved with a high degree of success when the approached by an interdisciplinary team (specialists in infectious and vascular disease, podiatry and diabetology). Arterial reconstruction should be designed to restore maximum perfusion to the foot. The most effective result can be obtained with infra-inguinal vein bypass with distal anastomosis to the most proximal artery with direct continuity to the ischemic territory. The single most important factor in the achievement of the reduction of amputation is the autologous vein bypass. The overall outcome in the diabetic patient in terms of graft patency and limb salvage is equal to that in the nondiabetic.

  13. Molecular characterization of serotype Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic Group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Syed M; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. Diverse strains of FMDV, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. Characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks. The present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia-1 viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during the period 1998-2009. Phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type Asia-1 revealed that three different genetic Groups of serotype Asia-1 have circulated in Pakistan during this time. These are Group-II, -VI and, recently, a novel Group (designated here as Group-VII). This new Group has not been detected in neighbouring Afghanistan during the study period but viruses from Groups I and -II are in circulation there. Using near complete genome sequences, from FMD viruses of serotypes Asia-1 and A that are currently circulating in Pakistan, we have identified an interserotypic recombinant virus, which has the VP2-VP3-VP1-2A coding sequences derived from a Group-VII Asia-1 virus and the remainder of the genome from a serotype A virus of the A-Iran05(AFG-07) sub-lineage. The Asia-1 FMDVs currently circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan are not efficiently neutralized by antisera raised against the Asia-1/Shamir vaccine strain. Thus, new Asia-1 vaccine strains may be required to block the spread of the current Asia-1 viruses.

  14. Broken Ankle/Broken Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... not warming up and stretching, also can cause foot and ankle injuries. Work in certain occupations. Certain work environments, such ... too little light may lead to falls and foot and ankle injuries. Have certain conditions. Having fragile bones (osteoporosis) or ...

  15. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... also be a contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  16. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection ...

  17. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand, foot, and mouth disease is common in infants ...

  18. Adult cavovarus foot.

    PubMed

    Younger, Alastair S E; Hansen, Sigvard T

    2005-09-01

    Cavovarus foot deformity, which often results from an imbalance of muscle forces, is commonly caused by hereditary motor sensory neuropathies. Other causes are cerebral palsy, cerebral injury (stroke), anterior horn cell disease (spinal root injury), talar neck injury, and residual clubfoot. In cavovarus foot deformity, the relatively strong peroneus longus and tibialis posterior muscles cause a hindfoot varus and forefoot valgus (pronated) position. Hindfoot varus causes overload of the lateral border of the foot, resulting in ankle instability, peroneal tendinitis, and stress fracture. Degenerative arthritic changes can develop in overloaded joints. Gait examination allows appropriate planning of tendon transfers to correct stance and swing-phase deficits. Inspection of the forefoot and hindfoot positions determines the need for soft-tissue release and osteotomy. The Coleman block test is invaluable for assessing the cause of hindfoot varus. Prolonged use of orthoses or supportive footwear can result in muscle imbalance, causing increasing deformity and irreversible damage to tendons and joints. Rebalancing tendons is an early priority to prevent unsalvageable deterioration of the foot. Muscle imbalance can be corrected by tendon transfer, corrective osteotomy, and fusion. Fixed bony deformity can be addressed by fusion and osteotomy.

  19. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-06-10

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations.

  20. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in this ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  2. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  3. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Indian foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates collected during the period 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, S; Madhanmohan, M; Nagendrakumar, S B; Kumar, Ralla; Subramanian, B Mohana; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Srinivasan, V A

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences of the 39 type O foot and mouth virus (FMDV) isolates collected from different regions of India during the year of 2001-12 revealed that all isolates belonged to the Middle East - South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. Based on the amount of divergence among the isolates, the viruses were further classified into three distinct lineages namely Ind 2001, PanAsia and PanAsia-2 as well as a minor, unnamed group. Ind 2001 lineage viruses accounted for most of the current type O outbreaks. At the nucleotide level these isolates showed a divergence of 2% to 14% with an average sequence variation of ~9.9%. The serological spectrum of the current vaccine strain was studied by using bovine vaccinate serum (BVS) raised against O/IND/R2/75. All the current field isolates (n=24) were homologous ('r' value 0.4 to 1.0) to the vaccine strain. Examination of the amino acid sequences for selection pressure revealed the positive selection at amino acid sites 13 and 45.

  4. Immunoglobulin VH and VK genes of the BALB/c anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (O1) VP1 response: cloning, characterization and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Conrad, U; Becker, K; Ziegner, M; Walter, G

    1991-11-01

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes were isolated from BALB/c antibody responses to the capsid protein VP1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain O1. According to antigen binding measured by ELISA a weak-binding (81D10, IgM) and a strong-binding antibody (113C12, IgG2a) were selected. As RNA sequencing of productive immunoglobulin VH and VK genes turned out, both chains of the weak-binding antibody (81D10) are encoded by germline (i.e. not mutated) genes whereas the gene encoding the strong-binding antibody (113C12) k chain is mutated at several sites. Therefore, rearranged VH and VK genes of 81D10 were cloned, expressed in immunoglobulin non-producing plasmacytoma cells, and mice transgenic for the 81D10 k gene were produced. These mice provide a first step in the development of a transgenic mouse model for genetical investigations in the affinity maturation of anti-viral immunoglobulin variable genes.

  5. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.

  6. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.

    PubMed

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham J; Dhikusooka, Moses T; Wekesa, Sabenzia N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Siegismund, Hans R; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

  7. Characterization of recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus pentamer-like structures expressed by baculovirus and their use as diagnostic antigens in a blocking ELISA.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Yong-Joo; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Park, Jee-Yong; Song, Hee-Jong

    2007-05-16

    Non-infectious recombinant pentamer-like structures of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were expressed by baculovirus, and the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the proteins were analyzed in a blocking ELISA for the detection of FMDV antibodies. The recombinant pentamer-like structures were produced in insect (Sf9) cells that were inoculated with recombinant baculoviruses that expressed, simultaneously, the genes for the P1 and 3C proteins of FMDV from individual promoters. The FMDV pentamer-like structures were processed by viral 3C protease, as shown in Western blots, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivities in an indirect ELISA. Analysis by CsCl gradient centrifugation showed that the pentamer-like structures were similar to authentic pentameric subunits from FMDV in terms of sedimentation velocity. Furthermore, the pentamer-like structures induced high levels of FMDV-specific antibodies in mice following immunization. Observations made under the electron microscope revealed that the pentamer-like structures expressed by insect cells self-assembled to form pentameric subunits of 7-8 nm in diameter, which resemble the authentic FMDV (23+/-2 nm in diameter). The results indicate that these pentamer-like structures are as antigenic and immunogenic as authentic FMDV, although the former are smaller in size. Based on these results, a blocking ELISA was developed using the recombinant pentamer-like structure. The ELISA showed specificity of 99.5% and sensitivity of 98.5% when tested with FMDV antibody-negative and -positive sera, respectively. This blocking ELISA is highly specific and offers many advantages over the current ELISAs that use inactivated FMDV antigen. This is the first report of the production and diagnostic application of recombinant pentameric subunits of FMDV.

  8. Prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in East Africa using site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Fufa Dawo; Parida, Satya; Asfor, Amin S.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Reeve, Richard; Paton, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mAb) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype A FMDV. Previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from Asia, Europe and Latin America. In this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in African serotype A FMDVs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. Twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to be of antigenic significance by analysing the capsid sequences (n = 56) using in silico methods, and six residues by correlating capsid sequence with serum–virus neutralization data. The predicted residues were distributed on the surface-exposed capsid regions, VP1–VP3. The significance of residue changes at eight of the predicted epitopes was tested by site-directed mutagenesis using a cDNA clone resulting in the generation of 12 mutant viruses involving seven sites. The effect of the amino acid substitutions on the antigenic nature of the virus was assessed by virus neutralization (VN) test. Mutations at four different positions, namely VP1-43, VP1-45, VP2-191 and VP3-132, led to significant reduction in VN titre (P value = 0.05, 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the antigenic regions encompassing amino acids VP1-43 to -45 (equivalent to antigenic site 3 in serotype O), VP2-191 and VP3-132 have been predicted as epitopes and evaluated serologically for serotype A FMDVs. This identifies novel capsid epitopes of recently circulating serotype A FMDVs in East Africa. PMID:25614587

  9. The athlete's foot.

    PubMed

    Resnik, S S; Lewis, L A; Cohen, B H

    1977-09-01

    In general, painful feet can affect the performance of an athlete in any sport. To prevent skin diseases of the feet, the "Athlete's Foot" should be kept clean and dry with toenails trimmed. Properly fitting athletic shoes should be worn to avoid the formation of blisters. Wearing of sandals in locker and shower rooms, which prevents intimate contact with infecting organisms, can alleviate many of the problems that affect the feet.

  10. The adaptive drop foot stimulator - Multivariable learning control of foot pitch and roll motion in paretic gait.

    PubMed

    Seel, Thomas; Werner, Cordula; Schauer, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Many stroke patients suffer from the drop foot syndrome, which is characterized by a limited ability to lift (the lateral and/or medial edge of) the foot and leads to a pathological gait. In this contribution, we consider the treatment of this syndrome via functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the peroneal nerve during the swing phase of the paretic foot. A novel three-electrodes setup allows us to manipulate the recruitment of m. tibialis anterior and m. fibularis longus via two independent FES channels without violating the zero-net-current requirement of FES. We characterize the domain of admissible stimulation intensities that results from the nonlinearities in patients' stimulation intensity tolerance. To compensate most of the cross-couplings between the FES intensities and the foot motion, we apply a nonlinear controller output mapping. Gait phase transitions as well as foot pitch and roll angles are assessed in realtime by means of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). A decentralized Iterative Learning Control (ILC) scheme is used to adjust the stimulation to the current needs of the individual patient. We evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in experimental trials with drop foot patients walking on a treadmill and on level ground. Starting from conventional stimulation parameters, the controller automatically determines individual stimulation parameters and thus achieves physiological foot pitch and roll angle trajectories within at most two strides.

  11. [Foot specific orthotic devices].

    PubMed

    Goldcher, Alain

    2010-03-20

    For each foot pathology, whatever its nature and aetiology, there is an orthesis, the best mechanical treatment. For toe pathologies due to or worsened by the footwear, we must recommend wearing other shoes and sometimes an orthoplasty which is not covered by health insurance. Sole orthesis are quite effective for most pathologies causing pain when walking, and involving the foot sole or starting in the foot. Realised by an approved splint technician, they are covered by health insurance for a lump sum, but patients are telling us their cost is becoming more and more difficult to bear Mass-produced shoes, therapeutic or not, deserve a special place in the therapeutic arsenal of podiatry. Temporary used shoes improve post-operation situation and some specifically located discharges. More and more shoes are available for longer use, most of them not approved but better looking, and at least as effective as and not costlier than the few models covered by health insurance.They can provide footwear that are not standard and can't be helped by bespoke shoes reserved for precise medical indications.

  12. Diabetic neuropathy and foot complications.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Andrew J M

    2014-01-01

    Foot ulceration and Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) are well recognized and documented late sequelae of diabetic peripheral, somatic, and sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The neuropathic foot, however, does not ulcerate spontaneously: it is a combination of loss of sensation due to neuropathy together with other factors such as foot deformity and external trauma that results in ulceration and indeed CN. The commonest trauma leading to foot ulcers in the neuropathic foot in Western countries is from inappropriate footwear. Much of the management of the insensate foot in diabetes has been learned from leprosy which similarly gives rise to insensitive foot ulceration. No expensive equipment is required to identify the high risk foot and recently developed tests such as the Ipswich Touch Test and the Vibratip have been shown to be useful in identifying the high risk foot. A comprehensive screening program, together with education of high risk patients, should help to reduce the all too high incidence of ulceration in diabetes. More recently another very high risk group has been identified, namely patients on dialysis, who are at extremely high risk of developing foot ulceration; this should be preventable. The most important feature in management of neuropathic foot ulceration is offloading as patients can easily walk on active foot ulcers due to the loss of pain sensation. Infection should be treated aggressively and if there is any evidence of peripheral vascular disease, arteriography and appropriate surgical management is also indicated. CN often presents with a unilateral hot, swollen foot and any patient presenting with these features known to have neuropathy should be treated as a Charcot until this is proven otherwise. Most important in the management of acute CN is offloading, often in a total contact cast.

  13. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement.

  14. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  15. [The diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Hartemann-Heurtier, Agnès; Ha Van, Georges

    2003-05-15

    Diabetic patients are concerned with foot complications when a peripheral neuropathy is present. Screening of predisposed patients may be annually assessed using monofilament testing. Peripheral arterial disease, when associated, increases amputation risk. Ideal treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with a first-line medical treatment including an optimal off-loading of the diabetic ulcer, ulcer dertersion, glycemic control, and if necessary antibiotic therapy. In case of associated osteomyelitis, a limited surgical resection of the infected bone may be performed. In case of associated arterial disease, a revascularization procedure precede bone resection.

  16. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  17. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  18. [Neurogenic foot deformities].

    PubMed

    Senst, S

    2010-01-01

    There is a multitude of neurological diseases which may lead to neuro-orthopaedic problems and subsequently to neurogenic foot deformities. For this reason the diagnostician will be consistently surprised that there is a great multitude of different foot abnormalities and that not only the typical spastic talipes equines dominates. Of particular significance here is that these deformities almost always develop progressively, whereas most diseases persist per se, cerebral palsy being a typical case in point. However, in MMC (myelomeningocele) patients, there is also the danger of a worsening of the basic problem in the case of tethered cord syndrome. Unlike congenital talipes equinovarus, neuro-orthopaedic talipes equinovarus often shows over- or undercorrection postoperatively due to a shift in muscle imbalance. It is important, therefore, that the basis of conservative therapy include regular physiotherapy and orthoses during the day and, if necessary, at night. Botulinum toxin has been established as an additional measure for spasticity; however, this cannot always prevent surgical intervention, but is able to delay this to a better point in the development of the child/patient. The present article describes the diversity of neurological deformities and presents conservative as well as surgical therapeutic approaches.

  19. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    A researcher is launching a model into the tunnel airstream of the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman wrote in NASA TR No. 557: 'After the observations have been made, the model is lowered into a net held in the air stream by one of the operators or into a large bowl-shaped net at the bottom of the test section. When lowered into the large net, the model is retrieved with a long- handled clamp.' (p. 267) 'The models used are generally 1/10 to 1/16 scale. The size of the models is limited by the wing span and the wing loading. The maximum allowable span is about 36 inches; the maximum wing loading is about 1.3 pounds per square foot.' (p. 266) 'Balsa wood is the usual structural material because of its low density. It is necessary to hollow out the after portion of the fuselage and to cut out a large portion of the wood in the wings to permit proper mass distribution. The wing cut-outs are covered with silk tissue paper. The leading and trailing edges and tips of the wings are fitted with strips of spruce, pattern pine, or bamboo inset into the edge of the balsa to prevent disfigurement from accidental blows or from striking the safety netting. Lead is used for ballast.' (p. 266)

  20. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    Interior view of model in 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman wrote in NASA TR No. 557: 'After the observations have been made, the model is lowered into a net held in the air stream by one of the operators or into a large bowl-shaped net at the bottom of the test section. When lowered into the large net, the model is retrieved with a long-handled clamp.' (p. 267) 'The models mused are generally 1/10 to 1/16 scale. The size of the models is limited by the wing span and the wing loading. The maximum allowable span is about 36 inches; the maximum wing loading is about 1.3 pounds per square foot.' (p. 266) 'Balsa wood is the usual structural material because of its low density. It is necessary to hollow out the after portion of the fuselage and to cut out a large portion of the wood in the wings to permit proper mass distribution. The wing cut-outs are covered with silk tissue paper. The leading and trailing edges and tips of the wings are fitted with strips of spruce, pattern pine, or bamboo inset into the edge of the balsa to prevent disfigurement from accidental blows or from striking the safety netting. Lead is used for ballast.' (p. 266)

  1. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  2. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  3. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  4. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  5. A dynamic model of the windlass mechanism of the foot: evidence for early stance phase preloading of the plantar aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Pataky, Todd; Goulermas, John Y; Savage, Russel; Crompton, Robin

    2009-08-01

    In the present study we have estimated the temporal elongation of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) during normal walking using a subject-specific multi-segment rigid-body model of the foot. As previous studies have suggested that muscular forces at the ankle can pre-load the PA prior to heel-strike, the main purpose of the current study was to test, through modelling, whether there is any tension present in the PA during early stance phase. Reflective markers were attached to bony landmarks to track the kinematics of the calcaneus, metatarsus and toes during barefoot walking. Ultrasonography measurements were performed on three subjects to determine both the location of the origin of the PA on the plantar aspect of the calcaneus, and the radii of the metatarsal heads. Starting with the foot in a neutral, unloaded position, inverse kinematics allowed calculation of the tension in the five slips of the PA during the whole duration of the stance phase. The results show that the PA experienced tension significantly above rest during early stance phase in all subjects (P<0.01), thus providing support for the PA-preloading hypothesis. The amount of preloading and the maximum elongation of the slips of the PA decreased from medial to lateral. The mean maximum tension exerted by the PA was 1.5 BW (body weight) over the three subjects.

  6. Foot-type analysis and plantar pressure differences between obese and nonobese adolescents during upright standing.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Capodaglio, Paolo; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pau, Massimiliano; Patrizi, Alessandra; Tringali, Gabriella; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of obesity on foot-type and plantar pressure distribution in adolescents. Ten obese adolescents (obese group; BMI: 35.45±4.73 kg/m) and eight normal-weighted adolescents (control group; BMI: 18.67±2.46 kg/m) were recruited. Both groups were evaluated while standing using the Pedar-X in-shoe system. Foot-ground contact was characterized using contact area, peak of force and pressure calculated for the subareas of the foot. The analysis showed that obese participants had significantly higher area of contact in forefoot and midfoot (only in medial area) regions in comparison with the control group, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed for the rearfoot region. As far as the maximum pressure and force was concerned, similar results were obtained for both groups. Obese participants showed higher values for all the regions, with the exception of medial rearfoot area, for which the values were similar between the two groups. The analysis of foot-type distribution displayed that in the obese group high percentage of participants presented flat foot (70%) respect to cavus foot (20%) and normal foot (10%); on the contrary, in the control group, foot-types were markedly different, with 25% of participants with flat foot, 25% with cavus foot and 50% with normal foot. These results are important from a clinical perspective to develop and enhance the rehabilitative options in these patients and to avoid a worsening of their foot abnormalities. Untreated flat foot can in fact be disabling and over time can result in significant difficulties for the patient.

  7. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  8. Challenges for Serology-Based Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Endemic Areas; Identification of Two Separate Lineages of Serotype O FMDV in Uganda in 2011.

    PubMed

    Namatovu, A; Belsham, G J; Ayebazibwe, C; Dhikusooka, M T; Wekesa, S N; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B; Tjørnehøj, K

    2015-10-01

    Control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda by ring vaccination largely depends on costly trivalent vaccines, and use of monovalent vaccines could improve the cost effectiveness. This, however, requires application of highly specific diagnostic tests. This study investigated outbreaks of FMD in seven Ugandan districts, during 2011, using the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA, solid-phase blocking ELISAs (SPBEs) and virus neutralization tests (VNTs), together with virological analyses for characterization of the responsible viruses. Two hundred and eighteen (218) cattle and 23 goat sera as well as 82 oropharyngeal fluid/epithelial tissue samples were collected. Some 50% of the cattle and 17% of the goat sera were positive by the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA, while SPBEs identified titres ≥80 for antibodies against serotype O FMD virus (FMDV) in 51% of the anti-NSP positive cattle sera. However, 35% of the anti-NSP positive cattle sera had SPBE titres ≥80 against multiple serotypes, primarily against serotypes O, SAT 1 and SAT 3. Comparison of SPBEs and VNTs for the detection of antibodies against serotypes O, SAT 1 and SAT 3 in 72 NSP positive cattle sera showed comparable results against serotype O (P = 0.181), while VNTs detected significantly fewer samples positive for antibodies against SAT 1 and SAT 3 than the SPBEs (P < 0.001). Detection of antibodies against serotype O was consistent with the isolation of serotype O FMDVs from 13 samples. Four of these viruses were sequenced and belonged to two distinct lineages within the East Africa-2 (EA-2) topotype, each differing from the currently used vaccine strain (EA-1 topotype). The relationships of these lineages to other serotype O viruses in the Eastern Africa region are discussed. To enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need to improve the specificity of the SAT-SPBEs, perform vaccine matching and implement improved regional FMD control.

  9. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in Ecuador during 2009-2010 and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Perez Beascoechea, Claudia; Malirat, Viviana; Salgado, Gustavo; Seki, Cristina; Pedemonte, Andrea; Bonastre, Paula; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Rodríguez Toledo, Jorge; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2011-10-26

    During the years 2009 and 2010 relevant epidemic waves of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O occurred in Ecuador, representing a great drawback for the last stages of the ongoing eradication program in South America. This study describes the molecular and antigenic characterizations of 29 isolates collected from various regions in the country and their relationship to the vaccine strain. The phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the complete VP(1) protein showed that, despite the widespread origin of the viruses, they were all related among themselves and to previous isolates occurring in 2008, with around 10% difference with the vaccine strain O1/Campos. The high level of sequence conservation among different isolates in the various regions of Ecuador pointed to a common origin, suggesting animal movements as possible sources of viral spread. Monoclonal antibody profiling grouped the isolates in two major reactivity patterns which differed from that of the vaccine strain. Both profiles showed loss of reactivity with the same four MAbs, three of them with neutralizing properties. Additional sites were lost in the profile representing most of the 2010s viral samples. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine against the field strains assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies also pointed to an increased temporal pattern of loss of a protective response. Moreover, results obtained with in vivo challenge in the protection against podal generalization test in cattle, clearly indicated lack of appropriate protection of the Ecuadorian field strains by the vaccine virus in use, which in the case of a 2010 variant was observed even after revaccination.

  10. Foot pressure distribution in children with cerebral palsy while standing.

    PubMed

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Pau, Massimiliano; Leban, Bruno; Brunner, Reinald; Albertini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformity is a major component of impaired functioning in cerebral palsy (CP). While gait and balance issues related to CP have been studied extensively, there is little information to date on foot-ground interaction (i.e. contact area and plantar pressure distribution). This study aimed to characterize quantitatively the foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing in hemiplegia and diplegia. We studied 64 children with hemiplegia (mean age 8.2 years; SD 2.8 years) and 43 with diplegia (mean age 8.8 years; SD 2.3 years) while standing on both legs statically on a pressure sensitive mat. We calculated pressure data for the whole foot and sub-regions (i.e. rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot) and average contact pressure. The Arch Index (AI) served for classifying the feet as flat, normal or cavus feet. The data were compared with those from a sample of age- and gender-matched participants (control group, 68 children). Most of the feet showed very high AI values, thus indicating a flat foot. This deformity was more common in diplegia (74.4%) than in hemiplegia (54.7%). In both diplegic and hemiplegic children, average plantar pressure was significantly increased in the forefoot and midfoot and decreased in the rearfoot (p<0.001). The present data indicate an increased load on the front parts of the foot, which may be due to plantarflexor overactivity or knee flexion, combined with an increased incidence of low foot arches. As a low foot arch does not necessarily increase forefoot load, this deformity can be regarded as secondary.

  11. Multisegment coherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Tucker, Steve D.; Morgan, R.; Smith, Tony G.; Warren, Mial E.; Gruetzner, James K.; Rosenthal, R. R.; Bentley, A. E.

    1995-08-01

    Scaling laser systems to large sizes for power beaming and other applications can sometimes be simplified by combining a number of smaller lasers. However, to fully utilize this scaling, coherent beam combination is necessary. This requires measuring and controlling each beam's pointing and phase relative to adjacent beams using an adaptive optical system. We have built a sub-scale brass-board to evaluate various methods for beam-combining. It includes a segmented adaptive optic and several different specialized wavefront sensors that are fabricated using diffractive optics methods. We have evaluated a number of different phasing algorithms, including hierarchical and matrix methods, and have demonstrated phasing of several elements. The system is currently extended to a large number of segments to evaluate various scaling methodologies.

  12. Correction of postaxial metatarsal polydactyly of the foot by percutaneous ray amputation and osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2013-01-01

    Polydactyly of the foot is a congenital anomaly characterized by the appearance of all or part of 1 or more additional rays. The patient with this condition might complain of an abnormal cosmetic appearance or difficulty with footwear. A minimally invasive technique for correction of postaxial metatarsal polydactyly of the foot is presented in this techniques report.

  13. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  14. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Control panel below the test section of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST). Authorized July 17, 1933, construction of the 8-Foot HST was paid for with funds from the Federal Public Works Administration. Manly Hood and Russell Robinson designed the unusual facility which could produce a 500 mph wind stream across an 8-Foot test section. The concrete shell was not part of the original design. Like most projects funded through New Deal programs, the PWA restricted the amount of money which could be spent on materials. The majority of funds were supposed to be expended on labor. Though originally, Hood and Robinson had planned a welded steel pressure vessel around the test section, PWA officials proposed the idea of concrete. This picture shows the test section inside the igloo-like structure with walls of 1-foot thick reinforced concrete. The thick walls were needed 'because of the Bernoulli effect, [which meant that] the text chamber had to withstand powerful, inwardly directed pressure. Operating personnel located inside the igloo were subjected to pressures equivalent to 10,000-foot altitude and had to wear oxygen masks and enter through airlocks. A heat exchanger removed the large quantities of heat generated by the big fan.'

  15. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.312 Footings. (a) Materials approved... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... use in the soil classification at the site. (ii) ABS footing pads must be listed or labeled for...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.312 Footings. (a) Materials approved... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... use in the soil classification at the site. (ii) ABS footing pads must be listed or labeled for...

  17. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  18. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  19. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  20. Freeing the foot: integrating the foot core system into rehabilitation for lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Fourchet, François

    2015-04-01

    The intrinsic muscles of the foot play a critical role in the regulation of absorption and propulsion during dynamic activities. Dysfunction of these may lead to an increased demand on the remaining components within the foot core system to maintain dynamic foot control, leading to a more rapid breakdown of these contributors and those proximal to the foot. Training the intrinsic foot muscles through a systematic progression of isolation via the short foot exercise offers the opportunity to reincorporate their contribution into the foot core system. This article discusses the function of the intrinsic foot muscles, their contributions to dynamic foot control, and a progressive training paradigm.

  1. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  2. Mouth in Foot Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Daniel C; Agee, Willie A; Pires, Valerie L; Yim, Duke G; Ngauy, Viseth

    2015-01-01

    Toothpicks are commonly used household items that rarely cause serious injury or infection. Toothpick-related injuries often occur due to ingestion with subsequent trauma/infection at distal sites within the gastrointestinal tract; however, cardiovascular, pleural, and soft tissue infections have been reported. Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus found in oral flora associated with bite wound infections. A few case reports describe E. corrodens osteomyelitis from toothpick puncture wounds. We report a case of foot cellulitis and abscess in an elderly diabetic after toothpick puncture injury that was unresponsive to empiric antibiotics. Wound cultures grew E. corrodens and rare Peptostreptococcus species. E. corrodens is resistant to first-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and metronidazole. This case highlights the insidious nature of E. corrodens infections and the need to tailor empiric antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections based on the mechanism of injury. In addition, this case stresses the importance of protective footwear in diabetics and serves as a cautionary tale regarding the use of seemingly innocuous toothpicks. PMID:26793413

  3. Homosexual foot fetishism.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M S; Williams, C J; Calhan, C

    1994-12-01

    262 respondents from an organization for homosexual foot fetishists provide information from a broader sample than clinical cases and allow examination of the effects of sexual preference on fetishism. Data show a wide range of feet/footwear objects to be arousing. Such interests were often associated with particular types of men, yet interests were subject to change over time. Fetishistic arousal rested on both sensual and symbolic aspects of the fetish. Symbolically, it was the theme of "masculinity" that made male feet/footwear arousing, showing parallels to "femininity" evoked by female feet/footwear for male heterosexual fetishists. For many of the respondents, fetishism did not seem to be a substitute for living persons. Respondents had intimate relationships and were able to incorporate their fetish interests into stable relationships and less intimate ones. Considerable involvement in sadomasochistic practices was also found as was involvement in the gay world. Finally, nothing about a fetishistic interest seemed to preclude the development of subcultural forms around the practice.

  4. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  5. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Control panel below the test section of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST). Authorized July 17, 1933, construction of the 8-Foot HST was paid for with funds from the Federal Public Works Administration. Manly Hood and Russell Robinson designed the unusual facility which could produce a 500 mph wind stream across an 8-Foot test section. The concrete shell was not part of the original design. Like most projects funded through New Deal programs, the PWA restricted the amount of money which could be spent on materials. The majority of funds were supposed to be expended on labor. Though originally, Hood and Robinson had planned a welded steel pressure vessel around the test section, PWA officials proposed the idea of concrete. This picture shows the test section inside the igloo-like structure with walls of 1-foot thick reinforced concrete. The thick walls were needed 'because of the Bernoulli effect, [which meant that] the text chamber had to withstand powerful, inwardly directed pressure. Operating personnel located inside the igloo were subjected to pressures equivalent to 10,000-foot altitude and had to wear oxygen masks and enter through airlocks. A heat exchanger removed the large quantities of heat generated by the big fan.'

  6. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    PubMed

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  7. Biomechanics of the Ankle-Foot System during Stair Ambulation: Implications for Design of Advanced Ankle-Foot Prostheses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    A.H., 2007. Effect of ankle–foot orthosis on roll-over shape in adults with hemiplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 44 (1), 11...20. Gates, D.H., 2004. Characterizing Ankle Function During Stair Ascent, Descent, And Level Walking For Ankle Prosthesis And Orthosis Design. M.S

  8. Do you know this syndrome? Hand-foot syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Braghiroli, Cintia Santos; Ieiri, Rodrigo; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Paschoalini, Rafael Bispo; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    Hand-foot syndrome is a common cutaneous adverse effect associated with certain systemic chemotherapy drugs. It is characterized by erythema, edema, and burning sensation, especially over palmoplantar surfaces. We report the case of an elderly patient undergoing chemotherapy after a breast cancer surgery who developed symptoms two months after the start of the regimen. There are no studies that explore specific therapies. Suggestive therapy include reducing agent dosage, increasing the interval between cycles, or even stopping chemotherapy. Emollients, analgesics, and cold packs are described as effective. After alopecia and mucositis, hand-foot syndrome is the most common adverse dermatologic reaction to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:28225974

  9. Construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sreenivasa, B. P.; Tamilselvan, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2B, 3B and 3Cpro and its characterization. Materials and Methods: FMD viral RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to synthesize expression cassettes (P1-2AB3BCwt and P1-2AB3BCm) followed by cloning in pShuttle-CMV vector. Chemically competent BJ5183-AD-1 cells were transformed with the recombinant pShuttle-CMV to produce recombinant adenoviral plasmids. HEK-293 cells were transfected with the recombinant adenoviral plasmids to generate recombinant adenoviruses (hAd5/P1-2AB3BCwt and hAd5/P1-2AB3BCm). Expression of the target proteins was analyzed by sandwich ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The recombinant adenoviruses were purified and concentrated by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. Growth kinetics and thermostability of the recombinant adenoviruses were compared with that of non-recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (dAd5). Results: The recombinant adenoviruses containing capsid protein genes of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were generated and amplified in HEK-293 cells. The titer of the recombinant adenoviruses was approximately 108, 109.5 and 1011 TCID50/ml in supernatant media, cell lysate and CsCl purified preparation, respectively. Expression of the FMDV capsid protein was detectable in sandwich ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. Growth kinetics of the recombinant adenoviruses did not reveal a significant difference when compared with that of dAd5. A decrement of up to 10-fold at 4°C and 21-fold at 37°C was recorded in the virus titers during 60 h incubation period and found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing capsid proteins of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were constructed and produced in high titers. In vitro expression of the target proteins in the adenovirus vector system was detected by

  10. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Syed M; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. Ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays were developed for specific detection and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnostic assays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of O-PanAsia, A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08)). In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 sublineage were also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV and detected the RNA from the target viruses with cycle threshold (CT) values comparable with those obtained with the serotype-independent pan-FMDV diagnostic assays. No cross-reactivity was observed in these assays between the heterotypic viruses circulating in the region. The assays reported here have higher diagnostic sensitivity (100% each for serotypes O and Asia-1, and 92% [95% CI = 81.4-100%] for serotype A positive samples) and specificity (100% each for serotypes O, A and Asia-1 positive samples) for the viruses currently circulating in West Eurasia compared to the serotyping assays reported earlier. Comparisons of the sequences of the primers and probes used in these assays and the corresponding regions of the circulating viruses provided explanations for the poor

  11. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  12. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  13. [Operative treatment of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Hintermann, B

    1999-07-08

    The majority of diabetic foot ulcers are the results of repetitive pressure that exceeds the threshold of soft-tissue tolerance, leading to mechanical destruction of the tissue. Progression of plantar ulcers can rapidly lead to osteomyelitis that may result in loss of the foot through amputation. In order to prevent such a disaster, surgical treatment should be taken into consideration when conservative treatment remains without success. The goal of surgical treatment of an infected ulcer is debridement of the soft-tissue and removal of the underlying pressure by careful bone resection or correction of a deformity by arthrodesis. Various authors have recently reported successful surgical reconstruction of neuroarthropathic foot deformity and instability. Apparently arthrodesis is a viable alternative to amputation for patients with unstable deformity or recurrent ulceration. Proper preoperative evaluation is mandatory. The indications are not well defined yet.

  14. Foot Comfort for the Fashionable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Modellista Footwear's new shoe line uses Tempur(TM) material, which conforms to each wearer's unique foot shape to absorb shock and cushion the foot. The foam's properties allow the shoe to change with the wearer's foot as it shrinks and swells throughout the day. Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center originally developed temper foam in the early 1970s to relieve the intense pressure of G-forces experienced by astronauts during rocket launches. Tempur-Pedic, Inc., further developed the foam and granted Modellista a license to use it in footwear. The Modellista collection is the first shoe design and construction to be certified by the Space Awareness Alliance. The shoes, with designs ranging from traditional clog shapes to sling backs and open-toe sandals, are currently available nationwide at select specialty shoe stores and through catalogs. Tempur(TM) is a registered trademark of Tempur-Pedic, Inc.

  15. Diabetic foot ulcers: practical treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    When treating diabetic foot ulcers it is important to be aware of the natural history of the diabetic foot, which can be divided into five stages: stage 1, a normal foot; stage 2, a high risk foot; stage 3, an ulcerated foot; stage 4, an infected foot; and stage 5, a necrotic foot. This covers the entire spectrum of foot disease but emphasises the development of the foot ulcer as a pivotal event in stage 3, which demands urgent and aggressive management. Diabetic foot care in all stages needs multidisciplinary management to control mechanical, wound, microbiological, vascular, metabolic and educational aspects. Achieving good metabolic control of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure is important in each stage, as is education to teach proper foot care appropriate for each stage. Ideally, it is important to prevent the development of ulcers in stages 1 and 2. In stage 1, the normal foot, it is important to encourage the use of suitable footwear, and to educate the patient to promote healthy foot care and footwear habits. In stage 2, the foot has developed one or more of the following risk factors for ulceration: neuropathy, ischaemia, deformity, swelling and callus. The majority of deformities can be accommodated in special footwear and as callus is an important precursor of ulceration it should be treated aggressively, especially in the neuropathic foot. In stage 3, ulcers can be divided into two distinct entities: those in the neuropathic foot and those in the neuroischaemic foot. In the neuropathic foot, ulcers commonly develop on the plantar surface of the foot and the toes, and are associated with neglected callus and high plantar pressures. In the neuroischaemic foot, ulcers are commonly seen around the edges of the foot, including the apices of the toes and back of the heel, and are associated with trauma or wearing unsuitable shoes. Ulcers in stage 3 need relief of pressure (mechanical control), sharp debridement and dressings (wound control), and

  16. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the ... completed a four-year program in Osteopathic Medicine. Diabetic foot - Diabetes affects the feet in a profound way ...

  17. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  19. American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week @ ACFAS Poll Results Arthroscopy e-Book The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery Read some of the latest research from the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of ACFAS, The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery ( ...

  20. Estimation of stature from radiographic measurement of foot dimensions: Truncated foot length may be more reliable than full foot length.

    PubMed

    Gwani, Abdullahi Suleiman; Salihu, Abubakar Tijjani; Garba, Isa Sa'idu; Rufa'i, Adamu Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Foot length has been shown to be a reliable dimension for estimation of stature. However, phalanges of the foot are very small bones and their length may not be proportional to person's stature. Thus, we hypothesized that foot length measured excluding the phalanges, the truncated foot length, may be more reliable in stature estimation than full foot length. This study, therefore, aimed at comparing the accuracy of the regression equations derived from the truncated foot length and the full foot length. The study recruited a sample of 32 young adults (16 males and 16 females) aged from 20 to 35 years. Lateral radiographs of the right feet were obtained for each subject in a bilateral standing position while maintaining equal weight on both feet. Standing height of the participants was measured with a stadiometer. Truncated foot length and full foot length were measured on the lateral radiographs of the foot. Independent t-test was used to check for mean differences in the dimensions between genders. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the equations for stature estimation. Intra and inter-observer reliability were calculated from four precision estimates: absolute technical error of measurement (aTEM), relative technical error of measurement (rTEM), coefficient of reliability (Rr) and coefficient of variation (Cv). All the dimensions measured were significantly larger in males than females. Linear regression equations were derived for estimation of stature using both the truncated foot length and full foot length. The regression equations derived from truncated foot length have larger correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, adjusted coefficient of determination as well as smaller standard error of estimation than those derived from full foot length. All the precision estimates showed that the measurement errors are within acceptable limits. This study suggests that even if the full foot length is available, excluding the phalanges may

  1. Puncture wounds of the foot.

    PubMed

    Racz, Roger S; Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Puncture wounds are common injuries of the foot. Although most puncture wounds are benign, devastating complications are possible without adequate treatment. These injuries can occur in all age groups and in various circumstances. Early diagnosis and appropriate medical and surgical management is paramount in achieving successful outcomes.

  2. Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....

  3. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a)...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a)...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reinforcing steel in cast-in-place concrete footings. (2) Pressure-treated wood. (i) Pressure-treated wood footings must consist of a minimum of two layers of nominal 2-inch thick pressure-treated wood, a single... values listed have been reduced by the dead load of the concrete footing. 4. Concrete block piers...

  10. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Jenna had been ... pins and needles." But why would your foot fall asleep? Many people say this is because you' ...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  13. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  16. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  19. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? A A A Jenna had been ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  20. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  6. Multi-segment trunk models used to investigate the crunch factor in golf and their relationship with selected swing and launch parameters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Chivers, Paola; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus

    2016-10-01

    The use of multi-segment trunk models to investigate the crunch factor in golf may be warranted. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the trunk and lower trunk for crunch factor-related variables (trunk lateral bending and trunk axial rotation velocity). The second aim was to determine the level of association between crunch factor-related variables with swing (clubhead velocity) and launch (launch angle). Thirty-five high-level amateur male golfers (Mean ± SD: age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years, registered golfing handicap = 5 ± 1.9) without low back pain had kinematic data collected from their golf swing using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 500 Hz. Clubhead velocity and launch angle were collected using a validated real-time launch monitor. A positive relationship was found between the trunk and lower trunk for axial rotation velocity (r(35) = .47, P < .01). Cross-correlation analysis revealed a strong coupling relationship for the crunch factor (R(2) = 0.98) between the trunk and lower trunk. Using generalised linear model analysis, it was evident that faster clubhead velocities and lower launch angles of the golf ball were related to reduced lateral bending of the lower trunk.

  7. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  8. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-05-11

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  9. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  10. [Orthopaedic footwear against foot ulcers in diabetes].

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2014-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, foot ulcers are a major problem because they increase the risk of a foot infection and amputation and reduce quality of life. After a foot ulcer has healed, the risk of recurrence is high. Orthopaedic shoes and orthotics are often prescribed to high risk patients and aim to reduce the mechanical pressure on the plantar surface of the foot. Orthopaedic footwear that is modified to reduce pressure is not much more effective in preventing foot ulcer recurrence than orthopaedic footwear that did not undergo such modification, unless the shoes are worn as recommended. In that case, the risk of ulcer recurrence is reduced by 46%. In patients with a history of ulceration, compliance in wearing orthopaedic shoes at home is low, while these patients walk more inside the house than outside the house. Foot pressure measurements should be part of the prescription and evaluation of orthopaedic footwear for patients at high risk for foot ulceration.

  11. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  12. Complex trauma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M

    1997-12-01

    Following complex foot injuries (incidence up to 52 %) in the multiply-injured patient the ultimate goal remains the same as for all significant foot injuries: the restoration of a painless, stable and plantigrade foot to avoid corrective procedures with moderate results. In the case of a complex trauma of the foot (5 point-score) - e. g. a crush injury - primary amputation in the multiply-injured patient (PTS 3-4) is indicated. Limb salvage (PTS 1-2) depends on the intraoperative aspect during the second look (within 24-48 hours after injury): the debridement has to be radical, the selection of amputation level should be at the most distal point compatible with tissue viability and wound healing. A free tissue transfer should be done early if necessary. Single lesions presenting with a compartment syndrome need an immediate dorsal fasciotomy, in the case of a multiply-injured patient as soon as possible. Open fractures are reduced following radical debridement and temporarily stabilized with K-wires and/or tibiotarsal transfixation with an external fixateur until the definitive ORIF. Dislocation-fractures of the talus type 3 and 4 according to Hawkins' classification need open reduction and internal fixation by screws (titan). Open fractures of the calcaneus are stabilized temporarily by a medial external fixateur after debridement until the definitive treatment. If there is a compartment syndrome an immediate dermatofasciotomy is essential. Like closed, calcanear fractures in multiply-injured patients dislocation-fractures of the Chopart's joint need immediate open reduction only if it is an open fracture or associated with a compartment syndrome. The incidence of a compartment syndrome in the case of dislocation fractures of the Lisfranc's joint is high and therefore a dorsal dermatofasciotomy without delay is critical. Open reduction and internal fixation are achieved either by 1.8 mm K-wires or 3.5 mm cortical screws. To avoid further soft tissue damage a

  13. [Complex trauma of the foot].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M

    1997-12-01

    Following complex foot injuries (incidence up to 52%) in the multiply-injured patient the ultimate goal remains the same as for all significant foot injuries: the restoration of a painless, stable and plantigrade foot to avoid corrective procedures with moderate results. In the case of a complex trauma of the foot (5 point-score)--e.g. a crush injury--primary amputation in the multiply-injured patient (PTS 3-4) is indicated. Limb salvage (PTS 1-2) depends on the intraoperative aspect during the second look (within 24-48 hours after injury): the debridement has to be radical, the selection of amputation level should be at the most distal point compatible with tissue viability and wound healing. A free tissue transfer should be done early if necessary. Single lesions presenting with a compartment syndrome need an immediate dorsal fasciotomy, in the case of a multiply-injured patient as soon as possible. Open fractures are reduced following radical debridement and temporarily stabilized with K-wires and/or tibiotarsal transfixation with an external fixateur until the definitive ORIF. Dislocation-fractures of the talus type 3 and 4 according to Hawkins' classification need open reduction and internal fixation by screws (titan). Open fractures of the calcaneus are stabilized temporarily by a medial external fixateur after debridement until the definitive treatment. If there is a compartment syndrome an immediate dermatofasciotomy is essential. Like closed, calcanear fractures in multiply-injured patients dislocation-fractures of the Chopart's joint need immediate open reduction only if it is an open fracture or associated with a compartment syndrome. The incidence of a compartment syndrome in the case of dislocation fractures of the Lisfranc's joint is high and therefore a dorsal dermatofasciotomy without delay is critical. Open reduction and internal fixation are achieved either by 1.8 mm K-wires or 3.5 mm cortical screws. To avoid further soft tissue damage a delayed

  14. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function.

  15. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals.

  16. Neuropathic ulcers of the foot.

    PubMed

    Lang-Stevenson, A I; Sharrard, W J; Betts, R P; Duckworth, T

    1985-05-01

    We report a prospective study of the causes and treatment of 26 long-standing neuropathic ulcers of the foot in 21 patients. The most important causal factor, well illustrated by pressure studies, was the presence of a dynamic or static deformity leading to local areas of peak pressure on insensitive skin. All but one of the 26 ulcers had healed after an average of 10 weeks of treatment in a light, skin-tight plaster cast, with the prohibition of weight-bearing. Recurrent ulceration was prevented in all but one foot by early operation to correct the causative deformity; this was performed after the ulcer had healed and before allowing weight-bearing on the limb. Pressure studies after operation confirmed that pressure points had been relieved.

  17. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  18. [Diabetic foot infections: microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Isabella; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Silvano; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of wound infection is based on clinical signs and local and/or systemic inflammation. Therefore, the examination has a major role in the diagnosis of infected lesions of the foot. Once the clinical diagnosis of infection is made, the next step is to determine the etiology with the aim to undertake a rational and appropriate treatment. The most reliable method for assessing microbiological etiology is the specimen of material from infected lesion to perform a bacterioscopic examination and culture. The microorganisms involved in the etiology of diabetic foot depends on the type of injury and on specific patient features (antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalization). The most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections are mostly caused by Gram positive cocci, with a prevalence of S. aureus. Moderate infections are mostly supported by pyogenic Gram positive cocci, but also Gram-negative bacteria can be involved. In severe infections the etiology is polymicrobial. As regards the involvement of fungi in diabetic foot infections data are few and mostly conflicting.

  19. Biomechanics of the ankle-foot system during stair ambulation: implications for design of advanced ankle-foot prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sinitski, Emily H; Hansen, Andrew H; Wilken, Jason M

    2012-02-02

    Unilateral lower limb prosthesis users display temporal, kinematic, and kinetic asymmetries between limbs while ascending and descending stairs. These asymmetries are due, in part, to the inability of current prosthetic devices to effectively mimic normal ankle function. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive set of biomechanical data for able-bodied and unilateral transtibial amputee (TTA) ankle-foot systems for level-ground (LG), stair ascent (SA), and stair descent (SD), and to characterize deviations from normal performance associated with prosthesis use. Ankle joint kinematics, kinetics, torque-angle curves, and effective shapes were calculated for twelve able-bodied individuals and twelve individuals with TTA. The data from this study demonstrated the prosthetic limb can more effectively mimic the range of motion and power output of a normal ankle-foot during LG compared to SA and SD. There were larger differences between the prosthetic and able-bodied limbs during SA and SD, most evident in the torque-angle curves and effective shapes. These data can be used by persons designing ankle-foot prostheses and provide comparative data for assessment of future ankle-foot prosthesis designs.

  20. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  1. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Zayegh, Aladin; Begg, Rezaul K.; Wahab, Yufridin

    2012-01-01

    Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. PMID:23012576

  2. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  3. 3D finite element model of the diabetic neuropathic foot: a gait analysis driven approach.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2014-09-22

    Diabetic foot is an invalidating complication of diabetes that can lead to foot ulcers. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) allows characterizing the loads developed in the different anatomical structures of the foot in dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a subject specific 3D foot FE model (FEM) of a diabetic neuropathic (DNS) and a healthy (HS) subject, whose subject specificity can be found in term of foot geometry and boundary conditions. Kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressure (PP) data were extracted from the gait analysis trials of the two subjects with this purpose. The FEM were developed segmenting bones, cartilage and skin from MRI and drawing a horizontal plate as ground support. Materials properties were adopted from previous literature. FE simulations were run with the kinematics and kinetics data of four different phases of the stance phase of gait (heel strike, loading response, midstance and push off). FEMs were then driven by group gait data of 10 neuropathic and 10 healthy subjects. Model validation focused on agreement between FEM-simulated and experimental PP. The peak values and the total distribution of the pressures were compared for this purpose. Results showed that the models were less robust when driven from group data and underestimated the PP in each foot subarea. In particular in the case of the neuropathic subject's model the mean errors between experimental and simulated data were around the 20% of the peak values. This knowledge is crucial in understanding the aetiology of diabetic foot.

  4. Prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jonathan Zhang Ming; Ng, Natasha Su Lynn; Thomas, Cecil

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes estimated at 3.6 million people in the UK represents a major public health and socioeconomic burden to our National Health Service. Diabetes and its associated complications are of a growing concern. Diabetes-related foot complications have been identified as the single most common cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. The complicating factor of underlying peripheral vascular disease renders the majority of diabetic foot ulcers asymptomatic until latter evidence of non-healing ulcers become evident. Therefore, preventative strategies including annual diabetic foot screening and diabetic foot care interventions facilitated through a multidisciplinary team have been implemented to enable early identification of diabetic patients at high risk of diabetic foot complications. The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit reported significant variability and deficiencies of care throughout England and Wales, with emphasis on change in the structure of healthcare provision and commissioning, improvement of patient education and availability of healthcare access, and emphasis on preventative strategies to reduce morbidities and mortality of this debilitating disease. This review article aims to summarise major risk factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. It also considers the key evidence-based strategies towards preventing diabetic foot ulcer. We discuss tools used in risk stratification and classifications of foot ulcer.

  5. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical outcome. However, several aspects related to offloading are underexposed. First, in the management of foot complications, offloading is mostly studied as a single entity, whereas it should be analysed in a broader perspective of contributing factors to better predict clinical outcome. This includes assessment of patient behavioural factors such as type and intensity of daily physical activity and adherence to prescribed treatment. Second, a large gap exists between evidence-based recommendations and clinical practice in the use of offloading for ulcer treatment, and this gap needs to be bridged. Possible ways to achieve this are discussed in this article. Third, our knowledge about the efficacy and role of offloading in treating complicated and non-plantar neuropathic foot ulcers needs to be expanded because these ulcers currently dominate presentation in multidisciplinary foot practice. Finally, foot ulcer prevention is underexposed when compared with ulcer treatment. Prevention requires a larger focus, in particular regarding the efficacy of therapeutic footwear and its relative role in comparison with other preventative strategies. These priorities need the attention of clinicians, scientists and professional societies to improve our understanding of offloading and to improve clinical outcome in the management of the diabetic foot.

  6. Complications of Pediatric Foot and Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Denning, Jaime R

    2017-01-01

    Ankle fractures account for 5% and foot fractures account for approximately 8% of fractures in children. Some complications are evident early in the treatment or natural history of foot and ankle fractures. Other complications do not become apparent until weeks, months, or years after the original fracture. The incidence of long-term sequelae like posttraumatic arthritis from childhood foot and ankle fractures is poorly studied because decades or lifelong follow-up has frequently not been accomplished. This article discusses a variety of complications associated with foot and ankle fractures in children or the treatment of these injuries.

  7. Foot Pain and Pronated Foot Type are Associated with Self-Reported Mobility Limitations in Older Adults: the Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Katz, Patricia; Hannan, Marian T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The foot plays an important role in supporting the body when undertaking weight bearing activities. Aging is associated with an increased prevalence of foot pain and a lowering of the arch of the foot, both of which may impair mobility. Objective To examine the associations of foot pain, foot posture and dynamic foot function with self-reported mobility limitations in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Foot examinations were conducted on 1,860 members of the Framingham Study in 2002–2005. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements, and foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using dynamic pressure measurements. Participants were asked whether they had foot pain and any difficulty performing a list of nine weight bearing tasks. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression models were used to examine the associations of foot pain, posture, function and ability to perform these activities. Results After adjusting for age, sex, height and weight, foot pain was significantly associated with difficulty performing all nine weight bearing activities. Compared to those with normal foot posture and function, participants with planus foot posture were more likely to report difficulty remaining balanced (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.85; p=0.018) and individuals with pronated foot function were more likely to report difficulty walking across a small room (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.22; p=0.045). Foot pain and planus foot posture were associated with an overall mobility limitation score combining performances on each measure. Conclusion Foot pain, planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with self-reported difficulty undertaking common weight bearing tasks. Interventions to reduce foot pain and improve foot posture and function may therefore have a role in improving mobility in older adults. PMID:26645379

  8. A new ankle foot orthosis for running.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Moore, Allan; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2009-09-01

    Traumatic knee injuries in automobile accidents and sports often lead to damage of the peroneal nerve. A lack of control of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve due to this damage, results in the inability to dorsiflex and evert the foot and to extend the toes. This condition is commonly known as foot drop. Foot drop reduces the stability in the body while walking and running and may also cause injury due to lack of foot clearance during the swing phase of the gait. Traditionally, an ankle foot orthosis (AFO), comprised of a moulded sheet of plastic that conforms around the posterior calf and distally contains all or part of the calcaneous as well as the plantar foot, is used to treat foot drop. The intent of this orthosis is to dorsiflex the foot to provide clearance during the swing phase of walking and running. Traditional AFO results in increased pressures due to a decrease in dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle and make the orthosis increasingly uncomfortable to wear. Several other existing designs of foot drop AFO suffer from similar inadequacies. To address these issues, a new AFO was developed. The device was successfully used by one person with foot drop without issues for more than one year. This new design conforms to the lower anterior shin and dorsum of the foot using dorsiassist Tamarack ankle joints to allow for greater plantar and dorsiflexion range of motion. While still limiting ankle inversion it does allow for more ankle eversion. This orthosis can be discretely worn inside shoes due to its smaller size, and can be worn for a longer period of time without discomfort.

  9. The madura foot: looking deep.

    PubMed

    Venkatswami, Sandhya; Sankarasubramanian, Anandan; Subramanyam, Shobana

    2012-03-01

    "Mycetoma" means a fungal tumor. Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous, subcutaneous tissue infection caused by both bacteria (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma). This chronic infection was termed Madura foot and eventually mycetoma, owing to its etiology. Inoculation commonly follows minor trauma, predominantly to the foot and hence is seen more among the barefoot-walking populations, common among adult males aged 20 to 50 years. The hallmark triad of the disease includes tumefaction, fistulization of the abscess, and extrusion of colored grains. The color of these extruded grains in the active phase of the disease offers a clue to diagnosis. Radiology, ultrasonology, cytology, histology, immunodiagnosis, and culture are tools used in diagnosis. Recently, DNA sequencing has also been used successfully. Though both infections manifest with similar clinical findings, Actinomycetoma has a rapid course and can lead to amputation or death secondary to systemic spread. However, actinomycetomas are more responsive to antibiotics, whereas eumycetomas require surgical excision in addition to antifungals. Complications include secondary bacterial infections that can progress to full-blown bacteremia or septicemia, resulting in death. With extremely disfiguring sequelae, following the breakdown of the nodules and formation of discharging sinuses, it poses a therapeutic challenge.

  10. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  11. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  12. Cold-Weather Foot Care Key for Diabetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163022.html Cold-Weather Foot Care Key for Diabetics It's important to ... potentially serious foot problems, especially during the cold weather, a foot and ankle specialist warns. "When it ...

  13. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Smaller Toes How To... Foot Health Foot Injury Footwear News Videos Find a Surgeon Información en ... closely for any of the above-mentioned changes. Foot injuries that occur without the person's knowledge can be ...

  14. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  15. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot and ankle surgeons. All Fellows of the College are board certified by the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights ...

  16. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    PubMed

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  17. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Edema What causes leg and foot swelling during air travel? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Leg and foot ... 191. Sterns RH. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of edema in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  20. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104...

  2. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33...

  3. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33...

  4. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104...

  6. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  7. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear...

  8. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear...

  9. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear...

  10. Tumours of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeeshan; Hussain, Shakir; Carter, Simon R

    2015-09-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumours and particularly rarer in the foot and ankle region. The complex anatomy of the foot and ankle makes it unique and hence poses a challenge to the surgeon for limb salvage surgery. Other lesions found in the foot and ankle region are benign bone and soft tissue tumours, metastasis and infection. The purpose of this article is to discuss the relevance of the complex anatomy of the foot and ankle in relation to tumours, clinical features, their general management principles and further discussion about some of the more common bone and soft tissue lesions. Discussion of every single bone and soft tissue lesion in the foot and ankle region is beyond the scope of this article.

  11. Atypical task-invariant organization of multi-segment tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease during manual tracking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Shan; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Wang, Chun-Hou; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2009-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the interplay between involuntary tremulous activities and task performance under volitional control for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during position tracking. A volunteer sample of nine untreated patients and nine age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. They performed a sinusoidal tracking maneuver with a shoulder and a static pointing task; meanwhile, a position trace of the index and accelerometer data in the upper limb were recorded to characterize tracking performance and postural-kinetic tremors. In reference to postural tremor, the kinetic tremor of control subjects during tracking was considerably modulated, leading to a lower regularity and greater spectral deviation. In contrast, patients with PD demonstrated greater postural and kinetic tremors than control subjects, and tremulous movements of the patients were comparatively task-invariant. The prominent coherence peak, which occurred at 8-12 Hz in control subjects, was atypically presented at 5-8 Hz for PD patients with poorer tracking performance. Functionally, congruency of position tracking was related to amplitude of kinetic tremor after subtracting from amplitude of postural tremor. In conclusion, task-dependent organization of tremulous movements was impaired in patients with PD. The inferior tracking performance of the patients correlated implicitly with kinetic tremor, signifying some sharing of neural substrates for manual tracking and tremor generation.

  12. Earthquake Scenarios of a Multi-Segment Fault Systems along the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is a major active fault system with about 250 km length, which divides the Japan islands into northeast and southwest. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion reports that the central part of the ISTL with the Gofukuji fault, will cause a M8-class earthquake with 14% in the next 30 years. It is particularly perilous area in Japan which has been suffered from a number of earthquake disasters. Thus, it is important to assess the strong ground motions for the forthcoming earthquake along the ISTL. In this study, we have constructed four source fault models for the earthquake scenarios along the ISTL based on the seismic profiling and the geomorphological observations obtained from the Integrated Research Project for Active Fault System along the ISTL (2005-2009). Since the results of the surveys offer multiple possibilities for the fault shape, we prepared two sets of outer fault parameters; one is based on the seismic profiles, and the other is based on the geomorphology and structural geology data. Both of them show the existence of segment boundary around the Suwa lake. The former consists of six segments with three east-dipping and three west-dipping faults, where the dips are turned over at the Suwa lake. Most segments are characterized by low-angle reverse faulting. On the other hand, the latter has different fault system around the Suwa lake where strike slip faults are defined. We assumed four earthquake scenarios for the seismic hazard assessment around the ISTL. (1) all the fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with Mw 7.7, (2) all the fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the geomorphological observations with Mw 7.6, (3) three northern east-dipping fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with Mw 7.1, (4) three southern west-dipping fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with

  13. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    PubMed

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (p<0.01), respectively. Foot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (p<0.01), respectively. The lower the initial TcpO(2) level, the more the TcpO(2) level increased. The foot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

  14. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    PubMed

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice.

  15. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration. PMID:11398715

  16. Quantifying foot deformation using finite helical angle.

    PubMed

    Pothrat, Claude; Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Vigouroux, Laurent; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-10-15

    Foot intrinsic motion originates from the combination of numerous joint motions giving this segment a high adaptive ability. Existing foot kinematic models are mostly focused on analyzing small scale foot bone to bone motions which require both complex experimental methodology and complex interpretative work to assess the global foot functionality. This study proposes a method to assess the total foot deformation by calculating a helical angle from the relative motions of the rearfoot and the forefoot. This method required a limited number of retro-reflective markers placed on the foot and was tested for five different movements (walking, forefoot impact running, heel impact running, 90° cutting, and 180° U-turn) and 12 participants. Overtime intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the helical angle pattern repeatability for each movement. Our results indicated that the method was suitable to identify the different motions as different amplitudes of helical angle were observed according to the flexibility required in each movement. Moreover, the results showed that the repeatability could be used to identify the mastering of each motion as this repeatability was high for well mastered movements. Together with existing methods, this new protocol could be applied to fully assess foot function in sport or clinical contexts.

  17. Ultrasound evaluation of foot deformities in infants.

    PubMed

    Miron, Marie-Claude; Grimard, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Foot deformity in infants is the most common congenital musculoskeletal condition. A precise diagnosis can sometimes be impossible to establish clinically. Radiologic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities. However conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiographs of the foot, are of very little help in this age group because of the lack of ossification of the tarsal bones. US presents a significant advantage because it permits the visualization of cartilaginous structures. This leads to the detailed assessment of foot deformities in infants. Furthermore, US can also be used as a dynamic imaging modality. Different scanning views are beneficial to evaluate the complete anatomy of the foot; depending on the suspected clinical diagnosis, some planes are more informative to display the pathological features of a specific deformity. We describe the US findings of five of the most common foot deformities referred to our pediatric orthopedic clinic (clubfoot, simple metatarsus adductus, skewfoot, and oblique and vertical talus). For each deformity we propose a specific imaging protocol based on US to provide an accurate diagnosis. US is a complementary tool to the clinical examination for determining the diagnosis and the severity of the deformity and also for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Radiologists investigating foot deformities in infants should consider using US for the detailed assessment of the foot in this age group.

  18. Trench foot: the medical response in the first World War 1914-18.

    PubMed

    Atenstaedt, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The approaching 90-year anniversary of United States entry into the Great War is an apt time to examine the response to trench foot (now called nonfreezing cold injury [NFCI]) in this conflict. Trench foot appeared in the winter of 1914, characterized by pedal swelling, numbness, and pain. It was quickly recognized by military-medical authorities. There was little debate over whether it was frostbite or new condition, and it was quickly accepted as a specific disease. The major etiologies proposed were exposure, diet, and infection. The opinion emerged that it was caused by circulatory changes in the foot caused by cold, wet, and pressure. Predisposing factors included dietary inadequacy and fatigue. A number of labels were first given to the disease. However, the name "trench foot" was eventually officially sanctioned. Trench foot became a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 75 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. Therapy for trench foot involved a number of conventional, tried-and-tested, and conservative methods. Some more innovative techniques were used. Amputation was only used as a last resort. Prevention involved general measures to improve the trench environment; modification of the footwear worn by the men; and the provision of greases to protect them from moisture. The medical reaction to this condition seems to have been relatively effective. The causation was identified, and prophylactic measures were introduced to fit this model; these seem to have been successful in reducing the prevalence of the condition by 1917-18.

  19. Intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to control deformation of the longitudinal arch

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Luke A.; Cresswell, Andrew G.; Racinais, Sebastien; Whiteley, Rodney; Lichtwark, Glen

    2014-01-01

    The human foot is characterized by a pronounced longitudinal arch (LA) that compresses and recoils in response to external load during locomotion, allowing for storage and return of elastic energy within the passive structures of the arch and contributing to metabolic energy savings. Here, we examine the potential for active muscular contribution to the biomechanics of arch deformation and recoil. We test the hypotheses that activation of the three largest plantar intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum and quadratus plantae is associated with muscle stretch in response to external load on the foot and that activation of these muscles (via electrical stimulation) will generate sufficient force to counter the deformation of LA caused by the external load. We found that recruitment of the intrinsic foot muscles increased with increasing load, beyond specific load thresholds. Interestingly, LA deformation and muscle stretch plateaued towards the maximum load of 150% body weight, when muscle activity was greatest. Electrical stimulation of the plantar intrinsic muscles countered the deformation that occurred owing to the application of external load by reducing the length and increasing the height of the LA. These findings demonstrate that these muscles have the capacity to control foot posture and LA stiffness and may provide a buttressing effect during foot loading. This active arch stiffening mechanism may have important implications for how forces are transmitted during locomotion and postural activities as well as consequences for metabolic energy saving. PMID:24478287

  20. Processing of the VP1/2A junction is not necessary for production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids and infectious viruses: characterization of "self-tagged" particles.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham J

    2013-11-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by 3C(pro) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1, and the peptide 2A. The capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2A. In a cell culture-adapted strain of FMDV (O1 Manisa [Lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (E83K, S134C, and K210E) were identified within the VP1 region of the P1-2A precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). Expression of the O1 Manisa P1-2A (wt or with the S134C substitution in VP1) plus 3C(pro), using a transient expression system, resulted in efficient capsid protein production and self-assembly of empty capsid particles. Removal of the 2A peptide from the capsid protein precursor had no effect on capsid protein processing or particle assembly. However, modification of E83K alone abrogated particle assembly with no apparent effect on protein processing. Interestingly, the K210E substitution, close to the VP1/2A junction, completely blocked processing by 3C(pro) at this cleavage site, but efficient assembly of "self-tagged" empty capsid particles, containing the uncleaved VP1-2A, was observed. These self-tagged particles behaved like the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is not essential for virus viability. The production of such engineered self-tagged empty capsid particles may facilitate their purification for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccines.

  1. Surgical treatment of the Charcot foot.

    PubMed

    Pinzur, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    With the increased number of diabetics worldwide and the increased incidence of morbid obesity in more prosperous cultures, there has become an increased awareness of Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle. Outcome studies would suggest that patients with deformity associated with Charcot Foot arthropathy have impaired health related quality of life. This awareness has led reconstructive-minded foot and ankle surgeons to develop surgical strategies to treat these acquired deformities. This article outlines the current clinical approach to this disabling medical condition.

  2. Foot and ankle problems in dancers.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The dancer's foot and ankle are subjected to high forces and unusual stresses in training and performance. Injuries are common in dancers, and the foot and ankle are particularly vulnerable. Ankle sprains, ankle impingement syndromes, flexor hallucis longus tendonitis, cuboid subluxation, stress fractures, midfoot injuries, heel pain, and first metatarsophalangeal joint problems including hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, and sesamoid injuries will be reviewed. This article will discuss these common foot and ankle problems in dancers and give typical clinical presentation and diagnostic and treatment recommendations.

  3. Effects of water temperature on cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation during foot immersion (foot bath)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, M.; Ono, K.; Onodera, S.

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to make clear the effects of water temperature during foot immersion (foot bath) on heart rate, blood pressure, rectal temperature and autonomic nervous system modulation. The subjects performed foot immersion at 25, 35, 41 and 45 degrees Celsius at random, during different days, but always at the same time. Cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation was estimated with the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability by using the Fast Fourier Transformation. The two frequency components of HRV was measured by integrate low frequency (LF; 0.04- 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF; 0.15- 0.40 Hz). HF was used as an indicator of cardiac vagal modulation and was showed logarithmically (LogHF). LogHF during foot immersion at 35 and 41 degrees Celsius was significantly increased. These data indicate that cardiac vagal activity was affected by water temperature during foot immersion (foot bath).

  4. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  5. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Smaller Toes How To... Foot Health Foot Injury Footwear News Videos Find a Surgeon Información en ... all ages. They perform reconstructive procedures, treat sports injuries, and manage and treat trauma of the foot and ankle. Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons work ...

  6. Foot Progression Angle Walking Test

    PubMed Central

    Ranawat, Anil S.; Gaudiani, Michael A.; Slullitel, Pablo A.; Satalich, James; Rebolledo, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Determining an accurate clinical diagnosis for nonarthritic hip pain may be challenging, as symptoms related to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip instability can be difficult to elucidate with current testing methods. In addition, commonly utilized physical examination maneuvers are static and do not include a dynamic or weightbearing assessment to reproduce activity-related symptoms. Therefore, implementing a dynamic assessment for FAI and hip instability could help to improve diagnostic accuracy for routine clinical examinations of patients with nonarthritic hip pain. Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a novel diagnostic foot progression angle walking (FPAW) test for identifying hip pathology related to FAI or hip instability. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This prospective study included 199 consecutive patients who were evaluated for unilateral hip pain and who underwent FPAW testing along with standard physical examination testing. Demographic data, including age, sex and hip laterality, were collected from each patient. FPAW testing was performed with directed internal and external foot progression angles from their baseline measurements, with a positive test reproducing pain and/or discomfort. Comparisons were then made with flexion adduction internal rotation (FADIR) and flexion abduction external rotation (FABER) tests as the designated diagnostic standard examinations for FAI and hip instability, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity, along with the McNemar chi-square test for group comparison, were used to generate summary statistics. In addition, areas under the combined receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of test performance were calculated for both FPAW and the designated standard examination tests (FADIR, FABER). Radiographic imaging was used subsequently to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The average age of the study cohort was 35.4 ± 11.8 years, with 114 patients being

  7. Shoes, orthoses, and prostheses for partial foot amputation and diabetic foot infection.

    PubMed

    Janisse, Dennis J; Janisse, Erick J

    2010-09-01

    Amputations in patients with diabetes, while often preventable, are unfortunately a far too common outcome. The roles of the certified or licensed pedorthist, certified orthotist, and the certified prosthetist should not be undervalued in the prevention of diabetic foot complications (eg, amputations, revisions, and foot infections secondary to skin ulcerations) and in returning the patient a normal, active, and productive lifestyle in the event of an amputation. This article highlights the roles these specialists play in treating patients with partial foot amputation.

  8. Foot Reaction Forces during Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.; Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Kuklis, M. M.; Humphreys, B.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Musculoskeletal changes, particularly in the lower extremities, are an established consequence of long-duration space flight despite exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that disuse and reduction in load bearing are key to these physiological changes, but no quantitative data characterizing the on-orbit movement environments currently exist. Here we present data from the Foot Experiment (E318) regarding astronaut activity on the ground and on-orbit during typical days from 4 International Space Station (ISS) crew members who flew during increments 6, 8, 11, and 12.

  9. Diabetic foot infections: current concept review

    PubMed Central

    Hobizal, Kimberlee B.; Wukich, Dane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a current concept review on the diagnosis and management of diabetic foot infections which are among the most serious and frequent complications encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature review on diabetic foot infections with emphasis on pathophysiology, identifiable risk factors, evaluation including physical examination, laboratory values, treatment strategies and assessing the severity of infection has been performed in detail. Diabetic foot infections are associated with high morbidity and risk factors for failure of treatment and classification systems are also described. Most diabetic foot infections begin with a wound and once an infection occurs, the risk of hospitalization and amputation increases dramatically. Early identification of infection and prompt treatment may optimize the patient's outcome and provide limb salvage. PMID:22577496

  10. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing... injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing the sole, or when the use of...

  11. Foot and ankle injuries in dance.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy J

    2006-11-01

    Although dancers develop overuse injuries common in other athletes, they are also susceptible to unique injuries. This article reviews common foot and ankle problems seen in dancers and provides some basic diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  12. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. However, in some countries in Asia, outbreaks are large and occur often. Thousands of ... learn more about outbreaks occurring in countries in Asia, visit the World Health Organization . Podcast: Hand, Foot, ...

  13. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist.

  14. Functional anatomy and imaging of the foot.

    PubMed

    Ridola, C; Palma, A

    2001-01-01

    The foot is constituted from a series of small bones making a segmented structure with multiple joints, likened to a dome, in contact with the ground in three points: posteriorly the calcanear tuberosity; anteriorly and medially the head of 1st metatarsum, and anteriorly and laterally the head of 5th metatarsum. In fact, each foot presents a semi-arch whose base is represented by the lateral border and the summit by the medial border of the foot. The foot has been likened to a half-dome, so that when the medial borders of the two feet are placed together, a complete dome is formed. In the foot are present two longitudinal arches: the medial consists of the calcaneus, the talus, the navicular, the three cuneiform bones and the first three metatarsal bones. It is more arcuated and elastic then the lateral, that consist of the calcaneus, the cuboid and the 4th and 5th metatarsus. This is flattened and in contact with the ground. We can identify two transverse arches between longitudinal arches, extending from the medial to the lateral borders of the foot: the first is a lancet dome, between midfoot and forefoot, at the tarsometatarsal joint level; it consists of the bases of the metatarsal bones and the cuboid and the three cuneiform bones; the second is at flat dome, in correspondence of forefoot, at the metatarsophalangeal joint level; it consists of the bases of the proximal phalanges of the fingers and the head of five metatarsal bones. Longitudinal and transversal arches are supported from: the shape of stones of the structure (foot bones); the long and short plantar ligaments, larger and stronger than the dorsal ligaments, tie together the lower edges of the bones; a beam (the plantar aponeurosis and the plantar muscles and tendons) connecting the ends of the bridge effectively prevents separation of the pillars and consequent sagging of the arch; the maintenance of the arch depends on multiple support (ligaments, tendons of extrinsic muscles of the foot

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  16. Care of the pediatric foot in myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Noonan, K J; Didelot, W P; Lindseth, R E

    2000-06-01

    Foot deformity is present in almost all patients paralyzed by myelomeningocele. This article outlines the pertinent pathoanatomy resulting in differing foot deformities and their effects on normal gait. Treatment of these deformities is discussed, and the most common deformities present for the different levels of paralysis are outlined. Emphasis is placed on surgical and orthotic treatments, which result in functional improvements for the pediatric patient with spina bifida.

  17. Neuropathic foot ulceration in patients with myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Maynard, M J; Weiner, L S; Burke, S W

    1992-01-01

    To determine if a significant relationship existed between type of operation and eventual development of pedal skin breakdown in a spina bifida patient population, 72 feet in 36 ambulatory patients with low lumbar or sacral myelomeningocele were followed for an average of 14 years 5 months. Using a clinical classification for foot suppleness and position, we determined that foot rigidity, nonplantigrade position, and performance of surgical arthrodesis were clinical indicators that had a strong statistical relationship with eventual development of neuropathic skin changes.

  18. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control strategies. The etiologic agent, FMD virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is examined in detail at the genetic, structural, and biochemical levels and in terms of its antigenic diversity. The virus replication cycle, including virus-receptor interactions as well as unique aspects of virus translation and shutoff of host macromolecular synthesis, is discussed. This information has been the basis for the development of improved protocols to rapidly identify disease outbreaks, to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, and to begin to identify and test novel vaccine candidates. Furthermore, this knowledge, coupled with the ability to manipulate FMDV genomes at the molecular level, has provided the framework for examination of disease pathogenesis and the development of a more complete understanding of the virus and host factors involved. PMID:15084510

  19. [Charcot arthropathy and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    López-Gavito, E; Parra-Téllez, P; Vázquez-Escamilla, J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic degenerative disease, which currently is taking on alarming proportions in the population of our country. Neuropathic arthropathy is one of the most interesting degenerative joint disorders and increasingly common within the orthopedic pathology. It is defined as a progressive degenerative arthropathy, chronic and affecting one or more peripheral joints, and develops as a result of the lack of sensory perception normal in the innervation of joints. As a result the joints of the feet are subjected to trauma and repetitive injury causing a neurotraumatic effect with progressive damage to the joints of the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. Diagnosis includes a proper medical history, careful examination of the affected limb, conventional X-ray, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in some cases. Conservative treatment includes: drugs, rest of the affected limb, and the use of appliances like total-contact cast, orthotics or special shoes. Surgical treatment depends on the stage of the disease, and may require one or more surgical procedures, in order to achieve a full foot plantar support to prevent ulcers. One of the surgeries performed most often is the fusion of damaged joints. Surgery must be performed only in the coalescence phase of the disease, using internal, or external fixation or both.

  20. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9.

  1. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  2. The cost of living in the membrane: a case study of hydrophobic mismatch for the multi-segment protein LeuT.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sayan; Khelashvili, George; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel

    2013-04-01

    K288A mutant. The involvement of hydrophobic mismatch is somewhat different in the functionally distinct conformations (outward-open, occluded, inward-open) of LeuT, and the differences are shown to connect to structural elements (e.g., TM1a) known to play key roles in transport. This finding suggests a mechanistic hypothesis for the enhanced transport activity observed for the K288A mutant, suggesting that the unfavorable hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions hinder the motion of TM1a in the functionally relevant conformational transition to the inward-open state. Various extents of such unfavorable interactions, involving exposure to the lipid environment of adjacent hydrophobic and polar residues, are common in multi-segment transmembrane proteins, and must be considered to affect functionally relevant conformational transitions.

  3. Natural killer cell dysfunction during acute infection with foot-and-mouth diseaase virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer cells (NK) provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. The role of these cells in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is unknown. Previously, we characterized the phenotype and function of NK cells fr...

  4. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    PubMed Central

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15% under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  6. Diagnostic considerations of lateral column foot pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Traister, Eric; Simons, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foot maladies are often classified descriptively by general foot locations, i.e., forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot. However, common vernacular verbiage, implicating a common biomechanical purpose, also applies pathology to the medial or lateral foot column. Although imprecisely defined, lateral column injuries to the foot encompass conditions that affect any of the lateral side of the foot from the calcaneus to the toes. The lateral column of the foot includes the calcaneus, the cuboid, the fourth and fifth metatarsals as well as the calcaneocuboid, cuboido-metatarsal, and intermetatarsal joints. It may be helpful to think in a "lateral column" fashion when evaluating and treating certain lateral foot injuries, load patterns, and biomechanical or anatomical faults. Misdiagnosed injuries in this area of the foot can be a source of great morbidity to the athlete. It is important for the clinician to be aware of common conditions presenting as pain to the lateral side of the foot.

  7. Nursing care of the aging foot.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel

    2009-01-01

    Feet are not necessarily the most attractive part of the body as it ages, and given the choice, most older adults would rather ignore them. In fact, many older adults cannot even see them, reach them, or care for them properly. And when they ache or look misshapen and oddly colored; well, that's just part of growing old, isn't it? The feet are important for weight bearing, balance, and mobility. Over an average life span, the feet are subject to considerable stress and trauma. Age-related changes of the foot predispose the older adult to discomfort if not pain, fungal infection, reduced range of motion, and itchy dry skin. More than three fourths of older adults (i.e., those age over 65 years) complain of foot pain that is associated with a significant foot problem and have evidence of arthritic changes on x-ray. Impaired ambulation can make the difference between independence versus dependency on others, engagement versus isolation. Assisted living is about choices. Being unable to get where one wants to go or do what one wants to do because of foot problems is a barrier to full enjoyment of the opportunities in assisted living communities. This article describes foot problems associated with aging, diabetes, nursing assessment of the feet, and nursing interventions in the service of accessing and optimizing choices for quality of life.

  8. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Semi-automatic readout equipment installed in the 1950s used for data recording and reduction in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST). A 1957 NACA report on wind tunnel facilities at Langley included these comments on the data recording and reduction equipment for the 8-foot HST: 'The data recording and reduction equipment used for handling steady force and pressure information at the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is similar to that described for the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Very little dynamic data recording equipment, however, is available.' The description of the 16-foot transonic tunnel equipment is as follows: 'A semiautomatic force data readout system provides tabulated raw data and punch card storage of raw data concurrent with the operation of the wind tunnel. Provision is made for 12 automatic channels of strain gage-data output, and eight channels of four-digit manually operated inputs are available for tabulating and punching constants, configuration codes, and other information necessary for data reduction and identification. The data are then processed on electronic computing machines to obtain the desired coefficients. These coefficients and their proper identification are then machine tabulated to provide a printed record of the results. The punched cards may also be fed into an automatic plotting device for the preparation of plots necessary for data analysis.'

  9. How visual perceptual grouping influences foot placement

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, John; Goodwin, Charlotte; Burn, Jeremy F.; Leonards, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Everybody would agree that vision guides locomotion; but how does vision influence choice when there are different solutions for possible foot placement? We addressed this question by investigating the impact of perceptual grouping on foot placement in humans. Participants performed a stepping stone task in which pathways consisted of target stones in a spatially regular path of foot falls and visual distractor stones in their proximity. Target and distractor stones differed in shape and colour so that each subset of stones could be easily grouped perceptually. In half of the trials, one target stone swapped shape and colour with a distractor in its close proximity. We show that in these ‘swapped’ conditions, participants chose the perceptually groupable, instead of the spatially regular, stepping location in over 40% of trials, even if the distance between perceptually groupable steps was substantially larger than normal step width/length. This reveals that the existence of a pathway that could be traversed without spatial disruption to periodic stepping is not sufficient to guarantee participants will select it and suggests competition between different types of visual input when choosing foot placement. We propose that a bias in foot placement choice in favour of visual grouping exists as, in nature, sudden changes in visual characteristics of the ground increase the uncertainty for stability. PMID:26587273

  10. Rear-foot, mid-foot and fore-foot motion during the stance phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Leardini, A; Benedetti, M G; Berti, L; Bettinelli, D; Nativo, R; Giannini, S

    2007-03-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol designed to track a large number of foot segments during the stance phase of gait with the smallest possible number of markers, with particular clinical focus on coronal plane alignment of the rear-foot, transverse and sagittal plane alignment of the metatarsal bones, and changes at the medial longitudinal arch. The shank, calcaneus, mid-foot and metatarsus were assumed to be 3D rigid bodies. The longitudinal axis of the first, second and fifth metatarsal bones and the proximal phalanx of the hallux were also tracked independently. Skin markers were mounted on bony prominences or joint lines, avoiding the course of main tendons. Trajectories of the 14 markers were collected by an eight-camera motion capture system at 100 Hz on a population of 10 young volunteers. Three-dimensional joint rotations and planar angles were calculated according to anatomically based reference frames. The marker set was well visible throughout the stance phase of gait, even in a camera configuration typical of gait analysis of the full body. The time-histories of the joint rotations and planar angles were well repeatable among subjects and consistent with clinical and biomechanical knowledge. Several dynamic measurements were originally taken, such as elevation/drop of the medial longitudinal arch and of three metatarsal bones, rear-foot to fore-foot rotation and transverse plane deformation of the metatarsus. The information obtained from this protocol, consistent with previous clinical knowledge, enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of the human foot during stance.

  11. The clinical management of diabetic foot in the elderly and medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Bruttocao, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot is a complex and challenging pathological state, characterized by high complexity of management, morbidity and mortality. The elderly present peculiar problems which interfere on one hand with the patient's compliance and on the other with their diagnostic-therapeutic management. Difficult clinical management may result in medico-legal problems, with criminal and civil consequences. In this context, the authors present a review of the literature, analysing aspects concerning the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot in the elderly which may turn out to be a source of professional responsibility. Analysis of these aspects provides an opportunity to discuss elements important not only for clinicians and medical workers but also experts (judges, lawyers, medico-legal experts) who must evaluate hypotheses of professional responsibility concerning diabetic foot in the elderly.

  12. Outpatient assessment and management of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    DiPreta, John A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are at risk for foot deformities and mechanical imbalance of the lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy leads to an insensate foot that puts the patient at risk for injury. When combined with deformity due to neuropathic arthropathy, or Charcot foot, the risks of impending ulceration, infection, and amputation are significant to the diabetic patient. Education of proper foot care and shoe wear cannot be overemphasized. For those with significant malalignment or deformity of the foot and ankle, referral should be made immediately to an orthopedic foot and ankle specialist.

  13. Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus 1

    PubMed Central

    Rossaneis, Mariana Angela; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Mathias, Thaís Aidar de Freitas; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate differences with regard to foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 1,515 individuals with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years old or older. Poisson regression models were used to identity differences in foot self-care deficit and lifestyle between sexes, adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: foot self-care deficit, characterized by not regularly drying between toes; not regularly checking feet; walking barefoot; poor hygiene and inappropriately trimmed nails, was significantly higher among men, though men presented a lower prevalence of feet scaling and use of inappropriate shoes when compared to women. With regard to lifestyle, men presented less healthy habits, such as not adhering to a proper diet and taking laboratory exams to check for lipid profile at the frequency recommended. Conclusion: the nursing team should take into account gender differences concerning foot self-care and lifestyle when implementing educational activities and interventions intended to decrease risk factors for foot ulceration. PMID:27533270

  14. Radiologic evaluation of chronic foot pain.

    PubMed

    Joong, Mo Ahn; El-Khoury, Georges Y

    2007-10-01

    Chronic foot pain is a common and often disabling clinical complaint that can interfere with a patient's routine activities. Despite careful and detailed clinical history and physical examination, providing an accurate diagnosis is often difficult because chronic foot pain has a broad spectrum of potential causes. Therefore, imaging studies play a key role in diagnosis and management. Initial assessment is typically done by plain radiography; however, magnetic resonance imaging has superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, which makes it important in the early diagnosis of ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases when initial radiographic findings are inconclusive. Computed tomography displays bony detail in stress fractures, as well as in arthritides and tarsal coalition. Bone scanning and ultrasonography also are useful tools for diagnosing specific conditions that produce chronic foot pain.

  15. [Mycetoma of the foot: a case report].

    PubMed

    Iniesta, A; Baptista, C; Guinard, D; Legré, R; Gay, A

    2015-04-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous and subcutaneous pathology caused by either a fongic (eumycetoma) or bacterial (actinomycetoma) infection, which lead to a granulomatous tumefaction with multiple sinuses. When localized in the foot this infection is named "Madura foot". This infection is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions and rarely occurs in western countries. A historical case in Europe of a foot mycetoma evolving since 20 years without any treatment is presented. A histopathologic diagnosis of actinomycetoma has been done in 1987. The patient presented a severe Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteitis leading to a trans-tibial amputation. This case allows to present this infection which, even if rarely presented in France, can be meet especially among a migrant's population.

  16. Approach to managing diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, John A. A.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Of an estimated 1.7 to 2 million Canadians with diabetes, approximately 10% will present each year to their family doctors with plantar ulcers. Nearly 3500 will require major lower extremity amputations. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Most of the recommendations outlined in this paper are based on level I evidence from excellent bench research and epidemiologic studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics develop foot infections. These patients are on average 60 years old and have had diabetes for more than 10 years. Physicians who insist on excellent blood sugar control, provide ongoing patient education on diabetic foot care, prescribe appropriate shoes, and practise an aggressive multidisciplinary approach to wound care can reduce the rate of lower extremity amputations by more than 50%. CONCLUSION: Foot problems remain one of the main challenges associated with diabetes, but family physicians can manage them successfully. PMID:15116801

  17. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  18. Assessing foot care knowledge in a rural population with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Neil, Janice A

    2002-01-01

    In people with insensate extremities, such as those with diabetes mellitus, daily foot care and inspection can prevent the development of foot ulcers and the subsequent complications that may lead to amputation--one of the biggest threats to adults with diabetes. Preventive behaviors focus on not going barefoot, performing/receiving proper foot care, and wearing properly fitting shoes. This descriptive study of footcare practices involved a convenience sample of 61 adult men and women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, 24 with existing foot ulcers and 37 without foot ulcers, who resided in a rural area of a southeastern state. The questionnaire was divided into four categories: foot inspection, foot cleaning, nail care, and use of footwear. Out of a possible score of 20, those with foot ulcers scored an average of 13.88 and those without ulcers averaged 13.57. These results reveal that those without foot ulcers have similar foot care practices to those with foot ulcers. This instrument is useful in assessing current foot care practices on a point-in-time basis. Preventive practices must be stressed and reinforced so those without foot ulcers do not develop ulcers.

  19. Development of a Composite Antenna Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnes, Lionel

    2012-07-01

    MECANO ID develops and produces composite parts using RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) and LRI (Liquid Resin Infusion) processes. In collaboration with THALES ALENIA SPACE and ONERA, this project aims at replacing titanium antenna feet, which interface the Earth deck antenna of a telecommunication satellite to its support panel, with composite feet. The objectives of the presentation are to detail: - The methodology applied to develop the composite antenna foot - The experimental validation of the foot sizing This project was granted by the French state and the region Midi-Pyrénées.

  20. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  1. Foot and ankle injuries in theatrical dancers.

    PubMed

    Hardaker, W T; Margello, S; Goldner, J L

    1985-10-01

    The theatrical dancer is a unique combination of athlete and artist. The physical demands of dance class, rehearsal, and performance can lead to injury, particularly to the foot and ankle. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Chronic injuries predominate and relate primarily to the repeated impact loading of the foot and ankle on the dance floor. Contributing factors include anatomic variation, improper technique, and fatigue. Early and aggressive conservative management is usually successful and surgery is rarely indicated. Orthotics play a limited but potentially useful role in treatment. Following treatment, a structured rehabilitation program is fundamental to the successful return to dance.

  2. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality.

  3. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Encyclopedia: Hypospadias Encyclopedia: Urinary Tract Infection Health Topic: Foot Injuries and Disorders Health Topic: Hand Injuries and Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Hand foot uterus syndrome Educational Resources (5 links) American Society ...

  5. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  6. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  7. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations.

  10. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  11. Biomechanics of foot/ankle trauma with variable energy impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gallenberger, Kathryn; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 pendulum impacts to the plantar surface of 15 lower limb PMHS specimens were conducted. Impact conditions were chosen to obtain data from high velocity tests without injury. For 19 impacts the specimen was initially positioned in 20-deg of dorsiflexion. The remaining impacts used neutral positioning. The foot-ankle response was investigated based on impact energy and velocity. Response was characterized by heel pad and joint stiffness. For neutral tests, axial force vs compression corridors were developed for 2–3 m/s, 4–6 m/s, and 7–63 J impacts. For dorsiflexion tests corridors of 1–3 m/s, 6–8 m/s, 7–20 J, and 80–100 J were developed. These results indicate foot/ankle response is not more sensitive to impact energy than velocity. Injury risk curves were developed for both neutral and dorsiflexion positioning using logistic regression. Strain gage data were used to obtain uncensored force values for injury analysis. In neutral, 50% probability of injury occurred at 6800 N. In dorsiflexion, 50% probability occurred at 7900 N, but the regression was not statistically significant. These preliminary results indicate dorsiflexed specimens fracture at a higher force than neutral specimens. PMID:24406952

  12. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  13. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  14. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the foot.

    PubMed

    Cisco, R W; McCormac, R M

    1994-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a rare benign reactive lesion usually found in thrombosed subcutaneous blood vessels. The lesion resembles malignant angiosarcoma clinically and histopathologically, and must be diagnosed correctly to avoid inappropriate treatment. The following is a case presentation involving the foot.

  15. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  16. Gas Gangrene of the Diabetic Foot.

    PubMed

    Kuy, SreyRam; Romero, Ramon A L; Kuy, SreyReath

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year old man presented with a painful left foot and a putrid odor. His past medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease. His surgical history included a prior right below-knee amputation for a diabetic foot infection three years prior, and a left third toe amputation for osteomyelitis one month ago. He was an active smoker. His laboratory data revealed a white blood count of 22 k/uL and a blood glucose of 381 mg/dL. Physical exam demonstrated an erythematous and edematous left foot with subcutaneous crepitus along the plantar surface. Plain film x-rays of the left foot demonstrated gas pockets in the soft tissue and acute osteomyelitis (Figure 1). The patient was diagnosed with gas gangrene and was taken emergently to the operating room. In order to obtain source control of this life threatening infection, a left below-knee amputation was performed and broad spectrum empiric antibiotics were initiated immediately with vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Cultures were not obtained at the time of surgery and the organisms causing this infection are unknown. The patient survived and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility.

  17. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  18. Rare presentation of foot postaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Atif; Arshad, Ambreen; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polydactyly is a prevalent birth anomaly observed in the foot, and a number of classification systems have been suggested for this condition. Postaxial (fifth or little toe) polydactyly is the most common type. We encountered an exceedingly rare presentation of foot postaxial polydactyly that, to our inspection, had neither been previously classified nor described in published studies. In the present report, we have described an otherwise healthy 2-year-old female who had presented to our clinic with an isolated, extra little toe on her left foot. Foot radiographs revealed the presence of all 5 metatarsals; however, the fifth metatarsal was blocked and did not give rise to the fifth toe. Instead, the fifth (medial normal) and sixth (lateral extra) toes had originated from a single, separate accessory bud from the fourth metatarsal, and the main fourth metatarsal had given rise to the normal fourth toe. The lateral sixth toe was excised, and a periosteal sleeve of the excised extra toe was used for reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament. We propose that this heretofore unmentioned presentation of postaxial polydactyly be added to the existing systems of classification of pedal polydactyly. A review of the published data pertaining to pedal polydactyly has also been presented.

  19. Work-up of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William B; Ledermann, Hans Peter

    2002-09-01

    Diabetes is a common disease with potentially devastating complications affecting the foot and ankle. A combination of vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and immunopathy results in a cascade of conditions including ischemia and infarction, tendinopathy, atrophy, edema, deformity, neuropathic osteoarthropathy, callus, ulceration, and infection. MRI is useful for evaluation of these complications, and assists the clinician in medical or surgical planning.

  20. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  1. The foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Zipfel, Bernhard; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Kidd, Robert S; Carlson, Kristian J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2011-09-09

    A well-preserved and articulated partial foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba, including an associated complete adult distal tibia, talus, and calcaneus, have been discovered at the Malapa site, South Africa, and reported in direct association with the female paratype Malapa Hominin 2. These fossils reveal a mosaic of primitive and derived features that are distinct from those seen in other hominins. The ankle (talocrural) joint is mostly humanlike in form and inferred function, and there is some evidence for a humanlike arch and Achilles tendon. However, Au. sediba is apelike in possessing a more gracile calcaneal body and a more robust medial malleolus than expected. These observations suggest, if present models of foot function are correct, that Au. sediba may have practiced a unique form of bipedalism and some degree of arboreality. Given the combination of features in the Au. sediba foot, as well as comparisons between Au. sediba and older hominins, homoplasy is implied in the acquisition of bipedal adaptations in the hominin foot.

  2. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    PubMed

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  3. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... often fit poorly and irritate your skin. Buy shoes that fit properly. Buy comfortable shoes that provide support and cushioning for the heel, arch and ball of the foot. Avoid tightfitting shoes and high heels or narrow shoes that crowd ...

  4. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  5. The Diabetic Foot: The Importance of Coordinated Care

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dean Y.; Wilkins, C. Jason; Evans, David R.; Ammar, Thoraya; Deane, Colin; Vas, Prashanth R.; Rashid, Hisham; Sidhu, Paul S.; Edmonds, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the severe morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes, diabetic foot care is an essential component of a peripheral vascular service. The goal of this article is to describe the vascular diabetic foot care pathway and how the coordinated foot care service for diabetic patients is delivered at King's College Hospital, London. PMID:25435655

  6. Tendon Transfers Around the Foot: When and Where.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ken N; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Krzak, Joseph J; Smith, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Tendon transfers are invaluable in the treatment of severe children's foot deformities. They are often preferable to simple releases, lengthening, or fusion in surgical treatment because they provide an active motor function for deformity correction and, when properly selected, the procedures stabilize the foot against progressive deformity. The authors describe 4 commonly used tendon transfer procedures that are useful in children's foot deformity surgeries.

  7. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Interior view of the slotted throat test section installed in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) in 1950. The slotted region is about 160 inches in length. In this photograph, the sting-type model support is seen straight on. In a NASA report, the test section is described as follows: 'The test section of the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is dodecagonal in cross section and has a cross-sectional area of about 43 square feet. Longitudinal slots are located between each of the 12 wall panels to allow continuous operation through the transonic speed range. The slots contain about 11 percent of the total periphery of the test section. Six of the twelve panels have windows in them to allow for schlieren observations. The entire test section is enclosed in a hemispherical shaped chamber.' John Becker noted that the tunnel's 'final achievement was the development and use in routine operations of the first transonic slotted throat. The investigations of wing-body shapes in this tunnel led to Whitcomb's discovery of the transonic area rule.' James Hansen described the origins of the the slotted throat as follows: 'In 1946 Langley physicist Ray H. Wright conceived a way to do transonic research effectively in a wind tunnel by placing slots in the throat of the test section. The concept for what became known as the slotted-throat or slotted-wall tunnel came to Wright not as a solution to the chronic transonic problem, but as a way to get rid of wall interference (i.e., the mutual effect of two or more meeting waves or vibrations of any kind caused by solid boundaries) at subsonic speeds. For most of the year before Wright came up with this idea, he had been trying to develop a theoretical understanding of wall interference in the 8-Foot HST, which was then being repowered for Mach 1 capability.' When Wright presented these ideas to John Stack, the response was enthusiastic but neither Wright nor Stack thought of slotted-throats as a solution to the transonic problem, only

  8. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID

  9. Foot Syndactyly: A Clinical and Demographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Byung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Syndactyly of the foot is the second most common congenital foot anomaly. In East Asia, however, no large case study has been reported regarding the clinical features of isolated foot syndactyly. In this study, we report a review of 118 patients during the last 25 years. Methods We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent surgical correction for foot syndactyly between January 1990 and December 2014. Operations were performed with a dorsal triangular flap and a full-thickness skin graft. The demographics of included patients and their clinical features were evaluated. Surgical outcomes and complications were analyzed. Results Among 118 patients with 194 webs (155 feet), 111 patients showed nonsyndromic cases and 7 patients showed syndromic cases. In 80 unilateral cases (72.1%), the second web was the most frequently involved (37.5%), followed by the fourth (30%), the first (15%), the third (15%), the first and second in combination (1.3%), and the second and third in combination (1.3%). Among 31 bilateral cases, 2 cases were asymmetric. Among the remaining 29 symmetric bilateral cases, the second web was the most frequently involved (45.2%), followed by the first (22.6%), and the fourth (6.5%). No specific postoperative complications were observed, except in the case of 1 patient (0.51%) who required a secondary operation to correct web creep. Conclusions This retrospective clinical study of 118 patients with both unilateral and bilateral foot syndactyly revealed that the second web was the most frequently involved. In addition, complete division and tension-free wound closure with a full-thickness skin graft of sufficient size showed good postoperative results. PMID:27896188

  10. Concordance in diabetic foot ulcer infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, E Andrea; Backhouse, Michael Ross; Bhogal, Moninder S; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Nixon, Jane; Brown, Sarah; Gray, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Accurate identification of pathogens, rather than colonising bacteria, is a prerequisite for targeted antibiotic therapy to ensure optimal patient outcome in wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers. Wound swabs are the easiest and most commonly used sampling technique but most published guidelines recommend instead removal of a tissue sample from the wound bed, which is a more complex process. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between culture results from wound swabs and tissue samples in patients with suspected diabetic foot infection. Methods and analysis Patients with a diabetic foot ulcer that is thought to be infected are being recruited from 25 sites across England in a cross-sectional study. The coprimary endpoints for the study are agreement between the two sampling techniques for three microbiological parameters: reported presence of likely isolates identified by the UK Health Protection Agency; resistance of isolates to usual antibiotic agents; and, the number of isolates reported per specimen. Secondary endpoints include appropriateness of the empiric antibiotic therapy prescribed and adverse events. Enrolling 400 patients will provide 80% power to detect a difference of 3% in the reported presence of an organism, assuming organism prevalence of 10%, discordance of 5% and a two-sided test at the 5% level of significance. Assumed overall prevalence is based on relatively uncommon organisms such as Pseudomonas. We will define acceptable agreement as κ>0.6. Ethics and dissemination Concordance in diabetic foot ulcer infection (CODIFI) will produce robust data to evaluate the two most commonly used sampling techniques employed for patients with a diabetic foot infection. This will help determine whether or not it is important that clinicians take tissue samples rather than swabs in infected ulcers. This study has been approved by the Sheffield NRES Committee (Ref: 11/YH/0078) and all sites have obtained local approvals prior

  11. Factors influencing accuracy and reproducibility of body resistance measurements by foot-to-foot impedancemeters.

    PubMed

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Assadi, Imen

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of a BodySignal V2 (Tefal, France) foot-to-foot impedancemeter (FFI) was modified to display the foot-to-foot resistance instead of body fat. This device was connected to electrodes of different sizes mounted on a podoscope permitting photographs of subjects feet soles and electrodes in order to calculate the contact area between feet and electrodes. The foot-to-foot resistance was found to decrease when the contact area of feet with current and voltage electrodes increased. It was also sensitive to feet displacement and a backward move of 5 cm increased the mean resistance by 37 Ω. The resistance reproducibility was tested by asking the subject to repeat measurements 10-times by stepping up and down from the podoscope. The mean SD of these tests was 0.88% of mean resistance, but it fell to 0.47% when feet position was guided and to 0.29% with transverse voltage electrodes. For good reproducibility, it is important that voltage electrodes be small and that the scale design facilitates a correct position of heels on these electrodes.

  12. Characterization of a type O foot-and-mouth disease virus re-emerging in the year 2011 in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Malirat, Viviana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Benitez, Elizabeth Oviedo; Pedemonte, Andrea; Seki, Cristina; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Balette, Cristina I; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Toledo, Jorge Rodríguez; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2013-03-23

    Molecular, antigenic and vaccine matching studies, including protective response in vivo, were conducted with a foot-and-mouth disease type O virus isolated during the outbreak in September 2011 in San Pedro, Paraguay, country internationally recognized as free with vaccination in 1997. The phylogenetic tree derived from complete VP(1) sequences as well as monoclonal antibody profiling indicated that this isolate was related to viruses responsible for previous emergencies in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America occurring sporadically between the years 2000 and 2006. Marked differences with the vaccine strain O(1)/Campos, including the loss of reactivity with neutralizing MAbs, were recognized. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine containing the O(1)/Campos strain against the San Pedro virus and the virus responsible for the previous emergency in 2006 in the Southern Cone assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies pointed to an insufficient protective response 30 days after vaccination (DPV), which was properly attained at 79 DPV or after revaccination. In agreement with the in vitro assessment, the in vivo challenge in the Protection against Podal Generalization test in cattle indicated appropriate protection for the San Pedro strain at 79 DPV or after revaccination. The complementary conclusions that can be derived from vaccine matching tests designed differently to fit the various objectives intended: prophylaxis, emergency vaccination or incorporation of new field strains into antigen banks, is evaluated. This is the first report of the antigenic and immunogenic characterization of the variants responsible for emergencies in the Southern Cone of South America and the putative impact of the changes on the cross protection conferred by the vaccine strain.

  13. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  14. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L.; Miller, Daniel J.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot. PMID:25326245

  15. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot.

  16. 18. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower cord pin connection, typical of the 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, where the vertical lace post joins the upper and lower chords. There are two pair of each 80 foot truss and a single pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. The view also shows the chord eye bar and eye rod along with the diagonal bar and rod members. The rod hanging diagonally to the left is a broken lateral member. A four inch conduit is also in view. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  17. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patient was a 45-year-old man presented with acute bilateral foot drop, without any sign of the cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed L4-5 disc herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of acute bilateral foot drop without any signs of cauda equina syndrome caused by L4-5 disc herniation. The second patient was a 50-year-old man who was also presented with acute bilateral foot drop, and had T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension. Also this is the first presented case of T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension causing acute bilateral foot drop. We performed emergent decompressive laminectomy to both of the patients and extrude disc materials were excised. Both of the patients were recovered with favorable outcome. PMID:25972945

  18. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  19. Foot Disorders Associated with Over-Pronated and Over-Supinated Foot Function:The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of musculoskeletal foot disorders differs by race and obesity, and these disorders may be related to pronated (low arch) or supinated (high arch) foot function. This cross-sectional analysis examined relationships of foot disorders and foot function by race and obesity in a community-based observational study of adults 50+ years old with and without osteoarthritis. Methods Members of a prospective cohort study in North Carolina were included in this analysis (N=1466, 67.2% women, 29.5% African American, mean age 68.5 years). Foot disorders were identified with a validated assessment tool, and each foot was categorized as over-pronated, over-supinated, and referent using the center of pressure excursion index from foot pressure scans during normal-paced walking. Logistic regression models estimated associations between foot function and each foot disorder with age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and race as covariates. Results Compared to referent, an over-pronated foot was associated with hallux valgus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.65) and overlapping toes (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.64), especially in the obese. An over-supinated foot was inversely associated with hallux valgus (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97). An over-supinated foot was less likely to be associated with Tailor’s bunions among the obese and was more likely to be associated with plantar fasciitis in Caucasians. Conclusion Foot function was related to hallux valgus and overlapping toes, especially among the obese. In clinical patients as well as in the community of older adults, treatments for both the foot disorder and the pronated/supinated foot are needed. Level of Evidence Level II-2: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort study. PMID:25037712

  20. Foot placement during error and pedal applications in naturalistic driving.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqing; Boyle, Linda Ng; McGehee, Daniel; Roe, Cheryl A; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    Data from a naturalistic driving study was used to examine foot placement during routine foot pedal movements and possible pedal misapplications. The study included four weeks of observations from 30 drivers, where pedal responses were recorded and categorized. The foot movements associated with pedal misapplications and errors were the focus of the analyses. A random forest algorithm was used to predict the pedal application types based the video observations, foot placements, drivers' characteristics, drivers' cognitive function levels and anthropometric measurements. A repeated multinomial logit model was then used to estimate the likelihood of the foot placement given various driver characteristics and driving scenarios. The findings showed that prior foot location, the drivers' seat position, and the drive sequence were all associated with incorrect foot placement during an event. The study showed that there is a potential to develop a driver assistance system that can reduce the likelihood of a pedal error.

  1. Behaviors predicting foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Suico, J G; Marriott, D J; Vinicor, F; Litzelman, D K

    1998-07-01

    Associations between specific foot-care behaviors and foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively investigated. Data from a randomized controlled trial for preventing diabetic foot lesions were analyzed as a prospective cohort using logistic regression. Independent variables included foot-care behaviors, patient self-foot examination, going barefoot, availability of foot-care assistance, and visits to health-care providers. The dependent variable was a foot wound on each foot at follow-up. In the final multivariate model, patients who rarely lubricated their feet had an increased risk of foot lesions. Increasing patient use of emollients may be key to preventing foot lesions.

  2. Determination of free bilirubin and its binding capacity by HSA using a microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis device with a multi-segment circular-ferrofluid-driven micromixing injection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Nie, Zhou; Fung, Ying Sing

    2010-09-01

    A PMMA microfluidic chip-CE device with a multi-segment circular-ferrofluid-driven micromixing injector has been developed for the determination of free bilirubin and its binding capacity by HSA at equilibrium. The design of the device and its fabrication by a low cost CO(2) laser are discussed for intended applications. Under optimized conditions, the total binding capacity of HSA for bilirubin was determined as 16.3±1.4 mg/l00 mL human serum (n=3) and residual binding capacity for bilirubin 9.8 mg/100 mL (n=3) in normal infants. To assess risk of hyperbilirubinemia, free bilirubin and residual binding capacity by HSA provide a better indicator than total bilirubin, as neonates with impaired bilirubin binding capacity could be detected. In addition, residual binding capacity provides an advanced indicator to predict the onset of hyperbilirubinemia before the appearance of free bilirubin. HSA down to 94 nL is used in each titration and a full assay of four titrations takes up 376 nL HSA, sufficient for newborns with HSA in microliter range. The device has shown capable to provide adequate margin of protection to detect an early rising level of bilirubin and impaired binding capacity prior to the onset of jaundice condition.

  3. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized

  4. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery.

  5. Foot and ankle injuries in dance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Treg D; Micheli, Lyle J

    2004-06-01

    This review focuses on many of the foot and ankle injuries commonly seen among dancers. These unique athletes place extreme demands on their musculoskeletal system and thereby face a variety of acute and overuse injuries. Conservative treatment is successful in the majority of cases, but these patients often continue to dance while healing--commonly prolonging and at times complicating treatment. When surgery is being contemplated, the dancer's performance level and expectations about returning to dance after surgery should be thoroughly explored. Foot and ankle surgeries that routinely yield good to excellent results in the general population can prematurely end a dancer's otherwise promising career. The physician must consider all these factors when designing an appropriate treatment plan for a dancer.

  6. The foot as a shock absorber.

    PubMed

    Salathé, E P; Arangio, G A; Salathé, E P

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of the deformation of the foot is developed to determine the role that stretch of ligaments and tendons plays in absorbing shock following impact. Our analysis is based on an anatomical biomechanical model that includes each of the bones of the foot. We calculate the time course of the deflection of the joints and the elongation of the ligaments and tendons and determine the ground reaction force acting on the heel. Quasi-linear viscoelastic theory is used for soft tissue constitutive relationships. With biomechanical data selected from the literature, we obtain a vertical force impact peak of 8000 N, occurring at 16 ms following heel strike. This is of higher magnitude and shorter duration than is found experimentally, as is to be expected, since we did not include the heel pad in our model and we assumed that the impact surface was ideally rigid.

  7. Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.

    PubMed

    Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

    1999-11-01

    The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene.

  8. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  9. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    SciTech Connect

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  10. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  11. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    marches,” “loaded marches,” and “road marches.” Other operational and training -related lifting activities may also be included. During these... training .1-4 Soldiers’ exposures to foot marching and load-carriage activities, therefore, include both training and deployment scenarios...be a factor of load weight or speed. Variations to these factors depend on mission; unit training ; and fitness levels, equipment, and terrain

  12. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    PubMed

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings.

  13. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  14. End effector with astronaut foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

  15. Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S.; Najafi, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched. Findings Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer. Interpretation In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation. PMID:20663446

  16. Improving Hohlraums for High Foot Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Doeppner, T.; Goyon, C. S.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Schneider, M. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of High Foot implosions show that performance has been limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Demonstrated here is that improvements in the radiation environment result in an enhancement in implosion performance. This is accomplished by using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density. At fixed laser energy, High Foot implosions driven with this hohlraum have achieved a 1.4 x increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50%. Low mode asymmetries are still present, however, and are most likely a consequence of poor inner beam propagation through the hohlraum to the wall. Presented here are results from these High Foot implosions, as well as analyses of inner beam propagation, and additional hohlraum improvements that further ameliorate the implosion. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. [Microbial community in wound defects of patients with diabetic foot syndrome in practice of family doctor].

    PubMed

    Rosul, M B; Patskan', B M; Nemesh, I I

    2014-01-01

    Microbial content of the wound were analyzed in 49 patients with diabetic foot syndrome before and after ozone treatment. The wound defects was characterized by high level of colonization by microorganisms in associations, prevalence of the staphylococci, was estimated local wound treatment by ozone at 4000 mμ/l has positive effect onto wound healing process. This was manifested by significant decrease in density of the microbial colonization of the wounds and was accompanied by change of degenerative processes onto regeneration.

  18. Overview of 6- X 6-foot wind tunnel aero-optics tests. [transonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The splitter-plate arrangement used in tests in the 6 x 6 foot wind tunnel and how it was configured to study boundary layers, both heated and unheated, shear layers over a cavity, separated flows behind spoilers, accelerated flows around a turret, and a turret wake are described. The flows are characterized by examples of the steady-state pressure and of velocity profiles through the various types of flow layers.

  19. Assessment of foot perfusion in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification. Conventional methods of assessing tissue perfusion in the peripheral circulation may be unreliable in patients with diabetes, and it may therefore be difficult to determine the extent to which poor perfusion contributes to foot ulceration. Anatomical data obtained on cross-sectional imaging is important but must be combined with measurements of tissue perfusion (such as transcutaneous oxygen tension) in order to understand the global and regional perfusion deficit present in a patient with diabetic foot ulceration. Ankle-brachial pressure index is routinely used to screen for peripheral artery disease, but its use in patients with diabetes is limited in the presence of neuropathy and medial arterial calcification. Toe pressure index may be more useful because of the relative sparing of pedal arteries from medial calcification but may not always be possible in patients with ulceration. Fluorescence angiography is a non-invasive technique that can provide rapid quantitative information about regional tissue perfusion; capillaroscopy, iontophoresis and hyperspectral imaging may also be useful in assessing physiological perfusion but are not widely available. There may be a future role for specialized perfusion imaging of these patients, including magnetic resonance

  20. Exploring the role of the lab protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) during viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader (L) protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) displays two forms, Lab and Lb, through initiation of translation at two in-frame AUG codons positioned 84 nucleotides apart. The short form (Lb) is the most abundant and functionally well characterized form of L. The presence of these tw...

  1. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the "foot at risk" to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-04-10

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities.

  2. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  3. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  4. 19. 80 foot pony truss view of upper chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 80 foot pony truss - view of upper chord pin connection at the end post, typical of the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot tress. There are two pair per pony truss for a total of 24. Shown are the vertical lace post, end post, top chord member, and a diagonal member. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  5. Impact of Foot Type on Cost of Lower Extremity Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    were at higher risk for injury. Additionally, researchers have found relationships between chronic heel pain and osteoarthritis of the knee and hip...study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2007. 8: p. 41. 48. Reilly, K., et al., The role of foot and ankle assessment of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis ... Physiotherapy , 2009. 95(3): p. 164-9. 49. Redmond, A.C., Y.Z. Crane, and H.B. Menz, Normative values for the Foot Posture Index. J Foot Ankle Res

  6. Outcomes of a Nurse-Managed Diabetes Foot Clinic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Managed Diabetes Foot Clinic 5b. GRANT NUMBER HU0001-04-1-TS10 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER N04-017...measured outcomes of a nurse-managed diabetes foot clinic on foot wound rates, health care costs, and changes in health status in adults with... diabetes . Design: This study reflects results of a two-group randomized, controlled trial. Sample: Participants were 126 adults with diabetes for more

  7. Initial misdiagnosis of melanoma located on the foot is associated with poorer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Roesch, Alexander; Klode, Joachim; Dissemond, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Acral melanoma has been reported to be associated with poorer outcomes than melanoma occurring on other cutaneous sites. It has been suggested that part of this disparity in outcomes may be related to delay in diagnosis. Therefore, we have analyzed the rate of misdiagnoses in patients with melanoma located on the foot and have characterized the influence on the clinical course and survival of the patients. A prospective, computerized melanoma database at the Skin Cancer Center of the University Hospital Essen, Germany was used to identify patients with histologically confirmed melanoma located on the foot between 2002 and July 2013 for subsequent analysis. A cohort of 151 patients diagnosed with primary melanoma located on the foot was identified. One hundred seven patients qualified for subsequent analysis. Forty-two patients were male (39.3%) and 65 (60.7%) were female; the mean age at first diagnosis was 61.6 years (median 66 years). The youngest patient was 19 years, the oldest 88 years old.Of the 107 patients analyzed, 32 (30%) were initially misdiagnosed. Misdiagnoses included chronic wounds, nevi, hematoma, fungal infections, warts, and paronychia. Misdiagnosis caused a median delay in diagnosis of 9 months. The 5-year disease-free survival rate (47.8% vs 72.7%) and the 5-year overall survival rate (63.5% vs 88.4%) were statistically significant lower in the misdiagnosis cohort.The awareness of potentially overlooked melanoma located on the foot has to increase among physicians.To improve early detection and, thus, the prognosis of patients with melanoma located on the foot, taking a biopsy from any suspicious lesion should be taken into consideration as soon as possible.

  8. Initial misdiagnosis of melanoma located on the foot is associated with poorer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Roesch, Alexander; Klode, Joachim; Dissemond, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acral melanoma has been reported to be associated with poorer outcomes than melanoma occurring on other cutaneous sites. It has been suggested that part of this disparity in outcomes may be related to delay in diagnosis. Therefore, we have analyzed the rate of misdiagnoses in patients with melanoma located on the foot and have characterized the influence on the clinical course and survival of the patients. A prospective, computerized melanoma database at the Skin Cancer Center of the University Hospital Essen, Germany was used to identify patients with histologically confirmed melanoma located on the foot between 2002 and July 2013 for subsequent analysis. A cohort of 151 patients diagnosed with primary melanoma located on the foot was identified. One hundred seven patients qualified for subsequent analysis. Forty-two patients were male (39.3%) and 65 (60.7%) were female; the mean age at first diagnosis was 61.6 years (median 66 years). The youngest patient was 19 years, the oldest 88 years old. Of the 107 patients analyzed, 32 (30%) were initially misdiagnosed. Misdiagnoses included chronic wounds, nevi, hematoma, fungal infections, warts, and paronychia. Misdiagnosis caused a median delay in diagnosis of 9 months. The 5-year disease-free survival rate (47.8% vs 72.7%) and the 5-year overall survival rate (63.5% vs 88.4%) were statistically significant lower in the misdiagnosis cohort. The awareness of potentially overlooked melanoma located on the foot has to increase among physicians. To improve early detection and, thus, the prognosis of patients with melanoma located on the foot, taking a biopsy from any suspicious lesion should be taken into consideration as soon as possible. PMID:27442685

  9. Adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 plasma levels in subjects with diabetic foot and possible correlations with clinical variables and cardiovascular co-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It is very suggestive that diabetic foot is characterized by a pronounced inflammatory reaction and the pathogenic significance of this inflammation has received little attention. On this basis the aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 in subjects with diabetic foot in comparison with subjects without foot complications. Materials and methods We recruited 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and foot ulceration hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events (group A). As controls we recruited 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without foot ulceration (group B) hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events. Adiponectin, Resistin and IL-6 serum levels were evaluated. Results Subjects of group A showed lower median plasma levels of adiponectin [7.7450 (4.47-12.17) μg/ml vs 8.480 (5.15-12.87) μg/ml], higher median plasma levels of IL-6 [3.21 (1.23-5.34) pg/ml vs 2.73 (1.24-3.97 pg/ml)] and of resistin [3.860 (2.96-6.29 ng/ml) vs 3.690 (2.,37-6.5 ng/ml)]. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that diabetic subjects with diabetic foot showed in comparison with diabetics without diabetic foot higher IL-6 and resistin plasma levels, lower adiponectin plasma levels. PMID:20836881

  10. Role of industries in the care of diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A; Lakshmi, S; Arun, Nanditha; Samith Shetty, A; Snehalatha, C

    2010-09-01

    Diabetic foot disease is a dreaded complication causing severe economic and social burden, mental and physical agony, and severe morbidity and mortality. This complication is largely preventable if the risk factors such as peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease are detected early and appropriate measures are taken to control glycemia, foot pressure, and chances of foot injury. In the case of ulceration, proper microbial control, pressure offloading by debridement, and use of appropriate footwear are mandatory to save the foot. This article focuses on the need for preventive care for diabetic complications demonstrating potentially helpful roles for industry in India.

  11. 16. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL (NORTHWEST LOWER FOOT OF CRANE), LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL (NORTHWEST LOWER FOOT OF CRANE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  12. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  13. Salient Features of the Maasai Foot: Analysis of 1,096 Maasai Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jin Soo; Seo, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Maasai are the most widely known African ethnic group located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. Most spend their days either barefoot or in their traditional shoes made of car tires. Although they walk long distances of up to sixty kilometers a day, they do not suffer from any foot ailments. Little is known about their foot structure and gait. The goal of this investigation was to characterize various aspects of Maasai foot in standing and walking. Methods Foot length, calf circumference, hindfoot alignment, step length, cadence, and walking velocity were obtained from 1,096 adult Maasai people (545 males and 551 females; mean age, 40.28 ± 14.69 years; age range, 16 to 65 years). All included subjects were from rural areas, where the primary terrain was sandy soil, who spend most of their lifetime barefoot, walking. They all denied any medical history or previous symptoms related to foot problems. A trained clinician scanned all feet for deformities. Static (standing) and dynamic (walking) Harris mat footprints were taken to determine the distribution of forefoot pressure patterns during walking. Results The average foot length was 250.14 ± 18.12 mm (range, 210 to 295 mm) and calf circumference was 32.50 ± 3.22 cm (range, 25 to 41 cm). The mean hindfoot alignment was 6.21° ± 1.55° of valgus. Sixty-four subjects (5.84%) had bilateral flat-shaped feet with a low medial longitudinal arch that exactly matched the broad pattern of their static footprints. Step length, cadence, and walking velocity were 426.45 ± 88.73 cm (range, 200 to 690 cm), 94.35 steps/min (range, 72 to 111 steps/min), and 40.16 ± 8.36 m/min (range, 18.20 to 63.36 m/min), respectively. A total of 83.39% subjects showed unilateral or bilateral deformities of multiple toes regardless of age. The most frequent deformity was clawing (98.79%) of which the highest incidence occurred with the fifth toe (93.23%). Dynamic footprints showed even pressure patterns throughout the forefoot

  14. The reliability and validity of the Korean version of the foot function index for patients with foot complaints.

    PubMed

    In, Tae-Sung; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Keunjo; Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Foot Function Index translated into Korean for use in patients with plantar fasciitis and foot/ankle fracture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects with foot complaints, 14 males and 22 females, participated in the study. Reliability was determined by using the intra-class correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Validity was examined by correlating Foot Function Index scores with the Short Form-36 and the Visual Analog Scale scores. [Results] Test-retest reliability was 0.90 for the pain subscale, and 0.94 and 0.91 for the disability and activity limitation subscales, respectively. The criterion-related validity was established by comparison with the Korean version of the Short Form-36 and Visual Analog Scale. [Conclusion] The Korean version of the Foot Function Index was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing foot complaints.

  15. [Experience of treatment of diabetic foot syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pertsov, V I; Ponomarenko, O V

    2014-07-01

    In The Clinic of Cathedra of The Catastrophes Medicine, Military Medicine, Anesthesiology and Reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 53 patients, ageing 23-65 yrs, were treated for diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) of neuropathic and mixed forms. Diagnostic-treatment algorithm was proposed for determination of level and degree of a circulation and neuropathic disorders, introduction of which have promoted optimization of surgical and local treatment, improvement of the complex treatment results in patients, suffering DFS. A new method of treatment application, using combined preparation of hyaluronic acid with the sodium succinic, have permitted to achieve a complete healing of the ulcer defect.

  16. A kinematic method to detect foot contact during running for all foot strike patterns.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Paquette, Max R

    2015-09-18

    The biomechanics of distance running are studied in relation to both understanding injury mechanisms and improving performance. Kinematic methods must be used to identify the stance phase of running when data are recorded during running on a standard treadmill or outside the laboratory. Recently, a focus on foot strike patterns has emerged in the field. Thus, there is a need for a kinematic method to identify foot contact that is equally effective for both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new kinematic method could accurately determine foot contact during running in both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers. Overground gait data were collected at on 22 runners, 11 with a rearfoot strike pattern and 11 with a non-rearfoot strike pattern. Data were processed to identify foot contact from: vertical ground reaction force, two previously published kinematic methods, and our new kinematic method. Limits of agreement were used to determine bias and random error of each kinematic method compared to ground reaction force onset. The new method had comparable random error at 200 Hz sampling frequency (5 ms per frame) to the previous methods (7 frames vs 6-9 frames) and produced the same offset for both strike patterns (3 frames), while the existing methods had different offsets for different strike patterns (4 or 7 frames). Study findings support use of this new method, as it can be applied to all running strike patterns without adjusting the frame offset, simplifying data processing.

  17. Mechanism and Design Analysis of Articulated Ankle Foot Orthoses for Drop-Foot

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Mamat, Azuddin Bin

    2014-01-01

    Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO) devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption. PMID:24892102

  18. The reliability and validity of a three-camera foot image system for obtaining foot anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Damien; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hunt, Adrienne; Smith, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The purpose was to develop a foot image capture and measurement system with web cameras (the 3-FIS) to provide reliable and valid foot anthropometric measures with efficiency comparable to that of the conventional method of using a handheld anthropometer. Eleven foot measures were obtained from 10 subjects using both methods. Reliability of each method was determined over 3 consecutive days using the intraclass correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE). Reliability was excellent for both the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer for the same 10 variables, and good for the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint height. The RMSE values over 3 days ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 mm for the handheld anthropometer, and from 0.8 to 3.6 mm for the 3-FIS. The RMSE values between the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer were between 2.3 and 7.4 mm. The 3-FIS required less time to collect and obtain the final variables than the handheld anthropometer. The 3-FIS provided accurate and reproducible results for each of the foot variables and in less time than the conventional approach of a handheld anthropometer.

  19. A review of the foot function index and the foot function index – revised

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Foot Function Index (FFI) is a self-report, foot-specific instrument measuring pain and disability and has been widely used to measure foot health for over twenty years. A revised FFI (FFI-R) was developed in response to criticism of the FFI. The purpose of this review was to assess the uses of FFI and FFI-R as were reported in medical and surgical literature and address the suggestions found in the literature to improve the metrics of FFI-R. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Embase databases from October 1991 through December 2010 comprised the main sources of literature. To enrich the bibliography, the search was extended to BioMedLib and Scopus search engines and manual search methods. Search terms included FFI, FFI scores, FFI-R. Requirements included abstracts/full length articles, English-language publications, and articles containing the term "foot complaints/problems." Articles selected were scrutinized; EBM abstracted data from literature and collected into tables designed for this review. EBM analyzed tables, KJC, JM, RMS reviewed and confirmed table contents. KJC and JM reanalyzed the original database of FFI-R to improve metrics. Results Seventy-eight articles qualified for this review, abstracts were compiled into 12 tables. FFI and FFI-R were used in studies of foot and ankle disorders in 4700 people worldwide. FFI Full scale or the Subscales and FFI-R were used as outcome measures in various studies; new instruments were developed based on FFI subscales. FFI Full scale was adapted/translated into other cultures. FFI and FFI-R psychometric properties are reported in this review. Reanalysis of FFI-R subscales' confirmed unidimensionality, and the FFI-R questionnaires' response categories were edited into four responses for ease of use. Conclusion This review was limited to articles published in English in the past twenty years. FFI is used extensively worldwide; this instrument pioneered a quantifiable measure

  20. Update on the diabetic foot 2012: the 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference, May 9-11, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter; Franklyn, Kerryn; Rayman, Gerry; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-03-01

    The 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference was held in May 2012. Physicians, podiatrists, nurses, orthotists, surgeons, radiologists, and other professionals attended to reflect on the diabetic foot. The conference comprised interactive workshops, oral presentations of new research findings, and lectures from leading figures in the world of the diabetic foot. Over the 3 days, topics such as epidemiology, neuropathy, screening, vascular disease, prevention, and management among others were discussed. The conference has been an excellent platform from which to share new and ongoing research and it will without a doubt improve the treatment of the diabetic foot across the world.

  1. Altering prosthetic foot stiffness influences foot and muscle function during below-knee amputee walking: a modeling and simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fey, Nicholas P; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2013-02-22

    Most prosthetic feet are designed to improve amputee gait by storing and releasing elastic energy during stance. However, how prosthetic foot stiffness influences muscle and foot function is unclear. Identifying these relationships would provide quantitative rationale for prosthetic foot prescription that may lead to improved amputee gait. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of altered prosthetic foot stiffness on muscle and foot function using forward dynamics simulations of amputee walking. Three 2D muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of unilateral below-knee amputee walking with a range of foot stiffness levels were generated, and muscle and prosthetic foot contributions to body support and propulsion and residual leg swing were quantified. As stiffness decreased, the prosthetic keel provided increased support and braking (negative propulsion) during the first half of stance while the heel contribution to support decreased. During the second half of stance, the keel provided decreased propulsion and increased support. In addition, the keel absorbed less power from the leg, contributing more to swing initiation. Thus, several muscle compensations were necessary. During the first half of stance, the residual leg hamstrings provided decreased support and increased propulsion. During the second half of stance, the intact leg vasti provided increased support and the residual leg rectus femoris transferred increased energy from the leg to the trunk for propulsion. These results highlight the influence prosthetic foot stiffness has on muscle and foot function throughout the gait cycle and may aid in prescribing feet of appropriate stiffness.

  2. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  3. Development of a Robotic Assembly for Analyzing the Instantaneous Axis of Rotation of the Foot Ankle Complex

    PubMed Central

    Salb, Kelly N.; Wido, Daniel M.; Stewart, Thomas E.; DiAngelo, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Ankle instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR) measurements represent a more complete parameter for characterizing joint motion. However, few studies have implemented this measurement to study normal, injured, or pathological foot ankle biomechanics. A novel testing protocol was developed to simulate aspects of in vivo foot ankle mechanics during mid-stance gait in a human cadaveric specimen. A lower leg was mounted in a robotic testing platform with the tibia upright and foot flat on the baseplate. Axial tibia loads (ATLs) were controlled as a function of a vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) set at half body weight (356 N) and a 50% vGRF (178 N) Achilles tendon load. Two specimens were repetitively loaded over 10 degrees of dorsiflexion and 20 degrees of plantar flexion. Platform axes were controlled within 2 microns and 0.008 degrees resulting in ATL measurements within ±2 N of target conditions. Mean ATLs and IAR values were not significantly different between cycles of motion, but IAR values were significantly different between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. A linear regression analysis showed no significant differences between slopes of plantar flexion paths. The customized robotic platform and advanced testing protocol produced repeatable and accurate measurements of the IAR, useful for assessing foot ankle biomechanics under different loading scenarios and foot conditions. PMID:27099456

  4. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Robin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Loth, Eric; Kogler, Géza; Manwaring, Scott D; Tyson, Serena N; Shorter, K Alex; Gilmer, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO) to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot) carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1). Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle. PMID:19527526

  5. Automatic classification of thermal patterns in diabetic foot based on morphological pattern spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Ramirez-Cortes, J.; Renero-Carrillo, F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to characterize and identify patterns of temperature in thermographic images of the human foot plant in support of early diagnosis and follow-up of diabetic patients. Composed feature vectors based on 3D morphological pattern spectrum (pecstrum) and relative position, allow the system to quantitatively characterize and discriminate non-diabetic (control) and diabetic (DM) groups. Non-linear classification using neural networks is used for that purpose. A classification rate of 94.33% in average was obtained with the composed feature extraction process proposed in this paper. Performance evaluation and obtained results are presented.

  6. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  7. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, S. Raja; Periasamy, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 – the foot at risk, Class 2 – superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 – the crippled foot and Class 4 – the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot. PMID:28216809

  8. Autonomic neuropathy and diabetic foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M E; Nicolaides, K H; Watkins, P J

    1986-01-01

    Autonomic function was studied in three groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Heart rate changes during deep breathing and on standing were significantly less in 28 patients with a recent history of foot ulceration compared with 40 patients with peripheral neuropathy but without ulceration (p less than 0.001) and 54 patients without neuropathy (p less than 0.001). Sympathetic function was assessed in 36 of these patients from peripheral arterial diastolic flow patterns obtained by Doppler ultrasound measurements and expressed as the pulsatility index (PI). Patients with a history of ulceration (n = 10) showed considerably increased diastolic flow (PI = 4.28 +/- 0.53, mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 12 neuropathic patients with no history of ulceration (PI = 7.80 +/- 0.68, p less than 0.002) and 14 patients without neuropathy (PI = 9.55 +/- 0.89, p less than 0.002). Severely abnormal autonomic function occurs in association with neuropathic foot ulceration, but patients without ulcers have lesser degrees of autonomic neuropathy, thus a causal relationship has not been established.

  9. Diabetic foot syndrome--dermatological point of view.

    PubMed

    Troskot, Nina; Duvancić, Tomislav; Kolić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from diabetic foot syndrome, a condition leading to foot ulceration or even amputation of lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy combined with repetitive trauma to the foot and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in the development of foot ulcers. Other major contributive factors include the effects of callus, increased plantar pressures, and local infections. Patient education concerning their disease has a central role in the prevention of foot ulcers. Ordinary preventive measures taken by the patient include regular self-inspections, appropriate daily hygiene of the feet, appropriate footwear to reduce plantar pressures, and medical pedicure performed by a pedicurist experienced in diabetic foot patients. The importance of callus in diabetic patients has been shown in several studies by high predictability of subsequent ulcer development in patients with plantar calluses. For removing callus, urea based preparations are considered to be the treatment of choice. In case of local bacterial and fungal diabetic foot infections, systemic antibiotic and systemic antimycotic therapy is indicated, respectively. Wound dressings of various types are the mainstay in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers with avoidance of occlusive dressings in infected ulcers. Since the vast majority of ulcers and amputations can be prevented in diabetic patients, proper diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are essential.

  10. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control. PMID:25136312

  11. 17. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower pin connection located where an end post joins the first and the last vertical post. There are two pair on each of the five 80 foot trusses for a total of 20. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  12. How to Eat Right for Your Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the ... Feet Flexible How to Eat Right for Your Foot Health Currently selected How to Care for Your Diabetic Feet How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal ...

  13. Treatment for Common Running/Walking Foot Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Haar, Calin; Ihlers, Matt; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Whether you are a weekend warrior or a serious athlete, most runners fear the possibility of being injured. For those who are physically active or stand on their feet all day, healthy feet are important Highly conditioned runners spend many hours performing foot maintenance to prevent unnecessary injuries. Some of the common foot injuries are:…

  14. Functional limitations due to foot involvement in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ozaras, Nihal; Havan, Nuri; Poyraz, Emine; Rezvanı, Aylin; Aydın, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Spondyloarthritis is a major inflammatory disease followed-up in the rheumatology clinics, foot involvement in spodyloarthritis is common. The functional states of patients with spondyloarthritis are usually evaluated globally. The aim of this study was to assess the foot involvement-related functional limitations in patients with spondyloarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis with foot pain more than 4 weeks who underwent anteroposterior and lateral feet radiography were enrolled into the study. A “clinical findings score” was calculated by assigning 1 point for every finding of swelling, redness, and tenderness. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were used as serum markers for disease activity. Foot radiograms were evaluated using the spondyloarthropathy tarsal radiographic index and the foot-related functional state of patients was determined by the Turkish version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. [Results] There were no relationships between Foot and Ankle Outcome Score subscales and clinical findings score, serum markers, or radiologic score. Pain and symptoms subscale scores were result positively correlated with activity of daily living, sport and recreation, and quality of life subscale scores. [Conclusion] Pain and symptoms are the main determinants of foot-related functional limitations in spondyloarthritis. PMID:27512252

  15. Classification and prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Adriana M W; Nielsen, Søren S; King, Catherine E; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-03-01

    Foot lesions can compromise the health and welfare of captive birds. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae). The study was based on photos of 1,495 pairs of foot soles from 854 flamingos in 18 European and two Texan (USA) zoological collections. Methodology for evaluating flamingo feet lesions was developed for this project because no suitable method had been reported in the literature. Four types of foot lesions were identified: hyperkeratoses, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths. Seven areas on each foot received a severity score from 0 to 2 for each type of lesion (0 = no lesion, 1 = mild to moderate lesion, 2 = severe lesion). The prevalence of birds with lesions (scores 1 or 2) were 100%, 87%, 17%, and 46% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Birds with severe lesions (score 2) constituted 67%, 46%, 4%, and 12% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Hyperkeratosis and nodular lesions were most prevalent on the base of the foot and the proximal portion of the digits, likely reflecting those areas bearing the most weight. The second and fourth digits were most affected with fissures and papillomatous lesions; these areas of the foot appear to be where the most flexion occurs during ambulation. The study demonstrates that foot lesions are highly prevalent and widely distributed in the study population, indicating that they are an extensive problem in captive flamingos.

  16. [Discrimination on diseases originated from Foot-Taiyin meridian].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Hua; Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Through the analysis on the form, origin and evolution of diseases originated from Foot-Taiyin Meridian, and the investigation on clinical practice, it is held that diseases originated from Foot-Taiyin meridian were developed on the base of supplement and adaption of the ancient medical classics. And it is also held that great respect on clinical practice was attached by the compiler.

  17. Tibialis posterior tendon rupture: a cause of rheumatoid flat foot.

    PubMed

    Downey, D J; Simkin, P A; Mack, L A; Richardson, M L; Kilcoyne, R F; Hansen, S T

    1988-03-01

    Flat foot, a major cause of foot pain and disability, may result from rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon. We describe 2 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed flat feet secondary to surgically confirmed tendon rupture, and we discuss the anatomy and diagnosis of this condition. In the second patient, we also present the results of tendon imaging with both magnetic resonance and ultrasound.

  18. Risk and prevention of reulceration after partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Sage, Ronald A

    2010-09-01

    Partial foot amputations are frequently performed to salvage significant portions of the lower extremity affected by limb-threatening infection. Once healed, the residual foot is at high risk for reulceration. Careful long-term follow-up and appropriate interventions can lower this risk.

  19. Compartment syndrome of the foot in a child.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Sharaf, I; Ajay, S

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of a 12-year-old boy with acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a road-traffic accident. Due to the rarity of the injury, there was a delay in diagnosing the injury. An emergency fasciotomy was performed 19 hours after the injury. The foot healed with a mild extension contracture of the second toe.

  20. Inpatient Management of Diabetic Foot Disorders: A Clinical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Wukich, Dane K.; Armstrong, David G.; Attinger, Christopher E.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Burns, Patrick R.; Frykberg, Robert G.; Hellman, Richard; Kim, Paul J.; Lipsky, Benjamin A.; Pile, James C.; Pinzur, Michael S.; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of an inpatient diabetic foot service should be the goal of all institutions that care for patients with diabetes. The objectives of this team are to prevent problems in patients while hospitalized, provide curative measures for patients admitted with diabetic foot disorders, and optimize the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. Essential skills that are required for an inpatient team include the ability to stage a foot wound, assess for peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, wound infection, and the need for debridement; appropriately culture a wound and select antibiotic therapy; provide, directly or indirectly, for optimal metabolic control; and implement effective discharge planning to prevent a recurrence. Diabetic foot ulcers may be present in patients who are admitted for nonfoot problems, and these ulcers should be evaluated by the diabetic foot team during the hospitalization. Pathways should be in place for urgent or emergent treatment of diabetic foot infections and neuropathic fractures/dislocations. Surgeons involved with these patients should have knowledge and interest in limb preservation techniques. Prevention of iatrogenic foot complications, such as pressure sores of the heel, should be a priority in patients with diabetes who are admitted for any reason: all hospitalized diabetic patients require a clinical foot exam on admission to identify risk factors such as loss of sensation or ischemia. Appropriate posthospitalization monitoring to reduce the risk of reulceration and infection should be available, which should include optimal glycemic control and correction of any fluid and electrolyte disturbances. PMID:23970716

  1. 7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201.82... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201.82... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  7. Understanding the nature and mechanism of foot pain

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Fiona; Burns, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the population are affected by foot pain at any given time. It is often disabling and can impair mood, behaviour, self-care ability and overall quality of life. Currently, the nature and mechanism underlying many types of foot pain is not clearly understood. Here we comprehensively review the literature on foot pain, with specific reference to its definition, prevalence, aetiology and predictors, classification, measurement and impact. We also discuss the complexities of foot pain as a sensory, emotional and psychosocial experience in the context of clinical practice, therapeutic trials and the placebo effect. A deeper understanding of foot pain is needed to identify causal pathways, classify diagnoses, quantify severity, evaluate long term implications and better target clinical intervention. PMID:19144200

  8. The effects of foot position and orientation on inter- and intra-foot coordination in standing postures: a frequency domain PCA analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Molenaar, Peter C M; Molenaar, Peter M C; Newell, Karl M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of foot position and foot orientation on asymmetrical body weight loading and the inter- and intra-foot coordination dynamics of standing postures. The participants were instructed to stand with the feet side-by-side and in staggered and tandem positions with the right foot oriented at different angles (30, 60 and 90°). The results showed that the participants naturally loaded more on their left foot when positioned with their right foot forward. As the orientation of the right foot was changed from 90 to 30°, they loaded a significantly large proportion of their body weight on their left foot and the degree of coordination of the 4 COP time series increased. Foot position, constrains both the area of the base of support and the loading of the feet, played an important role differentiating the contribution of each COP to the postural control system. In particular, when postural stance was challenged by the limitation of the base of support, the COPs in the unstable plane (inter-foot coordination) showed larger factor weightings. In contrast, when standing posture was not challenged by the base of support boundary, the COPs of the more loaded foot (intra-foot coordination) dominated foot coordination in postural control. These findings show that the mechanical constraints of foot position and orientation interact to channel different patterns of inter- and intra-foot coordination dynamics of standing postures.

  9. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words

    PubMed Central

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right. PMID:25852609

  10. From flat foot to fat foot: structure, ontogeny, function, and evolution of elephant "sixth toes".

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, John R; Delmer, Cyrille; Miller, Charlotte E; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Boyde, Alan

    2011-12-23

    Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.

  11. Replantation of an avulsive amputation of a foot after recovering the foot from the sea.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, F; Karacaoğlu, E; Ulkür, E; Güler, M M

    2000-04-01

    A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery.

  12. Welcome to Journal of Foot and Ankle Research: a new open access journal for foot health professionals.

    PubMed

    Menz, Hylton B; Potter, Mike J; Borthwick, Alan M; Landorf, Karl B

    2008-07-28

    Journal of Foot and Ankle Research (JFAR) is a new, open access, peer-reviewed online journal that encompasses all aspects of policy, organisation, delivery and clinical practice related to the assessment, diagnosis, prevention and management of foot and ankle disorders. JFAR will cover a wide range of clinical subject areas, including diabetology, paediatrics, sports medicine, gerontology and geriatrics, foot surgery, physical therapy, dermatology, wound management, radiology, biomechanics and bioengineering, orthotics and prosthetics, as well the broad areas of epidemiology, policy, organisation and delivery of services related to foot and ankle care. The journal encourages submission from all health professionals who manage lower limb conditions, including podiatrists, nurses, physical therapists and physiotherapists, orthopaedists, manual therapists, medical specialists and general medical practitioners, as well as health service researchers concerned with foot and ankle care. All manuscripts will undergo open peer review, and all accepted manuscripts will be freely available on-line using the open access platform of BioMed Central.

  13. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies.

  14. Recognizing the prevalence of changing adult foot size: an opportunity to prevent diabetic foot ulcers?

    PubMed

    Connolly, John E; Wrobel, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ill-fitting shoes may precipitate up to half of all diabetes-related amputations and are often cited as a leading cause of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), with those patients being 5 to 10 times more likely to present wearing improperly fitting shoes. Among patients with prior DFU, those who self-select their shoe wear are at a three-fold risk for reulceration at 3 years versus those patients wearing prescribed shoes. Properly designed and fitted shoes should then address much of this problem, but evidence supporting the benefit of therapeutic shoe programs is inconclusive. The current study, performed in a male veteran population, is the first such effort to examine the prevalence and extent of change in foot length affecting individuals following skeletal maturity. Nearly half of all participants in our study experienced a ≥1 shoe size change in foot length during adulthood. We suggest that these often unrecognized changes may explain the broad use of improperly sized shoe wear, and its associated sequelae such as DFU and amputation. Regular clinical assessment of shoe fit in at-risk populations is therefore also strongly recommended as part of a comprehensive amputation prevention program.

  15. Does cell therapy and tissue engineering represent a promising treatment of diabetic foot ulcers?

    PubMed

    Ulicna, M; Danisovic, L; Vojtassak, J

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most severe and costly chronic disease of our time. Approximately 2-3% of diabetics have an active foot ulcer, and 15% of all patients with diabetes will develop an ulcer during their lifetime. Treatment of foot complications is one of the main items in the absorption of enormous economic and health resources addressed to the diabetic patients. Advances in basic science, tissue culture techniques and cell therapy promise to improve the treatment of diabetes as well as its complications, i.e. also the ischemic ulcers of the foot. At present, the isolation of any specific type of cells, their in vitro expansion and biological characterization of acquired cell population are possible. For the healing process in ischemic diabetic ulcers, stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and fibroblasts, both in suspension or placed on an extracellular scaffold are used. This process is focused on stimulating the new blood vessels formation. This is stimulated by the paracrine secretion of multiple growth factors and their receptors. Verified are the vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-8 and proangiogenic cytokines (Ref. 62).

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection. Studies on this issue have helped to distinguish two S. aureus populations in DFI: toxinogenic S. aureus strains (harboring exfoliatin-, EDIN-, PVL- or TSST-encoding genes) and non-toxinogenic strains. Toxinogenic strains are often present in infections with a more severe grade and systemic impact, whereas non-toxinogenic strains seem to remain localized in deep structures and bone involving diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Testing the virulence profile of bacteria seems to be a promising way to predict the behavior of S. aureus in the chronic wounds. PMID:27399775

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease: a review of the virus and the symptoms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R F; Knudsen, R C

    2001-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiologic agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a disease of cattle, swine, and other cloven-footed animals. FMD is characterized by the formation of vesicles on the tongue, nose, muzzle, and coronary bands of infected animals. The virus has several unique characteristics that enable it to cause one of the most economically devastating diseases in today's world. The ease with which it may be transmitted by contact and aerosol, combined with its enhanced ability to initiate infections, virtually ensures that most, if not all, animals in a herd will contract FMD. The long-term survival of FMDV in infected animals' tissues and organs, especially when refrigerated, offers an opportunity for its national and international transmission through the food chain. Multiple serotypes and numerous subtypes reduce the effectiveness and reliability of vaccines. The possible development of carriers in vaccinated animals and those that have recovered from FMD provides additional potential sources of new outbreaks. These features create a disease that can have a major economic impact on farmers and entire nations.

  18. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: a recurrent and bilateral foot drop case report.

    PubMed

    Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Macedo, Liliana; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Rodrigues, Maria Lurdes

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy is characterized by acute, painless, recurrent mononeuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. A 16-year-old boy had the first episode of right foot drop after minor motorcycle accident. Electromyography revealed conduction block and slowing velocity conduction of the right deep peroneal nerve at the fibular head. After motor rehabilitation, he fully recovered. Six months later he had the second episode of foot drop in the opposite site after prolonged squatting position. Electromyography revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy of left peroneal, sural, posterior tibial, and deep peroneal nerves and also of ulnar, radial, and median nerves of both upper limbs. Histological examination revealed sensory nerve demyelination and focal thickenings of myelin fibers. The diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy was confirmed by PMP22 deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. He started motor rehabilitation and avoidance of stressing factors with progressive recovery. After one-year followup, he was completely asymptomatic. Recurrent bilateral foot drop history, "sausage-like" swellings of myelin in histological examination, and the results of electromyography led the authors to consider the diagnosis despite negative family history. The authors highlight this rare disease in pediatric population and the importance of high index of clinical suspicion for its diagnosis.

  19. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  20. Minimally invasive surgery of diabetic foot - review of current techniques.

    PubMed

    I, Botezatu; D, Laptoiu

    2016-01-01

    The term diabetic foot is usually used to indicate advanced foot pathology (complex clinical situations correlating diabetic foot ulcers, diabetic foot infections, Charcot foot, and critical limb ischemia). The early recognition of the etiology of these foot lesions is essential for the therapeutic decision in order to achieve a good functional result. Several surgical procedures involving the foot have been developed in order to promote healing and avoid complications. Traditionally, surgery has been performed in an open way. The literature regarding the performance and efficacy of classical osteotomies and arthrodesis is inconsistent. This can be attributed to several variables, such as differences in patient clinical aspects and the panel of surgical techniques utilized. As with other surgical specialties, fluoroscopic imaging and minimally invasive tools are now being incorporated in these procedures. The use of high speed burrs associated with specialized osteosynthesis implants, offers several advantages over classical techniques. The ability to associate these gestures to complex protocols is beginning to be currently developed. The respect for the soft tissues is considered one of the first advantages. Despite the limited time since they were introduced in clinical practice, functional results seemed to be consistent, supporting the use of this technology.

  1. The influence of body mass on foot dimensions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chiu, Hsin-Tzu; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a time-series approach was used to measure women's feet to accurately analyze changes in foot size and body mass during pregnancy. One-hundred women who were pregnant for the first time were asked to respond to questions on subjective complaints of foot discomfort listed in a questionnaire. Among these 100 women, a sample of 30 was obtained and used to measure the women's feet from the twentieth week of the gestation period until labor. The data (from 5 of the 30 women) were used to establish a prediction model for the influence of body mass on changes in foot size during pregnancy. The results indicate that the women subjectively complained that their shoes were too tight, resulting in foot discomfort. From the twentieth to the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy, the average increase in foot length, width, and back foot surface was 0.86 cm (3.6%), 0.25 cm (2.6%), and 18.36 cm(2) (11.9%), respectively. The height of the arch decreased by an average of 0.52 cm (-24.2%). Body mass accounted for more than 90% of the variation (R(2)) in foot dimensions during pregnancy and, thus indicated satisfactory predictive ability. The prediction model developed in this study can serve as a reference for clinical applications and shoe design to prevent women from experiencing extreme discomfort in their feet during pregnancy.

  2. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yang; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Zhiyong; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4years, 66±7.1kg & 1.68±0.13m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8years, 55±4.7kg & 1.6±0.11m) (Indians) and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6years, 66±8.2kg & 1.72±0.18m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5years, 54±5.6kg & 1.62±0.15m)(Chinese) participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system) to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians) for foot length (female p = 0.001), width (female p = 0.001), hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001) and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001) from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes. PMID:26148059

  3. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control.

    PubMed

    Wright, W G; Ivanenko, Y P; Gurfinkel, V S

    2012-03-01

    Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity.

  4. Ostectomy and Medial Plantar Artery Flap Reconstruction for Charcot Foot Ulceration Involving the Midfoot.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Charcot foot is a serious complication of diabetes, characterized by deformity and overlying ulceration. The condition most commonly affects the midfoot. However, little information is available on the use of a medial plantar artery flap to treat diabetic midfoot ulceration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the versatility of ostectomy and medial plantar flap reconstruction for midfoot plantar ulceration associated with rocker-bottom deformity secondary to Charcot foot. Four patients underwent ostectomy and medial plantar flap reconstruction. Before flap reconstruction, the devitalized soft tissues and bone were radically resected. After the infection had been controlled, the ulcerated portion was minimally excised, and the bony prominence underlying the ulcer was removed. A medial plantar artery flap was applied to the ulcer. The donor site was covered with a split-thickness skin graft or artificial dermis. In all patients, the ulcers healed and independent ambulation was achieved. However, 1 patient experienced ulcer recurrence, and subsequent infection necessitated a major amputation. Limb salvage is challenging in the setting of deformity and intractable plantar ulceration. The advantages of medial plantar artery flap reconstruction are that tissues with a rich blood supply are used to cover the exposed bone, and the flap can withstand the pressure and shear stress of the patient's body weight. However, a dominant artery in the foot is sacrificed. Therefore, the patency of the dorsalis pedis artery must be confirmed in every patient. The results of the present study have demonstrated that a medial plantar artery can be an effective alternative for diabetic patients with a plantar ulcer secondary to Charcot foot.

  5. Perspectives for clinical measures of dynamic foot function-reference data and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, M S; Nielsen, R G; Simonsen, O; Olesen, C G; Kersting, U G

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have investigated if static posture assessments qualify to predict dynamic function of the foot showing diverse outcomes. However, it was suggested that dynamic measures may be better suited to predict foot-related overuse problems. The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability for dynamic measures of longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and navicular height (NH) and to examine to what extent static and dynamic measures thereof are related. Intra-rater reliability of LAA and NH measures was tested on a sample of 17 control subjects. Subsequently, 79 subjects were tested while walking on a treadmill. The ranges and minimum values for LAA and NH during ground contact were identified over 20 consecutive steps. A geometric error model was used to simulate effects of marker placement uncertainty and skin movement artifacts. Results demonstrated the highest reliability for the minimum NH (MinNH), followed by the minimum LAA (MinLAA), the dynamic range of navicular height (DeltaNH) and the range of LAA (DeltaLAA) while all measures were highly reliable. Marker location uncertainty and skin movement artifacts had the smallest effects on measures of NH. The use of an alignment device for marker placement was shown to reduce error ranges for NH measures. Therefore, DeltaNH and MinNH were recommended for functional dynamic foot characterization in the sagittal plane. There is potential for such measures to be a suitable predictor for overuse injuries while being obtainable in clinical settings. Future research needs to include such dynamic but simple foot assessments in large-scale clinical studies.

  6. Spinal dysraphism and cavovarus foot deformity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hains, François; Dzus, Ann K; Cassidy, J David

    1992-01-01

    Neurological impairment secondary to spinal dysraphism most commonly presents as unilateral cavovarus foot in children. The deformity usually develops in the growing child around the age of five or six. The presence of a cavovarus foot of unknown origin in a child should lead to a complete neurological examination, including an assessment of the spine for spinal dysraphism. The early recognition of pathology may prevent severe neurological sequelae. A case of lipomyelomeningocele is presented to illustrate that cord damage in children with spinal dysraphism can present initially as a cavovarus foot. ImagesFigure 1 (a, b and c)Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  7. Update in diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andy O; Henry, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Foot infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetics. Evaluation of diabetic foot infections often requires clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and microbiologic assessment. Osteomyelitis has a profound impact on the prognosis and management of these infections, and diagnosis can be difficult; the gold standard remains bone biopsy. Despite a panoply of studies, the optimal management of diabetic foot infections remains poorly understood. Antibiotics, surgery, rehabilitation and/or off-loading, and glycemic control remain the cornerstones of treatment; alternative therapies remain largely unproven.

  8. Diabetic charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    One of the most devastating foot and/or ankle complications in the diabetic population with peripheral neuropathy is the presence of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN). In recent years, diabetic limb salvage has been attempted more frequently as opposed to major lower extremity amputation for CN of the foot and ankle with ulceration and/or deep infection. Treatment strategies for osteomyelitis in the diabetic population have evolved. This article reviews some of the most common surgical strategies recommended for the diabetic patient with CN of the foot and/or ankle and concomitant osteomyelitis.

  9. The diagnosis of flat foot in the child.

    PubMed

    Rose, G K; Welton, E A; Marshall, T

    1985-01-01

    The term flat foot is surrounded by confusion and there is little to help the clinician to identify cases which require treatment and to avoid treating many children unnecessarily. Research for 25 years has been aimed at elucidating this problem by identifying and evaluating a series of signs and tests. These tests allow the recognition of the abnormal foot as early as possible, when efficient treatment is likely to be most effective. The results indicate that evaluation of the flat foot should be based on a combination of signs, with most emphasis on the result of the great toe extension test.

  10. Clinical characteristics of foot ulceration in people with chronic gout.

    PubMed

    Rome, Keith; Erikson, Kathryn; Otene, Cynthia; Sahid, Hazra; Sangster, Karyn; Gow, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and it has an affliction to the foot. Foot involvement in gout has been linked to foot pain, impairment and disability. There has been limited research on the effect of ulceration on foot pain, impairment, disability and health-related quality of life in patients already living with gout. The aim of the study was to describe the wound characteristics and the effect on foot pain, disability and health-related quality of life in patients with foot ulceration associated with gout. Participants were recruited from rheumatology clinics in Auckland, New Zealand. All the current foot ulceration sites and wound characteristics were recorded using the TIME wound assessment tool. The outcome measures included general pain, patient global assessment scale, foot pain, disability and impairment. Participants completed the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule to assess the effect of ulcers on health-related quality of life. Sensory loss, vibrational thresholds and ankle brachial pressure index were collated to assess for lower limb arterial disease. Six participants were predominantly older men with a long duration of gout, high rates of obesity and co-morbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The mean (SD) duration of the foot ulcers was 4 (2) months. The majority of foot ulcers observed were 0·5 cm(2) or smaller superficial thickness with surrounding callus. Partial thickness and full-thickness ulcers were also observed. Two patients presented with ulcers on multiple sites. There was only one case of infection. Gouty tophi were evident in most of the wounds. The dorsal aspect of the third toe was found to ulcerate in most cases. Moderate scores of foot pain, disability, impairment and health-related quality of life were observed. Most participants wore shoes deemed as poor. Foot ulceration in gout is chronic and multiple ulcers can occur with the potential of leading to delayed

  11. Adaptive control of a variable-impedance ankle-foot orthosis to assist drop-foot gait.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Herr, Hugh

    2004-03-01

    An active ankle-foot orthoses (AAFO) is presented where the impedance of the orthotic joint is modulated throughout the walking cycle to treat drop-foot gait. During controlled plantar flexion, a biomimetic torsional spring control is applied where orthotic joint stiffness is actively adjusted to minimize forefoot collisions with the ground. Throughout late stance, joint impedance is minimized so as not to impede powered plantar flexion movements, and during the swing phase, a torsional spring-damper control lifts the foot to provide toe clearance. To assess the clinical effects of variable-impedance control, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on two drop-foot participants wearing the AAFO. For each participant, zero, constant, and variable impedance control strategies were evaluated and the results were compared to the mechanics of three age, weight, and height matched normals. We find that actively adjusting joint impedance reduces the occurrence of slap foot allows greater powered plantar flexion and provides for less kinematic difference during swing when compared to normals. These results indicate that a variable-impedance orthosis may have certain clinical benefits for the treatment of drop-foot gait compared to conventional ankle-foot orthoses having zero or constant stiffness joint behaviors.

  12. Impaired Foot Plantar Flexor Muscle Performance in Individuals With Plantar Heel Pain and Association With Foot Orthosis Use.

    PubMed

    McClinton, Shane; Collazo, Christopher; Vincent, Ebonie; Vardaxis, Vassilios

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Plantar heel pain is one of the most common foot and ankle conditions seen in clinical practice, and many individuals continue to have persisting or recurrent pain after treatment. Impaired foot plantar flexor muscle performance is a factor that may contribute to limited treatment success, but reliable methods to identify impairments in individuals with plantar heel pain are needed. In addition, foot orthoses are commonly used to treat this condition, but the implications of orthosis use on muscle performance have not been assessed. Objectives To assess ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance in individuals with plantar heel pain using clinically feasible measures and to examine the relationship between muscle performance and duration of foot orthosis use. Methods The rocker-board plantar flexion test (RBPFT) and modified paper grip test for the great toe (mPGTGT) and lesser toes (mPGTLT) were used to assess foot plantar flexor muscle performance in 27 individuals with plantar heel pain and compared to 27 individuals without foot pain who were matched according to age, sex, and body mass. Pain ratings were obtained before and during testing, and self-reported duration of foot orthosis use was recorded. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with plantar heel pain demonstrated lower performance on the RBPFT (P = .001), the mPGTGT (P = .022), and the mPGTLT (P = .037). Longer duration of foot orthosis use was moderately correlated to lower performance on the RBPFT (r = -0.52, P = .02), the mPGTGT (r = -0.54, P = .01), and the mPGTLT (r = -0.43, P = .03). Conclusion Ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance was impaired in individuals with plantar heel pain and associated with longer duration of self-reported foot orthosis use. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):681-688. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6482.

  13. Functional Foot Symmetry and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Physical Performance in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, J.L.; Hagedorn, TJ; Dufour, AB; Hannan, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies use gait symmetry as a marker of healthy gait, the evidence that gait symmetry exists is limited. Because gait symmetry is thought to arise through laterality (i.e., limb preference) and affects gait retraining efforts, it is important to understand if symmetry exists during gait in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate foot and gait symmetry in the population-based Framingham Foot Study as well as to determine the effects of vertical force symmetry on physical performance measures. Methods Members of the Framingham Foot Study were included in this analysis (N=1333). Foot function and force data were collected using the Tekscan Matscan during self-selected gait, with symmetry evaluated using the symmetry index. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) measures of balance, chair stands and gait speed assessed lower extremity physical function. Participants were evaluated using quartiles of gait speed and foot symmetry to determine the effects of symmetry on lower extremity physical function. Results Individuals with faster gait speed displayed greater foot function asymmetry; individuals with −3.0% to −9.5% asymmetry in foot function performed better on the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Further, with aging, the degree of asymmetry was reduced. Conclusions While this research suggests that a moderate degree of foot asymmetry is associated with better lower extremity function, the causes of vertical force asymmetry are unknown. Future studies should evaluate the causes of foot asymmetry and should track the changes in symmetry that occur with aging. PMID:22560642

  14. A Comparison of Two Injection Locations in Obese Patients Having Lower Leg/Foot Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/ or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot

  15. 8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER (WHITE ROOM). WHITE ROOM MADE CONNECTION WITH CAPSULE ON LAUNCH VEHICLE. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  16. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  17. 23. 100 foot through truss looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. 100 foot through truss - looking west from the downstream side, view of a single through truss showing its general arrangement on extended column piers. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  18. 34. 100 foot through truss looking north from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. 100 foot through truss - looking north from the deck up to an internal top strut, showing the general configuration. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  19. 38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  20. 9. 64 foot pony truss south west bearing abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 64 foot pony truss - south west bearing abutment of the first pony, truss, showing the sheet piling and the added 'I' beam support. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  1. 12. 80 foot pony truss looking east from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 80 foot pony truss - looking east from the upstream side, view of a single pony truss showing its general arrangement on replacement piers, circa 1966. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  2. The lives of Mary Foote: painter and Jungian.

    PubMed

    Trousdell, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Mary Foote (1872-1968) was a successful early twentieth century American artist who suddenly closed her New York studio in 1926 to go to Zurich to study with Jung. There she joined his 'Interpretation of Visions' seminars (1930-1934), which she recorded and edited. This work won Jung's praise and his friendship, but all too often Foote was seen merely as a secretary or background figure. Deirdre Bair's biography of Jung suggested that Foote's life and work deserved fuller study, if only to rebalance our view of Jung's early women followers. This paper takes up that work to ask how Foote's early life and career led to her important work in preserving and describing Jung's earliest attempts to apply his theories to clinical practice.

  3. Current challenges in imaging of the diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Sanverdi, S. Eser; Ergen, F. Bilge; Oznur, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Although a variety of diagnostic imaging modalities are available for the evaluation of diabetes-related foot complications, the distinction between neuroarthropathy and osteomyelitis is still challenging. The early and accurate diagnosis of diabetic foot complications can help reduce the incidence of infection-related morbidities, the need for and duration of hospitalization, and the incidence of major limb amputation. Conventional radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography are the main procedures currently in use for the evaluation of diabetes-related foot complications. However, each of these modalities does not provide enough information alone and a multimodal approach should be used for an accurate diagnosis. The present study is a review of the current concepts in imaging of diabetes-related foot complications and an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. PMID:23050068

  4. 9. VIEW OF BASEMENT, NORTH SECTION, SHOWING TYPICAL PIER, FOOTINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BASEMENT, NORTH SECTION, SHOWING TYPICAL PIER, FOOTINGS, AND STRUCTURAL MEMBERS FOR FIRST FLOOR ABOVE, LOOKING WEST - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  6. 13. GROOVED FOOTING (CONSTRUCTION KEY) EXTENDING ABOVE CEMENT FLOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GROOVED FOOTING (CONSTRUCTION KEY) EXTENDING ABOVE CEMENT FLOOR IN FIRST UNLINED SECTION BEYOND SOUTH PORTAL. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. Ascending infection of foot tendons in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mismar, Ayman; Yousef, Mohammad; Badran, Darwish; Younes, Nidal

    2013-12-01

    Bone and soft tissue infection in the foot of diabetic patients is a well-described issue in the literature. A sound anatomical knowledge of the foot anatomy and compartments is mandatory to understand the mechanisms of infection spread. We describe four cases of diabetic foot infection complicated by long ascending infection. All did not respond initially to antibiotic treatment and the usual surgical debridement and were cured only after excision of the infected tendons. We highlight a rare but serious complication of the diabetic foot disease not commonly seen by the surgical community. We hope that this report raises the awareness of this condition so that a prompt diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started, thereby reducing the risk of major lower limb amputations.

  8. The relationship between knee arthroplasty and foot loading.

    PubMed

    Voronov, Michael L; Pinzur, Michael S; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Gil, Joseph A; Hopkinson, William J

    2012-02-01

    Surgeons have questioned whether foot deformity applies abnormal loading on a knee implant. A total of 24 patients with mild knee deformity underwent a static recording of foot loading prior to and at 3 months following knee replacement. Of these patients, 13 had a preoperative varus deformity. The recorded postoperative to preoperative loading in all 6 geographic sites was decreased by an average of 10%. The largest changes were observed in the hallux and lesser toe masks, whereas the postoperative to preoperative foot pressure ratio in the metatarsal head (lateral and medial), heel, and midfoot masks was 0.94. This preliminary investigation reveals a minimal change in geographic foot loading following total knee arthroplasty in patients with mild knee deformity.

  9. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  10. 38. DETAIL OF TIMBER, STONE, AND CONCRETE FOOTINGS FOR APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF TIMBER, STONE, AND CONCRETE FOOTINGS FOR APRON SUSPENSION STRUCTURE AT BRIDGE NO. 11. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  12. Ultrasound of ankle and foot: overuse and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Viviane; Guillin, Raphaël; Dhanju, Jag; Cardinal, Etienne

    2007-06-01

    Sports and overuse injuries of the ankle and foot are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ultrasound (US) has been established as an excellent diagnostic modality for foot and ankle injuries, providing a rapid noninvasive, economical, and readily available tool that is well tolerated by the patient with acute or chronic pain. The opportunity for dynamic examination is another advantage of US in evaluating ankle and foot pathology, where maneuvers such as muscle contraction and stressing of the joint may be particularly helpful. In many cases, US can be used as a first-line and only imaging modality for diagnosis. This article focuses on ankle disorders related to sports or overuse that affect tendons, including tendinosis, tenosynovitis, paratendinitis, rupture, dislocation, and ligaments that are commonly torn. The sonographic features of certain common foot disorders related to physical activity and overuse are also discussed, including plantar fasciitis, Morton's neuroma, stress fractures, and plantar plate injury.

  13. 33. Steampowered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Steam-powered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, with south abutment visible at right; view to south. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  14. 14. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of 70 foot boom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of 70 foot boom crane that unloaded the sugar cane. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  15. 50. FOOT OF WEST STAIRS & CLOCK OVER DOORWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. FOOT OF WEST STAIRS & CLOCK OVER DOORWAY FROM NORTH VESTIBULE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Human Behavior Recognition Using Foot Pressure Sensing Shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Chika; Ozaki, Kenji; Ezoe, Ryosuke; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Yamato, Hiroyuki

    To recognize human behavior in unlimited environments, sensing shoes for measuring foot pressure distribution were developed. Seven pressure sensors were installed on an insole, and a measurement module was embedded in the shoe. An analysis for discriminating the user's movements from the foot pressure distribution was examined, considering the movements, walking, running, standing, sitting, going upstairs and downstairs, and cycling. These seven actions were discriminated using feature quantities such as the average, standard deviation, maximum, and difference deviation extracted from the data of three sensors by discriminant analysis. The evaluation results showed highly accurate behavior recognition based on foot pressure at some points. In addition, by canonical discriminant analysis, six discriminant functions which classify the seven actions with an accuracy of 100% were derived by using feature quantities extracted from five sensors. The results confirmed that discriminant analysis can be used for automatically recognizing human behaviors based on foot pressure data.

  17. Flood damaged foot bridge at Tamarack Creek on alignment of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Flood damaged foot bridge at Tamarack Creek on alignment of Old Big Oak Flat Road. Looking northeast - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. 28. VIEW OF OCTAGONAL SPREAD FOOTING AND HOLDDOWN RODS 1929, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF OCTAGONAL SPREAD FOOTING AND HOLD-DOWN RODS 1929, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  19. Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing Section & Elevation, South Tower Section & Elevation, and North Tower Sections & Elevation - Cape Arago Light Station Footbridge, Gregory Point, Charleston, Coos County, OR

  20. 3. DETAIL OF WOODSTAVE PIPE (Tenths of a foot scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WOODSTAVE PIPE (Tenths of a foot scale in photograph) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  1. A technique for evaluating black-footed ferret habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, Dean E.; Miller, Brian J.; Hanebury, Louis R.; Oakleaf, Bob; Farmer, Adrian H.; Crete, Ron; Dood, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a model and step-by-step procedures for rating a prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) complex for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). An important factor in the model is an estimate of the number of black-footed ferret families a prairie dog complex can support for a year; thus, the procedures prescribe how to estimate the size of a prairie dog complex and the density of prairie dogs. Other attributes of the model are qualitative: arrangement of colonies, potential for plague and canine distemper, potential for prairie dog expansion, abundance of predators, future resource conflicts and ownership stability, and public and landowner attitudes about prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. Because of the qualitative attributes in the model, a team approach is recommended for ranking complexes of prairie dogs for black-footed ferret reintroduction.

  2. Corner footing and structural connections of southwest tower leg, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corner footing and structural connections of southwest tower leg, looking southwest. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. Bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis as a novel drug against diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Dhas, Berlina; Hena, Vimalin; Raj, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Methods Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey's manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. Results The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99% related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Conclusions Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens. PMID:24093784

  4. Diabetic foot infections: stepwise medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David G; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2004-06-01

    Foot complications are common among diabetic patients; foot ulcers are among the more serious consequences. These ulcers frequently become infected, with potentially disastrous progression to deeper spaces and tissues. If not treated promptly and appropriately, diabetic foot infections can become incurable or even lead to septic gangrene, which may require foot amputation. Diagnosing infection in a diabetic foot ulcer is based on clinical signs and symptoms of inflammation. Properly culturing an infected lesion can disclose the pathogens and provide their antibiotic susceptibilities. Specimens for culture should be obtained after wound debridement to avoid contamination and optimise identification of pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolate in these infections; the increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus over the past two decades has further complicated antibiotic treatment. While chronic infections are often polymicrobial, many acute infections in patients not previously treated with antibiotics are caused by a single pathogen, usually a gram-positive coccus. We offer a stepwise approach to treating diabetic foot infections. Most patients must first be medically stabilised and any metabolic aberrations should be addressed. Antibiotic therapy is not required for uninfected wounds but should be carefully selected for all infected lesions. Initial therapy is usually empirical but may be modified according to the culture and sensitivity results and the patient's clinical response. Surgical intervention is usually required in cases of retained purulence or advancing infection despite optimal medical therapy. Possible additional indications for surgical procedures include incision and drainage of an abscess, debridement of necrotic material, removal of any foreign bodies, arterial revascularisation and, when needed, amputation. Most foot ulcers occur on the plantar surface of the foot, thus requiring a plantar incision for any drainage

  5. Diabetic foot disease is associated with reduced erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Avivit; Livshits, Leonid; Srulevich, Ariel; Raz, Itamar; Yedgar, Shaul; Barshtein, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic foot disease is multifactorial and encompasses microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Abnormal blood rheology may also play a part in its development. Using a cell flow analyser (CFA), we examined the association between erythrocyte deformability and diabetic foot disease. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients with no known microvascular complications (n = 11) and patients suffering from a diabetic foot ulcer (n = 11) were isolated and their average elongation ratio (ER) as well as the ER distribution curve were measured. Average ER was decreased in the diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with diabetes and no complications (1·64 ± 0·07 versus 1·71 ± 0·1; P = 0·036). A significant rise in the percentage of minimally deformable red blood cells RBCs in diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with no complications was observed (37·89% ± 8·12% versus 30·61% ± 10·17%; P = 0·039) accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of highly deformable RBCs (12·47% ± 4·43% versus 17·49% ± 8·17% P = 0·046). Reduced erythrocyte deformability may slow capillary flow in the microvasculature and prolong wound healing in diabetic foot patients. Conversely, it may be the low-grade inflammatory state imposed by diabetic foot disease that reduces erythrocyte deformability. Further study of the rheological changes associated with diabetic foot disease may enhance our understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the study of novel therapeutic approaches.

  6. Ultrasound-guided intervention in the ankle and foot

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Gina M; Watura, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we discuss the main interventions performed in the foot and ankle for Achilles tendinopathy, Morton's neuromas and Plantar fasciitis as well as techniques for intra-articular and peritendinous injections. We present the different imaging techniques and injectable agents that can be used in clinical practice, trying to help the reader decide the most appropriate way of managing the patient with a problem in the ankle and foot. PMID:26537692

  7. 16. Pony trusses pier between the 64 foot truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Pony trusses - pier between the 64 foot truss and the first 80 foot truss. View of the lower chord pin connection at the juncture of the two pony trusses as they sit on the replacement pier added, circa 1966. Shows the floor beam, chord eye bars. There are 10 of these similar connections for the six pony trusses. A 1 1/2 conduit is also shown. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  8. Metatarsal Shape and Foot Type: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Scott; Kindig, Matthew W; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Ledoux, William R

    2017-03-01

    Planus and cavus foot types have been associated with an increased risk of pain and disability. Improving our understanding of the geometric differences between bones in different foot types may provide insights into injury risk profiles and have implications for the design of musculoskeletal and finite-element models. In this study, we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on the geometry of metatarsal bones from 65 feet, segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans. These were categorized into four foot types: pes cavus, neutrally aligned, asymptomatic pes planus, and symptomatic pes planus. Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) followed by permutation tests was used to determine significant shape differences associated with foot type and sex, and principal component analysis was used to find the modes of variation for each metatarsal. Significant shape differences were found between foot types for all the metatarsals (p < 0.01), most notably in the case of the second metatarsal which showed significant pairwise differences across all the foot types. Analysis of the principal components of variation showed pes cavus bones to have reduced cross-sectional areas in the sagittal and frontal planes. The first (p = 0.02) and fourth metatarsals (p = 0.003) were found to have significant sex-based differences, with first metatarsals from females shown to have reduced width, and fourth metatarsals from females shown to have reduced frontal and sagittal plane cross-sectional areas. Overall, these findings suggest that metatarsal bones have distinct morphological characteristics that are associated with foot type and sex, with implications for our understanding of anatomy and numerical modeling of the foot.

  9. Cutaneous microvascular flow in the foot during simulated variable gravities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. S.; Breit, G. A.; Styf, J. R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Our objective was to understand how weight bearing with varying gravitational fields affects blood perfusion in the sole of the foot. Human subjects underwent whole body tilting at four angles: upright [1 gravitational vector from head to foot (Gz)], 22 degrees (0.38 Gz), 10 degrees (0.17 Gz), and supine (0 Gz), simulating the gravitational fields of Earth, Mars, Moon, and microgravity, respectively. Cutaneous capillary blood flow was monitored on the plantar surface of the heel by laser Doppler flowmetry while weight-bearing load was measured. At each tilt angle, subjects increased weight bearing on one foot in graded load increments of 1 kg beginning with zero. The weight bearing at which null flow first occurred was determined as the closing load. Subsequently, the weight bearing was reduced in reverse steps until blood flow returned (opening load). Mean closing loads for simulated Earth gravity, Mars gravity, Moon gravity, and microgravity were 9.1, 4.6, 4.4, and 3.6 kg, respectively. Mean opening loads were 7.9, 4.1, 3.5, and 3.1 kg, respectively. Mean arterial pressures in the foot (MAP(foot)) calculated for each simulated gravitational field were 192, 127, 106, and 87 mmHg, respectively. Closing load and opening load were significantly correlated with MAP(foot) (r =0.70, 0.72, respectively) and were significantly different (P < 0.001) from each other. The data suggest that decreased local arterial pressure in the foot lowers tolerance to external compression. Consequently, the human foot sole may be more prone to cutaneous ischemia during load bearing in microgravity than on Earth.

  10. Diabetic foot complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Trombetta, Maddalena; Imbriaco, Chiara; Rigolon, Riccardo; Mingolla, Lucia; Zamboni, Federica; Dal Molin, Francesca; Cioccoloni, Dario; Sanga, Viola; Bruti, Massimiliano; Brocco, Enrico; Conti, Michela; Ravenna, Giorgio; Perrone, Fabrizia; Stoico, Vincenzo; Bonora, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vertebral osteomyelitis (or spondylodiscitis) is steadily increasing in Western countries and often results from hematogenous seeding, direct inoculation during spinal surgery, or contiguous spread from an infection in the adjacent soft tissue. We present the case of a 67-year-old white patient with type 2 diabetes who went to Hospital for high fever, back pain, and worsening of known infected ulcers in the left foot. Despite intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical debridement of the foot infection, high fever and lower back pain continued. Bone biopsy and two consecutive blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, revealing serious osteomyelitis in L4 and L5 complicated by an epidural abscess. Contiguous or other distant focuses of infection were not identified. In this case, diabetic foot could be considered as a primary distant focus for vertebral osteomyelitis. Clinicians should consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a ‘possible’ diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by foot infection that is associated with fever and lower back pain. Learning points Vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing in Western countries, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary focus of infection is the genitourinary tract followed by skin, soft tissue, endocarditis, bursitis, septic arthritis, and intravascular access. Diabetic foot could be a rare primary focus of infection for vertebral osteomyelitis, and, however, vertebral osteomyelitis could be a serious, albeit rare, complication of diabetic foot. Clinicians should keep in mind the many potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a “possible” diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers associated with nonspecific symptoms such as lower back pain. Early diagnosis and correct management of vertebral osteomyelitis are crucial to improve clinical outcomes

  11. Construction of Foundation for 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Completed foundation for the outer housing for the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000.

  12. 3. View locking east of 591 foot steel arch of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View locking east of 591 foot steel arch of bridge. Arch consists of Pratt trusses divided into twenty-four, 24 foot, 7 inch panels. It was fabricated by the King Iron Bridge Company of Cleveland whose circular plaque can be seen where the arch meets the roadway. The steel arch was erected by the Berro construction Co. of Chicago. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Soft tissue infections and the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; Daniels, T; Bohnen, J M

    1996-12-01

    Soft tissue infections are classified as local or spreading. Spreading soft tissue infections are potentially life-threatening conditions, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. The information presented is based on a literature review and the authors' clinical experience. Diagnosis of soft tissue infections is aimed at determining the level of infection (skin, fascia, muscle) and whether necrosis is present. The bacteriology of these infections is varied and is of secondary importance. Treatment of skin infections that have no dead tissue is with antibiotics alone. Infections at the fascial or muscle level and those with necrosis at any level require surgical debridement and adjuvant antibiotics. The feet of diabetic patients are prone to plantar forefoot ulcers associated with tissue destruction and infection. The vast majority are caused by mechanical factors. If local immune defenses are adequate, bacterial colonization occurs without infection. Most diabetic foot ulcers will respond to relief of pressure, which may require total contact casting. Antibiotics and debridement are required in infected or deep ulcers, or when the ulcer does not respond to total contact casting.

  14. The surgical conservation of the neuropathic foot.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    Basic surgical principles applied when caring for neuropathic limbs can result in the maintenance or restoration of a useful ulcer-free limb. It is possible to help many patients with neuropathy to become ulcer-free and to remain ulcer-free and mobile, with surgical procedures. Recommended methods of management are briefly outlined. These include the débridement of the osteomyelitic, metatarsal head in order to save the adjacent toe, removal of bony irregularities that predispose to ulceration, and the use of wedge osteotomies and arthrodeses to improve the functional shape of the affected foot. The emphasis is on the removal of high pressure points from the weight-bearing surface and to increase the total area available for weight-bearing. Adequate rest and protection are essential, and include the use of splints or total contact plaster casts in all cases of ulceration of weight-bearing surfaces. All patients with reduced sensory perception should learn daily self-examination and care to reduce the chances of recurrent ulceration. Healing after surgical reconstruction will occur, and the healed tissues, if adequately cared for, will maintain their integrity for years. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 fig. 9 fig. 10 PMID:2549839

  15. Nociception at the diabetic foot, an uncharted territory

    PubMed Central

    Chantelau, Ernst A

    2015-01-01

    The diabetic foot is characterised by painless foot ulceration and/or arthropathy; it is a typical complication of painless diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy depletes the foot skin of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the afferent A-delta and C-fibres, which are mostly nociceptors and excitable by noxious stimuli only. However, some of them are cold or warm receptors whose functions in diabetic neuropathy have frequently been reported. Hence, it is well established by quantitative sensory testing that thermal detection thresholds at the foot skin increase during the course of painless diabetic neuropathy. Pain perception (nociception), by contrast, has rarely been studied. Recent pilot studies of pinprick pain at plantar digital skinfolds showed that the perception threshold was always above the upper limit of measurement of 512 mN (equivalent to 51.2 g) at the diabetic foot. However, deep pressure pain perception threshold at musculus abductor hallucis was beyond 1400 kPa (equivalent to 14 kg; limit of measurement) only in every fifth case. These discrepancies of pain perception between forefoot and hindfoot, and between skin and muscle, demand further study. Measuring nociception at the feet in diabetes opens promising clinical perspectives. A critical nociception threshold may be quantified (probably corresponding to a critical number of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings), beyond which the individual risk of a diabetic foot rises appreciably. Staging of diabetic neuropathy according to nociception thresholds at the feet is highly desirable as guidance to an individualised injury prevention strategy. PMID:25897350

  16. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels.

  17. Nociception at the diabetic foot, an uncharted territory.

    PubMed

    Chantelau, Ernst A

    2015-04-15

    The diabetic foot is characterised by painless foot ulceration and/or arthropathy; it is a typical complication of painless diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy depletes the foot skin of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the afferent A-delta and C-fibres, which are mostly nociceptors and excitable by noxious stimuli only. However, some of them are cold or warm receptors whose functions in diabetic neuropathy have frequently been reported. Hence, it is well established by quantitative sensory testing that thermal detection thresholds at the foot skin increase during the course of painless diabetic neuropathy. Pain perception (nociception), by contrast, has rarely been studied. Recent pilot studies of pinprick pain at plantar digital skinfolds showed that the perception threshold was always above the upper limit of measurement of 512 mN (equivalent to 51.2 g) at the diabetic foot. However, deep pressure pain perception threshold at musculus abductor hallucis was beyond 1400 kPa (equivalent to 14 kg; limit of measurement) only in every fifth case. These discrepancies of pain perception between forefoot and hindfoot, and between skin and muscle, demand further study. Measuring nociception at the feet in diabetes opens promising clinical perspectives. A critical nociception threshold may be quantified (probably corresponding to a critical number of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings), beyond which the individual risk of a diabetic foot rises appreciably. Staging of diabetic neuropathy according to nociception thresholds at the feet is highly desirable as guidance to an individualised injury prevention strategy.

  18. Near-wall aerodynamics of idealized model foot motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yoshi; Hall, Joseph; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Sheth, Ritesh; Glauser, Mark; Khalifa, Ezzat

    2006-11-01

    The air quality is affected by amounts and types of contaminant particles suspended in the air. The particulate matter reaches the respiratory system in an indoor environment by fist becoming detached, resupended and then entrained in the human micro-environment. The resuspension phenomena from the floor occur through either a ballistic mechanism, where kinetic energy is transferred to dust particles through direct contact, or an aerodynamic mechanism, where dust particles are resuspended by the flow generated by the body. In this study we focus on the aerodynamic resuspension of particles caused by walking. The foot motion is idealized and is either towards or away from a floor. A circular disk and an elongated plate having the equivalent area to that of a human foot are used. The foot motion is driven vertically by a linear servo motor that controls the velocity, acceleration, stroke and deceleration. The model velocity is based on the real foot motion. In addition to flow visualization, flowfield measurements were conducted with PIV. In the downstroke, results show a vortex impacting the wall creating the strong wall jet. In upstroke, the vortex generated behind the idealized foot exhibits the large magnitude of velocity. Experiment is continuing with a model more closely to simulating shoe geometry as well as incorporating the real foot kinetics. The results will be compared with the numerical simulation and analytical results.

  19. Contemporary Evaluation and Management of the Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2012-01-01

    Foot problems in patients with diabetes remain a major public health issue and are the commonest reason for hospitalization of patients with diabetes with prevalence as high as 25%. Ulcers are breaks in the dermal barrier with subsequent erosion of underlying subcutaneous tissue that may extend to muscle and bone, and superimposed infection is a frequent and costly complication. The pathophysiology of diabetic foot disease is multifactorial and includes neuropathy, infection, ischemia, and abnormal foot structure and biomechanics. Early recognition of the etiology of these foot lesions is essential for good functional outcome. Managing the diabetic foot is a complex clinical problem requiring a multidisciplinary collaboration of health care workers to achieve limb salvage. Adequate off-loading, frequent debridement, moist wound care, treatment of infection, and revascularization of ischemic limbs are the mainstays of therapy. Even when properly managed, some of the foot ulcers do not heal and are arrested in a state of chronic inflammation. These wounds can frequently benefit from various adjuvants, such as aggressive debridement, growth factors, bioactive skin equivalents, and negative pressure wound therapy. While these, increasingly expensive, therapies have shown promising results in clinical trials, the results have yet to be translated into widespread clinical practice leaving a huge scope for further research in this field. PMID:24278695

  20. A study of structural foot deformity in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Gwon Uk; Kweon, Mi Gyoug; Park, Seol; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural deformity of the foot joint on the affected side in hemiplegic patients to examine factors that affect this kind of structural deformity. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients and 32 normal adults participated. The foot posture index (FPI) was used to examine the shape of the foot, the modified Ashworth scale test was used to examine the degree of ankle joint rigidity, the navicular drop test was used to investigate the degree of navicular change, and the resting calcaneal stance position test was used to identify location change of the heel bone. [Results] The FPIs of the paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, the non-paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, and normal participants were −0.25 ± 2.1, 1.74 ± 2.3, and 2.12 ± 3.4 respectively. [Conclusion] Our findings indicated that in stroke-related hemiplegic patients, the more severe the spasticity, the more supinated the foot. Further, the smaller the degree of change in the navicular height of hemiplegic patients is, the more supinated the paretic side foot is. Additionally, a greater change in the location of the calcaneus was associated with greater supination of the overall foot. PMID:25642071

  1. Estimation of Human Foot Motion During Normal Walking Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensor Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    OF: A foot motion filtering algorithm is presented for estimating foot kinematics relative to an earth -fixed reference frame during normal walking...Title ABSTRACT A foot motion filtering algorithm is presented for estimating foot kinematics relative to an earth -fixed reference frame during...filtering algorithm is presented for es- timating foot kinematics relative to an earth -fixed reference frame during normal walking motion. Algorithm

  2. [Three-dimensional analysis of the foot following implantation of a HINTEGRA ankle prosthesis: evaluation with the Heidelberg foot model].

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Wolf, S; Döderlein, L

    2006-05-01

    Detailed foot kinematics after total ankle replacement has not yet been investigated. In this study 11 patients with unilateral Hintegra ankle prosthesis were analysed with the Heidelberg Foot Model. This model measures the kinematics of the fore-, mid- and hindfoot in three clinical planes. Moreover, the kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle was captured. A diminished ROM was found in all foot segments investigated. The timing of the kinematics between sound and involved side appeared similar. A limitation in the hindfoot mobility, as experienced after ankle arthrodesis, was not observed. However, a careful hindfoot alignment is essential for optimal foot function, and previous malalignments should be corrected. Concerning the kinetics, the replaced ankle showed a decreased power generation compensated by an increase in power in the ipsilateral knee. For a more detailed evaluation, further studies are required which include pre- and postoperative data and also take into account different types of prostheses.

  3. Board-foot and cubic-foot volume tables for Alaska-cedar in southeast Alaska. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    DeMars, D.J.

    1996-03-01

    Four tables give cubic-foot and board-foot volume estimates for Alaska-cedar given breast-height diameter outside bark (DBHOB) and either total tree height or number of logs to a 6-inch top. The values for DBHOB and total tree height (or number of logs in the tree) that are in the tables have been limited to the ranges these variables had in the sample data.

  4. Comparative morphology of the foot structure of four genera of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta): Implications for foot functions and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Iseto, Tohru; Hirose, Euichi

    2010-10-01

    Entoprocta is a group of mostly cryptic, benthic invertebrates with a sedentary lifestyle. Here, we investigate the morphology of the entoproct foot, which is an important structure in attachment and locomotion. We describe the foot structure of four solitary entoprocts, Loxosoma monilis, Loxosomella stomatophora, Loxocorone allax, and Loxomitra mizugamaensis, by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. Gland cells containing secretory granules were found in the foot of all the four species. In L. monilis, the gland cells densely paved the underside of the disc-shaped foot, but no duct or groove was found. In L. stomatophora and L. allax, a foot gland was present at the frontal end of a foot groove. The foot gland was a solid cell mass in the former species but a sac-like structure in the latter. Two types of groove accessory cells were recognized in both species; groove bulge cells (GBCs) showed large cytoplasmic bulges extending into the groove lumen, while groove microvillus cells have microvillus mats in the lateral wall of the groove. The bulges of GBCs in L. stomatophora are slender and attached to one another with desmosomes, forming appendages that extend down to the substratum, hinting at their contribution to attachment and locomotion. The bulges in L. allax form large swellings that fill the groove lumen and are connected to the surrounding cells with hemidesmosomes. In the liberated buds of L. mizugamaensis, tripartite gland cell masses were found at the basal end of the stalk, but no groove was found. A small invagination, which may be the opening of the gland, was found at the center of the foot tip, where the liberated buds attach themselves to the substratum and then metamorphose into adults. No openings were found at the lateral terminal wings, which support locomotion in Loxomitra species.

  5. Board-foot and cubic-foot volume tables for western redcedar in southeast Alaska. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    DeMars, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Four tables give cubic-foot and board-foot volume estimates for western redcedar given breast height diameter outside bark (DBHOB) and either total tree height or number of logs to a 6-inch top. The values for DBHOB and total tree height (or number of logs in the tree) that are in the tables have been limited to the ranges these variables had in the sample data.

  6. A comparative study of foot dimension between adult male and female and evaluation of foot hazards due to using of footwear.

    PubMed

    Manna, I; Pradhan, D; Ghosh, S; Kar, S K; Dhara, P

    2001-07-01

    Using footwear often becomes troublesome and creates many problems. Most of these problems are associated with the wearing of ill-fitting footwear, as it leads to biomechanical imbalance and ultimately give rise to different foot problems. In the present investigation different foot problems, viz., discomfort, pain and other hazards related to the use of footwear have been evaluated and attempts have been made to study different foot dimensions of men and women that are related to the design of footwear. For the present study different foot dimensions of both right and left feet of the subjects were measured on 300 Bengalee (Indian) subjects having the age range of 20-35 years. The subjects reported that they had got discomfort, pain, blister and corn due to using different footwear. It was noted that the occurrence of these problems in right foot was greater than that in left foot. There was no significant correlation between foot troubles and type of footwear. Results also showed that there was no significant difference in most of the foot dimensions between left foot and right foot. However, significant difference (P < 0.001) in all foot dimensions was observed between male and female subjects. Correlation coefficient among different foot dimensions has also been evaluated and it was noted that foot length was highly correlated with stature and foot volume, particularly in left foot. Footwear should be made according to the foot dimensions of the user population. The database collected from the Bengalee (Indian) population may be a helpful guide for manufacturing different footwear.

  7. Risk Factors for Foot Amputation in Patients Hospitalized for Diabetic Foot Infection.

    PubMed

    Quilici, Maria Teresa Verrone; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Vieira, Alexandre Eduardo Franzin; Toledo, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for amputation in diabetic patients hospitalized for foot infections. This cross-sectional study comprised 100 patients with diabetic infectious complications in the lower limbs. The variables investigated were related to diabetes, infection, and treatment compliance. Multiple Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the variables independently associated with the outcome of amputation. The most prevalent chronic complications were neuropathy and hypertension. Most patients presented with a neuroischemic foot (86%). The Morisky test showed that 72% were not compliant with diabetes treatment. Regarding patient outcome, 61% progressed to amputation, 14% to debridement, and 9% to revascularization. The results showed a 42% higher risk for progression to amputation in patients with previous use of antimicrobials. Also, the amputation risk was 26% higher for those less compliant with diabetes treatment. An increase of one point in the Wagner ulcer classification criteria corresponded to a 65% increase in the risk of amputation. Undergoing conservative, nonsurgical procedures prior to admission provided a 63% reduction in the risk of amputation. Knowledge of these factors is critical to enable multidisciplinary teams to develop treatment plans for these patients so as to prevent the need for amputation.

  8. Estimation of foot trajectory during human walking by a wearable inertial measurement unit mounted to the foot.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Naoki; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2016-03-01

    To establish a supportive technology for reducing the risk of falling in older people, it is essential to clarify gait characteristics in elderly individuals that are possibly linked to the risk of falling during actual daily activities. In this study, we developed a system to monitor human gait in an outdoor environment using an inertial measurement unit consisting of a tri-axial accelerometer and tri-axial gyroscope. Step-by-step foot trajectories were estimated from the sensor unit attached to the dorsum of the foot. Specifically, stride length and foot clearance were calculated by integrating the gravity-compensated translational acceleration over time during the swing phase. Zero vertical velocity and displacement corrections were applied to obtain the final trajectory, assuming the slope of the walking surface is negligible. Short, normal, and long stride-length walking of 10 healthy participants was simultaneously measured using the proposed system and a conventional motion capture system to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated foot trajectory. Mean accuracy and precision were approximately 20 ± 50 mm, for stride length, and 2 ± 7 mm for foot clearance, indicating that the swing phase trajectory of the sensor unit attached to the foot was reconstructed more accurately and precisely using the proposed system than with previously published methods owing to the flat floor assumption. Although some methodological limitations certainly apply, this system will serve as a useful tool to monitor human walking during daily activities.

  9. The reliability and validity of the Korean version of the foot function index for patients with foot complaints

    PubMed Central

    In, Tae-Sung; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Keunjo; Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Foot Function Index translated into Korean for use in patients with plantar fasciitis and foot/ankle fracture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects with foot complaints, 14 males and 22 females, participated in the study. Reliability was determined by using the intra-class correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. Validity was examined by correlating Foot Function Index scores with the Short Form-36 and the Visual Analog Scale scores. [Results] Test-retest reliability was 0.90 for the pain subscale, and 0.94 and 0.91 for the disability and activity limitation subscales, respectively. The criterion-related validity was established by comparison with the Korean version of the Short Form-36 and Visual Analog Scale. [Conclusion] The Korean version of the Foot Function Index was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing foot complaints. PMID:28210038

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...

  11. Persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle: tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 st...

  12. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a natural killer (NK) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. Wayne; Gill, Richard; Valiulis, Aurelia O.; Lou, Wendy; Sosiak, Ted S.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore physicians’ knowledge of and attitudes toward hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in order to better understand current diabetic foot ulcer management practices and to determine potential barriers to HBOT use. DESIGN A 24-item questionnaire. SETTING Primary Care Today conference in Toronto, Ont, in May of 2006. PARTICIPANTS Physician attendees, 313 of whom completed the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported knowledge of and attitudes toward HBOT. RESULTS Less than 10% of respondents had a good knowledge of HBOT, but 57% had a good attitude toward HBOT. Knowledge of and attitude toward HBOT were positively correlated (P < .0001). Good knowledge of HBOT was associated with sex (P = .0334), age younger than 40 years (P = .0803), years in medical practice (P = .0646), patient requests for HBOT referrals (P = .0127), and having previously referred patients for HBOT (P < .001). Twenty years or more in medical practice (P = .0593) and receiving patient requests for HBOT (P = .0394) were multivariate predictors of having good knowledge of HBOT. Good attitude toward HBOT was associated with age younger than 40 years (P = .0613) and having previously referred patients for HBOT (P = .0013). Multivariate analysis showed that male physicians (P = .0026) received more patient requests for HBOT (P < .0001), had good knowledge (P = .0129) and a good attitude (P = .0488), and were more likely to refer patients for HBOT. CONCLUSION Primary care physicians have underdeveloped knowledge of HBOT, but their generally positive attitudes toward its use suggest that they might be receptive to educational interventions. Educating both physicians and patients about HBOT, specifically its cost-effectiveness, might encourage future use. PMID:20463275

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF FOOT POSITION ON BODY DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Lebiedowska, Maria K.; Wente, Todd M.; Dufour, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    During locomotion, the human body exhibits inherent dynamic properties such as mass (M), stiffness (K) and damping (B). During the gait cycle, foot contact with the ground progresses from the heel to the toe. Contact forces between the foot and ground are defined as ground reaction forces (GRF). It is unclear how body dynamics are affected by foot landing position. If the shape of GRF is indicative of body dynamics, our understanding of gait patterns in normal and pathologic conditions may improve. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether foot landing position affects the inherent dynamics of the human body and (2) the extent to which the GRF curve reflects the response of inherent body dynamics to sudden loading. Eight non-disabled control volunteers performed a series of small jumps and landed on one leg with a fully-extended knee in three foot landing positions: heel, mid-foot, and toe. They then walked at self-paced velocity over force plates. For each foot landing position, values of K, B and the dimensionless damping coefficient, ξ, were calculated from the period of vertical body oscillations, T, and compared with an ANOVA test. In addition, the time between the two peaks of the vertical GRF, TGRF, was compared with T. We found that that K and B decreased and ξ did not change (p < 0.01) between heel to toe landing positions. TGRF was not different than T for the toe-landing position, which suggests that the dynamic body response has major impact on the shape of GRF. PMID:19249785

  15. Foot massage: effectiveness on postoperative pain in breast surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ucuzal, Meral; Kanan, Nevin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot massage on pain after breast surgery, and provide guidance for nurses in nonpharmacologic interventions for pain relief. This was a quasiexperimental study with a total of 70 patients who had undergone breast surgery (35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). Patients in the control group received only analgesic treatment, whereas those in the experimental group received foot massage in addition to analgesic treatment. Patients received the first dose of analgesics during surgery. As soon as patients came from the operating room, they were evaluated for pain severity. Patients whose pain severity scored ≥4 according to the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were accepted into the study. In the experimental group, pain and vital signs (arterial blood pressure, pulse, and respiration) were evaluated before foot massage at the time patients complained about pain (time 0) and then 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after foot massage. In the control group, pain and vital signs were also evaluated when the patients complained about pain (time 0) and again at 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, in sync with the times when foot massage was completed in the experimental group. A patient information form was used to collect descriptive characteristics data of the patients, and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to determine pain severity. Data were analyzed for frequencies, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, Student t, Pillai trace, and Bonferroni test. The results of the statistical analyses showed that patients in the experimental group experienced significantly less pain (p ≤ .001). Especially notable, patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in all vital signs 5 minutes after foot massage, but patients in the control group showed increases in vital signs except for heart rate at 5 minutes. The data obtained showed that foot massage in breast surgery patients was

  16. Measuring foot placement and clearance during stair descent.

    PubMed

    Muhaidat, Jennifer; Kerr, Andrew; Rafferty, Danny; Skelton, Dawn A; Evans, Jonathan J

    2011-03-01

    Falls during stair descent are a serious problem and can lead to accidental death. Inappropriate foot placement on, and clearance over, steps have been identified as causes for falls on stairs. This study investigated a new method for measuring placement and clearance during stair descent in 10 healthy young subjects. The effect of foot length was accounted for during the measurement of foot placement by calculating the percentage length of the foot overhanging the step. Foot clearance was measured as the resultant of the minimum vertical and horizontal distances from the heel of the foot to the edge of the step. Clearance was divided into landing and passing clearance depending on the planned placement of the foot in relation to the step edge being cleared. Each subject performed seven trials of stairs descent. Mean (SD) and CV (SD) were 16% (6), 0.28 (0.15) for placement; 45.88 (10.05), 0.21 (0.07) for landing clearance; 107.25 (5.59), 0.25 (0.08) for passing clearance. There was no statistically significant effect of trial on placement and clearance (p>0.05). There was a significant effect of step number on landing and passing clearance (p=0.01, p<0.001 respectively). Landing and passing clearances were greater for the third step compared to the second step. Passing clearance was also significantly greater than landing clearance (p<0.001). The repeatable methods and findings from this study might be useful in providing a technical background and normal values for the design of future gait studies on stairs.

  17. ESL batteries and multi-segment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J. L.; Pearce, J. G.; Turnbull, L.; Owen, J. R.

    1987-06-01

    A simulation model for nickel cadmium battery cells operating in the environment of a low Earth orbit satellite; simulation applications to investigate the performance of the ESA Simulation Language (ESL) segment or multiprocessor emulation features; a double-precision version of ESL; and development of ESL in equation sorting, segmentation, character handling, and file input/output are described.

  18. Multi-segment coherent beam combining

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Tucker, S.D.; Morgan, R.; Smith, T.G.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Rosenthal, R.R.; Bentley, A.E.

    1994-12-31

    Scaling laser systems to large sizes for power beaming and other applications can sometimes be simplified by combing a number of smaller lasers. However, to fully utilize this scaling, coherent beam combination is necessary. This requires measuring and controlling each beam`s pointing and phase relative to adjacent beams using an adaptive optical system. We have built a sub-scale brass-board to evaluate various methods for beam-combining. It includes a segmented adaptive optic and several different specialized wavefront sensors that are fabricated using diffractive optics methods. We have evaluated a number of different phasing algorithms, including hierarchical and matrix methods, and have demonstrated phasing of several elements. The system is currently extended to a large number of segments to evaluate various scaling methodologies.

  19. Onset Time of Nerve Block: A Comparison of Two Injection Locations in Patients Having Lower Leg/ Foot Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-20

    Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/or Foot; Disorder of Joint of Ankle and/or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot

  20. Human foot placement and balance in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Millard, Matthew; Wight, Derek; McPhee, John; Kubica, Eric; Wang, David

    2009-12-01

    Foot placement has long been recognized as the primary mechanism that humans use to restore balance. Many biomechanists have examined where humans place their feet during gait, perturbations, and athletic events. Roboticists have also used foot placement as a means of control but with limited success. Recently, Wight et al. (2008, "Introduction of the Foot Placement Estimator: A Dynamic Measure of Balance for Bipedal Robotics," ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 3, p. 011009) introduced a planar foot placement estimator (FPE) algorithm that will restore balance to a simplified biped that is falling. This study tested the FPE as a candidate function for sagittal plane human-foot-placement (HFP) by recording the kinematics of 14 healthy subjects while they performed ten walking trials at three speeds. The FPE was highly correlated with HFP (rho>or=0.997) and its accuracy varied linearly from 2.6 cm to -8.3 cm as walking speed increased. A sensitivity analysis revealed that assumption violations of the FPE cannot account for the velocity-dependent changes in FPE-HFP error suggesting that this behavior is volitional.