Science.gov

Sample records for characterizing pulmonary blood

  1. Modelling pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

  2. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    PubMed

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs. PMID:10386009

  3. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries.

  4. Vascular structure determines pulmonary blood flow distribution.

    PubMed

    Hlastala, M P; Glenny, R W

    1999-10-01

    Scientific knowledge develops through the evolution of new concepts. This process is usually driven by new methodologies that provide observations not previously available. Understanding of pulmonary blood flow determinants advanced significantly in the 1960s and is now changing rapidly again, because of increased spatial resolution of regional pulmonary blood flow measurements.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Two Novel Bacteria Afipia cberi and Mesorhizobium hominis from Blood of a Patient Afflicted with Fatal Pulmonary Illness

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shyh-Ching; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Zhang, Jing; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Tsai, Shien; Zucker, Mark J.; Olesnicky, Ludmilla

    2013-01-01

    We recently isolated and discovered new Bradyrhizobiaceae microbes from the cryopreserved culture broth of blood samples from 3 patients with poorly defined illnesses using modified SP4 media and culture conditions coupled with genomic sequencing. Using a similar protocol, we studied a previously cryopreserved culture broth of blood sample from a patient who had succumbed to an acute onset of fulminant pulmonary illness. We report that two phases of microbial growth were observed in the re-initiated culture. Biochemical and genomic characterization revealed microbes isolated from the first phase of growth were new Afipia species of Bradyrhizobiaceae, tentatively named A. cberi with a ~ 5 MB chromosome that was different from those of all previously known Afipia microbes including the newly discovered A. septicemium. The microbes isolated from the second phase of growth were prominent sugar assimilators, novel Phyllobacteriaceae, phylogenetically most closely related to Mesorhizobium and tentatively named M. hominis with a ~ 5.5 MB chromosome. All A. cberi isolates carry a circular ~ 140 KB plasmid. Some M. hominis isolates possess a circular ~ 412 KB plasmid that can be lost in prolonged culture or passage. No antibiotics resistant genes could be identified in both of the A. cberi and M. hominis plasmids. Antibiotic susceptibility studies using broth culture systems revealed isolates of A. cberi could be sensitive to some antibiotics, but all isolates of M. hominis were resistant to essentially all tested antibiotics. However, the cell-free antibiotics susceptibility test results may not be applicable to clinical treatment against the microbes that are known to be capable of intracellular growth. It remains to be determined if the 2 previously unknown Rhizobiales were indeed pathogenic and played a role in the pulmonary disease process in this patient. Specific probes and methods will be developed to re-examine the diseased lungs from patient's autopsy. PMID

  6. Pulmonary blood flow distribution after banding of pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Samánek, M; Fiser, B; Ruth, C; Tůma, S; Hucín, B

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotope lung scanning was used to investigate the distribution of pulmonary blood flow after banding of the pulmonary artery in children with a left-to-right shunt and pulmonary hypertension. An abnormal distribution of blood flow in the lung on the side of the operation approach was observed in all patients in the first three weeks following surgery. Abnormalities were still observed in 17 of 21 children 10 months to more than 8 years after the banding operation. There was no significant relation between the occurrence of these abnormalities and time after surgery. Diminished flow to the zones of the right lung was observed less frequently. The incidence of abnormalities in flow distribution was also high preoperatively. Respiratory complications in infants with large left-to-right shunts were considered to be responsible for most of the abnormal blood flow distributions observed. Radioactive lung scanning was found to be a valuable diagnostic method in the early and late postoperative period in infants and small children. It was more sensitive than the other techniques used in revealing deviation of blood flow from one lung in those cases with shifting of the applied band. Images PMID:1111558

  7. [Management of Pulmonary Blood Flow for a Patient with Congenital Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Undergoing Pulmonary Venous Obstruction Release and Pulmonary Artery Banding].

    PubMed

    Ideno, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Oda, Fujiko; Wakamiya, Rie; Ozawa, Kana; Kaneko, Haruka; Matsuoka, Taku; Shinto, Atsushi; Mikasa, Hiromi; Miyazawa, Noriko

    2015-02-01

    Congenital pulmonary vein stenosis (CPVS) is a rare fetal congenital heart disease with a prevalence of 1.7 per 100,000 children younger than two years of age. Because of the difficulty of maintaining the pulmonary blood flow, CPVS is associated with a 50% survival rate within five years of diagnosis. We describe a successful management of pulmonary blood flow for a 4-month-old-girl with CPVS, combined with atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect, undergoing pulmonary vein obstruction release (PVOR). In this case, CPVS was the only cause for pulmonary hypertension because there was no significant pressure gradient between each pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and the paired pulmonary vein pressure, indicating the normal pulmonary vascular structure prior to pulmonary vein stenosis. As pulmonary blood flow was estimated to be high after PVOR, pulmonary artery banding was also performed. Management of pulmonary blood flow is the most important issue for anesthesia of this surgery, especially in postcardiopulmonary bypass period, when the pulmonary vasoconstriction is induced by endothelial dysfuncion.

  8. Measuring blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhifeng; Shen, Li; Gao, Ling; Ford, James C.; Makedon, Fillia S.; Pearlman, Justin D.

    2006-03-01

    With perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI), perfusion describes the amount of blood passing through a block of tissue in a certain period of time. In pMRI, the tissue having more blood passing through will show higher intensity value as more contrast-labeled blood arrives. Perfusion reflects the delivery of essential nutrients to a block of tissue, and is an important parameter for the tissue status. Considering solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN), perfusion differences between malignant and benign nodules have been studied by different techniques. Much effort has been put into its characterization. In this paper, we proposed and implemented extraction of the SPN time intensity profile to measure blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules, describing their perfusion effects. In this method, a SPN time intensity profile is created based on intensity values of the solitary pulmonary nodule in lung pMRI images over time. This method has two steps: nodule tracking and profile clustering. Nodule tracking aligns the solitary pulmonary nodule in pMRI images taken at different time points, dealing with nodule movement resulted from breathing and body movement. Profile clustering implements segmentation of the nodule region and extraction of the time intensity profile of a solitary pulmonary nodule. SPN time intensity profiles reflect patterns of blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules, giving us a description of perfusion effect and indirect evidence of tumor angiogenesis. Analysis on SPN time intensity profiles will help the diagnosis of malignant nodules for early lung cancer detection.

  9. Sodium hydrosulfide alleviates pulmonary artery collagen remodeling in rats with high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang; Geng, Bin; Tang, Chaoshu

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on pulmonary artery collagen remodeling in rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, shunt group, sham + NaHS (an H2S donor) group, and shunt + NaHS group. After 11 weeks of shunting, mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), relative median area (RMA) of pulmonary arteries, H2S concentration in lung tissues, plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, and ET-1 mRNA in lung tissues were investigated. Collagen I and collagen III were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Hydroxyproline assay and Sirius-red staining were performed. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After 11 weeks of shunting, rats showed a significant pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery collagen remodeling in association with a decrease in lung tissue H2S content. After NaHS treatment for 11 weeks, lung tissue H(2)S content was increased, whereas MPAP was attenuated and RMA was reduced. Meanwhile, pulmonary artery collagen I and collagen III protein expressions of intra-acinar pulmonary arteries were inhibited, but MMP-13/TIMP-1 ratio was augmented with a decreased plasma ET-1 content and lung tissue ET-1mRNA and CTGF expressions. The downregulation of H(2)S is involved in the development of pulmonary artery collagen remodeling induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

  10. Fontan Outcomes and Pulmonary Blood Flow at Birth.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Acherman, Ruben J; Reardon, Leigh C; Ciccolo, Michael L; Galindo, Alvaro; Rothman, Abraham; Winn, Brody J; Yumiaco, Noel S; Restrepo, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    We previously noted, in a small group of post-Fontan patients, a possible association between hepatic fibrosis scores and the status of pulmonary blood flow at birth. To further explore this observation, we examined data from all Fontan patients seen in our center from July 2010 to March 2015. We identified 200 patients for analysis. Of the 200 patients, 56 underwent transvenous-hepatic biopsy. Of the 200 patients, 13 (6.5%) had protein-losing enteropathy. We divided both the 56 biopsy patients and the entire cohort of 200 patients into 4 groups: (1) unobstructed pulmonary blood flow at birth with functional left ventricles, (2) unobstructed pulmonary blood flow at birth with functional right ventricles, (3) obstructed pulmonary blood flow at birth with functional left ventricles, and (4) obstructed pulmonary blood flow at birth with functional right ventricles. Analysis of the 56 liver-biopsy patient groups showed median hepatic total-fibrosis scores for the 4 groups of 2 (0-6), 2 (0-8), 3 (2-6), and 4 (1-8), respectively, with statistical significance between groups 4 and 1 (p = 0.031). For the entire cohort of 200 patients, we analyzed the incidence of protein-losing enteropathy for each of the four groups and found protein-losing enteropathy percent occurrences of 0, 2.9, 8.8, and 16.1, respectively, with statistical significance between groups 4 and 2 (p = 0.031) and between groups 4 and 1 (p = 0.025). A history of obstructed pulmonary blood flow at birth, coupled with a functional right ventricle, may predict a poorer long-term Fontan outcome.

  11. Effective pulmonary blood flow in normal children at rest.

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, J J; Warner, J O; Denison, D M

    1988-01-01

    Effective pulmonary blood flow was measured with a soluble inert gas uptake method (10% argon, 3.5% freon-22, 35% oxygen, balance nitrogen) in 98 apparently healthy children aged 5-14 years. None had any evidence of cardiorespiratory disease and all had normal values for absolute and dynamic lung volumes and transfer factor for carbon monoxide. Values of blood flow measured by a rebreathing method correlated reasonably closely with height, weight, body surface area, and lung volumes, and to a lesser extent with hand and foot size. The mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow index was 2.7 (0.31) 1 min-1 m-2. Small children found a single breath method of measuring flow more difficult to perform and the results were more variable. PMID:3238641

  12. Immunological characterization of pulmonary intravascular macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitko-McKown, C. G.; Reddy, D. N.; Chapes, S. K.; McKown, R. D.; Blecha, F.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are lung macrophages found apposed to the endothelium of pulmonary capillaries. In many species, they are responsible for the clearance of blood-borne particulates and pathogens; however, little else is known about their roles as immunologic effector cells. We compared PIMs with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) to determine the relative immunological activities of these two cell populations. Our results suggested that both populations possess similar phagocytic and bactericidal activities. In assays measuring cytotoxicity, PIMs were more cytotoxic than PAMs against virally infected target cells; however, differences between these macrophage populations were not as marked when noninfected targets were used. LPS-stimulated PIMs produced more T-cell proliferative cytokines than PAMs, and both populations of nonstimulated macrophages produced similar amounts of the cytokines. In contrast, PAMs produced more TNF alpha and NO2- than PIMs when both populations were stimulated with LPS; however, nonstimulated PAMs and PIMs produced similar amounts of TNF alpha and NO2. These data suggest that bovine PIMs are immunologically active. Differences between the degrees of activity of PIMs and PAMs indicate that these macrophage populations may have different roles in lung surveillance.

  13. Stratified Pulmonary Blood Flow: Some Consequences in Emphysema and Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Read, John

    1969-01-01

    Both ventilation and blood flow in the secondary lobule of the lung are stratified; each unit of lung tissue in the proximal portion of the lobule receives up to four times the blood flow of units in the peripheral portion. Questions of the limiting role of gas diffusion within the small airways become virtually irrelevant in the face of this stratification of function. The central portion of the lobule, with its high ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange, is very vulnerable; small lesions at this site will produce disproportionately large disturbances of gas exchange and of pulmonary vascular resistance. This may well account for some of the phenomena of conditions such as centrilobular emphysema and pulmonary microembolism. PMID:5776220

  14. Blood transcriptomic diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Jennifer K; Thomas, Niclas; Gil, Eliza; Best, Katharine; Tsaliki, Evdokia; Morris‑Jones, Stephen; Stafford, Sian; Simpson, Nandi; Witt, Karolina D; Chain, Benjamin; Miller, Robert F; Martineau, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Novel rapid diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB) are required to overcome the time delays and inadequate sensitivity of current microbiological tests that are critically dependent on sampling the site of disease. Multiparametric blood transcriptomic signatures of TB have been described as potential diagnostic tests. We sought to identify the best transcript candidates as host biomarkers for active TB, extend the evaluation of their specificity by comparison with other infectious diseases, and to test their performance in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. METHODS. Support vector machine learning, combined with feature selection, was applied to new and previously published blood transcriptional profiles in order to identify the minimal TB‑specific transcriptional signature shared by multiple patient cohorts including pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, and individuals with and without HIV-1 coinfection. RESULTS. We identified and validated elevated blood basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BATF2) transcript levels as a single sensitive biomarker that discriminated active pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB from healthy individuals, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) scores of 0.93 to 0.99 in multiple cohorts of HIV-1–negative individuals, and 0.85 in HIV-1–infected individuals. In addition, we identified and validated a potentially novel 4-gene signature comprising CD177, haptoglobin, immunoglobin J chain, and galectin 10 that discriminated active pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB from other febrile infections, giving ROC AUCs of 0.94 to 1. CONCLUSIONS. Elevated blood BATF2 transcript levels provide a sensitive biomarker that discriminates active TB from healthy individuals, and a potentially novel 4-gene transcriptional signature differentiates between active TB and other infectious diseases in individuals presenting with fever. FUNDING. MRC, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, British Lung Foundation, NIHR

  15. Pulmonary emboli from blood-biomaterial interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.E.; Ramberg, K.; McEnroe, C.S.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1988-07-01

    The problem of surface thrombosis and subsequent embolization remains entrenched as a yet incompletely surmounted barrier to the development of truly satisfactory intravascular prosthetic devices. A baboon ex vivo shunt was used to determine the interaction of Indium-111 platelets and potential biomaterials. The uptake of Indium-111 platelets was monitored continuously by gamma camera scanning. Several of the materials tested demonstrated a saw-toothed pattern of platelet activity, with accumulation followed by rapid decline. Neither PTFE nor Dacron exhibited this pattern. Post shunt scans of the animals' chests showed discrete foci of platelet activity in the lungs, corresponding to each embolic event noted on the material's scan. In conclusion, the search for a smooth surface as a blood material interface may produce a material which accumulates and then sloughs significant platelet aggregates. It is crucial that these materials be subjected to vigorous testing to determine their safety prior to initiation of clinical trials.

  16. An analysis of the sluicing gate in pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Fung, Y C; Zhuang, F Y

    1986-05-01

    For pulmonary blood flow in zone 2 condition, in which the blood pressure in the venule (pven) is lower than the alveolar gas pressure (pA), the blood exiting from the capillary sheet and entering a venule must go through a sluicing gate. The sluicing gate exists because the venule remains patent while the capillaries will collapse when the static pressure of blood falls below the alveolar gas pressure. In the original theory of sheet flow the effect of the tension in the interalveolar septa on the flow through the sluicing gate was ignored. Since the tension multiplied by the curvature of the membrane is equivalent to a lateral pressure tending to open the gate, and since the curvature of the capillary wall is high in the gate region, this effect may be important. The present analysis improves the original theory and demonstrates that the effect of membrane tension is to cause flow to increase when the venous pressure continues to decrease. The shape of the sluicing gate resembles that of a venturi tube, and can be determined by an iterative integration of the differential equations. The result forms an important link in the theory of pulmonary blood flow in zone 2 condition.

  17. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    PubMed

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed.

  18. Biodegradable radiopaque microspheres for the evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution using electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Michael J.; Tajik, Jehangir K.; Robinson, Miguel T.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution is of interest both as a research and diagnostic tool. Measurements of regional pulmonary perfusion via x-ray CT offer the possibility of detecting perfusion deficits due to pulmonary embolus while maintaining a high degree of anatomic detail. Use of bolus injection of conventional radiopaque contrast with associated short mean transit times (5 - 7 seconds), requires a high degree of temporal resolution offered clinically only by electron beam x-ray CT (Imatron). The present study was intended to characterize biodegradable radiopaque microspheres as an alternative contrast agent which would allow for measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow with scanning times associated with conventional or spiral thin slice, volumetric x-ray CT protocols. To test this, a dog was scanned at 6 slice levels and 13 time points with image acquisition gated to the cardiac cycle. Lung volumes were maintained at functional residual capacity.

  19. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  20. Increased blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in inflammatory pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, H; Yamaya, M; Yanai, M; Ohrui, T; Sasaki, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled carbon monoxide has been reported to increase in inflammatory pulmonary diseases and to be correlated with blood carboxyhaemoglobin (Hb-CO) concentration. A study was undertaken to determine whether arterial blood Hb-CO increases in patients with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Methods: The Hb-CO concentration in arterial blood was measured with a spectrophotometer in 34 normal control subjects, 24 patients with bronchial asthma, 52 patients with pneumonia, and 21 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Results: The mean (SE) Hb-CO concentrations in patients with bronchial asthma during exacerbations (n=24, 1.05 (0.05)%), with pneumonia at the onset of illness (n=52, 1.08 (0.06)%), and with IPF (n=21, 1.03 (0.09)%) were significantly higher than those in control subjects (n=34, 0.60 (0.07)%) (mean difference 0.45% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.67), p<0.01 in patients with bronchial asthma, mean difference 0.48% (95% CI 0.35 to 0.60), p<0.0001 in patients with pneumonia, and mean difference 0.43% (95% CI 0.26 to 0.61) p<0.001 in patients with IPF). In 20 patients with bronchial asthma the Hb-CO concentration decreased after 3 weeks of treatment with oral glucocorticoids (p<0.001). In 20 patients with pneumonia the Hb-CO concentration had decreased after 3 weeks when patients showed evidence of clinical improvement (p<0.001). The values of C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein, correlated with Hb-CO concentrations in patients with pneumonia (r=0.74, p<0.0001) and in those with IPF (r=0.46, p<0.01). In patients with bronchial asthma changes in Hb-CO concentrations were significantly correlated with those in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3 weeks (r=0.67, p<0.01). Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with Hb-CO concentrations (n=33, r=0.80, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Hb-CO concentrations are increased in inflammatory pulmonary diseases including bronchial asthma, pneumonia, and

  1. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Andreotti, F.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Biagini, A.; Milne, E.N.; Giuntini, C.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions.

  2. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  3. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  4. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: spectrum of findings.

    PubMed

    Hagspiel, K D; Flors, L; Housseini, A M; Phull, A; Ali Ahmad, E; Bozlar, U; Norton, P T; Bonatti, H J R

    2012-01-01

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  5. Redistribution of pulmonary blood flow during hypoxic exercise.

    PubMed

    Kuwahira, I; Moue, Y; Urano, T; Kamiya, U; Iwamoto, T; Ishii, M; Clancy, R L; Gonzalez, N C

    2001-08-01

    Pulmonary blood flow (PBF) distribution was studied at rest and during exercise in rats acclimatized to chronic hypoxia (barometric pressure [PB] 370 Torr for 3 weeks, A rats) and non-acclimatized (NA) littermates. Both A and NA rats exercised in hypoxia (inspired O2 pressure [PIO2] approximately 70 Torr) or in normoxia (PlO2 approximately 145 Torr). PBF distribution was determined using fluorescent-labeled microspheres injected into the right atrium. The lungs were cut into 28 samples to determine relative scatter of specific PBF ([sample fluorescence intensity/sample dry weight)/(total lung fluorescence intensity/total lung dry weight]). Exercise produced redistribution of PBF both in NA and A rats, and this effect was larger in hypoxia than in normoxia, with minimal redistribution occurring during normoxic exercise in NA rats. The pattern of distribution varies considerably among individual animals. As a result of distribution, the previous high flow areas would be overperfused during hypoxic exercise in some rats. The results support the concept that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is not uniform and suggest that the combination of hypoxia and exercise may lead to overperfusion and capillary leak in some individuals. PMID:11531029

  6. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  7. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH.

  8. Pulmonary blood flow redistribution by increased gravitational force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlastala, M. P.; Chornuk, M. A.; Self, D. A.; Kallas, H. J.; Burns, J. W.; Bernard, S.; Polissar, N. L.; Glenny, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the influence of gravity on the distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) using increased inertial force as a perturbation. PBF was studied in unanesthetized swine exposed to -Gx (dorsal-to-ventral direction, prone position), where G is the magnitude of the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth, on the Armstrong Laboratory Centrifuge at Brooks Air Force Base. PBF was measured using 15-micron fluorescent microspheres, a method with markedly enhanced spatial resolution. Each animal was exposed randomly to -1, -2, and -3 Gx. Pulmonary vascular pressures, cardiac output, heart rate, arterial blood gases, and PBF distribution were measured at each G level. Heterogeneity of PBF distribution as measured by the coefficient of variation of PBF distribution increased from 0.38 +/- 0.05 to 0.55 +/- 0.11 to 0.72 +/- 0.16 at -1, -2, and -3 Gx, respectively. At -1 Gx, PBF was greatest in the ventral and cranial and lowest in the dorsal and caudal regions of the lung. With increased -Gx, this gradient was augmented in both directions. Extrapolation of these values to 0 G predicts a slight dorsal (nondependent) region dominance of PBF and a coefficient of variation of 0.22 in microgravity. Analysis of variance revealed that a fixed component (vascular structure) accounted for 81% and nonstructure components (including gravity) accounted for the remaining 19% of the PBF variance across the entire experiment (all 3 gravitational levels). The results are inconsistent with the predictions of the zone model.

  9. Pulmonary Microvascular Blood Flow in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema. The MESA COPD Study

    PubMed Central

    Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Parikh, Megha A.; Austin, John H. M.; Bluemke, David A.; Carr, James; Choi, Jiwoong; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Gomes, Antoinette S.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lima, Joao; Michos, Erin D.; Post, Wendy S.; Po, Ming Jack; Prince, Martin R.; Liu, Kiang; Rabinowitz, Dan; Skrok, Jan; Smith, Ben M.; Watson, Karol; Yin, Youbing; Zambeli-Ljepovic, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Smoking-related microvascular loss causes end-organ damage in the kidneys, heart, and brain. Basic research suggests a similar process in the lungs, but no large studies have assessed pulmonary microvascular blood flow (PMBF) in early chronic lung disease. Objectives: To investigate whether PMBF is reduced in mild as well as more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Methods: PMBF was measured using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among smokers with COPD and control subjects age 50 to 79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. COPD severity was defined by standard criteria. Emphysema on computed tomography (CT) was defined by the percentage of lung regions below −950 Hounsfield units (−950 HU) and by radiologists using a standard protocol. We adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking, oxygenation, and left ventricular cardiac output. Measurements and Main Results: Among 144 participants, PMBF was reduced by 30% in mild COPD, by 29% in moderate COPD, and by 52% in severe COPD (all P < 0.01 vs. control subjects). PMBF was reduced with greater percentage emphysema−950HU and radiologist-defined emphysema, particularly panlobular and centrilobular emphysema (all P ≤ 0.01). Registration of MRI and CT images revealed that PMBF was reduced in mild COPD in both nonemphysematous and emphysematous lung regions. Associations for PMBF were independent of measures of small airways disease on CT and gas trapping largely because emphysema and small airways disease occurred in different smokers. Conclusions: PMBF was reduced in mild COPD, including in regions of lung without frank emphysema, and may represent a distinct pathological process from small airways disease. PMBF may provide an imaging biomarker for therapeutic strategies targeting the pulmonary microvasculature. PMID:26067761

  10. Altered Immune Phenotype in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with Scleroderma-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Risbano, Michael G; Meadows, Christina A; Coldren, Christopher D; Jenkins, Tiffany J.; Edwards, Michael G; Collier, David; Huber, Wendy; Mack, Douglas G; Fontenot, Andrew P; Geraci, Mark W; Bull, Todd M

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common and fatal complication of scleroderma that may involve inflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms. Alterations in the gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been previously described in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our goal is to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in scleroderma patients with and without pulmonary hypertension as biomarkers of disease. Gene expression analysis was performed on a Microarray Cohort of scleroderma patients with (n=10) and without (n=10) pulmonary hypertension. Differentially expressed genes were confirmed in the Microarray Cohort and validated in a Validation Cohort of scleroderma patients with (n=15) and without (n=19) pulmonary hypertension by RT-qPCR. We identified inflammatory and immune-related genes including interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) and chemokine receptor 7 as differentially expressed in patients with scleroderma-associated pulmonary hypertension. Flow cytometry confirmed decreased expression of IL-7R on circulating CD4+ T-cells from scleroderma patients with pulmonary hypertension. Differences exist in the expression of inflammatory and immune-related genes in peripheral blood cells from patients with scleroderma-related pulmonary hypertension compared to those with normal pulmonary artery pressures. These findings may have implications as biomarkers to screen at-risk populations for early diagnosis and provide insight into mechanisms of scleroderma-related pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20973920

  11. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p < 0.01). While DLCO of PAH patients did not change over time, DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  12. Problems in cerebral blood flow calculation using xenon-133 in patients with pulmonary diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.; Jakobsen, M.; Enevoldsen, E.; Egede, F. )

    1990-05-01

    We used the end-tidal concentration of xenon-133 (air curve) to estimate the profile of its arterial concentration in calculating cerebral blood flow. We examined the effects of pulmonary disease and artificial ventilation on the air curve and the calculated cerebral blood flow. We studied the relation between arterial and end-tidal xenon activities in 19 subjects, of whom 15 had pulmonary dysfunction. The t 1/2 of the declining phases of the arterial and air curves were used to express their shapes. The mean +/- SD reference t 1/2 from 15 normal volunteers was 26.8 +/- 8.4 seconds. The mean +/- SD t 1/2 s of the air and arterial curves from the 15 patients with pulmonary dysfunction were 10.4 +/- 2.9 and 33.8 +/- 10.9 seconds. The degree of pulmonary dysfunction (expressed as the pulmonary shunt percentage) correlated with distortion of the air curve. Substituting the arterial for the air curve, mean calculated cerebral blood flow (as the initial slope index) increased from 40 to 61 for the 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The degree of underestimation of cerebral blood flow using the air curve correlated with the pulmonary shunt percentage. Our work confirms the problems of estimating cerebral blood flow in subjects with pulmonary dysfunction.

  13. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  14. Bidirectional Glenn with interruption of antegrade pulmonary blood flow: Which is the preferred option: Ligation or division of the pulmonary artery?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Rao, Keerthi; Gharde, Parag; Kumawat, Mukesh; Jagia, Priya

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare complication of massive aneurysm of the proximal ligated end of the main pulmonary artery which occurred in the setting of a patient with a functionally univentricular heart and increased pulmonary blood flow undergoing superior cavopulmonary connection. Awareness of this possibility may guide others to electively transect the pulmonary artery in such a clinical setting. PMID:27397472

  15. Blood cell characterization by light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we are going to introduce optical methods for blood cell characterization performed by standard hematology analyzers. As a consequence, we are going to focus on methods that are, or will be, compatible with an average cost, commercial, blood cell counter.

  16. Pulmonary blood flow distribution in sheep: effects of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and change in posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, S. M.; Domino, K. B.; Glenny, R. W.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies providing high-resolution images of pulmonary perfusion have questioned the classical zone model of pulmonary perfusion. Hence the present work was undertaken to provide detailed maps of regional pulmonary perfusion to examine the influence of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and posture. METHODS: Pulmonary perfusion was analyzed with intravenous fluorescent microspheres (15 microm) in six sheep studied in four conditions: prone and awake, prone with pentobarbital-anesthesia and breathing spontaneously, prone with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation, and supine with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Lungs were air dried at total lung capacity and sectioned into approximately 1,100 pieces (about 2 cm3) per animal. The pieces were weighed and assigned spatial coordinates. Fluorescence was read on a spectrophotometer, and signals were corrected for piece weight and normalized to mean flow. Pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity was assessed using the coefficient of variation of flow data. RESULTS: Pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation did not influence perfusion heterogeneity, but heterogeneity increased when the animals were in the supine posture (P < 0.01). Gravitational flow gradients were absent in the prone position but present in the supine (P < 0.001 compared with zero). Pulmonary perfusion was distributed with a hilar-to-peripheral gradient in animals breathing spontaneously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The influence of pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation on pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity is small compared with the effect of changes in posture. Analysis of flow gradients indicate that gravity plays a small role in determining pulmonary blood flow distribution.

  17. Simultaneous pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and ECG Interval measurement in conscious, freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Rey, Markus; Weber, Edgar W; Hess, Patrick D

    2012-03-01

    Here we evaluated the ability of a new, dual blood-pressure telemetry transmitter to simultaneously measure pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and the electrocardiogram in rats. The transmitter was implanted in normotensive and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive Wistar rats, with sensing catheters placed in the pulmonary artery (channel 1) and descending aorta (channel 2). Biopotential electrodes were positioned to record an apex-based lead II electrocardiogram. Pulmonary and systemic arterial blood pressure and electrocardiographic waveforms were recorded between 2 and 12 wk after implantation of the transmitter. During this period, pulmonary arterial pressure progressively increased in monocrotaline-treated compared with saline-treated rats. The pharmacologic response of rats to reference compounds was measured by using the transmitter to validate the technique and to evaluate the ability of the device to transmit changes in blood pressure and the electrocardiogram. Validation against 2 Millar high-fidelity blood-pressure catheters confirmed the accuracy of the blood pressure data recorded with the transmitter. In addition, local tolerance of the associated catheters was confirmed by histologic examination. PMID:22776124

  18. Characterization of blood using terahertz waves.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kiyoung; Huh, Yong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Park, Yeonji; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Oh, Seung Jae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2013-10-01

    We show that terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) can be used to characterize the blood. The complex optical constants of blood and its constituents, such as water, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs), were obtained in the THz frequency region. The volume percentage of RBCs in blood was extracted and compared with the conventional RBC counter results. The THz absorption constants are shown to vary linearly with the RBC concentration in both normal saline and whole blood. The excellent linearity between the THz signal and the RBC concentration was also confirmed in a polyurethane resin tube using a THz imaging method. These results demonstrate that THz-TDS imaging can facilitate the quantitative analysis of blood. PMID:24165743

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pulmonary blood vessels by using anatomical knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaoka, Noriko; Suzuki, Hideo; Mori, Masaki; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Suzuki, Akira

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents a knowledge-based method for automatic reconstruction and recognition of pulmonary blood vessels from chest x-ray CT images with 10-mm thickness. The system has four main stages: (1) automatic extraction and segmentation of blood vessel components from each 2-D image, (2) analysis of these components, (3) a search for points connecting blood vessel segments in different CT slices, using a knowledge base for 3-D reconstruction, and (4) object manipulation and display. The authors also describe a method of representing 3-D anatomical knowledge of the pulmonary blood vessel structure. The edges of blood vessels in chest x-ray images are unclear, in contrast to those in angiograms. Each CT slice has thickness, and blood vessels are slender, so a simple graphical display, which can be used for bone tissues from CT images, is not sufficient for pulmonary blood vessels. It is therefore necessary to use anatomical knowledge to track the blood vessel lines in 3-D spaces. Experimental results using actual images of a normal adult male has shown that utilizing anatomical information enables one to improve processing efficiency and precision, such as blood vessel extraction and searching for connecting points.

  20. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (p<0.0001) and pulmonary capillary blood volume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (p<0.0001); forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children.

  1. Comparison between computer-aided diagnosis and radiologists: assessment of pulmonary blood flow on chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kido, S; Arisawa, J; Kuriyama, K; Kuroda, C; Nakamura, H

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for estimating increased pulmonary blood flow on chest radiographs, we compared computerized assessment with findings by radiologists. Our CAD scheme extracts selectively linear opacities corresponding to vessels in regions of interest (ROIs) in the right upper and lower lung zones on digitized chest radiographs, and then calculates a radiographic index as a physical measure that reflects the area of the extracted opacities in selected ROIs. As a measure of increased pulmonary blood flow, the upper/lower radiographic index ratio was calculated for each patient. Seven radiologists estimated the degree of increased pulmonary blood flow for the same images of ROI sets presented on a cathode-ray tube monitor in a randomized order. Between the normal-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) group and increased-PCWP groups, there was no significant difference in performance between CAD and radiologists (p = 0.105). However, when the normal and mild PCWP groups were compared, the performance of CAD was superior to that of radiologists (p = 0.001). This study indicates that our CAD scheme is promising for quantitative estimation of increased pulmonary blood flow, especially in mild cases.

  2. Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2015-03-01

    In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.

  3. [Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with multiple arterial blood supply].

    PubMed

    Uroz Tristán, J; Mogueya, S A; Poenaru, D; Martínez Lagares, F; Arteaga García, R; Sanchís Solera, L; López-Pinto Ruiz, J

    1994-04-01

    We report the case of a 4 years old boy, who presented at our institution with reiterative neumonia affecting left basal lobe. Anomalous vascular appearance was detected in the chest x-ray. With the suspicion of pulmonary sequestration we carried on Digital Intravenous Angiography by Substraction (DIVAS) and aortogram. The anomalous systemic arterial supply was formed by 6 vessels coming from the thoracic aorta and going into the left lower lobe basal segment. Lobectomy was performed and previous diagnosis was confirmed pathologically.

  4. Pulmonary Perfused Blood Volume with Dual-Energy CT as Surrogate for Pulmonary Perfusion Assessed with Dynamic Multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Halaweish, Ahmed F.; Haynes, Susan E.; Divekar, Abhay A.; Guo, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare measurements of regional pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) and pulmonary blood flow (PBF) obtained with computed tomography (CT) in two pig models. Materials and Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved all animal studies. CT-derived PBF and PBV were determined in four anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, supine swine by using two methods for creating pulmonary parenchymal perfusion heterogeneity. Two animals were examined after sequentially moving a pulmonary arterial balloon catheter from a distal to a central location, and two others were examined over a range of static airway pressures, which varied the extents of regional PBF. Lung sections were divided into blocks and Pearson correlation coefficients calculated to compare matching regions between the two methods. Results: CT-derived PBF, CT-derived PBV, and their associated coefficients of variation (CV) were closely correlated on a region-by-region basis in both the balloon occlusion (Pearson R = 0.91 and 0.73 for animals 1 and 2, respectively; Pearson R = 0.98 and 0.87 for comparison of normalized mean and CV for animals 1 and 2, respectively) and lung inflation studies (Pearson R = 0.94 and 0.74 for animals 3 and 4, respectively; Pearson R = 0.94 and 0.69 for normalized mean and CV for animals 3 and 4, respectively). When accounting for region-based effects, correlations remained highly significant at the P < .001 level. Conclusion: CT-derived PBV heterogeneity is a suitable surrogate for CT-derived PBF heterogeneity. ©RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12112789/-/DC1 PMID:23192773

  5. Echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary venous blood flow and cardiac function changes during one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Namo; Kim, Hyun IL; Oh, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The intra-pulmonary shunt induced by one-lung ventilation (OLV), is alleviated by increased pulmonary blood flow by gravitational redistribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. We investigated the changes of pulmonary venous blood flow (PVBF) and biventricular function during OLV with echocardiography. And the correlation between PVBF and intra-pulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) was evaluated. Methods: PVBF of the left upper pulmonary vein and cardiac function were measured with echocardiography in twenty-five patients who underwent elective thoracic surgery in left lateral decubitus. Qs/Qt and PaO2 were measured with blood gas analysis. Data was obtained at 10 min after two-lung ventilation in supine (TLV-S) and lateral decubitus position (TLV-L), and at 10, 20 and 30 min after OLV in lateral decubitus position (OLV-10, -20 and -30). Results: There were significant changes in PVBF among TLV-S, TLV-L and OLV-10 (959.5±280.8, 1416.9±489.7 and 1999.9±670.5 ml/min; P<0.05, respectively). There were not differences in PVBF, Qs/Qt and PaO2 among OLV-10, -20 and -30. There were an inverse correlation between percent change of PVBF and change of Qs/Qt (r2 = 0.5; P<0.0001) and positive correlations between the percent change of PVBF and change of PaO2 (r2 = 0.4; P<0.0001) during OLV over TLV-L. No significant changes in biventricular systolic and diastolic function were observed during positional change and OLV. Conclusions: A remarkable change of PVBF relevant to gravitational distribution and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was proved by echocardiography. And PVBF changes could represent the changes of Qs/Qt and PaO2 during OLV. However, biventricular function was not impaired during OLV. PMID:26550232

  6. [Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with multiple arterial blood supply].

    PubMed

    Uroz Tristán, J; Mogueya, S A; Poenaru, D; Martínez Lagares, F; Arteaga García, R; Sanchís Solera, L; López-Pinto Ruiz, J

    1994-04-01

    We report the case of a 4 years old boy, who presented at our institution with reiterative neumonia affecting left basal lobe. Anomalous vascular appearance was detected in the chest x-ray. With the suspicion of pulmonary sequestration we carried on Digital Intravenous Angiography by Substraction (DIVAS) and aortogram. The anomalous systemic arterial supply was formed by 6 vessels coming from the thoracic aorta and going into the left lower lobe basal segment. Lobectomy was performed and previous diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:8086288

  7. Rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, A; Busst, C M; Johnson, S; Denison, D M

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes a rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and effective pulmonary blood flow (QP. eff) at rest and during exercise. Subjects rebreathed a test gas consisting of 35% oxygen, 3.5% chlorodifluoromethane (freon-22), and 10% argon in nitrogen for 30 seconds or until the respired oxygen tension fell to below 13.3 kPa. Sixty normal subjects were studied on a motorized treadmill, the Bruce protocol being used. The rebreathing manoeuvre was performed at three minute intervals, and was initially practised sitting down. Measurements were then made with the subjects standing at rest, and subsequently during the last minute of each stage of the Bruce exercise protocol until the subjects were exhausted. Heart rate was recorded from the electrocardiogram. Oxygen uptake plotted against calculated power (watts) showed a discontinuity between resting and exercise values, probably because power output during treadmill exercise is underestimated. The arbitrary addition of 30 watts to the exercise power output abolished this discontinuity. There was good agreement between rebreathing estimates of oxygen consumption and values measured during a second exercise test by the conventional open circuit argon dilution method. Coefficients of variation of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow measured by rebreathing were usually less than 10% even during maximal exertion. At rest mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow corrected for body surface area was 2.2 (0.46) l/min/m2. Effective pulmonary blood flow rose linearly with oxygen consumption. At rest the arteriovenous oxygen content difference for pulmonary blood (VO2/QP eff) was 9.1 (1.6) ml/dl, rising to a maximum of 16.4 (1.8) ml/dl. The stroke volume index was 27.5 (6.8) ml/m2, rising to a maximum of 46.5 (7.1) ml/m2 during exertion.

  8. Rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, A; Busst, C M; Johnson, S; Denison, D M

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and effective pulmonary blood flow (QP. eff) at rest and during exercise. Subjects rebreathed a test gas consisting of 35% oxygen, 3.5% chlorodifluoromethane (freon-22), and 10% argon in nitrogen for 30 seconds or until the respired oxygen tension fell to below 13.3 kPa. Sixty normal subjects were studied on a motorized treadmill, the Bruce protocol being used. The rebreathing manoeuvre was performed at three minute intervals, and was initially practised sitting down. Measurements were then made with the subjects standing at rest, and subsequently during the last minute of each stage of the Bruce exercise protocol until the subjects were exhausted. Heart rate was recorded from the electrocardiogram. Oxygen uptake plotted against calculated power (watts) showed a discontinuity between resting and exercise values, probably because power output during treadmill exercise is underestimated. The arbitrary addition of 30 watts to the exercise power output abolished this discontinuity. There was good agreement between rebreathing estimates of oxygen consumption and values measured during a second exercise test by the conventional open circuit argon dilution method. Coefficients of variation of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow measured by rebreathing were usually less than 10% even during maximal exertion. At rest mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow corrected for body surface area was 2.2 (0.46) l/min/m2. Effective pulmonary blood flow rose linearly with oxygen consumption. At rest the arteriovenous oxygen content difference for pulmonary blood (VO2/QP eff) was 9.1 (1.6) ml/dl, rising to a maximum of 16.4 (1.8) ml/dl. The stroke volume index was 27.5 (6.8) ml/m2, rising to a maximum of 46.5 (7.1) ml/m2 during exertion. PMID:3406913

  9. Automated Measurement of Microcirculatory Blood Flow Velocity in Pulmonary Metastases of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fontanella, Andrew N.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Boico, Alina; Min, Hooney; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Irwin, David C.; Zhao, Yulin; Schroeder, Thies

    2014-01-01

    Because the lung is a major target organ of metastatic disease, animal models to study the physiology of pulmonary metastases are of great importance. However, very few methods exist to date to investigate lung metastases in a dynamic fashion at the microcirculatory level, due to the difficulty to access the lung with a microscope. Here, an intravital microscopy method is presented to functionally image and quantify the microcirculation of superficial pulmonary metastases in rats, using a closed-chest pulmonary window and automated analysis of blood flow velocity and direction. The utility of this method is demonstrated to measure increases in blood flow velocity in response to pharmacological intervention, and to image the well-known tortuous vasculature of solid tumors. This is the first demonstration of intravital microscopy on pulmonary metastases in a closed-chest model. Because of its minimized invasiveness, as well as due to its relative ease and practicality, this technology has the potential to experience widespread use in laboratories that specialize on pulmonary tumor research. PMID:25490280

  10. Effect of furosemide on pulmonary blood flow distribution in resting and exercising horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Bernard, S. L.; Glenny, R. W.; Fedde, M. R.; Polissar, N. L.; Basaraba, R. J.; Walther, S. M.; Gaughan, E. M.; McMurphy, R.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with 15-micron fluorescent-labeled microspheres during rest and exercise in five Thoroughbred horses before and 4 h after furosemide administration (0.5 mg/kg iv). The primary finding of this study was that PBF redistribution occurred from rest to exercise, both with and without furosemide. However, there was less blood flow to the dorsal portion of the lung during exercise postfurosemide compared with prefurosemide. Furosemide did alter the resting perfusion distribution by increasing the flow to the ventral regions of the lung; however, that increase in flow was abated with exercise. Other findings included 1) unchanged gas exchange and cardiac output during rest and exercise after vs. before furosemide, 2) a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure after furosemide, 3) an increase in the slope of the relationship of PBF vs. vertical height up the lung during exercise, both with and without furosemide, and 4) a decrease in blood flow to the dorsal region of the lung at rest after furosemide. Pulmonary perfusion variability within the lung may be a function of the anatomy of the pulmonary vessels that results in a predominantly fixed spatial pattern of flow distribution.

  11. Intracellular levels and extracellular release of lysosomal enzymes from peripheral blood monocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, S; Dhand, R; Sethi, A K; Kohli, K K; Ganguly, N K

    1993-01-01

    The intracellular activity and extracellular release (basal and latex-stimulated) of B-glucuronidase (BG) and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), measured fluorimetrically, were observed to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in blood monocytes (BM) of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients compared to those of age- and sex-matched controls and Mantoux-positive subjects without any evidence of active disease. After completion of antituberculous therapy, BG and NAG activities declined appreciably (P < 0.05) and their levels became comparable to those in control subjects. The present results suggest the potentiation of the oxygen-independent defense mechanism of BM in pulmonary TB. PMID:8457326

  12. Pulmonary diffusing capacity, capillary blood volume, and cardiac output during sustained microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Deutschman, Robert A., III; West, John B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL), diffusing capacity per unit lung volume, pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), membrane diffusing capacity (Dm), pulmonary capillary blood flow or cardiac output (Qc), and cardiac stroke volume (SV) in four subjects exposed to nine days of microgravity. DL in microgravity was elevated compared with preflight standing values and was higher than preflight supine because of the elevation of both Vc and Dm. The elevation in Vc was comparable to that measured supine in 1 G, but the increase in Dm was in sharp contrast to the supine value. We postulate that, in 0 G, pulmonary capillary blood is evenly distributed throughout the lung, providing for uniform capillary filling, leading to an increase in the surface area available for diffusion. By contrast, in the supine 1-G state, the capillaries are less evenly filled, and although a similar increase in blood volume is observed, the corresponding increase in surface area does not occur. DL and its subdivisions showed no adaptive changes from the first measurement 24 h after the start of 0 G to eight days later. Similarly, there were no trends in the postflight data, suggesting that the principal mechanism of these changes was gravitational. The increase in Dm suggests that subclinical pulmonary edema did not result from exposure to 0 G. Qc was modestly increased inflight and decreased postflight compared with preflight standing. Compared with preflight standing, SV was increased 46 percent inflight and decreased 14 percent in the 1st week postflight. There were temporal changes in Qc and SV during 0 G, with the highest values recorded at the first measurement, 24 h into the flight. The lowest values of Qc and SV occurred on the day of return.

  13. Effect of shed blood retransfusion on pulmonary perfusion after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Eser; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Fidan, Fatma; Ergan, Volkan; Fidan, Hüseyin

    2006-01-01

    Postoperative shed blood retransfusion (autotransfusion) is a commonly used salvage method following major surgical operations, such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The systemic effects of shed blood are still unclear. We studied the effect of residual substances in the retransfused shed blood, on lung perfusion after TKA. Fifteen unilateral and one bilateral TKAs were performed with autotransfusion (the study group) and 15 unilateral and three bilateral TKAs were performed in a control group. Lung X-rays, arterial blood gases (ABG), D-dimer values, and lung perfusion scintigraphies were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. A mean of 300.0 ± 335.6 ml of bank blood was needed in the autotransfusion group and a mean of 685.7 ± 365.5 ml of bank blood was needed in the control group (p=0.001). There was a postoperative segmental perfusion defect at the lateral segment of the superior lobe of the left lung in one patient of the control group and he also had risk factors for thrombosis. Although both groups had a decrease in lung perfusion postoperatively, there were no significant differences among the groups regarding the lung perfusion scintigraphy, chest X-rays, ABG, and D-dimer values. In conclusion, although pulmonary perfusion diminishes following TKA, shed blood retransfusion does not add any risk to pulmonary perfusion. PMID:17115155

  14. The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.

    PubMed

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study. PMID:26780263

  15. The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.

    PubMed

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study.

  16. A theoretical model for studying the rate of oxygenation of blood in pulmonary capillaries.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Khetarpal, K; Sharan, M

    1980-06-01

    A mathematical analysis of the process of gas exchange in the lung is presented taking into account the transport mechanisms of molecular diffusion, convection and facilitated diffusion of the species due to haemoglobin. Since the rate at which blood gets oxygenated in the pulmonary capillaries is very fast, it is difficult to set up an experimental study to determine the effects of various parameters on equilibration rate. The proposed study is aimed at determining the effects of various physiological parameters on equilibration rate in pathological conditions. Among the significant results are that 1. dissolved oxygen takes longer to achieve equilibration across the pulmonary membrane and carbon dioxide attains equilibration faster, 2. the equilibration length increases with increase in blood velocity, haemoglobin concentration, calibre of pulmonary capillaries and fall in alveolar PO2, 3. the alveolar PCO2 and forward and backward reaction rates of haemoglobin with CO2 do not materially affect the equilibration rate or length. 4. At complete equilibration, by the end of the pulmonary capillary 92% of the total haemoglobin has combined with oxygen and 8% free pigment is left which is present as carbamino haemoglobin, met haemoglobin, carboxy haemoglobin etc. These results are of some importance for anaemic conditions, muscular exercise, meditation, altitude physiology, hypo-ventilation, hyperventilation, etc.

  17. Spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow in dogs in increased force environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. F.; Ritman, E. L.; Chevalier, P. A.; Sass, D. J.; Wood, E. H.

    1978-01-01

    Spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow during 2- to 3-min exposures to 6-8 Gy acceleration was studied, using radioactive microspheres in dogs, and compared to previously reported 1 Gy control distributions. Isotope distributions were measured by scintiscanning individual 1-cm-thick cross sections of excised, fixed lungs. Results indicate: (1) the fraction of cardiac output traversing left and right lungs did not change systematically with the duration and magnitude of acceleration; but (2) the fraction is strongly affected by the occurrence or absence of fast deep breaths, which cause an increase or decrease, respectively, in blood flow through the dependent lung; and (3) Gy acceleration caused a significant increase in relative pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in nondependent and dependent regions of the lung concurrent with a decrease in PVR in the midsagittal region of the thorax.

  18. Effects of posture on blood flow diversion by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, S. M.; Domino, K. B.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    We used differential excretion of sulphur hexafluoride from the left and right lung to measure blood flow diversion by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in the prone and supine positions in dogs (n = 9). Gas exchange was assessed using the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Blood flow diversion from the hypoxic (3% oxygen) left lung was mean 70.7 (SD 11.2)% in the supine compared with 57.0 (12.1)% in the prone position (P < 0.02). The supine position was associated with increased perfusion to low VA/Q regions (P < 0.05). The increased flow diversion with hypoxia in the supine position was associated with more ventilation to high VA/Q regions (P < 0.05). We conclude that flow diversion by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is greater in the supine position. This effect could contribute to the variable response in gas exchange with positioning in patients with ARDS.

  19. Pattern of pulmonary venous blood flow in the hypoplastic left heart syndrome in the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Better, D; Apfel, H; Zidere, V; Allan, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether restriction at the atrial septum in the newborn with hypoplastic left heart syndrome can be predicted accurately by examining the pattern of pulmonary venous flow in the fetus. A restrictive atrial septum can contribute to haemodynamic instability before surgery for this lesion and has been associated with an increased mortality.
DESIGN—Pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler tracings were compared between fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and controls. The size of the atrial septal defect on the postnatal echocardiogram was graded according to the degree of restriction. Pulsed Doppler tracings of pulmonary venous blood flow were obtained in 18 fetuses with left atrial outflow atresia and compared with 77 controls, adjusted for gestational age. Postnatal echocardiograms were available for analysis in 13 of 18 neonates.
SETTING—A tertiary referral centre for fetal cardiology and paediatric cardiac surgery.
RESULTS—Fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome were different from controls in all pulmonary vein indices measured. As assessed from the postnatal echocardiogram, there were seven fetuses with a restrictive atrial septum. In these fetuses, the systolic flow velocity (p < 0.01), S/D ratio (p < 0.01), and peak reversal wave (p < 0.001) in the pulmonary vein tracing showed a good correlation with the degree of restriction.
CONCLUSIONS—The Doppler pattern of pulmonary venous flow in the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome appears to be a reliable predictor of restriction of the atrial septum in the neonate. This may help in the immediate post-delivery management of these infants before surgery.


Keywords: fetus; congenital heart defects; echocardiography; risk factors PMID:10336926

  20. Surfactant and pulmonary blood flow distributions following treatment of premature lambs with natural surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, A; Ikegami, M; Jacobs, H; Jones, S

    1984-01-01

    Prematurely delivered lambs were treated with radiolabeled natural surfactant by either tracheal instillation at birth and before the onset of mechanical ventilation, or after 23 +/- 1 (+/- SE) min of mechanical ventilation. Right ventricular blood flow distributions, left ventricular outputs, and left-to-right ductal shunts were measured with radiolabeled microspheres. After sacrifice, the lungs of lambs receiving surfactant at birth inflated uniformly with constant distending pressure while the lungs of lambs treated after a period of ventilation had aerated, partially aerated, and atelectatic areas. All lungs were divided into pieces which were weighed and catalogued as to location. The amount of radiolabeled surfactant and microsphere-associated radioactivity in each piece of lung was quantified. Surfactant was relatively homogenously distributed to pieces of lung from lambs that were treated with surfactant at birth; 48% of lung pieces received amounts of surfactant within +/- 25% of the mean value. Surfactant was preferentially recovered from the aerated pieces of lungs of lambs treated after a period of mechanical ventilation, and the distribution of surfactant to these lungs was very nonhomogeneous. Right ventricular blood flow distributions to the lungs were quite homogeneous in both groups of lambs. However, in 8 of 12 lambs, pulmonary blood flow was preferentially directed away from those pieces of lung that received relatively large amounts of surfactant and toward pieces of lung that received less surfactant. This acute redirection of pulmonary blood flow distribution may result from the local changes in compliances within the lung following surfactant instillation. PMID:6546766

  1. Blood Perfusion in Microfluidic Models of Pulmonary Capillary Networks: Role of Geometry and Hematocrit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Sznitman, Josue; Technion-IIT Team; Department of Neonatology Carmel Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine-Technion IIT Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic platforms are increasingly used to study blood microflows at true physiological scale due to their ability to overcome manufacturing obstacle of complex anatomical morphologies, such as the organ-specific architectures of the microcirculation. In the present work, we utilize microfluidic platforms to devise in vitro models of the underlying pulmonary capillary networks (PCN), where capillary lengths and diameters are similar to the size of RBCs (~ 5-10 μm). To better understand flow characteristics and dispersion of red blood cells (RBCs) in PCNs, we have designed microfluidic models of alveolar capillary beds inspired by the seminal ``sheet flow'' model of Fung and Sobin (1969). Our microfluidic PCNs feature confined arrays of staggered pillars with diameters of ~ 5,7 and 10 μm, mimicking the dense structure of pulmonary capillary meshes. The devices are perfused with suspensions of RBCs at varying hematocrit levels under different flow rates. Whole-field velocity patterns using micro-PIV and single-cell tracking using PTV are obtained with fluorescently-labelled RBCs and discussed. Our experiments deliver a real-scale quantitative description of RBC perfusion characteristics across the pulmonary capillary microcirculation.

  2. Successful treatment of pulmonary hypertension with beraprost and sildenafil after cord blood transplantation for infantile leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Nozomu; Ikoma, Masanobu; Sekiya, Yuko; Narita, Atsushi; Yoshida, Nao; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Hatano, Tameo; Kato, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an infrequently reported complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and its etiology and therapeutic strategies, especially in infants, remain unclear. We report a case of severe PH that developed in an infant with acute leukemia following administration of busulfan as a preconditioner for cord blood transplantation; the case was successfully treated with sildenafil and beraprost, which to our knowledge is the first reported successful use of this regimen in PH following transplantation for infantile leukemia. From a review of all previous reports, use of busulfan in infants may raise the risk of developing PH, and unlike definitive pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, PH in this subgroup may be reversible by early detection and treatment. PMID:23243005

  3. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  4. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung.

  5. Sequential measurement of peripheral blood allogeneic microchimerism levels and association with pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    McSherry, C; Jackson, A; Hertz, M I; Bolman, R M; Savik, K; Reinsmoen, N L

    1996-12-27

    We have shown in lung recipients that high levels of peripheral blood allogeneic microchimerism at 12 to 18 months posttransplant correlated with donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity (i.e., decreased proliferative response to donor antigen in MLC while response to 3rd-party cells remains unchanged); both parameters correlated with an obliterative bronchiolitis (OB)-free state. We have expanded these studies to determine any association of sequential microchimerism levels with concomitant clinical events. In this preliminary study of 7 lung recipients, we used limiting-dilution PCR to quantify peripheral blood microchimerism at serial timepoints ranging from 3 to >48 months posttransplant. These levels were compared with a variety of immunologic and clinical parameters: acute rejection, CMV infection, OB, donor antigen-specific hyporeactivity, and pulmonary function. Pulmonary function was measured per the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation: "current FEV1/ baseline FEV1" (FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 second). Of the clinical parameters, the association between microchimerism and pulmonary function was the most striking. We observed dynamic patterns of peripheral microchimerism, which reflected the general rise and fall of FEV1. In all 7 recipients, chimerism and FEV1 were high very early posttransplant, then dropped at various rates and to various degrees. After its initial decline, microchimerism increased with FEV1 for the 1 hyporesponsive recipient; for the other 6 recipients, both values declined. These results illustrate, for the first time, that the fluctuation of peripheral blood microchimerism levels is associated with the recipient's clinical condition. PMID:8990369

  6. Mixed group of Rhizobiales microbes in lung and blood of a patient with fatal pulmonary illness

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shyh-Ching; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Li, Bingjie; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Tsai, Shien; Zucker, Mark J; Olesnicky, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    We examined the microbial composition in the diseased lung and early-phase microbial cultures from the blood of a patient with a rapidly progressing fatal pulmonary illness. Although no microbes could be isolated from such cultures during the initial study, the HTS-microbiome study revealed the presence of a unique mixture of alphaproteobacteria, composed mainly of different families of Rhizobiales microbes. Microbial 16S rDNA sequences matching closely to Afipia cberi were identified mainly in the patient’s diseased lung tissue, but only rarely in the early-phase blood cultures. Conversely, the high abundance of sequences found in early-phase blood cultures of different broth media matched closely with those of the families Methylobacteriaceae, Phyllobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae. The two species that successfully adapted to grow in a laboratory culture system were A. cberi and Mesorhizobium hominis, which eventually were isolated from a previously cryopreserved blood culture of SP4 broth. Many other species, including members of the Bradyrhizobiaceae and Phyllobacteriaceae families, and all members of the Methylobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae families identified by HTS remained non-cultivated. We developed specific PCR primers and FISH probes, which detected the target Rhizobiales microbes in former blood cultures and autopsy lung tissues. It is unclear what role these Rhizobiales microbes might have played in the patient’s complex disease process. However, the above mentioned assays should help in rapidly detecting and identifying these previously unrecognized Rhizobiales microbes in patients. PMID:26823697

  7. An analysis of estimation of pulmonary blood flow by the single-breath method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.

    1986-01-01

    The single-breath method represents a simple noninvasive technique for the assessment of capillary blood flow across the lung. However, this method has not gained widespread acceptance, because its accuracy is still being questioned. A rigorous procedure is described for estimating pulmonary blood flow (PBF) using data obtained with the aid of the single-breath method. Attention is given to the minimization of data-processing errors in the presence of measurement errors and to questions regarding a correction for possible loss of CO2 in the lung tissue. It is pointed out that the estimations are based on the exact solution of the underlying differential equations which describe the dynamics of gas exchange in the lung. The reported study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining highly reliable estimates of PBF from expiratory data in the presence of random measurement errors.

  8. Changes of Number and Function of Late Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of COPD Patients Combined with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Zhang, Hongmei; Liu, Jianxin; Sheng, Chunfeng; Zhang, Linlin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the changes of number and function of late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in peripheral blood of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients combined with pulmonary hypertension. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 120 cases including 40 non-COPD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients (non-COPD group), 40 COPD non-PAH patients (COPD group), and 40 COPD patients combined with PAH (COPD + PAH group). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation, cultured for 21 days, and then identified as late endothelial progenitor cells. The cell colonies were counted. MTT assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and human fibronectin plates were used to measure the proliferation, migration, and adhesion functions of the late endothelial progenitor cells, respectively. Results Compared with non-COPD and COPD groups, the number of peripheral blood late EPCs in COPD + PAH group was significantly reduced, and the proliferation, adhesion, and migration capacities were significantly lowered; the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The number and function of late EPCs decreased with the increase of pulmonary artery pressure (p < 0.05). Conclusion The number of late EPCs in COPD patients combined with pulmonary hypertension was reduced, which implies the impaired cell functions. The changes of number and function were negatively correlated with the severity of pulmonary hypertension.

  9. Relation between peripheral chemoreceptors stimulation and pulmonary arterial blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Lagneaux, D

    1986-06-01

    As interactions between peripheral chemoreceptors stimulation (PCS) and pulmonary vasomotor tone remain controversial, experiments were made in rats in order to clear up the effects of PCS on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Different stimulations varying in intensities were used, in rats nervously intact (IR-rats), after vagotomy (XT-rats), after chemodenervation obtained without vagotomy (CDN not XT-rats) or with XT (CDN + XT) and finally after alpha 1-receptors blockade (P-rats = pretreated rats). The observed variations were analysed in view of disentangling reflex part of PCS from a direct activity on the pulmonary vascular bed. Ventilation, PAP and systemic blood pressure (BP) were studied in anaesthetized rats. N2 test, NaCN test, 20 s of 5% O2 inhalation and almitrine bismesylate (ALM) were used as PCS, ranged in the order of their relative intensities, from the ventilatory responses observed in IR-rats. In IR-rats, N2-and CN test produced a similar transient increase of PAP, slightly more extended than the hyperventilation. After XT, the responses were prolonged, but amplified only in CN test. Ventilatory responses disappear after CDN, but as far as pulmonary hypertension is concerned, CDN + XT is more potent than CDN without XT to reduce or even suppress them. This fact is particularly evident with ALM who is the strongest PCS used. Similar reduction of PAP rise was also produced in P-rats in which ventilatory responses remain unchanged. Prolonged hypoxic inhalation induced a progressive fall of systolic BP and of PAP. The return to normal air breathing is followed by BP restoration and a long-lasting PAP increase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  11. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Johnson, Eric G; Oishi, Peter E; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W; Matthay, Michael A; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-15

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study.

  12. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  13. In vivo support for the new concept of pulmonary blood flow-mediated CO2 gas excretion in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Ajima, Kumiko; Kaidoh, Maki; Sakaguchi, Masao; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kawamata, Mikito; Kimura, Hiroko; Ohhashi, Toshio

    2015-06-15

    To further examine the validity of the proposed concept of pulmonary blood flow-dependent CO2 gas excretion in the lungs, we investigated the effects of intramediastinal balloon catheterization-, pulmonary artery catheterization-, or isoprenaline (ISP)-induced changes in pulmonary blood flow on the end-expiratory CO2 gas pressure (PeCO2 ), the maximal velocity of the pulmonary artery (Max Vp), systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate of anesthetized rabbits. We also evaluated the changes in the PeCO2 in clinical models of anemia or pulmonary embolism. An almost linear relationship was detected between the PeCO2 and Max Vp. In an experiment in which small pulmonary arteries were subjected to stenosis, the PeCO2 fell rapidly, and the speed of the reduction was dependent on the degree of stenosis. ISP produced significant increases in the PeCO2 of the anesthetized rabbits. Conversely, treatment with piceatannol or acetazolamide induced significant reductions in the PeCO2 . Treatment with a cell surface F1/FO ATP synthase antibody caused significant reductions in the PeCO2 itself and the ISP-induced increase in the PeCO2 . Neither the PeCO2 nor SAP was significantly influenced by marked anemia [%hematocrit (Ht), 70 ∼ 47%]. On the other hand, in the presence of less severe anemia (%Ht: 100 ∼ 70%) both the PeCO2 and SAP fell significantly when the rabbits' blood viscosity was decreased. The rabbits in which pulmonary embolisms were induced demonstrated significantly reduced PeCO2 values, which was compatible with the lowering of their Max Vp. In conclusion, we reaffirm the validity of the proposed concept of CO2 gas exchange in the lungs.

  14. Characterization of pulmonary microcirculation according to hemodynamic changes with computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung W.; Choe, Kyu O.; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Bum K.; Chung, Kyung Y.; Kim, Se K.; Kim, Bong K.; Yang, In S.

    2002-04-01

    The common and important change of pulmonary hemodynamics is represented by increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). We made 3 hemodynamic models in 5 dogs, that is, increased and decreased PBF model and increased PVR model. CT perfusion scan was performed. Perfusion parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and maximal slope (MS) were analyzed. In normal state, blood flow was affected by gravity and dependent area showed higher BF, BV and lower MS, MTT than non-dependent area. First, decreased PBF model showed no significant change in BV and elongation of MTT. Secondly, increased PBF model showed slightly increased BV and decreased MTT. Thirdly, increased PVR model showed significant decrease of BF, BV, and MS and slight increase of MTT without statistical significance. However, it was noticeable that the distribution of MTT according to gravity in normal lung was completely reversed in increased PVR model. In conclusion, on the basis of our understanding of perfusion characteristic in normal state, we can detect and evaluate the abnormal regional hemodynamic change in lung. Predicting the change of pulmonary vascular resistance should be possible by thorough analysis of CT perfusion parameters.

  15. Redistribution of pulmonary blood flow impacts thermodilution-based extravascular lung water measurements in a model of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Easley, R. Blaine; Mulreany, Daniel G.; Lancaster, Christopher T.; Custer, Jason W.; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Simon, Brett A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies using transthoracic thermodilution have demonstrated increased extravascular lung water (EVLW) measurements attributed to progression of edema and flooding during sepsis and acute lung injury. We hypothesize that redistribution of pulmonary blood flow can cause increased apparent EVLW secondary to increased perfusion of thermally silent tissue, not increased lung edema. Methods Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated canines were instrumented with PiCCO® (Pulsion Medical, Munich, Germany) catheters and underwent lung injury by repetitive saline lavage. Hemodynamic and respiratory physiologic data were recorded. After stabilized lung injury, endotoxin was administered to inactivate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Computerized tomographic imaging was performed to quantify in vivo lung volume, total tissue (fluid) and air content, and regional distribution of blood flow. Results Lavage injury caused an increase in airway pressures and decreased arterial oxygen content with minimal hemodynamic effects. EVLW and shunt fraction increased after injury and then markedly following endotoxin administration. Computerized tomographic measurements quantified an endotoxin-induced increase in pulmonary blood flow to poorly aerated regions with no change in total lung tissue volume. Conclusions The abrupt increase in EVLW and shunt fraction after endotoxin administration is consistent with inactivation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased perfusion to already flooded lung regions that were previously thermally silent. Computerized tomographic studies further demonstrate in vivo alterations in regional blood flow (but not lung water) and account for these alterations in shunt fraction and EVLW. PMID:19809280

  16. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DISEASE USING PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary function testing is used routinely in human medicine to objectively define functional deficits in individuals with respiratory disease. Despite the fact that respiratory disease is a common problem in veterinary medicine, evaluation of the small animal pa...

  17. Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections: use and potential for expanded use of dried blood spot samples.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Koster, Remco A; Akkerman, Onno W; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample procedure for TDM. TDM was found to be an important component of clinical care for many (but not all) pulmonary infections. For gentamicin, linezolid, voriconazole and posaconazole dried blood spot methods and their use in TDM were already evident in literature. For glycopeptides, β-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones it was determined that development of a dried blood spot (DBS) method could be useful. This review identifies specific antibiotics for which development of DBS methods could support the optimization of treatment of pulmonary infections.

  18. Redistribution of pulmonary blood flow during unilateral hypoxia in prone and supine dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, C. M.; Domino, K. B.; Walther, S. M.; Glenny, R. W.; Polissar, N. L.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    We used fluorescent-labeled microspheres in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs to study the effects of unilateral alveolar hypoxia on the pulmonary blood flow distribution. The left lung was ventilated with inspired O2 fraction of 1.0, 0.09, or 0.03 in random order; the right lung was ventilated with inspired O2 fraction of 1.0. The lungs were removed, cleared of blood, dried at total lung capacity, then cubed to obtain approximately 1,500 small pieces of lung ( approximately 1.7 cm3). The coefficient of variation of flow increased (P < 0.001) in the hypoxic lung but was unchanged in the hyperoxic lung. Most (70-80%) variance in flow in the hyperoxic lung was attributable to structure, in contrast to only 30-40% of the variance in flow in the hypoxic lung (P < 0.001). When adjusted for the change in total flow to each lung, 90-95% of the variance in the hyperoxic lung was attributable to structure compared with 70-80% in the hypoxic lung (P < 0.001). The hilar-to-peripheral gradient, adjusted for change in total flow, decreased in the hypoxic lung (P = 0.005) but did not change in the hyperoxic lung. We conclude that hypoxic vasoconstriction alters the regional distribution of flow in the hypoxic, but not in the hyperoxic, lung.

  19. Asymmetric distribution of the pulmonary blood flow between the right and left lungs in d-transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Muster, A J; Paul, M H; Van Grondelle, A; Conway, J J

    1976-09-01

    Pulmonary angiograms, radionuclide lung images and chest roentgenograms were evaluated regarding the incidence, magnitude and natural evolution of maldistribution of the pulmonary blood flow between the lungs in 63 patients with dextrotransposition of the great arteries. Approximately half of these patients had some degree of greater perfusion of the right relative to the left lung. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the incidence of this maldistribution of blood flow and the angulation between the main and the right pulmonary arteries. For any given angulation between these vessels, additional pulmonary stenosis increased the incidence of disparity in perfusion. Our observations suggest the following developmental mechanisms: The maldistribution in flow results from the abnormal rightward inclination of the main pulmonary artery in the transposition malformation which straightens the flow axis from the main to the right pulmonary artery. Under these circumstances the momentum of the blood in the main pulmonary artery carries the blood preferentially into the right pulmonary artery. This momentum is increased when there is stenosis of the left ventricular outflow tract. Consequent differences in the mechanical properties of the two pulmonary vascular beds can increase this maldistribution. The disparity in perfusion between the lungs is not present in newborns with d-transposition, appears to be progressive in severity and in time may result in almost complete cessation of effective perfusion of the left lung. The effect of the Mustard operation on this abnormality of flow is discussed. PMID:961610

  20. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population.

  1. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Garten, Ryan S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Conklin, Jamie D.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Morgan, David E.; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R.; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. PMID:26188020

  2. Characterization of optimal resting tension in human pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Azar; Bennett, Robert T; Chaudhry, Mubarak A; Qadri, Syed S; Cowen, Mike; Morice, Alyn H; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the optimum resting tension (ORT) for in vitro human pulmonary artery (PA) ring preparations. METHODS Pulmonary arteries were dissected from disease free sections of the resected lung in the operating theatre and tissue samples were directly sent to the laboratory in Krebs-Henseleit solution (Krebs). The pulmonary arteries were then cut into 2 mm long rings. PA rings were mounted in 25 mL organ baths or 8 mL myograph chambers containing Krebs compound (37 °C, bubbled with 21% O2: 5% CO2) to measure changes in isometric tension. The resting tension was set at 1-gram force (gf) with vessels being left static to equilibrate for duration of one hour. Baseline contractile reactions to 40 mmol/L KCl were obtained from a resting tension of 1 gf. Contractile reactions to 40 mmol/L KCl were then obtained from stepwise increases in resting tension (1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 gf). RESULTS Twenty PA rings of internal diameter between 2-4 mm were prepared from 4 patients. In human PA rings incrementing the tension during rest stance by 0.6 gf, up to 1.6 gf significantly augmented the 40 mmol/L KCl stimulated tension. Further enhancement of active tension by 0.4 gf, up to 2.0 gf mitigate the 40 mmol/L KCl stimulated reaction. Both Myograph and the organ bath demonstrated identical conclusions, supporting that the radial optimal resting tension for human PA ring was 1.61 g. CONCLUSION The radial optimal resting tension in our experiment is 1.61 gf (15.78 mN) for human PA rings. PMID:27721938

  3. Molecular characterization of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma: analysis of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Terra, Simone Bsp; Jang, Jin S; Bi, Lintao; Kipp, Benjamin R; Jen, Jin; Yi, Eunhee S; Boland, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    Several targetable genetic alterations have been found in lung cancer, predominantly in adenocarcinomas, which have led to important therapeutic advancements with the advent of targeted therapy. In contrast, the molecular features and presence of targetable genetic abnormalities in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are largely unknown. Thirty-three cases of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma were tested for approximately 2800 mutations in 50 oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, including EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, TP53, BRAF, ERBB2, JAK3, AKT1, ATM, MET, KIT, and PIK3CA. ALK immunostaining was performed, and ALK FISH was performed on cases with any degree of staining. Twenty-four of the 33 cases (72%) had at least one genetic abnormality: 19 cases (58%) had TP53 mutations; 10 cases (30%) had KRAS mutations; AKT1, JAK3, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations were observed in 1 case each (3%). Six of the 19 cases (32%) with a mutation in TP53 had simultaneous mutations in KRAS (18%). The cases with alterations in JAK3, BRAF, and NRAS also had mutations in TP53. The case showing a mutation in PIK3CA had a mutation in KRAS. No EGFR mutations were observed. One case had ALK gene rearrangement. ALK rearrangement was observed in a single case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (3%), which has currently available targeted therapy. Four tumors had mutations in genes with experimental molecular-based therapy, including BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, and AKT1. Testing for targetable mutations should be considered for patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma, as a subset may benefit from currently approved drugs or clinical trials of novel therapeutic options available for other types of lung cancer.

  4. Immunophenotypical characterization of the lymphocyte infiltrate in caprine pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Seva, J; Hernández, D; Bernabé, A; Pallarés, F J; Navarro, J A

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the immunophenotype of the lymphocytes associated with natural caprine pulmonary tuberculosis at four stages of the disease. Regardless of the stage, CD4(+)and CD8(+)T lymphocytes predominated in lung and mediastinal lymph node lesions, but gamma/delta T and B (IgM(+)) cells were seen only rarely. At the primary complex stage, CD4(+)cells outnumbered CD8(+)cells. At the stage of generalized tuberculosis, however, and still more at the post-primary stage, CD8(+)cells outnumbered CD4(+)cells. At the final stage (tuberculous pneumonia), CD4(+)and CD8(+)cells were present in low but approximately equal numbers.

  5. Isolation and characterization of endothelial progenitor cells from human blood.

    PubMed

    Mead, Laura E; Prater, Daniel; Yoder, Mervin C; Ingram, David A

    2008-07-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in adult human peripheral blood were originally identified in 1997 by Asahara et al., which challenged the paradigm that vasculogenesis is a process restricted to embryonic development. Since their original identification, EPCs have been extensively studied as biomarkers to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease in human subjects and as a potential cell therapeutic for vascular regeneration. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), which are a subtype of EPCs, were recently identified from circulating adult and human umbilical cord blood. In contrast to other types of EPCs, which display various monocyte/macrophage phenotypes and functions, ECFCs are characterized by robust proliferative potential, secondary and tertiary colony formation upon replating, and de novo blood vessel formation in vivo when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. In this unit, we describe detailed methodologies for isolation and characterization of ECFCs from both human peripheral and umbilical cord blood.

  6. Regional pulmonary distribution of iodine-125-labeled oleic acid. Its relationship to the pattern of oleic acid edema and pulmonary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, R.D.; Tsai, J.; Hedlund, L.W.; Sullivan, D.C.; Lischko, M.M.; Harris, C.C.; Effmann, E.L.; Putman, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Oleic acid infusion in dogs produces a patchy, predominantly peripheral lesion on CT scans. This study correlates the pattern of oleic acid injury with the distribution of infused oleic acid and pulmonary blood flow. Radiolabeled oleic acid (I-125, 0.05 ml/kg) and radiolabeled 15-micron microspheres (Co-57) were infused into the right atria of 11 dogs. Oleic acid was given after the microspheres in six dogs and before microspheres in five dogs. Ten minutes after infusion, the lungs were removed. Four transverse slices (0.5 cm thick) of the lower lobes were taken from each dog and cubed. Samples were grouped into three regions of the transverse slice: outer, middle, and inner concentric rings. In both groups, I-125 (oleic acid) activity was greater in the outer than the middle and inner concentric layers (P less than 0.001). When Cobalt-57 microspheres were given before oleic acid, Cobalt-57 activity was marginally lower in the outer layer compared with the middle and inner layers. However, when oleic acid was given first, microsphere activity in the outer layer was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than the middle layer. Thus, oleic acid was preferentially distributed to the peripheral regions of the lung, similar to the regions of injury on CT. This distribution did not correspond to the pattern of pulmonary blood flow as indicated by the microspheres. Immediately after oleic acid infusion, pulmonary blood flow to the periphery was reduced, reflecting a response to the predominantly peripheral injury by oleic acid.

  7. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... that damage the lungs, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis Birth defects of the heart Blood clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels in the blood ...

  8. Effect of Supine Posture on Airway Blood Flow and Pulmonary Function in Stable Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ceridon, Maile L.; Morris, Norman R.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body position, pulmonary function (PF) and bronchial blood flow (Qaw) in a group of heart failure (HF) and control subjects. Methods Thirty-six subjects were studied: 24 stable, ambulatory HF patients (HF: LVEF=27±6%, age=65±9yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL: LVEF=60±7%, age=62±8yr). Measures of Q̇aw (soluble gas method) and PF were collected upright and following 30 min in the supine position. Results Q̇aw was similar between groups and remained unchanged with body position. Declines in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) with the supine position were observed in both groups; declines in forced expiratory flow 25–75% (FEF25–75) and FEF 75% (FEF75) with the supine position were observed in the HF group only. Changes in Q̇aw were related to changes in PF only in the HF patient groups (ΔFVC, %predicted, r=−0.45, p<0.04, ΔFEV1 r=−0.61, p<0.01, ΔFEV1 %predicted, r=−0.45, p<0.04). Conclusion These data demonstrate that relationships between postural changes in Q̇aw and PF exist only in the HF population and that the bronchial circulation may contribute to postural PF decline in HF. PMID:21741500

  9. The ABO and rhesus blood groups in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Viskum, K

    1975-12-01

    During the 3 year period 1970-1972 a total of 554 patients were notified for the first time as having bacillary or abacillary pulmonary tuberculosis in the Municipality of Copenhagen; 99 per cent of these patients were typed according to the ABO and rhesus system. The bacillary patients showed an excess of group O and AB and a deficit of A and B as compared to the general population. The deviations were statistically highly significant for group O and A. The distribution according to the rhesus system did not deviate from the expected pattern. The ABO and rhesus distribution of the abacillary patients did not differ significantly from the expected pattern. During a follow-up period of 2-5 years after the initial diagnosis 104 bacillary patients died; the ABO pattern among the survivors was now closer to the normal; this resulted from a high number of deaths from tuberculosis among patients of group O and a low number among those belonging to group A. More rhesus negative patients died from tuberculosis than rhesus positive. It is concluded that a study of the ABO and rhesus pattern among the tuberculosis patients becomes biased if a break-down by bacteriological findings and history is not made. It is also important that the study covers all patients who contract tuberculosis within a certain period, as the longevity of the patients is apparently to some extent dependent on their blood group.

  10. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  11. A study on blood eosinophil level and ventilatory pulmonary function of the workers exposed to storage grain dust.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Mahata, A; Kundu, S; Alam, J; Das, S; Roychowdhury, A

    2007-01-01

    The workers engaged in storage grain handling are exposed to storage grain dust and suffer from different respiratory symptoms like, cough wheezing, chest tightness, eye and nasal irritations. It has been reported abroad and the present study results noted that the grain handlers have allergic symptoms like redness of eyes, itching, sneezing, skin rash, breathlessness and decrement of pulmonary function test values. According to their nature of job, the workers of storage grain godowns were divided into four categories i.e., load handling worker (LHW), ancillary, quality control and depot administration workers. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the differential count of leucocytes were carried out among the workers by standard technique. Decrement of pulmonary function test values was noted with the increment of blood eosinophil level.The PFT results were presented according to the blood eosinophil level. The decrement of mean PFT values were noticed as the blood level of eosinophil gradually increased from, up to -4%, >4-10% and above 10%. The maximum numbers of workers in different job categories are belonged to >4 -10% of eosinophil level. The percentage figure of workers in different departments were LHW 48.38%, (n=45), ancillary 38.88%, (n=7), quality control 54.54% (n=6) and depot administration workers 47.05% (n=16) are belonged to that range. Among the total workers the higher figure was found >4-10% ranges 47.43% (n=74) workers. The allergic manifestations like redness, itchiness and watering of eyes, sneezing, cough, breathless etc. are reported. These workers have blood eosinophil level and low pulmonary function test values. The respiratory impairments among the workers are restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive type.

  12. Characterization of the human blood plasma proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Kim, Jeongkwon; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Fang, Ruihua; Tolic, Nikola; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-10-15

    We describe methods for broad characterization of the human plasma proteome. The combination of stepwise IgG and albumin protein depletion by affinity chromatography and ultrahigh-efficiency capillary liquid chromatography separations coupled to ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry enabled identification of 2392 proteins from a single plasma sample with an estimated confidence level of >94%, and an additional 2198 proteins with an estimated confidence level of 80%. The relative abundances of the identified proteins span a range of over eight orders of magnitude in concentration (<30 pg/mL to {approx}30 mg/mL), facilitated by the attomole-level sensitivity of the analysis methods. More than 80% of the observed proteins demonstrate interactions with IgG and/or albumin. The results from this study provide a basis for a wide range of plasma proteomics studies, including broad quantitation of relative abundances in comparative studies for the identification of novel protein disease markers, as well as further studies of protein-protein interactions.

  13. Expression Profile of Cytokines and Enzymes mRNA in Blood Leukocytes of Dogs with Leptospirosis and Its Associated Pulmonary Hemorrhage Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maissen-Villiger, Carla A.; Schweighauser, Ariane; van Dorland, H. Anette; Morel, Claudine; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Francey, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background Dogs with leptospirosis show similar organ manifestations and disease course as human patients, including acute kidney injury and pulmonary hemorrhage, making this naturally-occurring infection a good animal model for human leptospirosis. Expression patterns of cytokines and enzymes have been correlated with disease manifestations and clinical outcome in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to describe mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in canine leptospirosis and to compare it with other renal diseases to identify patterns characterizing the disease and especially its pulmonary form. Methodology and Principal Findings The mRNA abundance of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β) and enzymes (5-LO, iNOS) was measured prospectively in blood leukocytes from 34 dogs with severe leptospirosis and acute kidney injury, including 22 dogs with leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhages. Dogs with leptospirosis were compared to 14 dogs with acute kidney injury of other origin than leptospirosis, 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease, and 10 healthy control dogs. Canine leptospirosis was characterized by high 5-LO and low TNF-α expression compared to other causes of acute kidney injury, although the decreased TNF-α expression was also seen in chronic kidney disease. Leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhage was not characterized by a specific pattern, with only mild changes noted, including increased IL-10 and decreased 5-LO expression on some days in affected dogs. Fatal outcome from pulmonary hemorrhages was associated with low TNF-α, high IL-1β, and high iNOS expression, a pattern possibly expressed also in dogs with other forms of acute kidney injury. Conclusion The patterns of cytokine and enzyme expression observed in the present study indicate a complex pro- and anti-inflammatory response to the infection with leptospires. The recognition of these signatures may be of diagnostic and prognostic relevance

  14. Influence of Bronchial Blood Flow and Conductance on Pulmonary Function in Stable Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ceridon, Maile L.; Morris, Norman R.; Hulsebus, Minelle L.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between airway blood flow (Q̇aw), airway conductance (Gf-aw) and pulmonary function in patients with stable HF. 12 controls (CTRL: age=63±9yr, FVC=98±15%pred, LVEF=61±6%) (all data presented as mean±SD), 16 patients with mild HF (HF-A, NYHA I–II: age=64±9yr, FVC=90±17%pred, LVEF=28±6%), and 14 patients with moderate/severe HF (HF-B, NYHA III–IV: age=65±6yr, FVC=84±12%pred, LVEF=26±6%) were studied. Q̇aw was assessed using soluble gas measurements; perfusion pressure across airway bed (ΔPaw) was estimated from systemic and pulmonary pressure measurements; Gf-aw was calculated as Q̇aw/ΔPaw; PF was assessed by spirometry. While Q̇aw was not significantly different between CTRL (61.3±17.9 μL·min−1·ml−1), HF-A (70.1±26.9 μL·min−1·ml−1) and HF-B (56.2±14.9 μL·min−1·ml−1) groups, Gf-aw, was elevated in HF-A (1.1±0.4 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1, p<0.03) and tended to be elevated in HF-B (1.2±0.6 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1, p=0.07) when compared to CTRL (0.8±0.3 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1). Significant positive correlations were found between Gf-aw and RV/TLC for HF-A (r=0.63, p<0.02) and HF-B (r=0.58, p<0.05). These results support the hypothesis that increased bronchial conductance and bronchial congestion may be related to greater small airway obstruction and as such may play a role in the PF abnormalities and symptoms of congestion commonly observed in HF patients. PMID:21545852

  15. Pulmonary Hemorrhage: Imaging with a New Magnetic Resonance Blood Pool Agent in Conjunction with Breathheld Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Weishaupt, Dominik; Hilfiker, Paul R.; Schmidt, Michaela; Debatin, Joerg F.

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To describe the three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA) imaging appearance of the pulmonary arteries following administration of a superparamagnetic iron oxide blood pool agent to human volunteers, and to demonstrate in an animal model (pigs) how this technique can be used to detect pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage. Methods: Two volunteers were examined following the intravenous administration of a superparamagnetic iron oxide blood pool agent (NC100150 Injection, Nycomed Amersham Imaging, Wayne, PA, USA). T1-weighted 3D gradient recalled echo (GRE) image sets (TR/TE 5.1/1.4 msec, flip angle 30 deg.) were acquired breathheld over 24 sec. To assess the detectability of pulmonary bleeding with intravascular MR contrast, pulmonary parenchymal injuries were created in two animals under general anesthesia, and fast T1-weighted 3D GRE image sets collected before and after the injury. Results: Administration of the intravascular contrast in the two volunteers resulted in selective enhancement of the pulmonary vasculature permitting complete visualization and excellent delineation of central, segmental, and subsegmental arteries. Following iatrogenic injury in the two animals, pulmonary hemorrhage was readily detected on the 3D image sets. Conclusion: The data presented illustrate that ultrafast 3D GRE MR imaging in conjunction with an intravenously administered intravascular blood pool agent can be used to perform high-quality pulmonary MRA as well as to detect pulmonary hemorrhage.

  16. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus: auto-downregulation of pulmonary arterial blood supply.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially documented case of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and flow shift in a main pulmonary artery due to a complete intrinsic obstruction of the ipsilateral main bronchus. The condition is reversible, contingent on being relieved within a few days. PMID:26374773

  17. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression Profiles Predict Poor Outcome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Noth, Imre; Duncan, Steven R.; Kim, SungHwan; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Tseng, George C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Juan-Guardela, Brenda M.; Richards, Thomas J.; Lussier, Yves; Huang, Yong; Vij, Rekha; Lindell, Kathleen O.; Xue, Jianmin; Gibson, Kevin F.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Kaminski, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression profiles predictive of poor outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by performing microarray experiments of PBMCs in discovery and replication cohorts of IPF patients. Microarray analyses identified 52 genes associated with transplant-free survival (TFS) in the discovery cohort. Clustering the microarray samples of the replication cohort using the 52-gene outcome-predictive signature distinguished two patient groups with significant differences in TFS. We studied the pathways associated with TFS in each independent microarray cohort and identified decreased expression of “The costimulatory signal during T cell activation” Biocarta pathway and, in particular, the genes CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK, results confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A proportional hazards model, including the qRT-PCR expression of CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK along with patient’s age, gender, and percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%), demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 78.5% at 2.4 months for death and lung transplant prediction in the replication cohort. To evaluate the potential cellular source of CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK expression, we analyzed and found significant correlation of these genes with the PBMC percentage of CD4+CD28+ T cells in the replication cohort. Our results suggest that CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK are potential outcome biomarkers in IPF and should be further evaluated for patient prioritization for lung transplantation and stratification in drug studies. PMID:24089408

  18. Lysis of red blood cells and alveolar epithelial toxicity by therapeutic pulmonary surfactants.

    PubMed

    Findlay, R D; Taeusch, H W; David-Cu, R; Walther, F J

    1995-01-01

    The risk of pulmonary hemorrhage is increased in extremely low birth weight infants treated with surfactant. The pathogenesis of this increased risk is far from clear. We tested whether exposure of cell membranes to surfactant may lead to increased membrane permeability, hypothesizing that this process may contribute to the occurrence of alveolar hemorrhage after surfactant treatment. Aliquots of washed packed red blood cells (used as membrane model) were suspended in 0.9% NaCl with various concentrations of Survanta or Exosurf for either 2 or 24 h at 37 degrees C. Cytolysis was measured by spectrophotometric determination of free Hb after centrifugation. Red cells suspended in 0.9% NaCl alone, distilled water, or various concentrations of melittin were used as negative and positive controls. Both surfactants were associated with increased hemolysis to 35% of maximum at concentrations of 1.25 mg/2 mL. Above these concentrations, Survanta was associated with no increase in hemolysis, whereas Exosurf increased hemolysis to 60% of maximum at concentrations of 12.5 mg/2 mL. In additional experiments, primary cultures of alveolar type II cells from adult rats were treated with Survanta, Exosurf, the Exosurf components tyloxapol and hexadecanol, melittin, or culture medium alone. After 24 h of incubation, lactate dehydrogenase release into the media was measured as a percent of total lactate dehydrogenase activity to indicate cytotoxicity. Lactate dehydrogenase release was < 10% for control experiments but increased sharply with Exosurf and its components tyloxapol and hexadecanol. These results indicate that surfactant may be associated with in vitro cytotoxicity and that this property differs for different surfactants and different dosages.

  19. Microemboli Characterization in Whole Blood Medium by Laser Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkuk

    The current light scattering method to detect the thromboemboli generated inside blood vessels or by direct contact of biomaterials has been a powerful method because of its advantages: continuous real time measurement, non-ionizing radiation, practically unlimited aggregate size distribution, no disturbance of blood flow, and low cost. But this method only detects the number and size of thromboemboli that is assumed to be known. If there are air bubbles or foreign particles, this method can not distinguish them from the thromboemboli. An improved light scattering detection method that can characterize emboli, air bubbles, or any foreign particles, their number and size and also their nature, will be proposed by finding coefficients of a Legendre polynomial expansion of phase functions for a microembolus, air bubble, or a foreign particle. The scattered light distribution in whole blood medium is obtained by deriving and solving a multiple order scattering transport approximation of the radiative transport equation. This approximation will be derived on the basis of the fact that blood cells are highly anisotropic scatterers and applied to detect and characterize the microemboli mentioned above. Also a more practical method is devised. This method uses three different scattering angles that produce maximum differences in scattering phase function of microemboli according to their nature. This method is tested for a cylindrical whole blood medium with several kinds of known inhomogeneous particles: polystyrene spheres, air bubbies, and clots. The results produced an excellent agreement with theoretical calculations.

  20. Characterization of pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, R.S.; Rummey, C.; Benton, M.J.; Glanzman, A.M.; Flickinger, J.; Lindström, B.‐M.; Meier, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Decline in pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) contributes to significant morbidity and reduced longevity. Spirometry is a widely used and fairly easily performed technique to assess lung function, and in particular lung volume; however, the acceptability criteria from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) may be overly restrictive and inappropriate for patients with neuromuscular disease. We examined prospective spirometry data (Forced Vital Capacity [FVC] and peak expiratory flow [PEF]) from 60 DMD patients enrolled in a natural history cohort study (median age 10.3 years, range 5–24 years). Expiratory flow‐volume curves were examined by a pulmonologist and the data were evaluated for acceptability using ATS criteria modified based on the capabilities of patients with neuromuscular disease. Data were then analyzed for change with age, ambulation status, and glucocorticoid use. At least one acceptable study was obtained in 44 subjects (73%), and 81 of the 131 studies (62%) were acceptable. The FVC and PEF showed similar relative changes in absolute values with increasing age, i.e., an increase through 10 years, relative stabilization from 10–18 years, and then a decrease at an older age. The percent predicted, FVC and PEF showed a near linear decline of approximately 5% points/year from ages 5 to 24. Surprisingly, no difference was observed in FVC or PEF by ambulation or steroid treatment. Acceptable spirometry can be performed on DMD patients over a broad range of ages. Using modified ATS criteria, curated spirometry data, excluding technically unacceptable data, may provide a more reliable means of determining change in lung function over time. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 50:487–494. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25755201

  1. Characterization of pulmonary sigma receptors by radioligand binding.

    PubMed

    Lever, John R; Litton, Tyler P; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A

    2015-09-01

    This study establishes the expression of appreciable populations of sites on mouse lung membranes that exhibit radioligand binding properties and pharmacology consistent with assignment as sigma1 and sigma2 receptors. Specific binding of the sigma1 receptor radioligand [(3)H](+)-pentazocine reached steady state within 6h at 37°C. Saturation studies revealed high affinity binding to a single class of sites (Kd 1.36±0.04nM; Bmax 967±11fmol/mg protein). Inhibition studies showed appropriate sigma1 receptor pharmacology, including higher affinity for (+)-N-allylnormetazocine with respect to the (-)-enantiomer, and positive allosteric modulation of dextromethorphan binding by phenytoin. Using [(3)H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine in the presence of (+)-pentazocine to assess sigma2 receptor binding, steady state was achieved within 2min at 25°C. Cold saturation studies revealed one high affinity, low capacity binding site (Kd 31.8±8.3nM; Bmax 921±228fmol/mg protein) that displayed sigma2 receptor pharmacology. A very low affinity, high capacity interaction also was observed that represents saturable, but not sigma receptor specific, binding. A panel of ligands showed rank order inhibition of radioligand binding appropriate for the sigma2 receptor, with ifenprodil displaying the highest apparent affinity. In vivo, dextromethorphan inhibited the specific binding of a radioiodinated sigma1 receptor ligand in lung with an ED50 of 1.2μmol/kg, a value near the recommended dosage for the drug as a cough suppressant. Overall, the present work provides a foundation for studies of drug interactions with pulmonary sigma1 and sigma2 receptors in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Characterization of pulmonary sigma receptors by radioligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Lever, John R.; Litton, Tyler P.; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This study establishes the expression of appreciable populations of sites on mouse lung membranes that exhibit radioligand binding properties and pharmacology consistent with assignment as sigma1 and sigma2 receptors. Specific binding of the sigma1 receptor radioligand [3H](+)-pentazocine reached steady state within 6 h at 37 °C. Saturation studies revealed high affinity binding to a single class of sites (Kd 1.36 ± 0.04 nM; Bmax 967 ± 11 fmol / mg protein). Inhibition studies showed appropriate sigma1 receptor pharmacology, including higher affinity for (+)-N-allylnormetazocine with respect to the (−)-enantiomer, and positive allosteric modulation of dextromethorphan binding by phenytoin. Using [3H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine in the presence of (+)-pentazocine to assess sigma2 receptor binding, steady state was achieved within 2 min at 25 °C. Cold saturation studies revealed one high affinity, low capacity binding site (Kd 31.8 ± 8.3 nM; Bmax 921 ± 228 fmol / mg protein) that displayed sigma2 receptor pharmacology. A very low affinity, high capacity interaction also was observed that represents saturable, but not sigma receptor specific, binding. A panel of ligands showed rank order inhibition of radioligand binding appropriate for the sigma2 receptor, with ifenprodil displaying the highest apparent affinity. In vivo, dextromethorphan inhibited the specific binding of a radioiodinated sigma1 receptor ligand in lung with an ED50 of 1.2 µmol / kg, a value near the recommended dosage for the drug as a cough suppressant. Overall, the present work provides a foundation for studies of drug interactions with pulmonary sigma1 and sigma2 receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26004528

  3. Characterization of pulmonary sigma receptors by radioligand binding.

    PubMed

    Lever, John R; Litton, Tyler P; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A

    2015-09-01

    This study establishes the expression of appreciable populations of sites on mouse lung membranes that exhibit radioligand binding properties and pharmacology consistent with assignment as sigma1 and sigma2 receptors. Specific binding of the sigma1 receptor radioligand [(3)H](+)-pentazocine reached steady state within 6h at 37°C. Saturation studies revealed high affinity binding to a single class of sites (Kd 1.36±0.04nM; Bmax 967±11fmol/mg protein). Inhibition studies showed appropriate sigma1 receptor pharmacology, including higher affinity for (+)-N-allylnormetazocine with respect to the (-)-enantiomer, and positive allosteric modulation of dextromethorphan binding by phenytoin. Using [(3)H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine in the presence of (+)-pentazocine to assess sigma2 receptor binding, steady state was achieved within 2min at 25°C. Cold saturation studies revealed one high affinity, low capacity binding site (Kd 31.8±8.3nM; Bmax 921±228fmol/mg protein) that displayed sigma2 receptor pharmacology. A very low affinity, high capacity interaction also was observed that represents saturable, but not sigma receptor specific, binding. A panel of ligands showed rank order inhibition of radioligand binding appropriate for the sigma2 receptor, with ifenprodil displaying the highest apparent affinity. In vivo, dextromethorphan inhibited the specific binding of a radioiodinated sigma1 receptor ligand in lung with an ED50 of 1.2μmol/kg, a value near the recommended dosage for the drug as a cough suppressant. Overall, the present work provides a foundation for studies of drug interactions with pulmonary sigma1 and sigma2 receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26004528

  4. Vertical Distributions of Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and Capillary Blood Flow in Man

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Edward D.; Sackner, Marvin A.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    In six normal upright subjects, a 100 mol bolus—composed of equal parts of neon, carbon monoxide, and acetylene (Ne, CO, and C2H2)—was inspired from either residual volume (RV) or functional residual capacity (FRC) during a slow inspiration from RV to total lung capacity (TLC). After breath holding and subsequent collection of the exhalate, diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood flow per liter of lung volume (DL/VA and Q̇C/VA) were calculated from the rates of CO and C2H2 disappearances relative to Ne. The means: DL/VA = 5.26 ml/min × mm Hg per liter (bolus at RV), 6.54 ml/min × mm Hg per liter (at FRC); Q̇C/VA 0.537 liters/minute per liter (bolus at RV), 0.992 liters/minute per liter (at FRC). Similar maneuvers using Xenon-133 confirmed that, during inspiration, more of the bolus goes to the upper zone if introduced at RV and more to the lower, if at FRC. A lung model has been constructed which describes how DL/VA and Q̇C/VA must be distributed to satisfy the experimental data. According to this model, there is a steep gradient of Q̇C/VA, increasing from apex to base, similar to that previously determined by other techniques—and also a gradient in the same direction, although not as steep, for DL/VA. This more uniform distribution of DL/VA compared with Q̇C/VA indicates a vertical unevenness of diffusing capacity with respect to blood flow (DL/Q̇C). However, the relative degree of vertical unevenness of DL/VA compared with Q̇C/VA can account only in part for previous observations attributed to the inhomogeneity of DL/VA and Q̇C/VA. Thus, a more generalized unevennes of these ratios must exist throughout the lung, independent of gravitation. Images PMID:4683876

  5. Development and characterization of acellular porcine pulmonary valve scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Korossis, Sotirios A; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul; Jennings, Louise M; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2014-11-01

    Currently available replacement heart valves all have limitations. This study aimed to produce and characterize an acellular, biocompatible porcine pulmonary root conduit for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract e.g., during Ross procedure. A process for the decellularization of porcine pulmonary roots was developed incorporating trypsin treatment of the adventitial surface of the scraped pulmonary artery and sequential treatment with hypotonic Tris buffer (HTB; 10 mM Tris pH 8.0, 0.1% (w/v) EDTA, and 10 KIU aprotinin), 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in HTB, two cycles of DNase and RNase, and sterilization with 0.1% (v/v) peracetic acid. Histology confirmed an absence of cells and retention of the gross histoarchitecture. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed cell removal and partial retention of the extracellular matrix, but a loss of collagen type IV. DNA levels were reduced by more than 96% throughout all regions of the acellular tissue and no functional genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. Total collagen levels were retained but there was a significant loss of glycosaminoglycans following decellularization. The biomechanical, hydrodynamic, and leaflet kinematics properties were minimally affected by the process. Both immunohistochemical labeling and antibody absorption assay confirmed a lack of α-gal epitopes in the acellular porcine pulmonary roots and in vitro biocompatibility studies indicated that acellular leaflets and pulmonary arteries were not cytotoxic. Overall the acellular porcine pulmonary roots have excellent potential for development of a tissue substitute for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction e.g., during the Ross procedure. PMID:24786313

  6. Effect of platelet-activating factor on porcine pulmonary blood vessels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pritze, S; Simmet, T; Peskar, B A

    1991-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced contractions of porcine pulmonary vein strips in a concentration-dependent manner, while porcine pulmonary artery strips were unresponsive. Exposure to the specific PAF-antagonists WEB 2086 or BN 52021 antagonized the contractile responses of pulmonary vein strips. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LT) and thromboxane (TX) B2 were not detected in the bath fluid after stimulation with PAF suggesting that these eicosanoids as well as their precursors are not mediators of PAF-induced contractions of porcine pulmonary vein strips. Furthermore, PAF had no significant effect on 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F1a release and flurbiprofen did not affect the PAF response, while it inhibited the release of 6-keto-PGF1a. This indicates that PGI2 or any other cyclooxygenase product is unlikely to modulate or mediate the PAF response. Incubation experiments with fragments of pulmonary vascular tissues demonstrated spontaneous release of small amounts of cysteinyl-LT, TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a, which was significantly increased during incubation in the presence of ionophore A23187. While these results demonstrate the synthesizing capacity of the porcine pulmonary vascular tissues for various eicosanoids, PAF failed to stimulate eicosanoid release under these experimental conditions. We conclude that PAF causes contractions of porcine pulmonary vein strips, which are not mediated by cysteinyl-LT or cyclooxygenase products of arachidonate metabolism. The specific contractile effect of PAF on pulmonary veins, but not arteries, could contribute to the disturbances of the pulmonary circulation observed after injection of PAF or release of endogenous PAF, e.g. after administration of endotoxin.

  7. Dynamic blood flow and wall shear stress in pulmonary hypertensive disease.

    PubMed

    Postles, Arthur; Clark, Alys R; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2014-01-01

    This study provides new model of pulsatile flow in the pulmonary circulation in health and pulmonary hypertensive disease. Structural vascular remodeling typical of pulmonary hypertensive disease was implemented in the model by progressively altering the mechanical properties of the arterial geometry and progressively increasing the inlet pulse pressure (PP). The transmission of PP throughout the tree was shown to increase in advanced stages of disease, creating the potential for a `vicious-cycle' of damage to vasculature. Wall shear stress (WSS) was shown to be highest in the terminal arteries of the model and increased significantly with disease. A further trend observed in WSS results was that high WSS values began to `climb' the arterial tree towards the proximal vessels as disease progressed. This suggests a link between WSS and distal remodeling in pulmonary hypertensive disease, which initiates in the small muscular arteries and arterioles and spreads into larger arteries as the disease progresses. PMID:25571282

  8. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  9. Pulmonary blood volume indexed to lung volume is reduced in newly diagnosed systemic sclerosis compared to normals – a prospective clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance study addressing pulmonary vascular changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary involvement, manifested as pulmonary arterial hypertension or pulmonary fibrosis, is the most common cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We aimed to explore the feasibility of detecting early pulmonary involvement in SSc using recently developed non-invasive quantitative measures of pulmonary physiology using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-seven SSc patients (9 men, 57 ± 13 years) and 10 healthy controls (3 men, 54 ± 9 years) underwent CMR to determine the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and the PBV variation (PBVV) throughout the cardiac cycle. Patients underwent Doppler echocardiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and pulmonary function testing by spirometry. Comparisons were performed using the unpaired t-test and linear regression analysis was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). Results Compared to healthy controls, the PBV indexed to lung volume (PBVI) was lower in patients (16 ± 4 vs 20 ± 5%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in PBV (466 ± 87 vs 471 ± 122 mL, p = 0.91) or PBVV/stroke volume (45 ± 10 vs 40 ± 6%, p = 0.09). There were no significant correlations between PBVI and pulmonary artery pressure estimated by Doppler (p = 0.08) the lung’s diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (p = 0.09), vital capacity (p = 0.45), or pulmonary fibrosis by HRCT (p = 0.74). Conclusions This study is the first to measure the PBV in humans using CMR. Compared to healthy controls, newly diagnosed SSc patients have a reduced amount of blood in the pulmonary vasculature (PBVI) but unchanged pulmonary vascular distensibility (PBVV/stroke volume). PBVI is unrelated to DLCO, pulmonary artery pressure, vital capacity, and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. PBVI may be a novel parameter reflecting vascular lung involvement in early-stage SSc, and these findings may be consistent with pathophysiological changes of

  10. Detection and Characterization of Carcinoma Cells in the Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racila, Emilian; Euhus, David; Weiss, Arthur J.; Rao, Chandra; McConnell, John; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1998-04-01

    A highly sensitive assay combining immunomagnetic enrichment with multiparameter flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis has been developed to detect, enumerate, and characterize carcinoma cells in the blood. The assay can detect one epithelial cell or less in 1 ml of blood. Peripheral blood (10-20 ml) from 30 patients with carcinoma of the breast, from 3 patients with prostate cancer, and from 13 controls was examined by flow cytometry for the presence of circulating epithelial cells defined as nucleic acid+, CD45-, and cytokeratin+. Highly significant differences in the number of circulating epithelial cells were found between normal controls and patients with cancer including 17 with organ-confined disease. To determine whether the circulating epithelial cells in the cancer patients were neoplastic cells, cytospin preparations were made after immunomagnetic enrichment and were analyzed. Epithelial cells from patients with breast cancer generally stained with mAbs against cytokeratin and 3 of 5 for mucin-1. In contrast, no cells that stained for these antigens were observed in the blood from normal controls. The morphology of the stained cells was consistent with that of neoplastic cells. Of 8 patients with breast cancer followed for 1-10 months, there was a good correlation between changes in the level of tumor cells in the blood with both treatment with chemotherapy and clinical status. The present assay may be helpful in early detection, in monitoring disease, and in prognostication.

  11. Further characterization of presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Misu, Y; Kuwahara, M; Kaiho, M; Kubo, T

    1983-07-22

    Presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors were further characterized in spiral strips of guinea-pig pulmonary arteries preloaded with [3H]norepinephrine. l-Metoprolol (3 X 10(-6) M) inhibited isoproterenol (3 X 10(-7) M)-induced increases in 3H efflux by transmural field stimulation, whereas the d-isomer produced no inhibition. However, IPS 339, H 35/25, butoxamine and metoprolol (3 X 10(-6) M) antagonized salbutamol (3 X 10(-7) M)-induced increases in the parameter, whereas acebutolol, bevantolol and practolol (3 X 10(-6) M) produced no antagonism. Presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig pulmonary arteries appear to have characteristics similar to those postsynaptic classical beta-adrenoceptors.

  12. Successful use of blood pleurodesis to resolve an iatrogenic persistent pneumothorax in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Masooma; Hyams, Catherine; Macavei, Vladimir M; O'Shaughnessy, Terence C

    2014-01-01

    A Somali patient with previous tuberculosis presented clinically unwell with features consistent with a right-sided pleural effusion. Subsequent investigations confirmed a community-acquired pneumonia and relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis, with a drug resistant strain isolated. The patient developed a large left-sided iatrogenic pneumothorax, which recurred and failed to resolve despite the successful insertion of both Seldinger and surgical chest drains, and the patient remained clinically unstable on the intensive care unit. A blood pleurodesis was successfully used to provide resolution of this patient's previously persistent pneumothorax, which has resulted in stabilisation of the patient and no further pneumothoraces have occurred subsequently. The authors therefore highlight the use of a blood pleurodesis as a little used technique that may provide a valuable tool to other clinicians in similar cases. PMID:25240008

  13. Arterial blood gases, pulmonary function and pathology in rats exposed to 0. 75 or 1. 0 ppM ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.

    1980-06-01

    Arterial blood gases, residual lung volume (RV), deflation pressure volume (PV) curves, pulmonary pathology and body weight changes were studied in rats exposed up to 14 days to either 0.75 or 1.0 ppM ozone. Arterial PO2 and body weights decreased progressively with length of exposure while PaCO2 and RV increased. The slope of the PV curve decreased in all groups exposed to ozone. Pathological changes in the lung increased in severity with concentration and length of exposure. The present findings have shown that arterial blood gas measurements represent a sensitive index of altered lung function in rats, a species very sensitive to ozone exposure.

  14. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jonathan A; Wanner, Nicholas; Cheong, Hoi I; Queisser, Kimberly; Barrett, Patrick; Park, Margaret; Hite, Corrine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs) are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC) and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH. PMID:27270458

  15. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jonathan A.; Wanner, Nicholas; Cheong, Hoi I.; Queisser, Kimberly; Barrett, Patrick; Park, Margaret; Hite, Corrine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs) are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC) and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH. PMID:27270458

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  17. The evaluation of pulmonary function and blood gas analysis in patients submitted to laparoscopic versus open nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Ayfer; Inan, Gozde; Bozkirli, Fusun; Coskun, Demet; Tunc, Lutfi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study was to assess the early postoperative pulmonary function and arterial blood gases in patients who have undergone open versus laparoscopic nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic (LN, n=20) or open nephrectomy (ON, n=20). Pulmonary function tests including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 25% (FEF25), forced expiratory volume at 50% (FEF50), forced expiratory volume at 25% to 75% (FEF25–75), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FIV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were performed one day before the operation and on the postoperative day 1. The arterial blood gas analysis (pH, pCO2, pO2, SaO2) was made at breathing room preoperatively, in the recovery phase and on postoperative day 1. Results: All spirometric variables decreased after both open and laparoscopic nephrectomy on postoperative day 1. FEV1, FVC, FEF25 and FEF25–75 values decreased on postoperative day 1 (39.7%, 37.4%, 27.7%, 51.8% respectively) in the open surgery group and they were significantly lower in laparoscopic group (29.9%, 32.5%, 23.2%, 44.5% respectively). There were no significant differences in FEF50, PEF and FIV1 between the groups. The SaO2 and pO2 values also decreased in both groups. During early recovery, pH decreased while pCO2 increased significantly but they returned to preoperative values on postoperative day 1 in both groups. Conclusion: Laparoscopic nephrectomy is better than open nephrectomy considering pulmonary functions. PMID:26742981

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  19. Biochemical characterization of the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Griot-Wenk, M; Pahlsson, P; Chisholm-Chait, A; Spitalnik, P F; Spitalnik, S L; Giger, U

    1993-12-01

    The biochemical nature of the feline AB blood group system was characterized by analysing red blood cells from homozygous (genotype A/A) and heterozygous (A/B) type A, type B (B/B), and type AB cats. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of red cell glycolipids revealed that specific neuraminic acids (NA) on gangliosides, containing ceramide dihexoside (CDH) as a backbone, correlated with the feline AB blood group antigens. Although disialogangliosides predominated, mono- and trisialogangliosides were also isolated. B cats expressed solely N-acetyl-NA (NeuNAc) on these gangliosides. In addition to expressing N-glycolyl-NA (NeuNGc) containing gangliosides, A red cells have gangliosides with only NeuNAc or mixtures of both NA. HPTLC profiles of disialogangliosides from homozygous and heterozygous A cats differed slightly in the quantity of disialogangliosides. Equal amounts of NeuNAc and NeuNGc containing disialogangliosides, as well as two intermediary forms, were recovered from AB erythrocytes. Analysing disialogangliosides from red cells belonging to 17 genetically related cats, we consistently obtained the expected disialoganglioside profile, based on blood typing and pedigree information. SDS-PAGE of red cell membrane proteins and blotting with Triticum vulgaris, a lectin recognizing NeuNAc, revealed glycoproteins of approximately 51, 53, and 80 kD in B and AB cats but only a faint band of approximately 53 kD in A cats. By haemagglutination, Triticum vulgaris could also distinguish different blood types by specifically binding to B and AB cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8273913

  20. IBN NAFIS – A FORGOTTEN GENIUS IN THE DISCOVERY OF PULMONARY BLOOD CIRCULATION

    PubMed Central

    Akmal, M; Zulkifle, M; Ansari, AH

    2010-01-01

    Scientific theories take centuries to come into existence and they keep on evolving. Uncountable intellectual minds work on these theories; some fail to do anything about it; some add a little after tremendous efforts, and some people give remarkable and unforgettable contribution. As far as credit is concerned, the person who is able to prove the theory by his facts and who clears the maximum doubts by his observations, experimentations, facts and reasoning, gets the credit for that theory, and this should be done with honesty. The theory of pulmonary circulation took more than 2000 years to come into existence as we know it today. With the passage of time different people were given credit. Some say that it was given to Galen; some say it was Michael Servetus; others say that Realdus Columbus was the real discoverer; some gave the credit to Ibn Nafis, and finally people gave the credit to William Harvey. But after the rediscovery of Ibn Nafis’ manuscript no.62243 titled Sharah al Tashreeh al Qanoon, or “Commentary on the anatomy of Canon of Avicenna” in 1924 AD in Europe, it became clear that Ibn Nafis had described the pulmonary circulation almost 300 years before Harvey, and the historians like Aldo Mieli, Max Mayrhoff, Edward Coppola etc. clearly state that Ibn Nafis is the real discoverer of the pulmonary circulation and that he should be given the credit for the discovery of the pulmonary circulation. PMID:21042463

  1. Relationship of cerebral blood flow to aortic-to-pulmonary collateral/shunt flow in single ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Wilson, Felice; Pawlowski, Tom; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Clancy, Robert; Elci, Okan; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. Methods 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3–9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was p<0.05. Results A strong inverse correlation was noted between CBF and APC/shunt both on room air and with hypercarbia whether CBF was indexed to aortic flow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=−0.67–−0.70 for all patients on room air, p<0.01 and R=−0.49–−0.90 in hypercarbia, p<0.01). Correlations were not different between surgical stages. CBF was lower, and APCs/shunt flow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. Conclusions There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. Trial Registration Number NCT02135081. PMID:26048877

  2. A Modified Verhoeff-Van Gieson Elastin Histochemical Stain to Enable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Model Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Percival, K.R.; Radi, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal histochemical staining is critical to ensure excellent quality stained sections to enable light microscopic and histomorphometric image analysis. Verhoeff-van Gieson is the most widely used histochemical stain for the visualization of vascular elastic fibers. However, it is notoriously difficult to differentiate fine elastic fibers of small vasculature to enable histomorphometric image analysis, especially in organs such as the lung. A tissue fixation procedure of 10% neutral buffered formalin with subsequent fixation in 70% ethanol further compounds the problem of small vessel staining and identification. Therefore, a modified Verhoeff’s elastin stain was developed as a reliable method to optimally highlight the internal and external elastic laminae of small arteries (50-100 µm external diameter) and intra-acinar vessels (10-50 µm external diameter) in 3 µm thick lung tissue sections from models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This modified Verhoeff’s elastin stain demonstrated well-defined staining of fine elastic fibers of pulmonary blood vessels enabling subsequent histomorphometric image analysis of vessel wall thickness in small arteries and intra-acinar vessels. In conclusion, modification of the standard Verhoeff-van Gieson histochemical stain is needed to visualize small caliber vessels’ elastic fibers especially in tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin followed by additional fixation in 70% ethanol. PMID:26972717

  3. Altered reactivity and nitric oxide signaling in the isolated thoracic duct from an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Oishi, Peter E; Gong, Wenhui; Bennett, Stephen H; Sun, Christine E; Johengen, Michael; Maki, Jun; Johnson, Rebecca C; Raff, Gary W; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    We have previously shown decreased pulmonary lymph flow in our lamb model of chronically increased pulmonary blood flow, created by the in utero placement of an 8-mm aortopulmonary shunt. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal lymphatic function in shunt lambs is due to impaired lymphatic endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling resulting in increased lymphatic vascular constriction and/or impaired relaxation. Thoracic duct rings were isolated from 4-wk-old shunt (n = 7) and normal (n = 7) lambs to determine length-tension properties, vascular reactivity, and endothelial NO synthase protein. At baseline, shunt thoracic duct rings had 2.6-fold higher peak to peak tension and a 2-fold increase in the strength of contractions compared with normal rings (P < 0.05). In response to norepinephrine, shunt thoracic duct rings had a 2.4-fold increase in vascular tone compared with normal rings (P < 0.05) and impaired relaxation in response to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (63% vs. 13%, P < 0.05). In vivo, inhaled NO (40 ppm) increased pulmonary lymph flow (normalized for resistance) ∼1.5-fold in both normal and shunt lambs (P < 0.05). Inhaled NO exposure increased bioavailable NO [nitrite/nitrate (NOx); ∼2.5-fold in normal lambs and ∼3.4-fold in shunt lambs] and cGMP (∼2.5-fold in both) in the pulmonary lymph effluent (P < 0.05). Chronic exposure to increased pulmonary blood flow is associated with pulmonary lymphatic endothelial injury that disrupts NO-cGMP signaling, leading to increased resting vasoconstriction, increased maximal strength of contraction, and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. Inhaled NO increases pulmonary lymph NOx and cGMP levels and pulmonary lymph flow in normal and shunt lambs. Therapies that augment NO-cGMP signaling within the lymphatic system may provide benefits, warranting further study.

  4. The influence of sleeping position on functional residual capacity and effective pulmonary blood flow in healthy neonates.

    PubMed

    Aiton, N R; Fox, G F; Alexander, J; Ingram, D M; Milner, A D

    1996-12-01

    Variation in body position has been shown to affect respiratory function in adults and neonates with and without respiratory illness. At present it remains unclear why respiratory function should be affected by different body positions. We hypothesized that the effect of body weight on the relatively compliant chest wall of the newborn infant in the prone position would cause a reduction in functional residual capacity (FRC) and a compensatory improvement in ventilation/perfusion matching as measured by effective pulmonary blood flow. To evaluate this, a paired crossover study was performed on 12 normal newborn infants. The inert gas (argon) rebreathing method adapted for neonates was used to measure FRC. Simultaneously effective pulmonary blood flow (Qpeff) was determined using Freon 22 and a mass spectrometer with computerized analysis. The babies were studied in three different positions in random order: prone, supine and right lateral decubitus. The means (95% confidence intervals) of the three groups of FRC were 23.8 (19.2 to 28.4), 23.8 (20.2 to 27.5), and 24.3 (19.5 to 29.2) ml/kg, respectively (P = 0.59) and for Qpeff were 104 (91 to 116), 108 (95 to 122), 109 (97 to 122) ml/ kg-min, respectively (P = 0.11). Thus no significant differences were demonstrated. In nine of the babies, a repeat supine measurement was taken at the end of the study to assess repeatability of the method. In these nine babies alone the results were 22.7 (19.1 to 26.3) and 22.1 (18.6 to 25.6) ml/kg for FRC, and 102 (89 to 116) and 98 (90 to 107) ml/kg-min for Qpeff. The coefficients of repeatability were 4.7 ml/kg for FRC (21%) and 30 ml/kg-min for Qpeff (30%).

  5. PPAR-γ Regulates Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Carnitine homeostasis is disrupted in lambs with endothelial dysfunction secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Our recent studies have also indicated that the disruption in carnitine homeostasis correlates with a decrease in PPAR-γ expression in Shunt lambs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine if there is a causal link between loss of PPAR-γ signaling and carnitine dysfunction, and whether the PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone preserves carnitine homeostasis in Shunt lambs. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated PPAR-γ knockdown significantly reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 (CPT1 and 2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) protein levels. This decrease in carnitine regulatory proteins resulted in a disruption in carnitine homeostasis and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In turn, the decrease in cellular ATP attenuated NO signaling through a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In vivo, rosiglitazone treatment preserved carnitine homeostasis and attenuated the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in Shunt lambs maintaining ATP levels. This in turn preserved eNOS/Hsp90 interactions and NO signaling. Conclusion Our study indicates that PPAR-γ signaling plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function through the regulation of carnitine homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, it identifies a new mechanism by which PPAR-γ regulates NO signaling through Hsp90. Thus, PPAR-γ agonists may have therapeutic potential in preventing the endothelial dysfunction in children with increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:22962578

  6. Analysis of blood neutrophil elastase, glutathione levels and pathological findings in postoperative acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis associated with lung cancer: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, Keishi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Muramatsu, Yoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Homma, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by severe worsening dyspnea and high mortality. It has been proven that the serum neutrophil elastase (NE) level, in addition to the serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) levels, was elevated in patients with IPF-AE. Glutathione (GSH) is the major antioxidant involved in cell metabolism and survival. It is also known that IPF is characterized by reduced GSH levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood. Case 1 was a 67-year-old man who was referred to our hospital complaining of a 2-year history of progressive dyspnea on exertion (DOE). The patient was initially diagnosed with IPF, followed by inhaled N-acetylcysteine monotherapy. Two years later, left upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed due to primary lung cancer, which was large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (pT2aN2M0, stage IIIA). Five days after lung surgery, the patient developed AE. Case 2 was a 67-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with suspected lung cancer, complaining of dry cough and DOE. The patient underwent left upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection for primary lung cancer, which was diagnosed as well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (pT2aN2M0, stage IIIA). Ten days after lung surgery, the patient developed AE. The levels of biomarkers, such as serum NE, redox balance [reduced GSH (rGSH)/oxidized GSH (GSSG)] in the blood, as well as the correlation between serial changes of these biomarkers and prognosis, were analyzed in 2 patients with postoperative IPF-AE associated with lung cancer. Interestingly, the serial changes of the serum rGSH/GSSG ratio may suggest the possibility of predicting the onset of postoperative AE and/or survival, along with serum NE levels.

  7. Physiological mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, Iain R; Revell, Alistair; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow. We review established fluid dynamics and physiology and discuss the mechanisms underlying pulmonary hypertension. The important role that the right ventricle plays in the development and maintenance of pulmonary hypertension is discussed. We use principles of thermodynamics and discuss a potential common mechanism for a number of disease states, including pulmonary edema, through adding pressure energy to the pulmonary circulation. PMID:27659877

  8. The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: a prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by features other than increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Pulmonary vascular permeability combined with increased extravascular lung water content has been considered a quantitative diagnostic criterion of ALI/ARDS. This prospective, multi-institutional, observational study aimed to clarify the clinical pathophysiological features of ALI/ARDS and establish its quantitative diagnostic criteria. Methods The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured using the transpulmonary thermodilution method in 266 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg and bilateral infiltration on chest radiography, in 23 ICUs of academic tertiary referral hospitals. Pulmonary edema was defined as EVLWI ≥ 10 ml/kg. Three experts retrospectively determined the pathophysiological features of respiratory insufficiency by considering the patients' history, clinical presentation, chest computed tomography and radiography, echocardiography, EVLWI and brain natriuretic peptide level, and the time course of all preceding findings under systemic and respiratory therapy. Results Patients were divided into the following three categories on the basis of the pathophysiological diagnostic differentiation of respiratory insufficiency: ALI/ARDS, cardiogenic edema, and pleural effusion with atelectasis, which were noted in 207 patients, 26 patients, and 33 patients, respectively. EVLWI was greater in ALI/ARDS and cardiogenic edema patients than in patients with pleural effusion with atelectasis (18.5 ± 6.8, 14.4 ± 4.0, and 8.3 ± 2.1, respectively; P < 0.01). PVPI was higher in ALI/ARDS patients than in cardiogenic edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis patients (3.2 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 0.8, and 1.6 ± 0.5; P < 0.01). In ALI/ARDS patients, EVLWI increased with increasing pulmonary vascular permeability (r = 0.729, P < 0.01) and was weakly

  9. Genetic testing and blood biomarkers in paediatric pulmonary hypertension. Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK.

    PubMed

    Pattathu, Joseph; Gorenflo, Matthias; Hilgendorff, Anne; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Apitz, Christian; Hansmann, Georg; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2016-05-01

    Childhood-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is considered complex and multifactorial, with relatively poor estimates of the natural history of the disease. Strategies allowing earlier detection, establishment of disease aetiology together with more accurate and sensitive biomarkers could enable better estimates of prognosis and individualise therapeutic strategies. Evidence is accumulating that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic and hereditary forms of PAH. Altogether nine genes have been reported so far to be associated with childhood onset PAH suggesting that comprehensive multigene diagnostics can be useful in the assessment. Identification of disease-causing mutations allows estimates of prognosis and forms the most effective way for risk stratification in the family. In addition to genetic determinants the analysis of blood biomarkers are increasingly used in clinical practice to evaluate disease severity and treatment responses. As in genetic diagnostics, a multiplex approach can be helpful, as a single biomarker for PAH is unlikely to meet all requirements. This consensus statement reviews the current evidence for the use of genetic diagnostics and use of blood biomarkers in the assessment of paediatric patients with PAH. PMID:27053696

  10. Genetic testing and blood biomarkers in paediatric pulmonary hypertension. Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK.

    PubMed

    Pattathu, Joseph; Gorenflo, Matthias; Hilgendorff, Anne; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Apitz, Christian; Hansmann, Georg; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2016-05-01

    Childhood-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is considered complex and multifactorial, with relatively poor estimates of the natural history of the disease. Strategies allowing earlier detection, establishment of disease aetiology together with more accurate and sensitive biomarkers could enable better estimates of prognosis and individualise therapeutic strategies. Evidence is accumulating that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic and hereditary forms of PAH. Altogether nine genes have been reported so far to be associated with childhood onset PAH suggesting that comprehensive multigene diagnostics can be useful in the assessment. Identification of disease-causing mutations allows estimates of prognosis and forms the most effective way for risk stratification in the family. In addition to genetic determinants the analysis of blood biomarkers are increasingly used in clinical practice to evaluate disease severity and treatment responses. As in genetic diagnostics, a multiplex approach can be helpful, as a single biomarker for PAH is unlikely to meet all requirements. This consensus statement reviews the current evidence for the use of genetic diagnostics and use of blood biomarkers in the assessment of paediatric patients with PAH.

  11. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  12. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, W.W.; Konhilas, J.; Wolfkiel, C.

    1995-12-31

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to regional pulmonary flow (RPF) in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean {+-} standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 {+-} 0.4, 1.1 {+-} 0.4 and 1.3 {+-} 0.4 for A, M and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0--41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  13. A novel platform for pulmonary and cardiovascular toxicological characterization of inhaled engineered nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    SOTIRIOU, GEORGIOS A.; DIAZ, EDGAR; LONG, MARK S.; GODLESKI, JOHN; BRAIN, JOSEPH; PRATSINIS, SOTIRIS E.; DEMOKRITOU, PHILIP

    2013-01-01

    A novel method is presented which is suitable for assessing in-vivo the link between the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their biological outcomes. The ability of the technique to generate a variety of industry-relevant, property-controlled ENM exposure atmospheres for inhalation studies was systematically investigated. The primary particle size for Fe2O3, SiO2, Ag and Ag/SiO2 was controlled from 4 to 25 nm, while the corresponding agglomerate mobility diameter of the aerosol was also controlled and varied from 40 to 120 nm. The suitability of the technique to characterize the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of inhaled ENMs in intact animal models is also demonstrated using in-vivo chemiluminescence (IVCL). The IVCL technique is a highly sensitive method for identifying cardiopulmonary responses to inhaled ENMs under relatively small doses and acute exposures. It is shown that moderate and acute exposures to inhaled nanostructured Fe2O3 can cause both pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. PMID:21809902

  14. Relationship between changes in pulmonary V̇O₂ kinetics and autonomic regulation of blood flow.

    PubMed

    McNarry, M A; Kingsley, M I C; Lewis, M J

    2014-08-01

    Various regulatory mechanisms of pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics have been postulated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between vagal withdrawal, measured using RMSSDRR, the root mean square of successive differences in cardiac interval (RR) kinetics, a mediator of oxygen delivery, and V̇O2 kinetics. Forty-nine healthy adults (23 ± 3 years; 72 ± 13 kg; 1.80 ± 0.08 m) performed multiple repeat transitions to moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise. Electrocardiography, impedance cardiography, and pulmonary gas exchange parameters were measured throughout; time domain measures of heart rate variability were subsequently derived. The parameters describing the dynamic response of V̇O2, cardiac output (Q) and RMSSDRR were determined using a mono-exponential model. During heavy-intensity exercise, the phase II τ of V̇O2 was significantly correlated with the τ of RR (r = 0.36, P < 0.05), Q (r = 0.67, P < 0.05), and RMSSDRR (r = 0.38, P < 0.05). The τ describing the rise in Q explained 47% of the variation in V̇O2 τ, with 30% of the rate of this rise in Q explained by the τ of RR and RMSSDRR. No relationship was evident between V̇O2 kinetics and those of Q, RR, or RMSSDRR during moderate exercise. Vagal withdrawal kinetics support the concept of a centrally mediated oxygen delivery limitation partly regulating V̇O2 kinetics during heavy-, but not moderate-, intensity exercise.

  15. Reference values for pulsed Doppler signals from the blood flow velocity on both sides of the pulmonary valve.

    PubMed

    van Oort, A; de Knecht, S; van Dam, I; Heringa, A; de Boo, T; Alsters, J; Hopman, J; Fast, J; van der Werf, T; Daniels, O

    1988-04-01

    Pulsed Doppler signals were recorded from the pulmonary artery and the right ventricular outflow tract in 215 healthy subjects (120 males, 95 females; 1-65 years). Amplitude spectra from these Doppler signals were stored in digital form together with adjustment data for the instrument and the simultaneously recorded ECG. From these Doppler spectra the median of the maximal velocity (Vmax), the maximal acceleration (Amax) and the dispersion of the velocity distribution around Vmax (width) were calculated. These three median values were used to characterize the Doppler spectra and to define normal values for bloodflow velocities. Thus, calculations were made without observer interacting using a well-defined computer program. The effect of age, gender, body surface area and heart rate were studied. Reference ranges were calculated. There is a slight decrease of the median value of Vmax and Amax in the pulmonary artery during lifetime from 80 to 70 cm s-1 and from 1,200 to 800 cm s-2, respectively. On the other hand, there is no correlation between age and Vmax and Amax in the right ventricular outflow tract. The width of the spectra increases with age at both sites. No significant changes with age were seen with the other variables. PMID:3383877

  16. Imbalance between subsets of CD8+ peripheral blood T cells in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Liu, Hong-Ju; Xin, Jian-Bao; Zhang, Jian-Chu; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Meng, Zhao-Ji; Sun, Sheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background. CD8+ T lymphocytes are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, systematic analyses of CD8+ T cell (Cytotoxic T cells, Tc) subsets in COPD patients have yet to be well conducted. Methods. The whole Tc subsets, including Tc1/2/10/17, CD8+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+α7+ T cells, were quantified by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 24 stable COPD subjects (SCOPD), 14 patients during acute exacerbations (AECOPD), and 14 healthy nonsmokers (HN). Results. Acute exacerbations of COPD were accompanied by elevated levels of circulating CD8+ T cells. Tc1 cells were increased in both SCOPD and AECOPD patients, whereas the percentage of Tc2 cells was decreased in SCOPD patients but remained normal in AECOPD patients. Tc17 cells were increased only in AECOPD patients, and the percentage of Tc10 cells was reduced in both SCOPD and AECOPD patients. The imbalances of pro/anti-inflammatory Tc subsets observed in COPD may be caused by the lack of Tc10 cells and the impaired anti-inflammatory capacity of CD8+ Tregs. Conclusions. The imbalances between subsets of CD8+ peripheral blood T cells contribute to the immune response dysfunction in COPD pathogenesis. PMID:27547589

  17. Detection of Intrathoracic Bleeding by 99mTc-Labeled Red Blood Cell SPECT/CT After Wedge Biopsy of Pulmonary Angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Provost, Karine; Charest, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    A 52-y-old man presenting with dyspnea and a massive effusion in the right pleural cavity underwent wedge biopsies of pulmonary lesions found on thoracic CT, leading to a diagnosis of pleural angiosarcoma. Bleeding developed postoperatively and was investigated using pulmonary CT angiography, which failed to identify a site of active bleeding. (99m)Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) SPECT/CT of the chest was performed, and the site was rapidly located. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of localization of intrathoracic bleeding using (99m)Tc-RBC SPECT/CT. PMID:27363446

  18. Enhanced ventricular pump function and decreased reservoir backflow sustain rise in pulmonary blood flow after reduction of lung liquid volume in fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Smolich, Joseph J

    2014-02-15

    Although a reduction in lung liquid volume increases fetal pulmonary blood flow, the changes in central flow patterns that sustain this increased pulmonary perfusion are unknown. To address this issue, eight anesthetized late-gestation fetal sheep were instrumented with pulmonary trunk (PT), ductus arteriosus (DA), and left pulmonary artery (PA) micromanometer catheters and transit-time flow probes, with blood flow profile and wave intensity analyses performed at baseline and after withdrawal of lung liquid via an endotracheal tube. Reducing lung liquid volume by 19 ± 6 ml/kg (mean ± SD) augmented right ventricular power by 34% (P < 0.001), with distribution of an accompanying increase in mean PT blood flow (245 ± 63 ml/min, P < 0.001) to the lungs (169 ± 91 ml/min, P = 0.001) and across the DA (77 ± 92 ml/min, P = 0.04). However, although PT and DA flow increments were confined to systole and were related to an increased magnitude of flow-increasing, forward-running compression waves, the rise in PA flow spanned both systole (108 ± 66 ml/min) and diastole (61 ± 32 ml/min). Flow profile analysis showed that the step-up in PA diastolic flow was associated with diminished PA diastolic backflow and accompanied by a lesser degree of diastolic right-to-left DA shunting. These data suggest that an increased pulmonary blood flow after reduction of lung liquid volume is associated with substantial changes in PT-DA-PA interactions and underpinned by two main factors: 1) enhanced right ventricular pump function that increases PA systolic inflow and 2) decreased PA diastolic backflow that arises from a fundamental change in PA reservoir function, thereby resulting in greater passage of systolic inflow through the lungs.

  19. Peripheral blood B lymphocytes derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension express a different RNA pattern compared with healthy controls: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Silvia; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Huber, Lars C; Speich, Rudolf; Voelkel, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and still incurable disease. Research of IPAH-pathogenesis is complicated by the lack of a direct access to the involved tissue, the human pulmonary vasculature. Various auto-antibodies have been described in the blood of patients with IPAH. The purpose of the present work was therefore to comparatively analyze peripheral blood B lymphocyte RNA expression characteristics in IPAH and healthy controls. Methods Patients were diagnosed having IPAH according to WHO (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, pulmonary capillary occlusion pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, absence of another explaining disease). Peripheral blood B-lymphocytes of patients and controls were immediately separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic beads for CD19. RNA was thereafter extracted and analyzed by the use of a high sensitivity gene chip (Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus2) able to analyze 47000 transcripts and variants of human genes. The array data were analyzed by two different softwares, and up-and down-regulations were defined as at least 1.3 fold with standard deviations smaller than fold-changes. Results Highly purified B-cells of 5 patients with IPAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure 51 ± 13 mmHg) and 5 controls were analyzed. Using the two different analyzing methods we found 225 respectively 128 transcripts which were up-regulated (1.3–30.7 fold) in IPAH compared with healthy controls. Combining both methods, there were 33 overlapping up-regulated transcripts and no down-regulated B-cell transcripts. Conclusion Patients with IPAH have a distinct RNA expression profile of their peripheral blood B-lymphocytes compared to healthy controls with some clearly up-regulated genes. Our finding suggests that in IPAH patients B cells are activated. PMID:18269757

  20. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, William W.; Konhilas, John; Wolfkiel, Christopher J.

    1995-05-01

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to RPF in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle, and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean +/- standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 +/- 0.4, 1.1 +/- 0.4, and 1.3 +/- 0.4 for A, M, and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0-41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  1. Effect of Chronic Administration of Estradiol on Responsiveness of Isolated Systemic and Pulmonary Blood Vessels from Ovariectomized Wistar Rats with Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Artem'eva, M M; Kovaleva, Yu O; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2015-08-01

    The long-term (4 weeks) administration of estradiol (15 μg/kg/day) to ovariectomized female Wistar rats induced hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and significantly (p<0.05) diminished relaxation of perfused serotonin-preconstricted isolated vascular segments of the pulmonary artery in response to estradiol (10(-6) M). At the same time, the isolated segments of systemic popliteal artery demonstrated a diminished response to serotonin and increased relaxation induced by acetylcholine (10(-5) M) or estradiol (10(-5) M) in comparison with preconstricted control vessels. Moderation of responsiveness to estradiol in pulmonary circulation can be one of the factors underlying the pro-hypertensive action of estradiol in female rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Characterization of red blood cells with multiwavelength transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M; Huffman, Debra E; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H

    2015-01-01

    Multiwavelength transmission (MWT) spectroscopy was applied to the investigation of the morphological parameters and composition of red blood cells (RBCs). The MWT spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a Mie theory based interpretation model modified to incorporate the effects of the nonsphericity and orientation of RBCs. The MWT spectra of the healthy and anemic samples were investigated for the RBC indices in open and blinded studies. When MWT performance was evaluated against a standard reference system, very good agreement between two methods, with R (2) > 0.85 for all indices studied, was demonstrated. The RBC morphological parameters were used to characterize three types of anemia and to draw an association between RBC morphology and anemia severity. The MWT spectra of RBCs infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at different life cycle stages were analyzed for RBC morphological parameters. The changes in the RBC volume, surface area, aspect ratio, and hemoglobin composition were used to trace the morphological and compositional alterations in the infected RBCs occurring with parasites' development and to provide insights into parasite-host interactions. The MWT method was shown to be reliable for determination of the RBC morphological parameters and to be valuable for identification of the RBC pathologic changes and disease states.

  3. Characterization of Red Blood Cells with Multiwavelength Transmission Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M.; Huffman, Debra E.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    Multiwavelength transmission (MWT) spectroscopy was applied to the investigation of the morphological parameters and composition of red blood cells (RBCs). The MWT spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a Mie theory based interpretation model modified to incorporate the effects of the nonsphericity and orientation of RBCs. The MWT spectra of the healthy and anemic samples were investigated for the RBC indices in open and blinded studies. When MWT performance was evaluated against a standard reference system, very good agreement between two methods, with R2 > 0.85 for all indices studied, was demonstrated. The RBC morphological parameters were used to characterize three types of anemia and to draw an association between RBC morphology and anemia severity. The MWT spectra of RBCs infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at different life cycle stages were analyzed for RBC morphological parameters. The changes in the RBC volume, surface area, aspect ratio, and hemoglobin composition were used to trace the morphological and compositional alterations in the infected RBCs occurring with parasites' development and to provide insights into parasite-host interactions. The MWT method was shown to be reliable for determination of the RBC morphological parameters and to be valuable for identification of the RBC pathologic changes and disease states. PMID:25654099

  4. Effect of gravitational overloads, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the vessels of the pulmonary blood circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasimtsev, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Vessels of the pulmonary circuit are studied under normal conditions, in exposure to single stress or continuous threshold endurable chestspine gravitational stresses, and one to eight weak hypokinesia and hypodynamic effects followed by stress. Examination methods include rentgenography and microrentgenography, clearing, and histology. In exposure to gravitational stress the distal portions of the arterial vessels of the 3 and 4 orders constrict, while all veins dilate. Sinuosity of all vessels is noted. The volume of the capillary bed increases and signs of perivascular edema occur. Due to hypokinesia and hypodynamia the arteries constricted and the arterial bed becomes poor. The veins of all orders dilate and the volume of the capillary bed increases. The changes grew greater the longer the terms of hypodyamic effects. Successive combination of hypokinesia and hypodynamia and gravitational stresses cause more pronounced changes than separate effects of these two factors and result in great deformity of the vascular walls, including their rupture and penetration of formed elements beyond the limits of the vascular bed.

  5. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  6. Microbiological and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus hominis Isolates from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; González-González, Gloria Ma; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Background Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec) type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. Methodology S. hominis blood isolates (n = 21) were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21) were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21) as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21) of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0–95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82%) harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. Conclusions The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor new SCCmec

  7. Exercise physiology and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Aaron B

    2012-01-01

    The lungs are the only organ that receives the entire cardiac output with every stroke. The pulmonary circulation is normally a high-flow, low-resistance, low-pressure system that carries blood into the pulmonary microcirculation. In pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH)vascular remodeling contributes to a sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) as a result of vascular remodeling characterized largely by vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and medial hypertrophy, and endothelial cell proliferation resulting in lumen obliteration. The loss of pulmonary arterial compliance and development of elevated PVR puts an excessive burden on the right ventricle due to the increased workload necessary to overcome the downstream pressure, ultimately leading to right-sided heart failure. The functional status of the pulmonary circulation and the levels of PVR and PAP ultimately determine the outcome of patients with PAH. Study of the pressure-flow relationships in the pulmonary vascular bed will provide an improved appreciation of the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Structural characterization of the pulmonary innate immune protein SPLUNC1 and identification of lipid ligands

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Fangkun; Wang, Chao; Berry, Karin Zemski; Kandasamy, Pitchaimani; Liu, Haolin; Murphy, Robert C.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Nho, Chu Won; Pan, Choel-Ho; Dai, Shaodong; Niu, Liwen; Chu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Gongyi

    2014-01-01

    The short palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is a member of the palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC) family, also known as bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) fold-containing protein, family A, member 1 (BPIFA1). SPLUNC1 is an abundant protein in human airways, but its function remains poorly understood. The lipid ligands of SPLUNC1 as well as other PLUNC family members are largely unknown, although some reports provide evidence that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could be a lipid ligand. Unlike previous hypotheses, we found significant structural differences between SPLUNC1 and BPI. Recombinant SPLUNC1 produced in HEK 293 cells harbored several molecular species of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine as its ligands. Significantly, in vitro lipid-binding studies failed to demonstrate interactions between SPLUNC1 and LPS, lipoteichoic acid, or polymyxin B. Instead, one of the major and most important pulmonary surfactant phospholipids, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), bound to SPLUNC1 with high affinity and specificity. We found that SPLUNC1 could be the first protein receptor for DPPC. These discoveries provide insight into the specific determinants governing the interaction between SPLUNC1 and lipids and also shed light on novel functions that SPLUNC1 and other PLUNC family members perform in host defense.—Ning, F., Wang, C., Berry, K. Z., Kandasamy, P., Liu, H., Murphy, R. C., Voelker, D. R., Nho, C. W., Pan, C.-H., Dai, S., Niu, L., Chu, H.-W., Zhang, G. Structural characterization of the pulmonary innate immune protein SPLUNC1 and identification of lipid ligands. PMID:25223608

  9. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters’ predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization.

  10. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters’ predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization. PMID:27648166

  11. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters' predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization. PMID:27648166

  12. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters' predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization.

  13. Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K. . E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E.; Savani, Bipin N.; Guion, Peter M.S.; Hope, Andrew J.; Mansueti, John R.; Ning, Holly; Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D.; Wu, Colin O.; Barrett, A. John

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Blood Biomarkers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Lomas, David A.; Miller, Bruce E.; Kong, Xiangyang; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Agustí, Alvar; Wouters, Emiel; Celli, Bartolome; Coxson, Harvey; Vestbo, Jørgen; MacNee, William; Yates, Julie C.; Rennard, Stephen; Litonjua, Augusto; Qiu, Weiliang; Beaty, Terri H.; Crapo, James D.; Riley, John H.; Tal-Singer, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for circulating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) biomarkers could identify genetic determinants of biomarker levels and COPD susceptibility. Objectives: To identify genetic variants of circulating protein biomarkers and novel genetic determinants of COPD. Methods: GWAS was performed for two pneumoproteins, Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), and five systemic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in 1,951 subjects with COPD. For genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10−8), association with COPD susceptibility was tested in 2,939 cases with COPD and 1,380 smoking control subjects. The association of candidate SNPs with mRNA expression in induced sputum was also elucidated. Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide significant susceptibility loci affecting biomarker levels were found only for the two pneumoproteins. Two discrete loci affecting CC16, one region near the CC16 coding gene (SCGB1A1) on chromosome 11 and another locus approximately 25 Mb away from SCGB1A1, were identified, whereas multiple SNPs on chromosomes 6 and 16, in addition to SNPs near SFTPD, had genome-wide significant associations with SP-D levels. Several SNPs affecting circulating CC16 levels were significantly associated with sputum mRNA expression of SCGB1A1 (P = 0.009–0.03). Several SNPs highly associated with CC16 or SP-D levels were nominally associated with COPD in a collaborative GWAS (P = 0.001–0.049), although these COPD associations were not replicated in two additional cohorts. Conclusions: Distant genetic loci and biomarker-coding genes affect circulating levels of COPD-related pneumoproteins. A subset of these protein quantitative trait loci may influence their gene expression in the lung and/or COPD susceptibility. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00292552). PMID

  15. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

    2011-03-01

    An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses.

  16. [Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation, gas exchanges and arterial blood gases during ramp exercise].

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Aguilaniu, B

    2012-10-01

    In response to ramp exercise, changes in ventilation, gas exchange and arterial blood gases, which are closely interrelated, reflect the two roles of ventilation: 1) providing O(2) and eliminating metabolic CO(2) (from rest to maximal exercise); and 2) contributing to acid-base balance by eliminating non metabolic CO(2) from the alkaline reserve (from the first ventilatory threshold [VT(1)] to maximal exercise). Hyperpnea before VT(1) increases gas exchanges as needed for aerobic metabolism without large changes in ventilatory equivalent of O(2) and CO(2) (VE/V(O2) or VE/V(CO2)), in P(O2) and P(CO2) in alveoli or arterial blood (except for a small widening of alveolo-arterial P(O2) gradient), and in bicarbonate concentration. In contrast, above VT(1), CO(2) is washed-out from the alkaline reserve due to the combined effect of the fall in PA(CO2) (because of hyperventilation) and in pH, and this helps maintaining acid-base balance. Pa(CO2) and bicarbonate concentration decrease while PA(O2) and VE/V(O2) increase, and V(CO2), which follows VE, becomes higher than V(O2). In healthy young subjects, but very seldom in patients, the end of exercise can occur after a second ventilatory threshold (VT(2)), which is the zone where the increase in V(CO2) fails to follow that in VE in spite of hyperventilation and acidosis because of the progressive depletion of the alkaline reserve.

  17. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough, shortness of breath, fatigue and low blood oxygen levels. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by an ... breath. Your health care provider may notice the oxygen levels in your blood drop when you walk. ...

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measurements of blood oxygen level (arterial blood gases) Pulmonary function tests 6-minute walk test Tests for connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis , lupus, or scleroderma Open lung (surgical) lung biopsy

  19. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Tözüm, Halil; Gürsoy, Soner; Gülle, Ali Alper; Yaldiz, Sadik; Aydoğdu Dinç, Zekiye

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is a rare fibrosing nodular disease of the lung characterized by solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules. They can occur after inflammatory or post-inflammatory changes. A 60 years old asymptomatic patient admitted to our clinic because of a solid mass of 6 cm in his routine chest radiography. A lobectomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was reported as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This case, mimicking pulmonary carcinoma, is rarely found in the literature. PMID:16615022

  20. [Effects of procaterol on arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Obata, T; Masaki, T; Iikura, Y

    1990-12-01

    We examined the changes in arterial blood gas, FEV1 and V50 after the inhalation of procaterol on 19 occasions in 16 asthmatic children. The initial value of PaO2 had statistically significant correlation with the initial values of %FEV1 and %V50. PaO2 fell down in 11 out of 19 (57.9%) and remarkably decreased more than 5 mmHg in 6 out of 19 (31.6%). The fall in PaO2 was most significant at 5 min after the inhalation in almost subjects. The changes in PaO2 after the inhalation had good correlation with the initial value of %FEV1 and %V50. The initial values were quite lower in the patients with decreased PaO2 more than 5 mmHg than those with increased PaO2. Severe patients showed statistically low values of the initial PaO2 and %V50 and showed a fall in PaO2 after inhalation compared with moderate patients. An increase in A-aDO2 elicited that deteriorations of V/Q ratio caused a decrease in PaO2 after inhalation. There were no significant changes in heart rates and no complaints of nausea, headache or tremor.

  1. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is Pulmonary Hypertension? Updated:Aug 12,2014 Is pulmonary hypertension different ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  2. Pulmonary arterial compliance: How and why should we measure it?

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Stefano; Schirinzi, Sandra; Pica, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow/low-pressure system, coupled with a flow generator chamber–the right ventricle–, which is relatively unable to tolerate increases in afterload. A right heart catheterization, using a fluid-filled, balloon-tipped Swan-Ganz catheter allows the measurement of all hemodynamic parameters characterizing the pulmonary circulation: the inflow pressure, an acceptable estimate the outflow pressure, and the pulmonary blood flow. However, the study of the pulmonary circulation as a continuous flow system is an oversimplification and a thorough evaluation of the pulmonary circulation requires a correct understanding of the load that the pulmonary vascular bed imposes on the right ventricle, which includes static and dynamic components. This is critical to assess the prognosis of patients with pulmonary hypertension or with heart failure. Pulmonary compliance is a measure of arterial distensibility and, either alone or in combination with pulmonary vascular resistance, gives clinicians the possibility of a good prognostic stratification of patients with heart failure or with pulmonary hypertension. The measurement of pulmonary arterial compliance should be included in the routine clinical evaluation of such patients. PMID:26779530

  3. Three-dimensional characterization of fibroblast foci in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark G.; Fabre, Aurélie; Schneider, Philipp; Cinetto, Francesco; Sgalla, Giacomo; Jogai, Sanjay; Alzetani, Aiman; Marshall, Ben G.; O’Reilly, Katherine M.A.; Warner, Jane A.; Lackie, Peter M.; Davies, Donna E.; Hansell, David M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Sinclair, Ian; Brown, Kevin K.; Richeldi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the fibroblast focus is a key histological feature representing active fibroproliferation. On standard 2D pathologic examination, fibroblast foci are considered small, distinct lesions, although they have been proposed to form a highly interconnected reticulum as the leading edge of a “wave” of fibrosis. Here, we characterized fibroblast focus morphology and interrelationships in 3D using an integrated micro-CT and histological methodology. In 3D, fibroblast foci were morphologically complex structures, with large variations in shape and volume (range, 1.3 × 104 to 9.9 × 107 μm3). Within each tissue sample numerous multiform foci were present, ranging from a minimum of 0.9 per mm3 of lung tissue to a maximum of 11.1 per mm3 of lung tissue. Each focus was an independent structure, and no interconnections were observed. Together, our data indicate that in 3D fibroblast foci form a constellation of heterogeneous structures with large variations in shape and volume, suggesting previously unrecognized plasticity. No evidence of interconnectivity was identified, consistent with the concept that foci represent discrete sites of lung injury and repair. PMID:27275013

  4. Characterization of Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension From REVEAL

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juliana; Parsons, Lori; Hassoun, Paul M.; McGoon, Michael; Badesch, David B.; Miller, Dave P.; Nicolls, Mark R.; Zamanian, Roham T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: REVEAL (the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management) is the largest US cohort of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) confirmed by right-sided heart catheterization (RHC), providing a more comprehensive subgroup characterization than previously possible. We used REVEAL to analyze the clinical features of patients with connective tissue disease-associated PAH (CTD-APAH). Methods: All newly and previously diagnosed patients with World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 PAH meeting RHC criteria at 54 US centers were consecutively enrolled. Cross-sectional and 1-year mortality and hospitalization analyses from time of enrollment compared CTD-APAH to idiopathic disease and systemic sclerosis (SSc) to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results: Compared with patients with idiopathic disease (n = 1,251), patients with CTD-APAH (n = 641) had better hemodynamics and favorable right ventricular echocardiographic findings but a higher prevalence of pericardial effusions, lower 6-min walk distance (300.5 ± 118.0 vs 329.4 ± 134.7 m, P = .01), higher B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (432.8 ± 789.1 vs 245.6 ± 427.2 pg/mL, P < .0001), and lower diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (Dlco) (44.9% ± 18.0% vs 63.6% ± 22.1% predicted, P < .0001). One-year survival and freedom from hospitalization were lower in the CTD-APAH group (86% vs 93%, P < .0001; 67% vs 73%, P = .03). Compared with patients with SSc-APAH (n = 399), those with other CTDs (SLE, n = 110; MCTD, n = 52; RA, n = 28) had similar hemodynamics; however, patients with SSc-APAH had the highest BNP levels (552.2 ± 977.8 pg/mL), lowest Dlco (41.2% ± 16.3% predicted), and poorest 1-year survival (82% vs 94% in SLE-APAH, 88% in MCTD-APAH, and 96% in RA-APAH). Conclusions: Patients with SSc-APAH demonstrate a unique phenotype with the highest BNP levels, lowest Dlco

  5. Longitudinal Impedance Tomography for Blood Pressure Characterization of Valve Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    Aorta is formed in a dynamic environment which gives rise to imbalances between many forces that tend to extend the diameter and length. Furthermore, internal forces tend to resist this extension. Impedance tomography can show this imbalance to stimulate the stenosis of aortic valve, growth of the elastic, collagen and to effectively reduce the stresses in the underlying tissue. In blood flow, auscultation noises occurred and in the echocardiography decrease in left ventricular ejection speed can be observed. In this paper, we have modeled an aorta based on anatomical studies to simulate natural, 20% and 30% stenosis as usual heart disease to early diagnosis. Valve deformation causes different impedance tomography in 3D mesh of aorta as blood pressure. Remodeling of aorta and its flow is found when a cylindrical slice of the fully retracted blood aorta is cut longitudinally through the wall. PMID:26120568

  6. Ultrasonic Measurement of Fluid Viscosity for Blood Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro

    2005-06-01

    Although plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis is affected by not only its strength but also by hemodynamic factors, such as blood pressure and shear stress, in particular, the viscous coefficient which directly controls the magnitude of shear stress might be a risk factor in plaque rupture. Therefore, if the viscous coefficient can be assessed noninvasively, it can be a useful index for prediction of a plaque rupture and assessment of various diseases. In this work, an ultrasonic methodology to estimate the viscous coefficient was investigated by numerical simulation and flow-phantom experiment as the fundamental investigation for noninvasively assessing the viscous characteristics of blood. These results show that the proposed method is useful for estimating the kinematic viscosity coefficient in the viscous evaluation of blood.

  7. Regional distribution of pulmonary blood flow in normal high-altitude dwellers at 3,650 m (12,200 ft).

    PubMed

    Coudert, J; Paz-Zamora, M; Barragan, L; Briancon, L; Spielvogel, H; Cudkowicz, L

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous isotope dilution curves were recorded from the right upper (QRUZ) and right lower lung zones (QRLZ) by surface scanning in the sitting and recumbent positions in 15 normal high-altitude-born (HAD) males and in 1 HAD female as well as from 3 male newcomers, using 10 muCi of 131I-HSA as a bolus injection into the right ventricle. Similar information was also obtained at sea level from 5 normal males. The mean percent distribution of total pulmonary blood flow (Q) to RUZ and RLZ in the two body postures indicate (1) that in the vertical position RUZ in males receives about 17% of Q regardless of altitude and elevation in mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in HAD of 8.6 mm Hg above that extant at sea level; (2) recumbency at high altitude showed QRUZ also to be lower than at sea level; (3) elevation in MPAP at altitude has no significant effect on changing the sea-level distribution pattern of pulmonary blood flow.

  8. States of low pulmonary blood flow can be detected non-invasively at the bedside measuring alveolar dead space.

    PubMed

    Tusman, Gerardo; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Paez, Gabriel; Alvarez, Jorge; Bohm, Stephan H

    2012-06-01

    We tested whether the ratio of alveolar dead space to alveolar tidal volume (VD(alv)/VT(alv)) can detect states of low pulmonary blood flow (PBF) in a non-invasive way. Fifteen patients undergoing cardiovascular surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. CPB is a technique that excludes the lungs from the general circulation. The weaning of CPB is a model that manipulates PBF in vivo because each time blood flow through the CPB decreases, expected PBF (ePBF) increases. Patients were liberated from CPB in steps of 20 % every 2' starting from 100 % CPB (very low ePBF) to 0 % CPB (100 % ePBF). During constant ventilation, volumetric capnograms were recorded and Bohr's dead space ratio (VD(Bohr)/VT), VD(alv)/VT(alv) and the ratio of airway dead space to tidal volume (VD(aw)/VT) were calculated. Before CPB, VD(Bohr)/VT was 0.36 ± 0.05, VD(aw)/VT 0.21 ± 0.04 and VD(alv)/VT(alv) 0.18 ± 0.06 (mean ± SD). During weaning from CPB, VD(aw)/VT remained unchanged while VD(Bohr)/VT and VD(alv)/VT(alv) decreased with increasing ePBF. At CPB of 80, 60, 40 and 20 % VD(Bohr)/VT was 0.64 ± 0.06, 0.55 ± 0.06, 0.47 ± 0.05 and 0.40 ± 0.04, respectively; p < 0.001 and VD(alv)/VT(alv) 0.53 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.07, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.25 ± 0.04, respectively; p < 0.001). After CPB, VD(Bohr)/VT and VD(alv)/VT(alv) reached values similar to baseline (0.37 ± 0.04 and 0.19 ± 0.06, respectively). At constant ventilation the alveolar component of VD(Bohr)/VT increased in proportion to the deficit in lung perfusion.

  9. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  10. Method and apparatus for characterizing blood flow through the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, N.G.; Gray, R.I.; Kramer, H.H.; Picunko, T.

    1981-10-13

    An automated method and improved device provide a measurement of blood flow through the heart by the detection and analysis of radioactivity emitted by a radioactive tracer introduced into a patient's bloodstream. Real time, cardiac cycle by cardiac cycle information is processed and displayed to provide diagnostically useful information on an essentially ongoing basis as the patient is being tested.

  11. Characterization of Blood Flow in Capillaries by Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2011-03-01

    We presents a numerical investigation of the axisymmetric, pressure driven motion of single file erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell) suspensions flowing in capillaries of diameter 8- 11 μ m. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using the operator splitting technique and solved by the finite element method. The study takes consideration the particulate nature of the blood. The red blood cell (RBC) is modeled as a closed membrane filled with a Newtonian fluid which has the same viscosity as the surrounding plasma. The cell membrane is described by a spring model so that the deformability of the cells can be considered. An immersed boundary method is also developed for dealing with the cell/fluid interaction in the flow. Our study successfully recreates several important in vivo hemodynamic and hemorheological properties of microscopic blood flow, such as parachute shape of the cells, blunt velocity profile, and the Fahraeus effect, and they have been shown to have strong dependence on cell deformability, hematocrit and vessel size.

  12. Characterization of Blood Properties from Coagulating Blood of Different Hematocrits Using Ultrasonic Backscatter and Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2006-09-01

    The influence of hematocrit on the change of blood properties during coagulating was extensively investigated using ultrasonic integrated backscatter and attenuation. Measurements were performed with porcine blood at hematocrits ranging from 25 to 55% using a 10 MHz transducer. Results showed that both integrated backscatter and attenuation are able to sensitively differentiate various stages of blood properties during coagulating. The slopes of integrated backscatter (Sr, dB/S) and attenuation (αr, dB\\cdotcm-1\\cdotMHz-1\\cdotmS-1) are increased relative to hematocrit. The best fits for Sr and αr as a function of hematocrit (H) equal to Sr=0.0357+1.62e-0.108H and αr=0.0281+0.003H, respectively. Variations of clotting time (Ts) and reaction time (Tα), estimated respectively from ultrasonic integrated backscatter and attenuation, associated with clot formation are also increased with hematocrit. This study demonstrates that blood hematocrit is a substantial factor affecting viscosity and backscattering properties of blood during coagulation capable of being discerned by ultrasonic backscattering and attenuation.

  13. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. ... Complications that may develop include: Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis Hypoxemia (low blood oxygen) Respiratory failure

  14. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  15. Evaluation of a whole-blood chemiluminescent immunoassay of IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1 for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous pleurisy patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Wang, Ying; Li, Hang; Yang, Yourong; Liu, Jianyang; Yu, Ting; Wu, Xueqiong

    2016-10-01

    The study explored the use of IP-10, MCP-1, and IFN-γ as biomarkers to improve the diagnoses of active pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous pleurisy. We enrolled 267 individuals, including 134 TB patients, 93 patients with non-tuberculous pulmonary diseases, and 40 healthy controls. Whole bloods were stimulated in vitro with rCFP-10/ESAT-6 protein antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The levels of IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1 in cultured supernatants of whole bloods were detected by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the cutoff value for diagnosing TB and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacies of the IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1 for TB. The antigen-specific release of each cytokine, IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1, was significantly higher in the TB groups than in either the non-tuberculous pulmonary disease group (p < 0.001) or the healthy control group (p < 0.001). The ROC curves indicated cutoff values for IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1 at 147.8, 160.4, and 496.4 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic efficiency for IFN-γ were 85.8%, 70.7%, 74.7%, 83.2%, and 78.3%, respectively; for IP-10 were 72.4%, 75.9%, 75.2%, 73.2%, and 74.2%, respectively; and for MCP-1 were 90.3%, 97.0%, 96.8%, 90.8%, and 93.6%, respectively. IFN-γ combined MCP-1 improved the sensitivity to 97.8% compared with IFN-γ (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate high sensitivity and specificity of MCP-1 as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous pleurisy.

  16. A murine inhalation model to characterize pulmonary exposure to dry Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    PubMed

    Buskirk, Amanda D; Green, Brett J; Lemons, Angela R; Nayak, Ajay P; Goldsmith, W Travis; Kashon, Michael L; Anderson, Stacey E; Hettick, Justin M; Templeton, Steven P; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Most murine models of fungal exposure are based on the delivery of uncharacterized extracts or liquid conidia suspensions using aspiration or intranasal approaches. Studies that model exposure to dry fungal aerosols using whole body inhalation have only recently been described. In this study, we aimed to characterize pulmonary immune responses following repeated inhalation of conidia utilizing an acoustical generator to deliver dry fungal aerosols to mice housed in a nose only exposure chamber. Immunocompetent female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to conidia derived from Aspergillus fumigatus wild-type (WT) or a melanin-deficient (Δalb1) strain. Conidia were aerosolized and delivered to mice at an estimated deposition dose of 1×105 twice a week for 4 weeks (8 total). Histopathological and immunological endpoints were assessed 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the final exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that conidia derived from both strains induced lung inflammation, especially at 24 and 48 hour time points. Immunological endpoints evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the mediastinal lymph nodes showed that exposure to WT conidia led to elevated numbers of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. Importantly, CD8+ IL17+ (Tc17) cells were significantly higher in BALF and positively correlated with germination of A. fumigatus WT spores. Germination was associated with specific IgG to intracellular proteins while Δalb1 spores elicited antibodies to cell wall hydrophobin. These data suggest that inhalation exposures may provide a more representative analysis of immune responses following exposures to environmentally and occupationally prevalent fungal contaminants. PMID:25340353

  17. Calculating alveolar capillary conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume: comparing the multiple- and single-inspired oxygen tension methods

    PubMed Central

    Ceridon, Maile L.; Beck, Kenneth C.; Olson, Thomas P.; Bilezikian, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    Key elements for determining alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) from the lung diffusing capacity (Dl) for carbon monoxide (DlCO) or for nitric oxide (DlNO) are the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with hemoglobin (θCO) and the DmCO/DlNO relationship (α-ratio). Although a range of values have been reported, currently there is no consensus regarding these parameters. The study purpose was to define optimal parameters (θCO, α-ratio) that would experimentally substantiate calculations of Dm and Vc from the single-inspired O2 tension [inspired fraction of O2 (FiO2)] method relative to the multiple-FiO2 method. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and during moderate exercise (80-W cycle). Dm and Vc were determined by the multiple-FiO2 and single-FiO2 methods (rebreathe technique) and were tabulated by applying previously reported θCO equations (both methods) and by varying the α-ratio (single-FiO2 method) from 1.90 to 2.50. Values were then compared between methods throughout the examined α-ratios. Dm and Vc were critically dependent on the applied θCO equation. For the multiple-FiO2 method, Dm was highly variable between θCO equations (rest and exercise); the range of Vc was less widespread. For the single-FiO2 method, the θCO equation by Reeves and Park (1992) combined with an α-ratio between 2.08 and 2.26 gave values for Dm and Vc that most closely matched those from the multiple-FiO2 method and were also physiologically plausible compared with predicted values. We conclude that the parameters used to calculate Dm and Vc values from the single-FiO2 method (using DlCO and DlNO) can significantly influence results and should be evaluated within individual laboratories to obtain optimal values. PMID:20538842

  18. Calculating alveolar capillary conductance and pulmonary capillary blood volume: comparing the multiple- and single-inspired oxygen tension methods.

    PubMed

    Ceridon, Maile L; Beck, Kenneth C; Olson, Thomas P; Bilezikian, Jordan A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2010-09-01

    Key elements for determining alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) from the lung diffusing capacity (Dl) for carbon monoxide (DlCO) or for nitric oxide (DlNO) are the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with hemoglobin (thetaCO) and the DmCO/DlNO relationship (alpha-ratio). Although a range of values have been reported, currently there is no consensus regarding these parameters. The study purpose was to define optimal parameters (thetaCO, alpha-ratio) that would experimentally substantiate calculations of Dm and Vc from the single-inspired O2 tension [inspired fraction of O2 (FiO2)] method relative to the multiple-FiO2 method. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and during moderate exercise (80-W cycle). Dm and Vc were determined by the multiple-FiO2 and single-FiO2 methods (rebreathe technique) and were tabulated by applying previously reported thetaCO equations (both methods) and by varying the alpha-ratio (single-FiO2 method) from 1.90 to 2.50. Values were then compared between methods throughout the examined alpha-ratios. Dm and Vc were critically dependent on the applied thetaCO equation. For the multiple-FiO2 method, Dm was highly variable between thetaCO equations (rest and exercise); the range of Vc was less widespread. For the single-FiO2 method, the thetaCO equation by Reeves and Park (1992) combined with an alpha-ratio between 2.08 and 2.26 gave values for Dm and Vc that most closely matched those from the multiple-FiO2 method and were also physiologically plausible compared with predicted values. We conclude that the parameters used to calculate Dm and Vc values from the single-FiO2 method (using DlCO and DlNO) can significantly influence results and should be evaluated within individual laboratories to obtain optimal values.

  19. [Synthesis, characterization and blood compatibility studies of waterproof breathable polyurethanes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Jianbin; Du, Minhui; He, Chengsheng; Fan, Cuirong; Zhong, Yinping

    2005-08-01

    Adopting the two-step method and changing the proportion between PEG (Polyethylene glycol) and PTMG (poly (tetrahydrofuran), we used the MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) and short chain extender BDO (1,4-butanediol) as hard segment, the PTMG and PEG as soft segment, and hence prepared a series of polyether-based thermoplastic polyurethanes. FTIR showed the structure character of these polyurethanes. The determination of mechanics property and water contact angles revealed their good mechanics properties and hydrophilicity. Blood compatibility was evaluated by hemolysis test and platelet adhesion test, which revealed their good hemocompatibility. So those polyurethanes may be of wide application in the future. PMID:16156261

  20. Inhaled nitric oxide alters the distribution of blood flow in the healthy human lung, suggesting active hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in normoxia

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Amran K.; Sá, Rui Carlos; Kim, Nick H.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Hopkins, Susan R.; Buxton, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is thought to actively regulate ventilation-perfusion (V̇a/Q̇) matching, reducing perfusion in regions of alveolar hypoxia. We assessed the extent of HPV in the healthy human lung using inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) under inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2) of 0.125, 0.21, and 0.30 (a hyperoxic stimulus designed to abolish HPV without the development of atelectasis). Dynamic measures of blood flow were made in a single sagittal slice of the right lung of five healthy male subjects using an arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI sequence, following a block stimulus pattern (3 × 60 breaths) with 40 ppm iNO administered in the central block. The overall spatial heterogeneity, spatiotemporal variability, and regional pattern of pulmonary blood flow was quantified as a function of condition (FiO2 × iNO state). While spatial heterogeneity did not change significantly with iNO administration or FiO2, there were statistically significant increases in Global Fluctuation Dispersion, (a marker of spatiotemporal flow variability) when iNO was administered during hypoxia (5.4 percentage point increase, P = 0.003). iNO had an effect on regional blood flow that was FiO2 dependent (P = 0.02), with regional changes in the pattern of blood flow occurring in hypoxia (P = 0.007) and normoxia (P = 0.008) tending to increase flow to dependent lung at the expense of nondependent lung. These findings indicate that inhaled nitric oxide significantly alters the distribution of blood flow in both hypoxic and normoxic healthy subjects, and suggests that some baseline HPV may indeed be present in the normoxic lung. PMID:25429099

  1. Serum Cytokines in Young Pediatric Patients with Congenital Cardiac Shunts and Altered Pulmonary Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zorzanelli, Leína; Maeda, Nair Yukie; Clavé, Mariana Meira; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Inflammation is central in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. We investigated how serum cytokines correlate with clinical features, hemodynamics, and lung histology in young patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital cardiac shunts. Design. Prospective, observational study. Methods and Results. Patients (n = 44) were aged 2.6 to 37.6 months. Group I patients (n = 31) were characterized by pulmonary congestion and higher pulmonary blood flow compared to group II (p = 0.022), with no need for preoperative cardiac catheterization. Group II patients (n = 13) had no congestive features. At catheterization, they had elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (5.7 [4.4–7.4] Wood units·m2, geometric mean with 95% CI). Cytokines were measured by chemiluminescence. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was found to be inversely related to pulmonary blood flow (r = −0.33, p = 0.026) and was higher in group II (high pulmonary vascular resistance) compared to group I (high pulmonary blood flow) (p = 0.017). In contrast, RANTES chemokine (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) was characteristically elevated in Group I (p = 0.022). Interleukin 16 was also negatively related to pulmonary blood flow (rS = −0.33, p = 0.029) and was higher in patients with obstructive vasculopathy at intraoperative lung biopsy (p = 0.021). Conclusion. Cytokines seem to be important and differentially regulated in subpopulations of young patients with cardiac shunts.

  2. Serum Cytokines in Young Pediatric Patients with Congenital Cardiac Shunts and Altered Pulmonary Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zorzanelli, Leína; Maeda, Nair Yukie; Clavé, Mariana Meira; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Inflammation is central in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. We investigated how serum cytokines correlate with clinical features, hemodynamics, and lung histology in young patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital cardiac shunts. Design. Prospective, observational study. Methods and Results. Patients (n = 44) were aged 2.6 to 37.6 months. Group I patients (n = 31) were characterized by pulmonary congestion and higher pulmonary blood flow compared to group II (p = 0.022), with no need for preoperative cardiac catheterization. Group II patients (n = 13) had no congestive features. At catheterization, they had elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (5.7 [4.4–7.4] Wood units·m2, geometric mean with 95% CI). Cytokines were measured by chemiluminescence. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was found to be inversely related to pulmonary blood flow (r = −0.33, p = 0.026) and was higher in group II (high pulmonary vascular resistance) compared to group I (high pulmonary blood flow) (p = 0.017). In contrast, RANTES chemokine (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) was characteristically elevated in Group I (p = 0.022). Interleukin 16 was also negatively related to pulmonary blood flow (rS = −0.33, p = 0.029) and was higher in patients with obstructive vasculopathy at intraoperative lung biopsy (p = 0.021). Conclusion. Cytokines seem to be important and differentially regulated in subpopulations of young patients with cardiac shunts. PMID:27656048

  3. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: characterization and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of infection by P. aeruginosa. The specific role of bronchiectasis in both infection and chronic colonization by this microorganism in COPD, however, remains ill defined. To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for P. aeruginosa recovery from sputum in outpatients with severe COPD, characterizing P. aeruginosa isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and focusing on the influence of bronchiectasis on chronic colonization in these patients. Methods A case-cohort study of 118 patients with severe COPD attended at a Respiratory Day Unit for an acute infectious exacerbation and followed up over one year. High-resolution CT scans were performed during stability for bronchiectasis assessment and sputum cultures were obtained during exacerbation and stability in all patients. P. aeruginosa isolates were genotyped by PFGE. Determinants of the recovery of P. aeruginosa in sputum and chronic colonization by this microorganism were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results P. aeruginosa was isolated from 41 of the 118 patients studied (34.7%). Five of these 41 patients (12.2%) with P. aeruginosa recovery fulfilled criteria for chronic colonization. In the multivariate analysis, the extent of bronchiectasis (OR 9.8, 95% CI: 1.7 to 54.8) and the number of antibiotic courses (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.5) were independently associated with an increased risk of P. aeruginosa isolation. Chronic colonization was unrelated to the presence of bronchiectasis (p=0.75). In patients with chronic colonization the isolates of P. aeruginosa retrieved corresponded to the same clones during the follow-up, and most of the multidrug resistant isolates (19/21) were harbored by these patients. Conclusions The main risk factors for P. aeruginosa isolation in severe COPD were the extent of bronchiectasis and exposure to antibiotics. Over 10% of these patients fulfilled criteria for

  5. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    PubMed

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS-LIKE CONDITION IN CATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders due to a variety of causes. In veterinary medicine, those with a prominent fibrotic component of unknown etiology are often called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In human medicine, this term is reserved for ...

  7. Quantification of the Blood Platelet Reactivity in the ADP-Induced Model of Non-Lethal Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Mice with the Use of Laser Doppler Flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Przygodzki, Tomasz; Talar, Marcin; Blazejczyk, Agnieszka; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Watala, Cezary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The paper describes an alternative method for quantification of in vivo ADP-induced thromboembolism. The aim of the studies was to develop a method of quantification which would not require either extravasation or labelling of platelets. Our proposed approach is based on the monitoring of changes of blood flow with the use of laser Doppler flowmetry. Materials and Methods Mice of C57Bl strain were used in the study. ADP was injected to the vena cava and blood flow was monitored with the use of a laser Doppler flowmeter in the mesentery. Measurements in platelet-depleted mice, mice pretreated with cangrelor, an ADP receptor antagonist, and eptifibatide, a blocker of fibrinogen binding to GPIIbIIIa, were conducted as the proof-of-concept in the performed experiments. Intravital microscopy and ex vivo imaging of organs was performed to identify the sites of aggregate formation resulting from ADP injection. Results The injection of ADP resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of the blood flow in the mesentery. These responses were fully attributable to blood platelet aggregation, as shown by the lack of the effect in platelet-depleted mice, and significantly reduced responses in mice pretreated with cangrelor and eptifibatide. No platelet aggregate formation in mesenteric vessels was revealed by intravital microscopy, while ex vivo imaging showed accumulation of fluorescent labelled platelets in the lung. Conclusions Injection of ADP to the venous system results in the formation of platelet aggregates predominantly in the lung. This results in reversible blood flow cessation in peripheral blood vessels. The measurement of this blood flow cessation in the mesentery allows indirect measurement of ADP-induced pulmonary thromboembolism. We suggest that this approach can be useful for in vivo screening for antiplatelet drug candidates. PMID:26751810

  8. Pulmonary effects of intravenous atropine induce ventilation perfusion mismatch.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Paydarfar, David

    2014-05-01

    Atropine is used for a number of medical conditions, predominantly for its cardiovascular effects. Cholinergic nerves that innervate pulmonary smooth muscle, glands, and vasculature may be affected by anticholinergic medications. We hypothesized that atropine causes alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. We conducted a prospective interventional study with detailed physiologic recordings in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats (n = 8). Animals breathing a normoxic gas mixture titrated to a partial arterial pressure of oxygen of 110-120 were exposed to an escalating dose of intravenous atropine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 5.0, and 20.0 mg/kg body mass). Arterial blood gas measurements were recorded every 2 min (×5) at baseline, and following each of the 5 doses of atropine. In addition, the animals regional pulmonary blood flow was measured using neutron-activated microspheres. Oxygenation decreased immediately following intravenous administration of atropine, despite a small increase in the volume of inspired air with no change in respiratory rate. Arterial blood gas analysis showed an increase in pulmonary dysfunction, characterized by a widening of the alveolar-arteriole gradient (p < 0.003 all groups except for the lowest dose of atropine). The microsphere data demonstrates an abrupt and marked heterogeneity of pulmonary blood flow following atropine treatment. In conclusion, atropine was found to decrease pulmonary gas exchange in a dose-dependent fashion in this rat model.

  9. Genetic characterization of atypical Mansonella (Mansonella) ozzardi microfilariae in human blood samples from northeastern Peru.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Luis A; Arrospide, Nancy; Recuenco, Sergio; Cabezas, Cesar; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2012-09-01

    DNA sequence comparisons are useful for characterizing proposed new parasite species or strains. Microfilariae with an atypical arrangement of nuclei behind the cephalic space have been recently described in human blood samples from the Amazon region of Peru. Three blood specimens containing atypical microfilariae were genetically characterized using three DNA markers (5S ribosomal DNA, 12S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase I). All atypical microfilariae were clustered into the Mansonella group and indistinguishable from M. ozzardi based on these DNA markers. PMID:22826497

  10. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The

  11. Characterization of the phase dependent pulmonary response following irritant inhalation exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    The present study utilized NO{sub 2} to fingerprint the biochemical reaction of the pulmonary compartment to oxidative damage and to correlate this with histopathology following acute and subacute exposures to NO{sub 2}. Acute exposure to NO{sub 2} produced dose-dependent immediate increases in the nonenzymatic parameters of pulmonary protein content, protease inhibitor activity and lung weight. The enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), choline kinase and beta-glucuronidase were elevated by two days following acute exposure. All of the above parameters were elevated following subacute exposure, however, nonenzymatic manifestations were attenuated with respect to enzymatic alterations. Hydroxyurea-induced granulocytopenia attenuated the increases in activities of LDH and beta-glucuronidase following acute, but not subacute exposures. Cycloheximide-induced protein synthesis inhibition decrease the LDH and beta-glucuronidase response to NO{sub 2} without altering the increases in protein content or protease inhibitor activity.

  12. Prevalence and characterization of opportunistic candidal infections among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Bhatiya, Priyanka Sharma; Sowmya, GV

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Candida albicans remains the most common cause of human candidiasis, the frequency of infection attributed to other members of the genus is also increasing. Hence, the present study was carried out to know the prevalence of opportunistic candidal infection in tuberculosis, and if positive, the species of Candida that is most commonly associated. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised sixty pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were divided into (1) fresh or untreated group, (2A) chronic or treated group having no complications and (2B) having complications, comprising twenty patients each, respectively. The collected sputum samples were initially stained with Ziehl–Neelsen stain for confirmation of presence of tubercle Bacilli. Primary isolation was done on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The candidal colonies were confirmed microscopically for the presence of pseudohyphae. Further speciation of the positive candidal samples was carried out using ChromAgar. Result: The total fungal prevalence among 60 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis on SDA was 33 (55%) Candida and 3 (5%) Aspergillus. The prevalence of different candidal species on ChromAgar showed C. albicans as the predominant one, followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. Freshly diagnosed or untreated group was less commonly associated with pulmonary mycoses than chronic or treated group. The prevalence of Candida had increased with treatment, duration and age, and it was more in males than females. Conclusion: The present study confirms the phenomenon of opportunistic candidal infections in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Rapid and reliable identification of Candida species is essential as they differ in their virulence and sensitivity to antifungal drugs.

  13. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Characterization of Solitary Pulmonary Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Çağlayan; Gençhellaç, Hakan; Temizöz, Osman; Polat, Ahmet; Şengül, Ersin; Duygulu, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. Aims: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging on the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary lesions. Study Design: Randomized prospective study. Methods: This prospective study included 48 solitary pulmonary nodules and masses (18 benign, 30 malignant). Single shot echo planar spin echo diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with two b factors (0 and 1000 s/mm2). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated. On diffusion weighted (DW) trace images, the signal intensities (SI) of the lesions were visually compared to the SI of the thoracic spinal cord using a 5-point scale: 1: hypointense, 2: moderately hypointense, 3: isointense, 4: moderately hyperintense, 5: significantly hyperintense. For the quantitative evaluation, the lesion to thoracic spinal signal intensity ratios and the ADCs of the lesions were compared between groups. Results: On visual evaluation, taking the density of the spinal cord as a reference, most benign lesions were found to be hypointense, while most of the malignant lesions were evaluated as hyperintense on DWI with a b factor of 1000 s/mm2. In contrast, on T2 weighted images, it was seen that the distinction of malignant lesions from benign lesions was not statistically significant. The ADCs of the malignant lesions were significantly lower than those of benign lesions (mean ADC was 2.02×10−3 mm2/s for malignant lesions, and 1.195×10−3±0.3 mm2/s for benign lesions). Setting the cut-off value at 1.5×10−3, ADC had a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 88.9% for the differentiation of benign lesions from malignant lesions. Conclusion: DWI may aid in the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary lesions. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02482181) PMID:26740901

  14. Prevalence and characterization of opportunistic candidal infections among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Bhatiya, Priyanka Sharma; Sowmya, GV

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Candida albicans remains the most common cause of human candidiasis, the frequency of infection attributed to other members of the genus is also increasing. Hence, the present study was carried out to know the prevalence of opportunistic candidal infection in tuberculosis, and if positive, the species of Candida that is most commonly associated. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised sixty pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were divided into (1) fresh or untreated group, (2A) chronic or treated group having no complications and (2B) having complications, comprising twenty patients each, respectively. The collected sputum samples were initially stained with Ziehl–Neelsen stain for confirmation of presence of tubercle Bacilli. Primary isolation was done on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The candidal colonies were confirmed microscopically for the presence of pseudohyphae. Further speciation of the positive candidal samples was carried out using ChromAgar. Result: The total fungal prevalence among 60 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis on SDA was 33 (55%) Candida and 3 (5%) Aspergillus. The prevalence of different candidal species on ChromAgar showed C. albicans as the predominant one, followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. Freshly diagnosed or untreated group was less commonly associated with pulmonary mycoses than chronic or treated group. The prevalence of Candida had increased with treatment, duration and age, and it was more in males than females. Conclusion: The present study confirms the phenomenon of opportunistic candidal infections in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Rapid and reliable identification of Candida species is essential as they differ in their virulence and sensitivity to antifungal drugs. PMID:27601806

  15. Clinical characterization and survival of patients with borderline elevation in pulmonary artery pressure.

    PubMed

    Heresi, Gustavo A; Minai, Omar A; Tonelli, Adriano R; Hammel, Jeffrey P; Farha, Samar; Parambil, Joseph G; Dweik, Raed A

    2013-12-01

    Normal resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is 8-20 mmHg. Pulmonary hypertension is defined as mean PAP of ≥25 mmHg. Borderline PAP levels of 21-24 mmHg are of unclear significance. We sought to determine the clinical characteristics and survival of subjects with mean PAP of 21-24 mmHg. We examined 1,491 patients enrolled in the Cleveland Clinic Pulmonary Hypertension Registry between February 1990 and May 2012 with baseline right heart catheterization. The relationship between PAP and all-cause mortality was assessed by Cox models and a tree-based analysis. Sixty-three patients had borderline PAP (underlying conditions: 12 left heart disease, 20 respiratory disease, 17 connective-tissue disease, 4 others, and 10 none). We then compared 3 groups: borderline PAP without heart or lung disease ([Formula: see text]), normal PAP without heart or lung disease ([Formula: see text]), and category 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; [Formula: see text]). Borderline-PAP patients had levels of hemodynamic and functional compromise between those for normal-PAP patients and those for patients with PAH. Borderline PAP was associated with increased mortality compared to normal PAP (hazard ratio: 4.03 [95% confidence interval: 0.78-20.80], [Formula: see text]). A tree-based analysis demonstrated almost identical cut points in mean PAP (≤20, 21-26, and ≥27 mmHg) associated with differential survival ([Formula: see text]). Connective-tissue disease and an elevated transpulmonary gradient were predictors of worse survival in the borderline-PAP population. Borderline PAP elevation is associated with decreased survival, particularly in the context of connective-tissue disease and an elevated transpulmonary gradient. PMID:25006408

  16. Structural characterization of a monoclonal antibody immunopurified pulmonary cytochrome P-450 from 3-methylcholanthrenetreated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.C.; Cheng, K.C.; Park, S.S.; Gelboin, H.V.; Friedman, F.K.

    1986-05-01

    Extrahepatic cytochromes P-450 have not been as extensively studied as the hepatic forms, owing to the low concentrations of these enzymes in extrahepatic tissues. A cytochrome P-450 was purified from lung microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-treated rats by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody to the major MC-inducible form of rat liver cytochrome P-450. The lung cytochrome P-450 is related to this liver form by at least two common epitopes, recognized by monoclonal antibodies 1-7-1 and 1-31-2. The isolated pulmonary cytochrome P-450 is MC-inducible and has an apparent molecular weight of 57 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The molecular weight as well as the NH/sub 2/-terminal sequence of the pulmonary cytochrome P-450 is identical to that of the major MC-inducible form of rat liver cytochrome P-450. In addition, limited proteolytic digestion of both cytochromes P-450 generates the same peptide patterns on SDS-PAGE. By several criteria, treatment of rats with MC thus induces a pulmonary cytochrome P-450 which is structurally identical to the MC-induced hepatic enzyme.

  17. Pentobarbital anesthesia modifies pulmonary vasoregulation after hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, B B; Nyhan, D P; Goll, H M; Clougherty, P W; Fehr, D M; Murray, P A

    1988-09-01

    Our objectives were 1) to investigate the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to increasing cardiac index after a period of hypotension and hypoperfusion (defined as reperfusion) measured in conscious dogs is altered during pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and 2) to determine whether pentobarbital anesthesia modifies autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the pulmonary circulation during reperfusion. Base-line and reperfusion pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were generated by stepwise inflation and deflation, respectively, of an inferior vena caval occluder to vary Q in conscious and pentobarbital-anesthetized (30 mg/kg iv) dogs. During pentobarbital anesthesia, controlled ventilation (without positive end-expiratory pressure) allowed matching of systemic arterial and mixed venous blood gases to conscious values. Marked pulmonary vasoconstriction (P less than 0.01) was observed during reperfusion in pentobarbital-anesthetized but not in conscious dogs. Both sympathetic alpha-adrenergic receptor block and total ANS ganglionic block attenuated, but did not abolish, the pulmonary vasoconstriction during reperfusion in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Neither sympathetic beta-adrenergic receptor block nor cholinergic receptor block enhanced the magnitude of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to reperfusion during pentobarbital anesthesia. Thus, in contrast to the conscious state, the pulmonary vascular response to reperfusion is characterized by active, non-flow-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction during pentobarbital anesthesia. This response is primarily, but not exclusively, mediated by sympathetic alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction and is not offset by either sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic vasodilation. These results indicate, that, compared with the conscious state, pentobarbital anesthesia modifies pulmonary vasoregulation, during reperfusion following hypotension and hypoperfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  18. Pulmonary arterial hypertension due to pulmonary vascular amyloid deposition in a patient with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hirotsugu; Kurata, Atsushi; Mizuno, Hideaki; Nashiro, Tamaki; Hangaishi, Akira; Kuroda, Masahiko; Usuki, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Systemic amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid deposition throughout the body and subsequent dysfunction of various organs. Although pulmonary amyloidosis does occur, pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by amyloidosis is extremely rare. In most of these cases, amyloid deposition occurred diffusely in alveolar septa, indicating that PH was due to lung disease and/or hypoxia. On the other hand, the mechanism of PH due to amyloid deposition in the pulmonary arteries has never been demonstrated. Here, we report the first case of PH due to amyloid deposition in pulmonary elastic arteries and muscular artery, which was complicated by multiple myeloma (MM). In the autopsy specimen of the patient, amyloid deposition was found mainly in the pulmonary arterial media, along with intimal thickening with luminal narrowing. PH thus appeared to be caused by marked decrease of pulmonary elasticity due to the amyloid deposition in the arterial media that resulted in stasis of the blood flow and subsequent luminal narrowing. Our present data demonstrates a new concept of PH caused by amyloidosis, namely, pulmonary arterial hypertension due to amyloidosis. PMID:26823900

  19. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

  20. From blood to bubbles: Time resolved micro-particle detection and characterization by scattered ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Ronald A.

    2001-05-01

    Robert Apfel believed in the creative application of acoustics technology to difficult problems in biomedical sensing. Much of his work in this area focused on material characterization, with the intention of effecting diagnosis. His early work in blood cell characterization employed acoustic levitation to measure the bulk mechanical properties of human red blood cells. This subsequently paved the way to the use of high-frequency acoustic scattering to yield the compressibility and density of individual blood cells. Technology developed in this later effort was then adapted to the very difficult problem of transient micro-cavitation detection, and the active cavitation detector (ACD) was born. This paper traces this line of work from its origins and, in the process, serves to celebrate Bob Apfel's peerless ingenuity and irrepressible creativity.

  1. Swine model of chronic postcapillary pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular remodeling: long-term characterization by cardiac catheterization, magnetic resonance, and pathology.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Daniel; García-Alvarez, Ana; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Nuño, Mario; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; García-Ruíz, José Manuel; Sandoval, Elena; Aguero, Jaume; Castellá, Manuel; Hajjar, Roger J; Fuster, Valentín; Ibáñez, Borja

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is prevalent and carries high morbidity and mortality, mostly due to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Postcapillary PH is the most frequent form but there are no large-animal models available. We developed and characterized a porcine model of postcapillary PH by non-restrictive banding of the confluent of both inferior pulmonary veins (n = 10; sham controls n = 3). Right heart catheterization and magnetic resonance were performed before the procedure and monthly during 4 months. All banded animals developed PH. Compared to controls, banded animals presented higher mean pulmonary artery pressure [median (first to third quartile) 30 mmHg (25-37) vs. 20 mmHg (18-23); p = 0.018] and higher pulmonary vascular resistance [5.2 WU (3.8-7.1) vs. 2.3 WU (2.1-3.5); p = 0.028] after 2 months. Differences in indexed RV end-systolic volume [42 mL/m(2) (36-53) vs. 24 mL/m(2) (24-33); p = 0.028] and RV ejection fraction [59 % (54-63) vs. 66 % (64-68); p = 0.028] were also significant after 2 months. Differences remained significant throughout the study. Histopathology revealed increased lung weight and fibrosis but no increase in average water content. Also, remodeling on pulmonary arteries including increased medial and intimal thickness and fibrosis and RV myocardial disarray and fibrosis was demonstrated. Lung remodeling findings were similar in all pulmonary lobes.

  2. Comparative characterization of pulmonary surfactant aggregates and alkaline phosphatase isozymes in human lung carcinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Iino, Nozomi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Seiji; Koyama, Iwao; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2007-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes are surfactant-associated proteins (SPs). Since several different AP isozymes have been detected in the pneumocytes of lung cancer patients, we attempted to identify the relationship between pulmonary surfactant aggregate subtypes and AP isozymes. Pulmonary surfactant aggregates were isolated from carcinoma and non-carcinoma tissues of patients with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Upon analysis, ultraheavy, heavy, and light surfactant aggregates were detected in the non-carcinoma tissues, but no ultraheavy surfactant aggregates were found in the carcinoma tissues. Surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) was detected as two bands (a 27-kDa band and a 54-kDa band) in the ultraheavy, heavy, and light surfactant aggregates found in the non-carcinoma tissues. Although both SP-A bands were detected in the heavy and light surfactant aggregates from adenocarcinoma tissues, the 54-kDa band was not detected in squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Liver AP (LAP) was detected in the heavy and light surfactant aggregates from both non-carcinoma and squamous carcinoma tissues, but not in heavy surfactant aggregates from adenocarcinoma tissues. A larger amount of bone type AP (BAP) was found in light surfactant aggregate fractions from squamous cell carcinomas than those from adenocarcinoma tissues or non-carcinoma tissues from patients with either type of cancer. LAP, BAP, and SP-A were identified immunohistochemically in type II pneumocytes from non-carcinoma tissues and adenocarcinoma cells, but no distinct SP-A staining was observed in squamous cell carcinoma tissues. The present study has thus revealed several differences in pulmonary surfactant aggregates and AP isozymes between adenocarcinoma tissue and squamous cell carcinoma tissue.

  3. The Pulmonary Circulation and Exercise Responses in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bryan J.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. Remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature occurs from maturity to senescence that is characterized by an increase in pulmonary vascular stiffness, pulmonary vascular pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance along with increased heterogeneity of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion and decreased pulmonary capillary blood volume and membrane diffusing capacity that is consistent with a reduction in alveolar-capillary surface area. In theory, the aforementioned age-related changes in the pulmonary circulation may conspire to make elderly individuals more susceptible to gas exchange abnormalities during exercise. However, despite the erosion in ventilatory reserve with aging, the healthy older adult appears able to maintain alveolar ventilation at a level that allows maintenance of arterial blood gases within normal limits, even during heavy exercise. This ability to maintain adequate gas exchange likely occurs because age-related reductions in the maximal metabolic demand of exercise occur at a rate equal to or greater than the rate of deterioration in ventilatory reserve. A more prominent aspect of aging is the loss of lung elastic recoil that is associated with a modest reduction in the expiratory boundary of the maximal flow-volume envelope. This in turn increases the severity of expiratory airflow limitation and induces dynamic lung hyperinflation during exercise. The consequences of this age-associated decrease in elastic recoil on the pulmonary circulation are speculative, but an age-associated decline in elastic recoil may influence pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, in addition to its impact on the work and oxygen cost of breathing. PMID:20941654

  4. Characterization and differentiation of body fluids, putrefaction fluid, and blood using Hounsfield unit in postmortem CT.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Buetikofer, Yanik; Kara, Levent

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ranges of Hounsfield unit (HU) found in body fluids, putrefaction fluids, and blood on postmortem CT and how these ranges are affected by postmortem interval, temperatures, and CT beam energy. Body fluids, putrefaction fluids, and blood from a total of 53 corpses were analyzed to determine the ranges of HU values from postmortem CT images that were taken prior to autopsy. The fluids measured in CT images were obtained at autopsy and examined in terms of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. Body fluids and blood were also collected in plastic bottles, which were subjected to CT scans at different beam energies (80-130 kV) and at various fluid temperatures (4 to 40 °C). At a postmortem interval of 1 to 4 days, the ranges of HU values of the serous fluids (13-38 HU) and the nonsedimented blood (40-88 HU) did not overlap. In the sedimented blood, the upper serum layer exhibited HU value ranges that overlapped with those of the serous fluids. The putrefaction fluids exhibited a range of HU values between 80 and -130 HU. Elevated HU values were observed in fluids with accretive cell impurities. HU values decreased slightly with increasing temperature and CT beam energy. We concluded that serous fluids and blood in fresh corpses can be characterized and differentiated from each other based on HU value ranges. In contrast, body fluids in decomposed corpses cannot be differentiated by their HU value ranges. Different beam energies and corpse temperatures had only minor influences on HU value ranges and therefore should not be obstacles to the differentiation and characterization of body fluids and blood.

  5. The influence of collapse of the lung parenchyma on the morphology of pulmonary blood vessels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Buyssens, N; van den Bossche, R; de Meyer, G; Herman, A G

    1996-01-01

    During a search for resident subendothelial smooth muscle cells in pulmonary vessels of the rat we found that in expanded lungs the muscular pads in the veins, considered by some authors as sphincters, were hardly visible whereas in collapsed lungs they were very conspicuous. In a separate study intended to quantify the degree of collapse or expansion the left lung was examined in 5 rats with a collapsed and in 5 rats with an expanded lung: the expansion was produced by filling the airways by gravity with Methacarn fixative. The degree of expansion was determined by morphometry measuring the volume density of the tissue fraction of the pulmonary parenchyma in the microscopic sections: in the expanded lung the mean value was 8.5% (range 6.7-12.6%), in the collapsed lung 20.1% (range 18.7-22.3%), a highly significant difference (p < 0.000). Serial sections generally 60-100, 6-microns-thick, were stained by PAS, Sirius red hematoxylin and Verhoeff's elastic stains. Immunohistochemical staining was done with monoclonal antibody against alpha smooth muscle cell actin and desmin. Graphic reconstructions of representative vessels were performed. It was shown that the muscular media of the veins was interrupted and that the muscular pads corresponded to the contracted smooth muscle cell segments alternating with the noncontracted segments devoid of muscle. In the expanded lungs muscular pads were flattened and often hardly detectable. This indicates that the structures considered as sphincters are postmortem contraction rings in collapsed lungs.

  6. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-inhibiting flavonoids attenuate cytokine release in blood from male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Geraets, Liesbeth; Moonen, Harald J J; Manders, Ralph J F; van Loon, Luc J C; Pennings, Herman-Jan; Wouters, Emiel F M; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, we identified several flavonoids as inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 in vitro and in vivo. PARP-1 is recognized as coactivator of nuclear factor-kappaB and plays a role in the pathophysiology of diseases with low-grade systemic inflammation, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we assessed the antiinflammatory effects of flavonoids with varying PARP-1-inhibiting effects in whole blood from male patients with COPD or T2D and healthy men. A total of 10 COPD, 10 T2D patients, and 10 healthy volunteers matched for age and BMI were recruited. Blood from each participant was exposed to 1 microg/L lipopolysaccharide (LPS) over 16 h with or without preincubation with 10 micromol/L of flavone, fisetin, morin, or tricetin. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, -8, and -10 were measured in the supernatant. Preincubation with fisetin and tricetin strongly attenuated LPS-induced increases in concentrations of TNFalpha in blood from COPD patients [mean (+/- SEM): -41 +/- 4% (fisetin) and -31 +/- 4% (tricetin); P < 0.001] and IL-6 in blood from T2D patients [-31 +/- 5% (fisetin) and -29 +/- 6% (tricetin); P < or = 0.001]. Moreover, LPS-induced changes in TNFalpha and IL-6 concentrations were positively correlated with the extent of reduction by fisetin and tricetin. The PARP-1-inhibiting flavonoids fisetin and tricetin were able to attenuate LPS-induced cytokine release from leukocytes of patients with chronic systemic inflammation, indicating a potential application as nutraceutical agents for these patient groups.

  7. Characterization of the early pulmonary inflammatory response associated with PTFE fume exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, C. J.; Finkelstein, J. N.; Gelein, R.; Baggs, R.; Oberdorster, G.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Heating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been described to release fumes containing ultrafine particles (approximately 18 nm diam). These fumes can be highly toxic in the respiratory tract inducing extensive pulmonary edema with hemorrhagic inflammation. Fischer-344 rats were exposed to PTFE fumes generated by temperatures ranging from 450 to 460 degrees C for 15 min at an exposure concentration of 5 x 10(5) particles/cm3, equivalent to approximately 50 micrograms/m3. Responses were examined 4 hr post-treatment when these rats demonstrated 60-85% neutrophils (PMNs) in their lung lavage. Increases in abundance for messages encoding the antioxidants manganese superoxide dismutase and metallothionein (MT) increased 15- and 40-fold, respectively. For messages encoding the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 6 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) increases of 5-, 5-, 10-, 40-, 40-, and 15-fold were present. Vascular endothelial growth factor, which may play a role in the integrity of the endothelial barrier, was decreased to 20% of controls. In situ sections were hybridized with 33P cRNA probes encoding IL-6, MT, surfactant protein C, and TNF alpha. Increased mRNA abundance for MT and IL-6 was expressed around all airways and interstitial regions with MT and IL-6 demonstrating similar spatial distribution. Large numbers of activated PMNs expressed IL-6, MT, and TNF alpha. Additionally, pulmonary macrophages and epithelial cells were actively involved. These observations support the notion that PTFE fumes containing ultrafine particles initiate a severe inflammatory response at low inhaled particle mass concentrations, which is suggestive of an oxidative injury. Furthermore, PMNs may actively regulate the inflammatory process through cytokine and antioxidant expression.

  8. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  9. Initial characterization of micafungin pulmonary delivery via two different nebulizers and multivariate data analysis of aerosol mass distribution profiles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuai; Ashley, Elizabeth S Dodds; Alexander, Barbara D; Hickey, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceutical aerosols have been targeted to the lungs for the treatment of asthma and pulmonary infectious diseases successfully. Micafungin (Astellas Pharma US, Deerfield, IL, USA) has been shown to be an effective antifungal agent when administrated intravenously. Pulmonary delivery of micafungin has not previously been reported. In the present pilot study, we characterize the performance of two nebulizers and their potential for delivering micafungin to the lungs as well as the use of multivariate data analysis for mass distribution profile comparison. The concentration of micafungin sodium increased by 21% when delivered by the Acorn II nebulizer and by 20% when delivered by the LC Plus nebulizer, respectively, from the first to the second sampling period. The Acorn II nebulizer delivered a fine particle fraction FPF(5.8) (%<5.8 microm) of 92.5 +/- 0.8 and FPF(3.3) (%<3.3 microm) of 82.3 +/- 2.1 during the first sampling period. For the LC Plus nebulizer, FPF(5.8) was 92.3 +/- 0.1 and FPF(3.3) was 67.0 +/- 0.7 during the first sampling period. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) increased from 1.67 +/- 0.05 to 1.77 +/- 0.04 mum (Acorn II nebulizer) and from 2.09 +/- 0.01 to 2.20 +/- 0.01 microm (Pari LC Plus nebulizer) from the first to the second sampling periods. These changes in MMAD were statistically significant by paired t test. Multivariate data analysis showed that this could be explained systematically by greater drug deposition on stages with larger cutoff sizes and reduced drug deposition on stages with smaller cutoff sizes rather than multimodal deposition or other anomalies in size distribution.

  10. Circulating immune complexes in patients with usual interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: partial characterization and relationship with Thermoactinomyces vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiara, R; Giallongo, A; Amoroso, S; Spina, G; Stancampiano, R; Geraci, D

    1981-01-01

    Sixty-six sera were analysed by solid-phase conglutinin binding assay, to detect the levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to show a correlation with antibodies to Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. Sixty per cent of patients with usual interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (UIP), were positive for CIC; and T. vulgaris antibodies were detected in 60% of the same patients. In comparison, there was a low frequency of positive results in bronchitis patients (5% for CIC and 35% for T. vulgaris), and in normal blood donors (0% for CIC and 30% for T. vulgaris). Furthermore 31% of patients with lung cancer were found positive for CIC, but not for T. vulgaris. Immune complexes purified on Protein A-Sepharose and by sucrose density gradient from patients with UIP, showed a sedimentation coefficient higher than 19 S. The purified material was found to contain IgG and IgM as antibodies. Binding of immune complexes, purified by sedimentation on sucrose gradient, to conglutinin was inhibited by the presence of T. vulgaris antigen; thus suggesting that this antigen might be present in the complexes. Images Figure 7 PMID:7319561

  11. Characterization and pharmacokinetic analysis of crystalline versus amorphous rapamycin dry powder via pulmonary administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Simone R; Watts, Alan B; Peters, Jay I; Liu, Sha; Hengsawas, Soraya; Escotet-Espinoza, Manuel S; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of inhaled rapamycin (RAPA) is compared for amorphous versus crystalline dry powder formulations. The amorphous formulation of RAPA and lactose (RapaLac) was prepared by thin film freezing (TFF) using lactose as the stabilizing agent in the weight ratio 1:1. The crystalline formulation was prepared by wet ball milling RAPA and lactose and posteriorly blending the mixture with coarse lactose (micronized RAPA/micronized lactose/coarse lactose=0.5:0.5:19). While both powders presented good aerosolization performance for lung delivery, TFF formulation exhibited better in vitro aerodynamic properties than the crystalline physical mixture. Single-dose 24h pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats following inhalation of the aerosol mist in a nose-only inhalation exposure system. Lung deposition was higher for the crystalline group than for the TFF group. Despite higher pulmonary levels of drug that were found for the crystalline group, the systemic circulation (AUC₀₋₂₄) was higher for the amorphous group (8.6 ngh/mL) than for crystalline group (2.4 ngh/mL) based on a five-compartmental analysis. Lung level profiles suggest that TTF powder stays in the lung for the same period of time as the crystalline powder but it presented higher in vivo systemic bioavailability due to its enhanced solubility, faster dissolution rate and increased FPF at a more distal part of the lungs. PMID:24859653

  12. Characterization of the vasodilator properties of peroxynitrite on rat pulmonary artery: role of poly (adenosine 5′-diphosphoribose) synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Francois; Mitchell, Jane A; Quinlan, Gregory J; Evans, Timothy W

    1997-01-01

    The pulmonary vasculature is constantly exposed to oxygen and reactive oxygen species such as nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anions which can combine at a near diffusion limited rate, to form the powerful oxidant, peroxynitrite (ONOO−). When formed in large amounts, ONOO− is thought to contribute to tissue injury and vascular dysfunction seen in diseases such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock. Recent studies have shown that ONOO− can cause vasodilatation and at higher concentrations can activate poly (adenosine 5′-diphosphoribose) synthase (PARS) leading to consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). As the lung represents a prime site for ONOO− formation, we characterized its effects on pulmonary vascular tone and on endothelial function. In addition, we have assessed the role of PARS in producing the vasoactive properties of ONOO− on pulmonary artery rings. Isolated pulmonary artery rings from rats were mounted in organ baths containing warmed and gassed (95% O2: 5% CO2) Krebs buffer. Force was measured with isometric force transducers. After equilibration, ONOO− (10 nM–100 μM) was added in a cumulative manner. In separate experiments designed to assess any vasodilator properties of ONOO−, tissues were pre-contracted with the thromboxane mimetic U46619 (1 μM). Once a stable base-line was achieved, ONOO− was added in a cumulative fashion. ONOO− had no significant effect on resting pulmonary artery tone but caused concentration-dependent relaxations of pre-contracted vessels in the range 1 μM to 100 μM. In some experiments the effects of freshly prepared ONOO− solutions were compared with those allowed to decay at 4°C for 2 days. In some experiments either vehicle or ONOO− (1, 10 or 100 μM) was added for 15 min before U46619 (1 μM). Concentration-response curves to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (10 nM–100

  13. Correlation of gene expression with physiological functions: Examples of pulmonary blood vessel rheology, hypoxic hypertension, and tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Sher, Y P; Peck, K; Fung, Y C

    2001-01-01

    Microarray gene chip technology is a powerful invention looking for applications. A general principle is proposed here to direct the power of the technology toward physiology, medicine, and pharmacology. Our principle is to match quantitative measures of gene expression with the trend of mathematical parameters that describe biological functions. Mathematical parameterization is the heart. The procedure is illustrated by lung physiology, including the hypoxic hypertension, rheological properties of the tissues, and the remodeling of the pulmonary arterial wall under hypertensive stress. We show first how to reduce the experimental results on these physiological functions into mathematical formulas, and how the parameters of these formulas describe the functional trends precisely. Then under the assumption that the microarray reveals gene activities quantitatively, we match the trends of the gene activity with the trends of the functional parameters. Genes whose trends do match are interpreted as relevant to the functions. Those that do not match are considered irrelevant to the functions. The more functions we consider, the fewer will be the number of genes that are relevant to all functions. Thus we learn about the generality and specificity of the influence of genes on physiology. PMID:11381166

  14. Influence of crystalloid and colloid fluid infusion and blood withdrawal on pulmonary bioimpedance in an animal model of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodenstein, Marc; Wang, Hemei; Boehme, Stefan; Vogt, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is considered useful for monitoring regional ventilation and aeration in intensive-care patients during mechanical ventilation. Changes in their body fluid state modify the electrical properties of lung tissue and may interfere with the EIT measurements of lung aeration. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of crystalloid and colloid infusion and blood withdrawal on bioimpedance determined by EIT in a chest cross-section. Fourteen anaesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs were subjected to interventions affecting the volume state (crystalloid and colloid infusion, blood withdrawal). Six animals received additional crystalloid fluids (fluid group) whereas eight did not (no-fluid group). Global and regional relative impedance changes (RIC, dimensionless unit) were determined by backprojection at end-expiration. Regional ventilation distribution was analyzed by calculating the tidal RIC in the same regions. Colloid infusion led to a significant fall in the global end-expiratory RIC (mean differences: fluid: -91.2, p < 0.001, no-fluid: -38.9, p < 0.001), which was partially reversed after blood withdrawal (mean differences, fluid: +45.1, p = 0.047 and no-fluid: +26.2, p = 0.009). The RIC was significantly lower in the animals with additional crystalloids (mean group difference: 45.5, p < 0.001). Global and regional tidal volumes were not significantly affected by the fluid and volume states.

  15. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2016-03-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources. PMID:26963245

  16. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V.; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David

    2016-01-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources. PMID:26963245

  17. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - pulmonary atresia; Cyanotic heart disease - pulmonary atresia; Valve - disorder pulmonary atresia ... septum may also have a poorly developed tricuspid valve. They may also have an underdeveloped right ventricle ...

  18. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  19. Effect of nucleoprotein factor-kB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells during high blood flow-associated pulmonary vascular remodeling on vasoactive substances adrenomedullin and prostacyclin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Weina; Dong, Meng; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nucleoprotein factor-kB (NF-κB) on the production and secretion of vasoactive substances adrenomedullin (ADM) and prostacyclin (PGI2) by endothelial cells in a high blood flow, pulmonary hypertension in vivo model. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 15 rats received shunt surgery (Tn group); 15 rats received shunt surgery + NF-κB inhibitor [pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)] (Ti group); 10 rats received sham surgery (Co group); and 10 rats were negative controls (Cn group). A left to right shunt pulmonary hypertension model was established in groups Tn and Ti. Rats in the Ti group received an intraperitoneal injection of PDTC (120 mg/kg·d) one hour before the operation for 2 weeks, and rats in the Co group were processed in the same fashion as that of the experimental groups, except that they did not undergo surgery. After 12 weeks, pulmonary artery systolic pressure was measured by cardiac catheterization, pulmonary arterial endothelial cells were isolated, and NF-κB, ADM and PGI2 protein expressions were measured in the endothelium using immunohistochemistry. ADM and PGI2 expressions were significantly lower in the Tn group relative to those of the Cn group (P<0.01) but no difference in the Ti group (P>0.05). Expressions in the Co and Cn groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). Heightened NF-κB activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells during high blood flow can suppress the synthesis and secretion of ADM and PGI2, potentially leading to vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26550335

  20. Magnetic characterization of human blood in the atherosclerotic process in coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, B.; Bućko, M. S.; Chrobak, A.; Wasilewski, J.; Zych, M.

    2011-03-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in biomagnetism—a field of biophysics concerned with the magnetic properties of living organisms. Biomagnetism focuses on the measurement of magnetic properties of biological samples in the clinical environment. Progress in this field can provide new data for the understanding of the pathomechanism of atherosclerosis and support the diagnostic options for the evaluation and treatment of atherothrombotic complications. Lyophilized human blood samples from patients with atherosclerotic lesions (calcium scoring (CS) CS>0) and without atherosclerotic lesions (CS=0) were magnetically investigated. Magnetic measurements (performed in room and low temperature) indicated significant magnetic differences between these two groups of patients. Atherosclerotic blood samples are characterized by higher concentration of ferrimagnetic particles (magnetite and/or maghemite) and significant changes in the superparamagnetic behaviour. This research presents that magnetometry, in combination with medical research can lead to a better understanding of iron physiology in the atherosclerotic process.

  1. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  2. Molecular characterization of microbial contaminants isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplant.

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan Manuel; Noguerón-Silva, Jorge; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Rojo-Medina, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of Umbilical Cord Blood Units due to microbial contamination is a major problem in Cord Blood Banks worldwide as it reduces the number of units available for transplantation. Additionally, economic losses are generated as result of resources and infrastructure used to obtain such units. Umbilical Cord Blood Units that showed initial microbial contamination were subject to strains isolation, identification, and characterization by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR). Moreover, tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection were performed. Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most frequently isolated strains were Enterococcus faecium, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus haemoliticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus helveticus, Enterococcus hiriae and Roseomonas genomospecies 5. The ERIC-PCR assays revealed a wide genetic diversity in some strains although belonging to the same genus and specie, indicating different sources of contamination. Broad-spectrum penicillins, third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones showed lower inhibitory activity on the tested strains. All strains were proteolytic, 67.69% were amylase-positive, 27.6% hemolysis-positive, and 34.71% nuclease-positive. The most common sources of contamination were: vaginal flora, digestive tract, and skin flora, highlighting the need for staff training in good manufacturing practices in collection SCU since all contaminants identified are part of the microbial flora of the donors. Implications and consequences in the therapeutic use of Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplantation contaminated by multiresistant bacteria in immunocompromised patients are discussed. PMID

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Rifampin Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as a Potential System for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Meysam; Gilani, Kambiz; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of loading rifampin into mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Rifampin was selected as a model lipophilic molecule since it is a well-documented and much used anti tuberculosis drug. The mesoporous silica nanoparticles were prepared by using tetraethyl ortho silicate and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (as surfactant). The prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their particle size measurement and porosimetry. The results showed that the particle size is 218 ± 46 nm (mean ± SD) and surface area is 816 m2g-1. In order to load rifampin within the mesopores, adsorption experiments using three different solvents (methanol, water and dimethyl sulfoxide) were carried out. The loading procedure resulted in a significant improvement in the amount of rifampin loaded into mesoporous silica nanoparticles and methanol was found to be a suitable solvent, providing a drug entrapment efficiency of 52 %. Rifampin loaded nanoparticles underwent different in-vitro tests including, SEM and drug release. The in-vitro drug release was investigated using buffer phosphate (pH=7.4). Regarding the drug release study, a biphasic pattern of release was observed. The drug-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles were capable of releasing 95% of their drug content after 24 h, following a faster release in the first four hours. The prepared rifampin loaded nanoparticles seem to have potential for use as a pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:25561909

  4. Synchronous luminescence spectroscopic characterization of blood elements of normal and patients with cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvelu, K.; Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Srinivasan, S.; Venkatesan, P.; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    In this study the diagnostic potential of synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (SLS) technique for the characterization of normal and different pathological condition of cervix viz., moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (MDSCC), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC) and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSSC). Synchronous fluorescence spectra were measured for 70 abnormal cases and 30 normal subjects. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and MDSCC, PDSCC and WDSCC cervical blood formed elements were obtained. The synchronous luminescence spectra of formed elements of normal and abnormal cervical cancer patients were subjected to statistical analysis. Synchronous luminescence spectroscopy provides 90% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.

  5. Isolation, Culture, and Characterization of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Netsch, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) is considered one of the youngest available sources of adult stem cells. Besides hematopoietic stem cells, CB has been shown to contain endothelial progenitor cells as well as mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC). To isolate MSC from cord blood, CB is collected into a sterile bag containing the anticoagulant citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD). The CB is then processed by density-gradient centrifugation to obtain mononuclear cells (MNC). These are cultured until the outgrowth of fibroblastoid cell colonies appears. After reaching a subconfluent stage, cells are harvested, expanded, and characterized as cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSC) according to standard criteria: plastic adherence, fibroblast morphology, CFU-f assay, proliferation potential, immune phenotype, and differentiation potential.Apparently, the frequency of MSC in CB is extremely low. Thus, not every CB unit will provide adequate MSC isolation yields. Different strategies have been proposed aiming to optimize the isolation success by selecting CB units of optimal quality. It is commonly agreed on that a high CB volume, a high cellular content, and a short time frame between birth and MSC isolation are criteria that will enhance the MSC isolation success.The procedures in this chapter are standardized protocols that were established and optimized in the authors' research laboratory; however, various modifications of the protocols are possible. PMID:27236676

  6. Effect of voluntary hyperventilation with supplemental CO2 on pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lisa M K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary O2 uptake (V(O₂p)) and leg blood flow (LBF) kinetics were examined at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise, during hyperventilation with and without associated hypocapnic alkalosis. Seven male subjects (25 ± 6 years old; mean ± SD) performed alternate-leg knee-extension exercise from baseline to moderate-intensity exercise (80% of estimated lactate threshold) and completed four to six repetitions for each of the following three conditions: (i) control [CON; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (P(ET, CO₂)) ~40 mmHg], i.e. normal breathing with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); (ii) hypocapnia (HYPO; P(ET, CO₂) ~20 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); and (iii) normocapnia (NORMO; P(ET, CO₂) ~40 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with elevated inspired CO2 (~5%). The V(O₂p) was measured breath by breath using mass spectrometry and a volume turbine. Femoral artery mean blood velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound, and LBF was calculated from femoral artery diameter and mean blood velocity. Phase 2 V(O₂p) kinetics (τV(O₂p)) was different (P < 0.05) amongst all three conditions (CON, 19 ± 7 s; HYPO, 43 ± 17 s; and NORMO, 30 ± 8 s), while LBF kinetics (τLBF) was slower (P < 0.05) in HYPO (31 ± 9 s) compared with both CON (19 ± 3 s) and NORMO (20 ± 6 s). Similar to previous findings, HYPO was associated with slower V(O₂p) and LBF kinetics compared with CON. In the present study, preventing the fall in end-tidal P(CO₂) (NORMO) restored LBF kinetics, but not V(O₂p) kinetics, which remained 'slowed' relative to CON. These data suggest that the hyperventilation manoeuvre itself (i.e. independent of induced hypocapnic alkalosis) may contribute to the slower V(O₂p) kinetics observed during HYPO. PMID:23975901

  7. Fabrication and characterization of 3C-silicon carbide micro sensor for wireless blood pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Nupur

    A potentially implantable single crystal 3C-SiC pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement was designed, simulated, fabricated, characterized and optimized. This research uses a single crystal 3C-SiC, for the first time, to demonstrate its application as a blood pressure measurement sensor. The sensor, which uses the epitaxial grown 3C-SiC membrane to measure changes in pressure, is designed to be wireless, biocompatible and linear. The SiC material was chosen for its superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties; the capacitive sensor uses a 3C-SiC membrane as one of the electrodes; and, the sensor system is wireless for comfort and to allow for convenient reading of real-time pressure data (wireless communication is enabled by connecting the sensor parallel to a planar inductor). Together, the variable capacitive sensor and planar inductor create a pressure sensitive resonant circuit. The sensor system described above allows for implantation into a human patient's body, after which the planar inductor can be coupled with an external inductor to receive data for real-time blood pressure measurement. Electroplating, thick photo-resist characterization, RIE etching, oxidation, CVD, chemical mechanical polishing and wafer bonding were optimized during the process of fabricating the sensor system and, in addition to detailing the sensor system simulation and characterization; the optimized processes are detailed in the dissertation. This absolute pressure sensor is designed to function optimally within the human blood pressure range of 50-350mmHg. The layout and modeling of the sensor uses finite element analysis (FEA) software. The simulations for membrane deflection, stress analysis and electro-mechanical analysis are performed for 100 μm2 and 400μm2sensors. The membrane deflection-pressure, capacitance-pressure and resonant frequency-pressure graphs were obtained, and detailed in the dissertation, along with the planar inductor simulation for

  8. Characterization of the Occult Hepatitis B Virus Variants Circulating among the Blood Donors from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Avik; Chandra, Partha Kumar; Banerjee, Arup; Chakraborty, Subhashish; Bhattacharya, Prasun; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2013-01-01

    A previous study from West Bengal documented very high rate of occult HBV infection (OBI) among the HBsAg negative blood donors. This study was aimed to characterize the OBI strains circulating among the blood donors and to estimate the risk associated with the prevailing viral variants/mutants. Blood samples from 2195 voluntary blood donors were included in the study. HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs statuses of the samples were done by ELISA based detection. PCR amplification and sequencing were done to determine HBV genotypes, basal core promoter (BCP), and precore (Pre-C) mutations. Among the study samples, 268 were anti-HBc positive/HBsAg negative, among which 65 (24.25%) were HBV DNA positive. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of HBV/D (87.23%), HBV/A (8.51%), and HBV/C (4.26%) (P < 0.0001). HBV/D3 (65.85%) was the significantly prevalent subgenotype over HBV/D2 (26.83%) and HBV/D1 (7.31%) (P = 0.0003). Considerable prevalence of differential BCP (1752C, 1753C, 1762T/1764A, 1753C+1762T/1764A, 1773C, and 1814C) and reverse transcriptase (rt) gene (rtI91L, rtL93P, rtS106C, rtR110G, rtN118T, rtS119T, rtY126H, rtG127W/R, rtC136R, and rtY158H) mutations was identified. Association of specific HBV subgenotypes with OBI was interesting and needs further study. Clinically relevant mutations were prevalent among the OBI strains which are of serious concern. PMID:24302857

  9. Characterization of blood drawn rapidly for use in blood volume expansion studies: An animal model for simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. Michelle; Lynch, Colleen D.; Morris, Mariana; Clodfelter, Jill; Hutchins, Phillip M.

    1990-01-01

    It was demonstrated that up to 8ml of blood can be drawn from donar rats without significantly increasing volume and stress sensitive hormones, and thus can be used for volume expansion studies. Infusion of whole blood allows more physiological changes that can be seen with volume expansion by saline or other ionic solutions. The infusion of whole blood to induce hypervolemia may provide an improved model to study the fluid balance and control mechanisms operative in weightlessness. Blood samples were drawn as quickly as possible from femoral artery catheters chronically implanted in Sprague Dawley rats and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma sodium, potassium, osmolality, corticosterone, epinepherine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin. The levels were found to be comparable to those of normal rats.

  10. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart do not attach normally to the left atrium (left upper chamber of the heart). Instead, they attach ... returns through the pulmonary (lung) veins to the left side of the heart, which sends blood out ...

  11. Quantitative characterization of circadian rhythm of pulmonary function in asthmatic patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Li, Hongshan; Wang, Yaning; Hochhaus, Guenther; Sinha, Vikram; Zhao, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the circadian rhythm observed for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in patients with persistent asthma being treated with inhaled corticosteroids. The database included 3379 FEV1 measurements from 189 patients with mild to moderate asthma. A model using the sum of two Sine functions with periods of 12 and 24 h and a constant component of mean circadian rhythm adequately described the circadian rhythm in FEV1 measurements over time. The model adequateness was evaluated by various approaches including visual predictive check (VPC), prediction-corrected VPC, standardized VPC and normalized prediction distribution error. Covariates tested included age, body weight, height, body mass index, baseline FEV1, and sex. Age and height were found to have significant effects on the mean FEV1 level and no covariate was found to have an effect on the magnitude and timing of circadian rhythm. The model predicted that a minimum FEV1 occurred in the early morning and maximum FEV1 occurred in the early afternoon, with a population mean fluctuation of 170 mL, which is consistent with the finding that asthma symptoms usually exacerbate in the early morning for patients with persistent asthma. This developed model provides the first quantitative approach to describing FEV1 circadian rhythm with ICS background treatment and provided insight in designing future registration trials for asthma drug development.

  12. Population pharmacokinetic model of THC integrates oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dosing and characterizes short- and long-term pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Jules A A C; Guan, Zheng; Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Klumpers, Linda; Morrison, Paul D; Beumer, Tim L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Cohen, Adam F; Freijer, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis, is known to have a long terminal half-life. However, this characteristic is often ignored in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of THC, which may affect the accuracy of predictions in different pharmacologic areas. For therapeutic use for example, it is important to accurately describe the terminal phase of THC to describe accumulation of the drug. In early clinical research, the THC challenge test can be optimized through more accurate predictions of the dosing sequence and the wash-out between occasions in a crossover setting, which is mainly determined by the terminal half-life of the compound. The purpose of this study is to better quantify the long-term pharmacokinetics of THC. A population-based PK model for THC was developed describing the profile up to 48 h after an oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dose of THC in humans. In contrast to earlier models, the current model integrates all three major administration routes and covers the long terminal phase of THC. Results show that THC has a fast initial and intermediate half-life, while the apparent terminal half-life is long (21.5 h), with a clearance of 38.8 L/h. Because the current model characterizes the long-term pharmacokinetics, it can be used to assess the accumulation of THC in a multiple-dose setting and to forecast concentration profiles of the drug under many different dosing regimens or administration routes. Additionally, this model could provide helpful insights into the THC challenge test used for the development of (novel) compounds targeting the cannabinoid system for different therapeutic applications and could improve decision making in future clinical trials.

  13. Formulation and Characterization of Pyrazinamide Polymeric Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Efficiency for Alveolar Macrophage Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Varma, J. N. Ravi; Kumar, T. Santosh; Prasanthi, B.; Ratna, J. Vijaya

    2015-01-01

    Pyrazinamide, a highly specific agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is used as first-line drug to treat tuberculosis. The current work aims to formulate polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery system to sustain the release profile and reduce the dosing frequency of pyrazinamide. Further aim was to target the macrophages within body fluid. These polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by simultaneous double-emulsion (W/O/W) solvent evaporation/diffusion technique. The prepared dispersions were characterized for various biopharmaceutical parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug loading capacity, entrapment efficiency and targeting to alveolar macrophages. The formulated polymeric nanoparticles were in the particle size range of 45.51 to 300.4 nm with a maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 80.9%. The stability study of optimized batch conducted at 40±2°/75±5% relative humidity showed no significant changes up to 90 days. X-Ray Diffraction spectrum exhibits the transformation of crystalline form of drug to amorphous in the formulation. Scanning Electron Microscope image showed nanoparticles spherical in shape with smooth surface. In vitro release profiles were biphasic in nature with burst release followed by controlled release over a period of 24 h obeying diffusion mechanism. In vivo and ex vivo studies results of the study show significant uptake of the nanoparticles by alveolar macrophages through fluorescent micrograph. Polymeric nanoparticles formulation of pyrazinamide could encompass significant uptake by alveolar macrophages, the high first-pass metabolism, sustain the release of drug leading to reduction in dose, toxicity and improvement of patient compliance. PMID:26180270

  14. Functional characterization of the organic cation transporters (OCTs) in human airway pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ingoglia, Filippo; Visigalli, Rossana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Barilli, Amelia; Riccardi, Benedetta; Puccini, Paola; Dall'Asta, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCT1-3) mediate the transport of organic cations including inhaled drugs across the cell membrane, although their role in lung epithelium hasn't been well understood yet. We address here the expression and functional activity of OCT1-3 in human airway epithelial cells A549, Calu-3 and NCl-H441. Kinetic and inhibition analyses, employing [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as substrate, and the compounds quinidine, prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) and corticosterone as preferential inhibitors of OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3, respectively, have been performed. A549 cells present a robust MPP+ uptake mediated by one high-affinity component (Km~50μM) which is identifiable with OCT3. Corticosterone, indeed, completely inhibits MPP+ transport, while quinidine and PGE2 are inactive and SLC22A3/OCT3 silencing with siRNA markedly lowers MPP+ uptake. Conversely, Calu-3 exhibits both a high (Km<20μM) and a low affinity (Km>0.6mM) transport components, referable to OCT3 and OCT1, respectively, as demonstrated by the inhibition analysis performed at proper substrate concentrations and confirmed by the use of specific siRNA. These transporters are active also when cells are grown under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Only a very modest saturable MPP+ uptake is measurable in NCl-H441 cells and the inhibitory effect of quinidine points to OCT1 as the subtype functionally involved in this model. Finally, the characterization of MPP+ transport in human bronchial BEAS-2B cells suggests that OCT1 and OCT3 are operative. These findings could help to identify in vitro models to be employed for studies concerning the specific involvement of each transporter in drug transportation.

  15. Functional characterization of the organic cation transporters (OCTs) in human airway pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ingoglia, Filippo; Visigalli, Rossana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Barilli, Amelia; Riccardi, Benedetta; Puccini, Paola; Dall'Asta, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCT1-3) mediate the transport of organic cations including inhaled drugs across the cell membrane, although their role in lung epithelium hasn't been well understood yet. We address here the expression and functional activity of OCT1-3 in human airway epithelial cells A549, Calu-3 and NCl-H441. Kinetic and inhibition analyses, employing [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as substrate, and the compounds quinidine, prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) and corticosterone as preferential inhibitors of OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3, respectively, have been performed. A549 cells present a robust MPP+ uptake mediated by one high-affinity component (Km~50μM) which is identifiable with OCT3. Corticosterone, indeed, completely inhibits MPP+ transport, while quinidine and PGE2 are inactive and SLC22A3/OCT3 silencing with siRNA markedly lowers MPP+ uptake. Conversely, Calu-3 exhibits both a high (Km<20μM) and a low affinity (Km>0.6mM) transport components, referable to OCT3 and OCT1, respectively, as demonstrated by the inhibition analysis performed at proper substrate concentrations and confirmed by the use of specific siRNA. These transporters are active also when cells are grown under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Only a very modest saturable MPP+ uptake is measurable in NCl-H441 cells and the inhibitory effect of quinidine points to OCT1 as the subtype functionally involved in this model. Finally, the characterization of MPP+ transport in human bronchial BEAS-2B cells suggests that OCT1 and OCT3 are operative. These findings could help to identify in vitro models to be employed for studies concerning the specific involvement of each transporter in drug transportation. PMID:25883089

  16. Cytokine Profiles for Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Healthy Household Contacts in Response to the 30-Kilodalton Antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Martha; Herrera, Teresa; Villareal, Hector; Rich, Elizabeth A.; Sada, Eduardo

    1998-01-01

    Patients with active tuberculosis (TB) have a stronger humoral but a poorer cellular immune response to the secreted 30-kDa antigen (Ag) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis than do healthy household contacts (HHC), who presumably are more protected against disease. The basis for this observation was studied by examining the Th1 (interleukin 2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon [IFN-γ])- and Th2 (IL-10 and IL-4)-type cytokines produced in response to the 30-kDa Ag by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with active pulmonary TB (n = 7) and from HHC who were tuberculin (purified protein derivative) skin test positive (n = 12). Thirty-kilodalton-Ag-stimulated PBMC from TB patients produced significantly lower levels of IFN-γ (none detectable) than did those from HHC (212 ± 73 pg/ml, mean ± standard error) (P < 0.001). Likewise, 30-kDa-Ag-stimulated PBMC from TB patients failed to express IFN-γ mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR, whereas cells from HHC expressed the IFN-γ gene. In contrast, 30-kDa-Ag-stimulated PBMC from TB patients produced significantly higher levels of IL-10 (403 ± 80 pg/ml) than did those from HHC (187 ± 66 pg/ml) (P < 0.013), although cells from both groups expressed the IL-10 gene. IL-2 and IL-4 were not consistently produced, and their genes were not expressed by 30-kDa-Ag-stimulated cells from either TB patients or HHC. After treatment with antituberculous drugs, lymphocytes from four of the seven TB patients proliferated and three of them expressed IFN-γ mRNA in response to the 30-kDa Ag and produced decreased levels of IL-10. PMID:9423855

  17. Comparison of ejection fraction and pulmonary blood volume ratio as markers of left ventricular dysfunction with single vessel coronary disease before and after PTCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.; Kiess, M.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Exercise induced increases in pulmonary blood volume (PBV) have been shown to correlate with transient exercised-induced increase in left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. To analyze the impact of single vessel disease on LV function, ejection fraction (EF) and PBV were measured by serial supine exercise gated scans (GBPS) on 53 patients with left anterior descending artery disease undergoing coronary angioplasty (PTCA). EF was defined by standard methods. The PBV ratio was taken as the exercise to rest counts from the lung regions of interest as previously reported. Regional wall motion (WM) was quantified by averaging the results of 5-point score system in each region from 3 observers. Normal was defined as: rest EF greater than or equal to .50 and increase in EF with exercise, PBV less than or equal to 1.06 and no deterioration in WM on exercise. Of the 53 patients, 54% were found to be abnormal by EF, but 83% by PBV (p<.01). Abnormal PBV ratio was also highly associated with exercise induced deterioration in WM on GBPS (p<.05). After PTCA, the proportion of patients with abnormal EF remained unchanged (50%), whereas those with abnormal PBV ratio decreased significantly (to 38%, p<0.01). The authors conclude: (1) PBV ratio (filling pressures) is more frequently abnormal than EF (systolic function) in single vessel disease; (2) There is a significant improvement of PBV ratio after PTGA; (3) This discordance of parameters of systolic and diastolic function suggests that PBV (and hence diastolic function) is a more sensitive indicator of changes in ventricular function following an intervention than EF.

  18. Main pulmonary arterial wall shear stress correlates with invasive hemodynamics and stiffness in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Dunning, Jamie; Shandas, Robin; Buckner, J. Kern; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Hunter, Kendall S.; Fenster, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with proximal pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vessel diameter, wall thickening, and stiffness. In vivo assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) may provide insights into the relationships between pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling. We investigated the relationship between main pulmonary artery (MPA) WSS and pulmonary hemodynamics as well as markers of stiffness. As part of a prospective study, 17 PH patients and 5 controls underwent same-day four-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4-D CMR) and right heart catheterization. Streamwise velocity profiles were generated in the cross-sectional MPA in 45° increments from velocity vector fields determined by 4-D CMR. WSS was calculated as the product of hematocrit-dependent viscosity and shear rate generated from the spatial gradient of the velocity profiles. In-plane average MPA WSS was significantly decreased in the PH cohort compared with that in controls (0.18 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.08 N/m2; P = 0.01). In-plane MPA WSS showed strong inverse correlations with multiple hemodynamic indices, including pulmonary resistance (ρ = −0.74, P < 0.001), mean pulmonary pressure (ρ = −0.64, P = 0.006), and elastance (ρ = −0.70, P < 0.001). In addition, MPA WSS had significant associations with markers of stiffness, including capacitance (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001), distensibility (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.013), and elastic modulus (ρ = −0.54, P = 0.01). In conclusion, MPA WSS is decreased in PH and is significantly associated with invasive hemodynamic indices and markers of stiffness. 4-D CMR–based assessment of WSS may represent a novel methodology to study blood-vessel wall interactions in PH. PMID:27076906

  19. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation. PMID:27002485

  20. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation.

  1. Molecular characterization, distribution, and dynamics of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mora, Mónica Viviana Alvarado; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a frequent cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and a leading cause for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified in six major genotypes and more than 70 subtypes. In Colombian blood banks, serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using a third-generation ELISA. The aim of this study was to characterize the viral sequences in plasma of 184 volunteer blood donors who attended the "Banco Nacional de Sangre de la Cruz Roja Colombiana," Bogotá, Colombia. Three different HCV genomic regions were amplified by nested PCR. The first of these was a segment of 180 bp of the 5'UTR region to confirm the previous diagnosis by ELISA. From those that were positive to the 5'UTR region, two further segments were amplified for genotyping and subtyping by phylogenetic analysis: a segment of 380 bp from the NS5B region; and a segment of 391 bp from the E1 region. The distribution of HCV subtypes was: 1b (82.8%), 1a (5.7%), 2a (5.7%), 2b (2.8%), and 3a (2.8%). By applying Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, it was estimated that HCV-1b was introduced into Bogotá around 1950. Also, this subtype spread at an exponential rate between about 1970 to about 1990, after which transmission of HCV was reduced by anti-HCV testing of this population. Among Colombian blood donors, HCV genotype 1b is the most frequent genotype, especially in large urban conglomerates such as Bogotá, as is the case in other South American countries.

  2. Molecular characterization of porcine Siglec-10 and analysis of its expression in blood and tissues.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Z; Álvarez, B; Uenishi, H; Toki, D; Yuste, M; Revilla, C; del Moral, M Gómez; Alonso, F; Ezquerra, A; Domínguez, J

    2015-01-01

    Siglecs are sialic acid binding Ig-like proteins involved in the control of leukocyte responses. In this study we describe the characterization of a porcine orthologue of Siglec-10. A cDNA clone was obtained from a porcine library which encodes a protein with sequence homology to human Siglec-10. This cDNA codes for a type I transmembrane protein containing four Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail with three tyrosine-based motifs, including a membrane-proximal Grb2-binding motif, and two ITIM motifs. When expressed on transfected cells, porcine Siglec-10 was able to bind red blood cells in a sialic acid-dependent manner. Monoclonal antibodies were developed against this protein and used to examine its cell and tissue distribution in the pig. Siglec-10 was found to be expressed on blood B cells and B cell areas of the spleen and lymph nodes. A weak expression was also detected on monocytes. PMID:25280627

  3. Characterization of imidazoline receptors in blood vessels for the development of antihypertensive agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fen; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Chen, Li-Jen; Wu, Tung-Pi; Yang, Jia-Jang; Yin, Li-Te; Yang, Yu-Lin; Chiang, Tai-An; Lu, Han-Lin; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2014-01-01

    It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R) may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s). Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metformin were applied in this study. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of imidazoline receptor in tissues of Wistar rats. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male rats was also estimated. The expression of imidazoline receptor on rat aorta was identified. However, guanidinium derivatives for detection of aortic relaxation were not observed except agmatine and amiloride which induced a marked relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. Both relaxations induced by agmatine and amiloride were attenuated by glibenclamide at concentration enough to block ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Meanwhile, only agmatine-induced relaxation was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Taken together, we suggest that agmatine can induce vascular relaxation through activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor to open KATP channels. Thus, agmatine-like compound has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  4. Molecular characterization of porcine Siglec-10 and analysis of its expression in blood and tissues.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Z; Álvarez, B; Uenishi, H; Toki, D; Yuste, M; Revilla, C; del Moral, M Gómez; Alonso, F; Ezquerra, A; Domínguez, J

    2015-01-01

    Siglecs are sialic acid binding Ig-like proteins involved in the control of leukocyte responses. In this study we describe the characterization of a porcine orthologue of Siglec-10. A cDNA clone was obtained from a porcine library which encodes a protein with sequence homology to human Siglec-10. This cDNA codes for a type I transmembrane protein containing four Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail with three tyrosine-based motifs, including a membrane-proximal Grb2-binding motif, and two ITIM motifs. When expressed on transfected cells, porcine Siglec-10 was able to bind red blood cells in a sialic acid-dependent manner. Monoclonal antibodies were developed against this protein and used to examine its cell and tissue distribution in the pig. Siglec-10 was found to be expressed on blood B cells and B cell areas of the spleen and lymph nodes. A weak expression was also detected on monocytes.

  5. Characterizations of individual human red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, SangYun; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    We systematically measure the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual human red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with diabetes mellitus using quantitative phase imaging technique to characterize the diabetic red cells with respect to those of the healthy. The 3-D refractive index tomograms and 2-D dynamic membrane fluctuation maps of individual RBCs are reconstructed from a set of the retrieved complex optical fields at various laser incidence angles using the Common-path diffraction optical tomography, from which volume, surface area, sphericity, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Hb content, and membrane fluctuation are obtained simultaneously. The correlative relations among the retrieved red cell indices of diabetic and healthy RBCs are also investigated with capabilities of individual cell measurement. As expected, there are no significant alterations in morphologies (cellular volumes, surface area, and sphericity) between diabetic and healthy RBCs. However, despite the minute mean corpuscular Hb differences in cell blood count datasheet, the measured Hb concentrations and Hb contents of diabetic RBCs are statistically higher than those of healthy RBCs, which might be related to the glycation of Hb molecules by hyperglycemia. Meanwhile, the membrane fluctuations of diabetic RBCs are clearly diminished compared to healthy red cells, implying the significantly decreased RBC deformability. In particular, it seems that the membrane fluctuations have mild negative relationships with the reported HbA1c levels.

  6. Novel biomarkers for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Anjum; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Mahajan, Aman; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Umar, Soban

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a deadly disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressures leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. The confirmatory gold standard test is the invasive right heart catheterization. The disease course is monitored by pulmonary artery systolic pressure measurement via transthoracic echocardiography. A simple non-invasive test to frequently monitor the patients is much needed. Search for a novel biomarker that can be detected by a simple test is ongoing and many different options are being studied. Here we review some of the new and unique pre-clinical options for potential pulmonary hypertension biomarkers. These biomarkers can be broadly categorized based on their association with endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, epigenetics, cardiac function, oxidative stress, metabolism,extracellular matrix, and volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. A biomarker that can be detected in blood, urine or breath condensate and correlates with disease severity, progression and response to therapy may result in significant cost reduction and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27439993

  7. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  8. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of ovine mesenchymal stem cells derived from peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with capacity to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages. This quality makes MSCs good candidates for use in cell therapy. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues including bone marrow and adipose tissue, which are the most common sources of these cells. However, MSCs can also be isolated from peripheral blood. Sheep has been proposed as an ideal model for biomedical studies including those of orthopaedics and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The aim of this work was to advance these studies by investigating the possibility of MSC isolation from ovine peripheral blood (oPB-MSCs) and by subsequently characterizing there in vitro properties. Results Plastic-adherent fibroblast-like cells were obtained from the mononuclear fraction of blood samples. These cells were analysed for their proliferative and differentiation potential into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes, as well as for the gene expression of cell surface markers. The isolated cells expressed transcripts for markers CD29, CD73 and CD90, but failed to express the haematopoietic marker CD45 and expressed only low levels of CD105. The expression of CD34 was variable. The differentiation potential of this cell population was evaluated using specific differentiation media. Although the ability of the cultures derived from different animals to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes was heterogeneous, we confirmed this feature using specific staining and analysing the gene expression of differentiation markers. Finally, we tested the ability of oPB-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neuronal-like cells. Morphological changes were observed after 24-hour culture in neurogenic media, and the transcript levels of the neurogenic markers increased during the prolonged induction period. Moreover, oPB-MSCs expressed the cellular prion protein gene (PRNP), which was up-regulated during neurogenesis

  10. The effects of pulmonary circulation pulsatility on the impedance cardiogram.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Goto, T; Terasaki, H; Hayashida, Y; Morioka, T

    1983-11-01

    To study the effects of pulmonary blood flow on the impedance cardiogram, the pattern of pulmonary blood flow was alternated from pulsatile to non pulsatile, or the reverse, using our extracorporeal bypass-method on anaesthetized dogs. The thoracic impedance cardiogram was recorded from band electrodes placed around the neck and upper abdomen. During nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow, the height of the diastolic phase of the delta Z wave was lower than that during pulsatile pulmonary blood flow. The area under the impedance curve decreased during nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow. This appeared to be more obvious as the pulmonary arterial flow was reduced. The results suggest that the pulmonary blood flow might have substantial effects on the impedance cardiogram.

  11. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinay; Berkelhamer, Sara; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood and hypoxemia. PPHN is often secondary to parenchymal lung disease (such as meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome) or lung hypoplasia (with congenital diaphragmatic hernia or oligohydramnios) but can also be idiopathic. The diagnosis of PPHN is based on clinical evidence of labile hypoxemia often associated with differential cyanosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by the echocardiographic demonstration of - (a) right-to-left or bidirectional shunt at the ductus or foramen ovale and/or, (b) flattening or leftward deviation of the interventricular septum and/or, (c) tricuspid regurgitation, and finally (d) absence of structural heart disease. Management strategies include optimal oxygenation, avoiding respiratory and metabolic acidosis, blood pressure stabilization, sedation and pulmonary vasodilator therapy. Failure of these measures would lead to consideration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); however decreased need for this rescue therapy has been documented with advances in medical management. While trends also note improved survival, long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities such as deafness and learning disabilities remain a concern in many infants with severe PPHN. Funded by: 1R01HD072929-0 (SL). PMID:27057331

  12. Characterization and Optimization of Trans-Blood-Brain Barrier Diffusion In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konofagou, Elisa E.; Choi, James; Baseri, Babak; Lee, Ann

    2009-04-01

    Current treatments of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases are limited due to the lack of a truly noninvasive, transient, and regionally selective brain drug delivery method. The brain is particularly difficult to deliver drugs to because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Over the past few years, we have been developing methods that combine Focused Ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles in order to noninvasively, locally and transiently open the BBB so as to treat neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we will focus on the characterization of the type of molecular delivery that can be induced through the opened BBB. More specifically, we will characterize important properties of the BBB opening such as its reversibility and permeability using fluorescence and MR imaging techniques, respectively. Results on both wildtype and Alzheimer's model mice showed that the timeline of BBB opening is very similar between the presence and absence of amyloid plaques. The permeability change induced by BBB opening was found to increase by up to a 10-fold and to similar levels with those found in literature for glioma tumors.

  13. Microparticles in the blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): phenotypic characterization and clinical associations

    PubMed Central

    Mobarrez, Fariborz; Vikerfors, Anna; Gustafsson, Johanna T.; Gunnarsson, Iva; Zickert, Agneta; Larsson, Anders; Pisetsky, David S.; Wallén, Håkan; Svenungsson, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by circulating autoantibodies and the formation of immune complexes. In these responses, the selecting self-antigens likely derive from the remains of dead and dying cells, as well as from disturbances in clearance. During cell death/activation, microparticles (MPs) can be released to the circulation. Previous MP studies in SLE have been limited in size and differ regarding numbers and phenotypes. Therefore, to characterize MPs more completely, we investigated 280 SLE patients and 280 individually matched controls. MPs were measured with flow cytometry and phenotyped according to phosphatidylserine expression (PS+/PS−), cellular origin and inflammatory markers. MPs, regardless of phenotype, are 2–10 times more abundant in SLE blood compared to controls. PS− MPs predominated in SLE, but not in controls (66% vs. 42%). Selectively in SLE, PS− MPs were more numerous in females and smokers. MP numbers decreased with declining renal function, but no clear association with disease activity was observed. The striking abundance of MPs, especially PS− MPs, suggests a generalized disturbance in SLE. MPs may be regarded as “liquid biopsies” to assess the production and clearance of dead, dying and activated cells, i.e. pivotal events for SLE pathogenesis. PMID:27777414

  14. Temporal and spatial characterization of mononuclear phagocytes in circulating, lung alveolar and interstitial compartments in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wen-Jie; Ma, Yong-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Yi-Dan; Lu, Rui-Yi; Sun, Hai-Ying; Guo, Zhao-Zeng; Zhang, Zhuoli; Li, Yu-Ming; Wei, Lu-Qing

    2014-01-31

    The mononuclear phagocyte system, including circulating monocytes and tissue resident macrophages, plays an important role in acute lung injury and fibrosis. The detailed dynamic changes of mononuclear phagocytes in the circulating, lung alveolar and interstitial compartments in bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury model have not been fully characterized. The present study was designed to address this issue and analyzed their relationships with pulmonary pathological evolution after bleomycin challenge. A total of 100 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to receive bleomycin (2.5mg/kg, n=50) or normal saline (n=50) via oropharyngeal approach, and were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. Circulating monocyte subsets, polarization state of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)-derived alveolar macrophages (AMφ) and lung interstitial macrophages (IMφ, derived from enzymatically digested lung tissue) were analyzed by flow cytometry. There was a rapid expansion of circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes which peaked on day 3, and its magnitude was positively associated with pulmonary inflammatory response. Moreover, an expansion of M2-like AMφ (F4/80+CD11c+CD206+) peaked on day 14, and was positively correlated with the magnitude of lung fibrosis. The polarization state of IMφ remained relatively stable in the early- and mid-stage after bleomycin challenge, expect for an increase of M2-like (F4/80+CD11c-CD206+) IMφ on day 21. These results support the notion that there is a Ly6C(hi)-monocyte-directed pulmonary AMφ alternative activation. Our result provides a dynamic view of mononuclear phagocyte change in three compartments after bleomycin challenge, which is relevant for designing new treatment strategies targeting mononuclear phagocytes in this model.

  15. Effects of Low-Dose and Long-Term Treatment with Erythromycin on Interleukin-17 and Interleukin-23 in Peripheral Blood and Induced Sputum in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Caimei; Huang, Huijuan; Zhang, Jianquan; He, Zhiyi; Zhong, Xiaoning; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of low-dose and long-term treatment with erythromycin on IL-17 and IL-23, in peripheral blood and induced sputum, in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods. Patients were randomly divided into placebo-treated group, group A (12 months of additive treatment with erythromycin, N = 18), and group B (6 months of additive treatment with erythromycin followed by 6 months of follow-up, N = 18). Inflammatory cells in induced sputum, pulmonary function, and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were analyzed. Concentrations of IL-17 and IL-23 in peripheral blood and sputum were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. After treatment, sputum and peripheral blood concentrations of IL-17 and IL-23 significantly decreased in groups A and B compared with placebo-treated group. There were no significant differences after erythromycin withdrawal at months 9 and 12 in group B compared with placebo-treated group. An increase in 6MWD was observed after treatment. Conclusions. Erythromycin was beneficial and reduced airway inflammation in COPD patients. Underlying mechanisms may involve inhibition of IL-17 and IL-23 mediated airway inflammation. COPD patients treated with erythromycin for 6 months experienced improved exercise capacity. Finally, treatment for 12 months may be more effective than treatment for 6 months. PMID:27127346

  16. Postmortem quantitative 1.5-T MRI for the differentiation and characterization of serous fluids, blood, CSF, and putrefied CSF.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Schwendener, Nicole; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Riva, Fabiano; Schuster, Frederick; Jackowski, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether serous fluids, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and putrefied CSF can be characterized and differentiated in synthetically calculated magnetic resonance (MR) images based on their quantitative T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values. Images from 55 postmortem short axis cardiac and 31 axial brain 1.5-T MR examinations were quantified using a quantification sequence. Serous fluids, fluid blood, sedimented blood, blood clots, CSF, and putrefied CSF were analyzed for their mean T1, T2, and PD values. Body core temperature was measured during the MRI scans. The fluid-specific quantitative values were related to the body core temperature. Equations to correct for temperature differences were generated. In a 3D plot as well as in statistical analysis, the quantitative T1, T2 and PD values of serous fluids, fluid blood, sedimented blood, blood clots, CSF, and putrefied CSF could be well differentiated from each other. The quantitative T1 and T2 values were temperature-dependent. Correction of quantitative values to a temperature of 37 °C resulted in significantly better discrimination between all investigated fluid mediums. We conclude that postmortem 1.5-T MR quantification is feasible to discriminate between blood, serous fluids, CSF, and putrefied CSF. This finding provides a basis for the computer-aided diagnosis and detection of fluids and hemorrhages.

  17. Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priyanka; Ali, Zahara; Mohammad, Ghulam; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are essential to unravel the locked pathophysiology of any disease. This study investigated the role of biomarkers and their interactions with each other and with the clinical parameters to study the physiology of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p) against adapted highlanders (HLs) and healthy sojourners, HAPE-controls (HAPE-c). For this, seven circulatory biomarkers, namely, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), platelet-derived growth factor beta beta, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood plasma of the three study groups. All the subjects were recruited at ~3,500 m, and clinical features such as arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), body mass index, and mean arterial pressure were measured. Increased levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor-beta 1, and TNFα were observed in HAPE-p against the healthy groups, HAPE-c, and HLs (P<0.0001). CRP levels were decreased in HAPE-p against HAPE-c and HLs (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference or very marginal difference in the levels of these biomarkers in HAPE-c and HLs (P>0.01). Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between epinephrine and norepinephrine (P=4.6E-06) in HAPE-p and positive correlation in HAPE-c (P=0.004) and HLs (P=9.78E-07). A positive correlation was observed between TNFα and CRP (P=0.004) in HAPE-p and a negative correlation in HAPE-c (P=4.6E-06). SaO2 correlated negatively with platelet-derived growth factor beta beta (HAPE-p; P=0.05), norepinephrine (P=0.01), and TNFα (P=0.005) and positively with CRP (HAPE-c; P=0.02) and norepinephrine (HLs; P=0.04). Body mass index correlated negatively with epinephrine (HAPE-p; P=0.001) and positively with norepinephrine and tyrosine hydroxylase in HAPE-c (P<0.05). Mean arterial pressure correlated positively with TNFα in HAPE-p and norepinephrine in HLs (P

  18. Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Priyanka; Ali, Zahara; Mohammad, Ghulam; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are essential to unravel the locked pathophysiology of any disease. This study investigated the role of biomarkers and their interactions with each other and with the clinical parameters to study the physiology of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p) against adapted highlanders (HLs) and healthy sojourners, HAPE-controls (HAPE-c). For this, seven circulatory biomarkers, namely, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), platelet-derived growth factor beta beta, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood plasma of the three study groups. All the subjects were recruited at ~3,500 m, and clinical features such as arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), body mass index, and mean arterial pressure were measured. Increased levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor-beta 1, and TNFα were observed in HAPE-p against the healthy groups, HAPE-c, and HLs (P<0.0001). CRP levels were decreased in HAPE-p against HAPE-c and HLs (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference or very marginal difference in the levels of these biomarkers in HAPE-c and HLs (P>0.01). Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between epinephrine and norepinephrine (P=4.6E−06) in HAPE-p and positive correlation in HAPE-c (P=0.004) and HLs (P=9.78E−07). A positive correlation was observed between TNFα and CRP (P=0.004) in HAPE-p and a negative correlation in HAPE-c (P=4.6E−06). SaO2 correlated negatively with platelet-derived growth factor beta beta (HAPE-p; P=0.05), norepinephrine (P=0.01), and TNFα (P=0.005) and positively with CRP (HAPE-c; P=0.02) and norepinephrine (HLs; P=0.04). Body mass index correlated negatively with epinephrine (HAPE-p; P=0.001) and positively with norepinephrine and tyrosine hydroxylase in HAPE-c (P<0.05). Mean arterial pressure correlated positively with TNFα in HAPE-p and norepinephrine in

  19. Fluid dynamic characterization of operating conditions for continuous flow blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z J; Antaki, J F; Burgreen, G W; Butler, K C; Thomas, D C; Griffith, B P

    1999-01-01

    As continuous flow pumps become more prominent as long-term ventricular assist devices, the wide range of conditions under which they must be operated has become evident. Designed to operate at a single, best-efficiency, operating point, continuous flow pumps are required to perform at off-design conditions quite frequently. The present study investigated the internal fluid dynamics within two representative rotary fluid pumps to characterize the quality of the flow field over a full range of operating conditions. A Nimbus/UoP axial flow blood pump and a small centrifugal pump were used as the study models. Full field visualization of flow features in the two pumps was conducted using a laser based fluorescent particle imaging technique. Experiments were performed under steady flow conditions. Flow patterns at inlet and outlet sections were visualized over a series of operating points. Flow features specific to each pump design were observed to exist under all operating conditions. At off-design conditions, an annular region of reverse flow was commonly observed within the inlet of the axial pump, while a small annulus of backflow in the inlet duct and a strong disturbed flow at the outlet tongue were observed for the centrifugal pump. These observations were correlated to a critical nondimensional flow coefficient. The creation of a "map" of flow behavior provides an additional, important criterion for determining favorable operating speed for rotary blood pumps. Many unfavorable flow features may be avoided by maintaining the flow coefficient above a characteristic critical coefficient for a particular pump, whereas the intrinsic deleterious flow features can only be minimized by design improvement. Broadening the operating range by raising the band between the critical flow coefficient and the designed flow coefficient, is also a worthy goal for design improvement.

  20. Growth Kinetics, Characterization, and Plasticity of Human Menstrual Blood Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Nazarabadi, Roshanak Bahrami; Kasraeian, Maryam; Tamadon, Amin; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Vahdati, Akbar; Zare, Shahrokh; Ghobadi, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    One of the readily available sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is menstrual blood-derived stem cells (Men-SCs), which exhibit characteristics similar to other types of MSCs. This study was performed to determine the growth kinetics, plasticity, and characterization of Men-SCs in women. During spring 2014 in the southern Iranian city of Shiraz, menstrual blood (5 mL) was obtained from 10 women on their third day of menstruation in 2 age groups of 30 to 40 and 40 to 50 years old. Ficoll was used to separate the mononuclear cell fraction. After the Men-SCs were cultured, they were subcultured up to passage 4. Growth behavior and population doubling time were evaluated by seeding 5×104 cells into 12- and 24-well culture plates, and the colonies were enumerated. The expression of CD44, CD90, and CD34 was evaluated. The osteogenic potential was assessed by alizarin red staining. The Men-SCs were shown to be plastic adherent and spindle-shaped. Regarding the growth curves in the 12- and 24-well culture plates, it was demonstrated that in the women aged between 30 and 40 years, population doubling time was 55.5 and 62 hours, respectively, while these values in the women aged between 40 and 50 years were 70.4 and 72.4 hours, correspondingly. Positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD34 were noted. In the osteogenic differentiation medium, the cells differentiated toward osteoblasts. As human Men-SCs are easily collectable without any invasive procedure and are a safe and rapid source of MSCs, they can be a good candidate for stem cell banking and cell transplantation in women. PMID:26989284

  1. Detection and characterization of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation with photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysi, Eno; Saha, Ratan K.; Rui, Min; Kolios, Michael C.

    2012-02-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) aggregate in the presence of increased plasma fibrinogen and low shear forces during blood flow. RBC aggregation has been observed in deep vein thrombosis, sepsis and diabetes. We propose using photoacoustics (PA) as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect RBC aggregation. The theoretical and experimental feasibility of PA for detecting and characterizing aggregation was assessed. A simulation study was performed to generate PA signals from non-aggregated and aggregated RBCs using a frequency domain approach and to study the PA signals' dependence on hematocrit and aggregate size. The effect of the finite bandwidth nature of transducers on the PA power spectra was also investigated. Experimental confirmation of theoretical results was conducted using porcine RBC samples exposed to 1064 nm optical wavelength using the Imagio Small Animal PA imaging system (Seno Medical Instruments, Inc., San Antonio, TX). Aggregation was induced with Dextran-70 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and the effect of hematocrit and aggregation level was investigated. The theoretical and experimental PA signal amplitude increased linearly with increasing hematocrit. The theoretical dominant frequency content of PA signals shifted towards lower frequencies (<30 MHz) and 9 dB enhancements in spectral power were observed as the size of aggregates increased compared to non-aggregating RBCs. Calibration of the PA spectra with the transducer response obtained from a 200 nm gold film was performed to remove system dependencies. Analysis of the spectral parameters from the calibrated spectra suggested that PA can assess the degree of aggregation at multiple hematocrit and aggregation levels.

  2. Growth Kinetics, Characterization, and Plasticity of Human Menstrual Blood Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Nazarabadi, Roshanak Bahrami; Kasraeian, Maryam; Tamadon, Amin; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Vahdati, Akbar; Zare, Shahrokh; Ghobadi, Farnaz

    2016-03-01

    One of the readily available sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is menstrual blood-derived stem cells (Men-SCs), which exhibit characteristics similar to other types of MSCs. This study was performed to determine the growth kinetics, plasticity, and characterization of Men-SCs in women. During spring 2014 in the southern Iranian city of Shiraz, menstrual blood (5 mL) was obtained from 10 women on their third day of menstruation in 2 age groups of 30 to 40 and 40 to 50 years old. Ficoll was used to separate the mononuclear cell fraction. After the Men-SCs were cultured, they were subcultured up to passage 4. Growth behavior and population doubling time were evaluated by seeding 5×10(4) cells into 12- and 24-well culture plates, and the colonies were enumerated. The expression of CD44, CD90, and CD34 was evaluated. The osteogenic potential was assessed by alizarin red staining. The Men-SCs were shown to be plastic adherent and spindle-shaped. Regarding the growth curves in the 12- and 24-well culture plates, it was demonstrated that in the women aged between 30 and 40 years, population doubling time was 55.5 and 62 hours, respectively, while these values in the women aged between 40 and 50 years were 70.4 and 72.4 hours, correspondingly. Positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD34 were noted. In the osteogenic differentiation medium, the cells differentiated toward osteoblasts. As human Men-SCs are easily collectable without any invasive procedure and are a safe and rapid source of MSCs, they can be a good candidate for stem cell banking and cell transplantation in women.

  3. Chronic idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Magdi H.; Thompson, Vernon C.

    1971-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hilar fibrosis is a condition related to mediastinal fibrosis, characterized by localization of the fibrosing process to one or both pulmonary hila. This results in pulmonary hypertension and bronchial narrowing. Three patients suffering from this disease, in whom the diagnosis has been confirmed by thoracotomy, are reported. The clinical and pathological features are described and previously reported cases are reviewed. The syndrome is classified into two types, according to whether the obstruction affects mainly the pulmonary artery or veins. The disease is a self-limiting one but may lead to organic changes in the lungs causing severe disability. Images PMID:5565782

  4. Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by means of Ultrasound in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality consisting of a mass of pulmonary tissue that presents an abnormal connection with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply coming from an anomalous artery derived from the systemic circulation. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by having pleural coverings that are independent of the normal lungs, with vascular supply usually coming from the aorta or from one of its branches. This diagnosis can be suspected prenatally if an abdominal mass, generally below the diaphragm, is seen. Here, we present a case of a neonate on the second day of life, with ultrasonography showing extralobar pulmonary sequestration located above the left adrenal gland that prenatally simulated a neuroblastoma. PMID:23762717

  5. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Persistent Human Erythrovirus Infection in Blood Donor Samples

    PubMed Central

    Candotti, Daniel; Etiz, Nermin; Parsyan, Armen; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The presence of human erythrovirus DNA in 2,440 blood donations from the United Kingdom and sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Malawi, and South Africa) was screened. Sensitive qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR assays revealed a higher prevalence of persistent infection with the simultaneous presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and viral DNA (0.55 to 1.3%) than previously reported. This condition was characterized by a low viral load (median, 558 IU/ml; range, 42 to 135,000 IU/ml), antibody-complexed virus, free specific IgG, and potentially infectious free virus. Human erythrovirus genotype 1 (formerly parvovirus B19) was prevalent in the United Kingdom, Malawi, and South Africa. In contrast, only human erythrovirus genotype 3 (erythrovirus variant V9) was prevalent in Ghana. Genotype 3 had considerable genetic diversity, clustering in two probable subtypes. Genotype 1-based antibody assays failed to detect 38.5% of Ghanaian samples containing antibodies to genotype 3 virus but did not fail to detect cases of persistent infection. This study indicates a potential African origin of genotype 3 human erythrovirus and considerable shortcomings in the tools currently used to diagnose erythrovirus infection. PMID:15507603

  7. Human cord blood suppressor T lymphocytes. II. Characterization of inducer of suppressor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.; Delespesse, G.

    1986-06-01

    Previously, we reported an antigen nonspecific inducer of T suppressor cell factor (TisF) produced by cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) in 48-hr, two-way mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). The target of this factor was a radiosensitive, T4+ (T8-) adult suppressor T cell subset. The cellular origin of this TisF was examined in the present study. IgG production by pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated adult MNC was used as an assay for TisF activity. It was found that TisF-producing cells formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (E+) and were independent of adherent cells (AC) in the production of TisF. They were resistant to irradiation (2500 rads) and phenotypic characterization with T cell reactive monoclonal antibodies indicated that they resided in the T8- (T4+) population. Furthermore, both TQ1- and TQ1+ cells were required for the production of TisF activity and such activity could not be reconstituted by supernatants from TQ1- MLC and TQ1+ MLC. These results indicate that the production of TisF is dependent upon interactions between radioresistant E+, T8-, TQ1- and radioresistant E+, T8-, TQ1+ cells.

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization of the innervation of human colonic mesenteric and submucosal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    De Fontgalland, D; Wattchow, D A; Costa, M; Brookes, S J H

    2008-11-01

    The aim was to characterize quantitatively the classes of nerves innervating human mesenteric and submucosal vessels. Specimens of uninvolved normal human mesentery and colon were obtained with prior informed consent from patients undergoing elective surgery for bowel carcinoma. Mesenteric and submucosal vessels were processed for double-labelling immunohistochemical localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), somatostatin (SOM), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and enkephelin (ENK), each compared to the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5. Branching patterns of individual nerve fibres were investigated using in vitro anterograde tracing. Sympathetic neurons containing TH and NPY were the largest population, accounting for more than 85% on all vessels. Extrinsic sensory axons, containing SP but not CGRP comprised a second major population on mesenteric vessels: these axons generally lacked TH, NPY and VAChT. On submucosal, but not mesenteric vessels, an additional population of SOM-immunoreactive fibres was present: these axons did not co-localize with TH. Major similarities and differences with enteric vessel innervation in laboratory animals were identified. Sympathetic neurons comprise the largest input. Extrinsic sensory neurons in humans largely lack CGRP but contain SP. Submucosal vessels receive an additional source of innervation not present in mesenteric vessels, which contain SOM, but are rarely cholinergic. These results have significant implications for understanding the control of blood flow to the human gut.

  9. Characterization of vascular disruption and blood-spinal cord barrier permeability following traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Figley, Sarah A; Khosravi, Ramak; Legasto, Jean M; Tseng, Yun-Fan; Fehlings, Michael G

    2014-03-15

    Significant vascular changes occur subsequent to spinal cord injury (SCI), which contribute to progressive pathophysiology. In the present study, we used female Wistar rats (300-350 g) and a 35-g clip-compression injury at T6 to T7 to characterize the spatial and temporal vascular changes that ensue post-SCI. Before sacrifice, animals were injected with vascular tracing dyes (2% Evans Blue (EB) or fluorescein isothiocyanate/Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin [FITC-LEA]) to assess blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) integrity or vascular architecture, respectively. Spectrophotometry of EB tissue showed maximal BSCB disruption at 24 h postinjury, with significant disruption observed until 5 days postinjury (p<0.01). FITC-LEA-identified functional vasculature was dramatically reduced by 24 h. Similarly, RECA-1 immunohistochemistry showed a significant decrease in the number of vessels at 24 h postinjury, compared to uninjured animals (p<0.01), with slight increases in endogenous revascularization by 10 days postinjury. White versus gray matter (GM) quantification showed that GM vessels are more susceptible to SCI. Finally, we observed an endogenous angiogenic response between 3 and 7 days postinjury: maximal endothelial cell proliferation was observed at day 5. These data indicate that BSCB disruption and endogenous revascularization occur at specific time points after injury, which may be important for developing effective therapeutic interventions for SCI. PMID:24237182

  10. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2016-07-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  11. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  13. Pulmonary oedema of immersion.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Lepawsky, Michael; McKenzie, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema has been described in individuals participating in three aquatic activities: (i) scuba diving; (ii) breath-hold diving; and (iii) endurance swimming. In this review, 60 published cases have been compiled for comparison. Variables considered included: age; past medical history; activity; water depth, type (salt or fresh) and temperature; clinical presentation; investigations; management; and outcome. From these data, we conclude that a similar phenomenon is occurring among scuba, breath-hold divers and swimmers. The pathophysiology is likely a pulmonary overperfusion mechanism. High pulmonary capillary pressures lead to extravasation of fluid into the interstitium. This overperfusion is caused by the increase in ambient pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction from ambient cold, and increased pulmonary blood flow resulting from exercise. Affected individuals are typically healthy males and females. Older individuals may be at higher risk. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnoea, with haemoptysis also a frequent occurrence. Chest pain has never been reported. Radiography is the investigation of choice, demonstrating typical findings for pulmonary oedema. Management is supportive, with oxygen the mainstay of treatment. Cases usually resolve within 24 hours. In some cases, diuretics have been used, but there are no data as to their efficacy. Nifedipine has been used to prevent recurrence, but there is only anecdotal evidence to support its use.

  14. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Mirabela; Golden, Thea; Wang, Haibo; Gow, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. Assessing pulmonary inflammation on in vivo imaging may facilitate the early detection and treatment of lung diseases. Although routinely used in thoracic imaging, computed tomography has thus far not been compellingly shown to characterize inflammation in vivo. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonionizing radiation technique to better visualize and characterize pulmonary tissue. Prior to routine adoption of MRI for early characterization of inflammation in humans, a rigorous and quantitative characterization of the utility of MRI to identify inflammation is required. Such characterization may be achieved by considering ex vivo histology as the ground truth, since it enables the definitive spatial assessment of inflammation. In this study, the authors introduce a novel framework to integrate 2D histology, ex vivo and in vivo imaging to enable the mapping of the extent of disease from ex vivo histology onto in vivo imaging, with the goal of facilitating computerized feature analysis and interrogation of disease appearance on in vivo imaging. The authors’ framework was evaluated in a preclinical preliminary study aimed to identify computer extracted features on in vivo MRI associated with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Methods: The authors’ image analytics framework first involves reconstructing the histologic volume in 3D from individual histology slices. Second, the authors map the disease ground truth onto in vivo MRI via coregistration with 3D histology using the ex vivo lung MRI as a conduit. Finally, computerized feature analysis of the disease extent is performed to identify candidate in vivo imaging signatures of disease presence and extent. Results: The authors evaluated the framework by assessing the quality of the 3D histology reconstruction and the histology—MRI fusion, in the context of an initial use case involving characterization of chronic

  15. Effect of mixing scanner types and reconstruction kernels on the characterization of lung parenchymal pathologies: emphysema, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and normal non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; van Beek, Edwin J.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Sonka, Milan; Hoffman, Eric

    2006-03-01

    In this study we utilize our texture characterization software (3-D AMFM) to characterize interstitial lung diseases (including emphysema) based on MDCT generated volumetric data using 3-dimensional texture features. We have sought to test whether the scanner and reconstruction filter (kernel) type affect the classification of lung diseases using the 3-D AMFM. We collected MDCT images in three subject groups: emphysema (n=9), interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=10), and normal non-smokers (n=9). In each group, images were scanned either on a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64-slice scanner, (B50f or B30 recon. kernel) or a Philips 4-slice scanner (B recon. kernel). A total of 1516 volumes of interest (VOIs; 21x21 pixels in plane) were marked by two chest imaging experts using the Iowa Pulmonary Analysis Software Suite (PASS). We calculated 24 volumetric features. Bayesian methods were used for classification. Images from different scanners/kernels were combined in all possible combinations to test how robust the tissue classification was relative to the differences in image characteristics. We used 10-fold cross validation for testing the result. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. One-way Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was used to compare the classification result between the various combinations of scanner and reconstruction kernel types. This study yielded a sensitivity of 94%, 91%, 97%, and 93% for emphysema, ground-glass, honeycombing, and normal non-smoker patterns respectively using a mixture of all three subject groups. The specificity for these characterizations was 97%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. The F test result of ANOVA shows there is no significant difference (p <0.05) between different combinations of data with respect to scanner and convolution kernel type. Since different MDCT and reconstruction kernel types did not show significant differences in regards to the classification result, this study suggests that the 3-D AMFM can

  16. Functional and phenotypic characterization of distinct porcine dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, R; Laval, F; Audonnet, J-C; Andreoni, C; Juillard, V

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells that have an exquisite capacity to interact with T cells and modulate their responses. Little is known about porcine DCs despite the fact that they represent an important target in strategies that are aimed at modulating resistance to infection in pigs and may be of major importance in transplantation biology. We generated immature monocyte-derived porcine dendritic cells (MoDCs) directly from adherent peripheral blood cells treated with porcine granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). The cells were observed via electron microscopy and their phenotype was characterized using monoclonal antibodies. The functionality of the porcine MoDCs was demonstrated showing that the cells were capable of different specialized functions relevant to antigen capture and were potent stimulators in a primary allo-mixed leucocyte reaction. Treatment of the MoDCs with porcine cell line-derived necrotic factors resulted in the phenotypic and functional maturation of MoDCs. We confirmed also that monocyte-derived DCs were differentially regulated by cytokines, showing that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is able to redirect monocytic precursors into the differentiation pathway of Langerhans' cells presenting typical Birbeck granules. Interestingly, and in contrast to the human and murine model, we showed that the monocyte-derived porcine Langerhans'-type cells (MoLCs) were much more potent activators of allogeneic T cells than MoDCs obtained without TGF-β1. PMID:11328373

  17. Characterization of the self-rotational motion of stored red blood cells by using optically-induced electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenfeng; Wang, Yuechao; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-15

    We report a label-free approach toward the object of characterizing the self-rotational motions of red blood cells (RBCs) during storage under the optically-induced electrokinetics-based microfluidics mechanism. A theoretical analysis of the transmembrane potential across RBCs was performed getting a threshold voltage for keeping cellular biological integrity. Then, by investigation of the self-rotational behaviors of the individual RBCs in larger population, the RBCs that were stored more than three weeks statistically showed the distinctive self-rotational speed. Results verified that the self-rotational biomarkers of the RBCs could be used to label-free reckon the qualities of the stored RBCs in this kind of microfluidics chip. This finding may be further developed as a new criterion to real-time and label-free monitoring of the banked blood qualities, thereby diminishing the blood transfusion venture.

  18. Formulation and characterization of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) for targeted pulmonary delivery via spray drying.

    PubMed

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Meenach, Samantha A; Arnold, Susanne M; Mansour, Heidi M; Hilt, J Zach

    2015-02-20

    Targeted pulmonary delivery facilitates the direct application of bioactive materials to the lungs in a controlled manner and provides an exciting platform for targeting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to the lungs. Iron oxide MNPs remotely heat in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) providing unique opportunities for therapeutic applications such as hyperthermia. In this study, spray drying was used to formulate magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) consisting of iron oxide MNPs and d-mannitol. The physicochemical properties of these MnMs were evaluated and the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance of the dry powders was measured by the Next Generation Impactor(®). For all powders, the mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) was <5μm and deposition patterns revealed that MnMs could deposit throughout the lungs. Heating studies with a custom AMF showed that MNPs retain excellent thermal properties after spray drying into composite dry powders, with specific absorption ratios (SAR)>200W/g, and in vitro studies on a human lung cell line indicated moderate cytotoxicity of these materials. These inhalable composites present a class of materials with many potential applications and pose a promising approach for thermal treatment of the lungs through targeted pulmonary administration of MNPs. PMID:25542988

  19. Characterization of the DNA Copy-Number Genome in the Blood of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, William M.; Lewis, Julia M.; Filler, Renata B.; Modi, Badri G.; Carlson, Kacie R.; Reddy, Swapna; Thornberg, Adam; Saksena, Gordon; Umlauf, Sheila; Oberholzer, Patrick A.; Karpova, Maria; Getz, Gad; Mane, Shrikant; Garraway, Levi A.; Dummer, Reinhard; Berger, Carole L.; Edelson, Richard L.; Girardi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that may variably involve the skin, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Malignant burden ranges from cutaneous patches and plaques with little evidence of blood involvement to erythroderma often in association with frank leukemia, as in Sézary syndrome. Toward a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this CD4+ T-cell malignancy, we conducted a high-resolution genomic analysis combining DNA (23 samples) and mRNA (12 samples) data of peripheral blood isolates from CTCL patients across a spectrum of stages. Strikingly, even patients with limited involvement, e.g., normal CD4 counts, contained significant copy-number alterations. Defining genomic characteristics of CTCL blood involvement included gains on 8q and 17q, and deletions on 17p and chromosome 10. A consensus analysis of 108 leukemic CTCL samples demonstrated global similarities among patients with varied blood involvement, narrowing 38 of 62 loci. Toward an annotated framework for in vitro testing, we also characterized genomic alterations in five CTCL cell lines (HH, HUT78, PNO, SeAx, and Sez4), revealing intact core features of leukemic CTCL. Together, these studies produce the most comprehensive view of the leukemic CTCL genome to date, with implications for pathogenesis, molecular classification, and potential future therapeutic developments. PMID:21881587

  20. Characterization of blood flow rate in dental pulp by speckle patterns of backscattered light from an in vivo tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Sergey K.; Chistyakova, Galina G.; Terekh, Alex S.; Smirnov, Alex V.; Salimi Zadeh, Mehrnush M.; Barun, Vladimir V.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental data on the hemodynamics of dental pulp at different stages of caries treatment are given. Observations of speckle patterns in backscattered laser light are used as a measurement method to qualitatively characterize changes in blood flow rate through the dental pulp. The measurements were made by the author-designed experimental setup. Theoretical estimations showed that stationary reflected light from an in vivo tooth contains a negligibly small information body on changes in the pulpal blood flow due to the shadowing of the pulp by optically thick enamel and dentin. Therefore, the temporal variations in the speckle patterns are the only possible way that can provide monitoring of blood conditions in the pulp by using backscattered light. Various statistical characteristics of the random reflected light fields are studied as indicators of blood flow rate changes. There were selected five statistical parameters of backscattered speckle images that give self-consistent data on these changes. The parameters include four combinations of integrals of the Fourier transforms of the observed temporal variations as well as the speckle image contrast. The selected parameters are shown to qualitatively agree with general considerations on the effects of reduced or increased blood flow rates on the selected integral quantities.

  1. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation improves clinical features and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Eloisa Sanches Pereira; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Dias, Fernanda Dultra; Gomes, Evelim Leal Freitas Dantas; Greiffo, Flavia Regina; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Stirbulov, Roberto; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease characterized by chronic airflow limitation that leads beyond the pulmonary changes to important systemic effects. COPD is characterized by pulmonary and systemic inflammation. However, increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in plasma are found even when the disease is stable. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves physical exercise capacity and quality of life and decreases dyspnea. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) program improves exercise tolerance in COPD patients, as well as health-related quality of life and systemic inflammation. This prospective study was conducted at the Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil. After anamnesis, patients were subjected to evaluations of health-related quality of life and dyspnea, spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, upper limbs incremental test, incremental shuttle walk test, and blood test for quantification of systemic inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-8). At the end of the evaluations, patients received a booklet containing the physical exercises to be performed at home, three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Around 25 patients were enrolled, and 14 completed the pre- and post-HBPR ratings. There was a significant increase in the walked distance and the maximal inspiratory pressure, improvements on two components from the health-related quality-of-life questionnaire, and a decrease in plasma IL-8 levels after the intervention. The HBPR is an important and viable alternative to pulmonary rehabilitation for the treatment of patients with COPD; it improves exercise tolerance, inspiratory muscle strength, quality of life, and systemic inflammation in COPD patients. PMID:25848241

  2. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation improves clinical features and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Eloisa Sanches Pereira; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Dias, Fernanda Dultra; Gomes, Evelim Leal Freitas Dantas; Greiffo, Flavia Regina; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Stirbulov, Roberto; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease characterized by chronic airflow limitation that leads beyond the pulmonary changes to important systemic effects. COPD is characterized by pulmonary and systemic inflammation. However, increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in plasma are found even when the disease is stable. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves physical exercise capacity and quality of life and decreases dyspnea. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) program improves exercise tolerance in COPD patients, as well as health-related quality of life and systemic inflammation. This prospective study was conducted at the Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil. After anamnesis, patients were subjected to evaluations of health-related quality of life and dyspnea, spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, upper limbs incremental test, incremental shuttle walk test, and blood test for quantification of systemic inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-8). At the end of the evaluations, patients received a booklet containing the physical exercises to be performed at home, three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Around 25 patients were enrolled, and 14 completed the pre- and post-HBPR ratings. There was a significant increase in the walked distance and the maximal inspiratory pressure, improvements on two components from the health-related quality-of-life questionnaire, and a decrease in plasma IL-8 levels after the intervention. The HBPR is an important and viable alternative to pulmonary rehabilitation for the treatment of patients with COPD; it improves exercise tolerance, inspiratory muscle strength, quality of life, and systemic inflammation in COPD patients.

  3. Severe Pulmonary Arteriopathy Is Associated with Persistent Hypoxemia after Pulmonary Endarterectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ishida, Keiichi; Naito, Akira; Kato, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Takao; Sekine, Ayumi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Masuda, Masahisa; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by organized chronic thrombi. Persistent hypoxemia and residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) following successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) are clinically important problems; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously reported that residual PH is closely related to severe pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypothesize that this arteriopathy might also be involved in impaired gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hypoxemia and pulmonary arteriopathy after PEA. Methods and Results Between December 2011 and November 2014, 23 CTEPH patients underwent PEA and lung biopsy. The extent of pulmonary arteriopathy was quantified pathologically in lung biopsy specimens. We then analyzed the relationship between the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy and gas exchange after PEA. We observed that the severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was negatively correlated with postoperative and follow-up PaO2 (postoperative PaO2: r = -0.73, p = 0.0004; follow-up PaO2: r = -0.66, p = 0.001), but not with preoperative PaO2 (r = -0.373, p = 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed that the obstruction ratio and patient age were determinants of PaO2 one month after PEA (R2 = 0.651, p = 0.00009). Furthermore, the obstruction ratio and improvement of pulmonary vascular resistance were determinants of PaO2 at follow-up (R2 = 0.545, p = 0.0002). Severe pulmonary arteriopathy might increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and impair diffusion capacity, resulting in hypoxemia following PEA. Conclusion The severity of pulmonary arteriopathy was closely associated with postoperative and follow-up hypoxemia. PMID:27571267

  4. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  5. Spatial and functional relationships between air conduits and blood capillaries in the pulmonary gas exchange tissue of adult and developing chickens.

    PubMed

    Makanya, Andrew N; El-Darawish, Yosif; Kavoi, Boniface M; Djonov, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The documented data regarding the three-dimensional structure of the air capillaries (ACs), the ultimate sites of gas exchange in the avian lung is contradictory. Further, the mode of gas exchange, described as cross-current has not been clearly elucidated. We studied the temporal and spatial arrangement of the terminal air conduits of the chicken lung and their relationship with the blood capillaries (BCs) in embryos as well as the definitive architecture in adults. Several visualization techniques that included corrosion casting, light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used. Two to six infundibulae extend from each atrium and give rise to numerous ACs that spread centrifugally. Majority of the ACs are tubular structures that give off branches, which anastomose with their neighboring cognates. Some ACs have globular shapes and a few are blind-ending tapering tubes. During inauguration, the luminal aspects of the ACs are characterized by numerous microvillus-like microplicae, which are formed during the complex processes of cell attenuation and canalization of the ACs. The parabronchial exchange BCs, initially inaugurated as disorganized meshworks, are reoriented via pillar formation to lie predominantly orthogonal to the long axes of the ACs. The remodeling of the retiform meshworks by intussusceptive angiogenesis essentially accomplishes a cross-current system at the gas exchange interface in the adults, where BCs form ring-like patterns around the ACs, thus establishing a cross-current system. Our findings clarify the mode of gas exchange in the parabronchial mantle and illuminate the basis for the functional efficiency of the avian lung. PMID:21275004

  6. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  7. Morphological and functional characterization of leech circulating blood cells: role in immunity and neural repair.

    PubMed

    Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Vergote, David; Slomianny, Christian; Jouy, Nathalie; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2012-05-01

    Unlike most invertebrates, annelids possess a closed vascular system distinct from the coelomic liquid. The morphology and the function of leech blood cells are reported here. We have demonstrated the presence of a unique cell type which participates in various immune processes. In contrast to the mammalian spinal cord, the leech CNS is able to regenerate and restore function after injury. The close contact of the blood with the nerve cord also led us to explore the participation of blood in neural repair. Our data evidenced that, in addition to exerting peripheral immune functions, leech blood optimizes CNS neural repair through the release of neurotrophic substances. Circulating blood cells also appeared able to infiltrate the injured CNS where, in conjunction with microglia, they limit the formation of a scar. In mammals, CNS injury leads to the generation of a glial scar that blocks the mechanism of regeneration by preventing axonal regrowth. The results presented here constitute the first description of neuroimmune functions of invertebrate blood cells. Understanding the basic function of the peripheral circulating cells and their interactions with lesioned CNS in the leech would allow us to acquire insights into the complexity of the neuroimmune response of the injured mammalian brain. PMID:22159559

  8. Regression of pulmonary artery hypertension due to development of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Ashfaq; Sastry, B.K.S.; Aleem, M.A.; Reddy, Gokul; Mahmood, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension (IPAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in the absence of an identifiable underlying cause. The condition is usually relentlessly progressive with a short survival in the absence of treatment.1 We describe a patient of IPAH in whom the pulmonary artery pressures significantly abated with complete disappearance of symptoms, following spontaneous development of a pulmonary arterio-venous malformation (PAVM). PMID:25443608

  9. Systemic and Pulmonary Vascular Remodelling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Esquerre, Mariana; López-Sánchez, Marta; Escobar, Ignacio; Huertas, Daniel; Penín, Rosa; Molina-Molina, María; Manresa, Frederic; Dorca, Jordi; Santos, Salud

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with subclinical systemic atherosclerosis and pulmonary vascular remodelling characterized by intimal hyperplasia and luminal narrowing. We aimed to determine differences in the intimal thickening of systemic and pulmonary arteries in COPD subjects and smokers. Secondary aims include comparisons with a non-smokers group; determining the clinical variables associated with systemic and pulmonary intimal thickening, and the correlations between systemic and pulmonary remodelling changes. Methods All consecutive subjects undergoing lung resection were included and divided into 3 groups: 1) COPD, 2) smokers, and 3) non-smokers. Sections of the 5th intercostal artery and muscular pulmonary arteries were measured by histo-morphometry. Four parameters of intimal thickening were evaluated: 1) percentage of intimal area (%IA), 2) percentage of luminal narrowing, 3) intimal thickness index, and 4) intima-to-media ratio. Results In the adjusted analysis, the systemic arteries of COPD subjects showed greater intimal thickening (%IA) than those of smokers (15.6±1.5% vs. 14.2±1.6%, p = 0.038). In the pulmonary arteries, significant differences were observed for %IA between the 2 groups (37.3±2.2% vs. 29.3±2.3%, p = 0.016). Among clinical factors, metabolic syndrome, gender and COPD status were associated with the systemic intimal thickening, while only COPD status was associated with pulmonary intimal thickening. A correlation between the %IA of the systemic and pulmonary arteries was observed (Spearman’s rho = 0.46, p = 0.008). Conclusions Greater intimal thickening in systemic and pulmonary arteries is observed in COPD patients than in smokers. There is a correlation between systemic and pulmonary vascular remodelling in the overall population. PMID:27046203

  10. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Morawska, Justyna; Domysławska, Izabela; Bagrowska, Magdalena; Sierakowski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive cartilages, bones and other structures formed joints. RA belongs to connective tissue diseases represented by systemic nature, internal illness, extra-articular features and rapidly progress of atherosceirosis. The extra-articular complications cause the reduction of patient longevity. The frequency of symptoms in patient with RA and respiratory disorders occur in 10-20% of cases. Pulmonary complications are the second most common cause of premature of patient deaths. Respiratory disorders associated with RA are devided into 3 groups: infection, lung disease caused by drugs and pulmonary manifestation connected by RA. These last affect interstitial tissue, bronchioli, pulmonary vessels, pleura, also are presented by pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology.

  12. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Clinical Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Priya; Sepehri, Saedeh; Zhou, Yi; Gorin, Michael A; Paolillo, Carmela; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gleason, Kyle; Payne, Austin; Boniface, Brian; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Morgan, Todd M; Fortina, Paolo; Pienta, Kenneth J; Handique, Kalyan; Wang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization.

  13. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Clinical Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Priya; Sepehri, Saedeh; Zhou, Yi; Gorin, Michael A.; Paolillo, Carmela; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gleason, Kyle; Payne, Austin; Boniface, Brian; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Morgan, Todd M.; Fortina, Paolo; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Handique, Kalyan; Wang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization. PMID:26808060

  14. Characterization of Transition to Turbulence for Blood in a Straight Pipe Under Steady Flow Conditions.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Dipankar; Casey, David M; Crowder, Douglas C; Steinman, David A; Yun, Yang H; Loth, Francis

    2016-07-01

    Blood is a complex fluid that, among other things, has been established to behave as a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid when exposed to low shear rates (SR). Many hemodynamic investigations use a Newtonian fluid to represent blood when the flow field of study has relatively high SR (>200 s-1). Shear thinning fluids have been shown to exhibit differences in transition to turbulence (TT) compared to that of Newtonian fluids. Incorrect prediction of the transition point in a simulation could result in erroneous hemodynamic force predictions. The goal of the present study was to compare velocity profiles near TT of whole blood and Newtonian blood analogs in a straight rigid pipe with a diameter 6.35 mm under steady flow conditions. Rheology was measured for six samples of whole porcine blood and three samples of a Newtonian fluid, and the results show blood acts as a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Measurements also revealed that blood viscosity at SR = 200 s-1 is significantly larger than at SR = 1000 s-1 (13.8%, p < 0.001). Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used to measure velocity profiles for blood and Newtonian samples at different flow rates to produce Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 1000 to 3300 (based on viscosity at SR = 1000 s-1). Two mathematically defined methods, based on the velocity profile shape change and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), were used to detect TT. Results show similar parabolic velocity profiles for both blood and the Newtonian fluid for Re < 2200. However, differences were observed between blood and Newtonian fluid velocity profiles for larger Re. The Newtonian fluid had blunt-like velocity profiles starting at Re = 2403 ± 8 which indicated transition. In contrast, blood did not show this velocity profile change until Re = 2871 ± 104. The Newtonian fluid had large velocity fluctuations (root mean square (RMS) > 20%) with a maximum TKE near the pipe center at Re = 2316 ± 34

  15. Characterization of Transition to Turbulence for Blood in a Straight Pipe Under Steady Flow Conditions.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Dipankar; Casey, David M; Crowder, Douglas C; Steinman, David A; Yun, Yang H; Loth, Francis

    2016-07-01

    Blood is a complex fluid that, among other things, has been established to behave as a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid when exposed to low shear rates (SR). Many hemodynamic investigations use a Newtonian fluid to represent blood when the flow field of study has relatively high SR (>200 s-1). Shear thinning fluids have been shown to exhibit differences in transition to turbulence (TT) compared to that of Newtonian fluids. Incorrect prediction of the transition point in a simulation could result in erroneous hemodynamic force predictions. The goal of the present study was to compare velocity profiles near TT of whole blood and Newtonian blood analogs in a straight rigid pipe with a diameter 6.35 mm under steady flow conditions. Rheology was measured for six samples of whole porcine blood and three samples of a Newtonian fluid, and the results show blood acts as a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Measurements also revealed that blood viscosity at SR = 200 s-1 is significantly larger than at SR = 1000 s-1 (13.8%, p < 0.001). Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used to measure velocity profiles for blood and Newtonian samples at different flow rates to produce Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 1000 to 3300 (based on viscosity at SR = 1000 s-1). Two mathematically defined methods, based on the velocity profile shape change and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), were used to detect TT. Results show similar parabolic velocity profiles for both blood and the Newtonian fluid for Re < 2200. However, differences were observed between blood and Newtonian fluid velocity profiles for larger Re. The Newtonian fluid had blunt-like velocity profiles starting at Re = 2403 ± 8 which indicated transition. In contrast, blood did not show this velocity profile change until Re = 2871 ± 104. The Newtonian fluid had large velocity fluctuations (root mean square (RMS) > 20%) with a maximum TKE near the pipe center at Re = 2316 ± 34

  16. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.; Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Linnabary, R.D. )

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. A framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release.

  17. Cytochemical and functional characterization of blood and inflammatory cells from the lizard Ameiva ameiva.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Sanny O; Diniz, Jose A; Silva, Edilene O; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato A

    2005-06-01

    The fine structure and differential cell count of blood and coelomic exudate leukocytes were studied with the aim to identify granulocytes from Ameiva ameiva, a lizard distributed in the tropical regions of the Americas. Blood leukocytes were separated with a Percoll cushion and coelomic exudate cells were obtained 24 h after intracoelomic thioglycollate injection. In the blood, erythrocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and four types of granulocytes were identified based on their morphology and cytochemistry. Types I and III granulocytes had round intracytoplasmic granules with the same basic morphology; however, type III granulocyte had a bilobued nucleus and higher amounts of heterochromatin suggesting an advance stage of maturation. Type II granulocytes had fusiformic granules and more mitochondria. Type IV granulocytes were classified as the basophil mammalian counterpart based on their morphology and relative number. Macrophages and granulocytes type III were found in the normal coelomic cavity. However, after the thioglycollate injection the number of type III granulocyte increased. Granulocytes found in the coelomic cavity were related to type III blood granulocyte based on the morphology and cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase and basic proteins in their intracytoplasmic granules. Differential blood leukocyte counts showed a predominance of type III granulocyte followed by lymphocyte, type I granulocyte, type II granulocyte, monocyte and type IV granulocyte. Taken together, these results indicate that types I and III granulocytes correspond to the mammalian neutrophils/heterophils and type II to the eosinophil granulocytes. PMID:15936356

  18. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  19. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  20. Dielectric properties of human diabetic blood: Thermodynamic characterization and new prospective for alternative diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsaci, F.; Ficarra, S.; Russo, A.; Galtieri, A.; Tellone, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we will show the possibility of studying physical properties and irreversible phenomena that occur in blood by applying the dielectric Kluitenberg's nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory. Namely, we shall use some recent extensions of this theory that allow to infer its main characteristic parameters from experimental measures. Applying these results to the study of normal and diabetic blood we show, by comparing them, that it is possible to determine the difference, in some details, of the amount of particular phenomena occurring inside them and give a biological meaning to these phenomena. Moreover, observing a correspondence between a particular value of the frequency for which state coefficients are equal and glucose levels we introduce an alternative diagnostic method to measure the values of the glucose in the blood by determining only this frequency value. The thermodynamic description will be completed by determining the trend of the entropy production.

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension: Types and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jones, Lisa J; Mclaughlin, Vallerie V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a panvasculopathy that affects the distal pulmonary arteries and leads to restricted blood flow. This increased afterload leads to adaptive mechanisms of the right ventricle, with eventual failure once it can no longer compensate. Pulmonary hypertension from associated conditions, most importantly left heart disease, i.e. heart failure, can also lead to the same sequela. Patients often experience early vague symptoms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance, and thus PH can elude clinicians until right heart failure symptoms predominate. Evidence-based treatment options with pulmo-nary vasodilators are available for those with PAH and should be employed early. It is essential that patients be accurately categorized by their etiology of PH, as treatment strategies differ, and can potentially be dangerous if employed in the wrong clinical scenario. PMID:24251459

  2. Characterization of pH variation in lysed blood by near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M. Kathleen; Maynard, John D.; Robinson, M. Ries Niemczyk, Thomas M.; Eaton, R. Philip

    1998-03-01

    Near-infrared spectra (1300{endash}2500 nm) collected from lysed blood solutions were shown to correlate with the pH of the solutions measured potentiometrically. Cross-validated partial least-squares (PLS) models were developed from these spectral data, which provided standard error of prediction (SEP) values below 0.05 pH units for a pH range of 1.0 (6.8{endash}7.8). Experiments were designed to eliminate possible correlation between pH and other components in the blood in order to ensure that variations in the spectral data correlated to pH were due to hydrogen ion changes only. Further work was performed to discern the primary source of pH information in the lysed blood spectra by using spectra collected from plasma and histidine solutions. The blood, plasma, and histidine data sets were compared with the use of loading vectors from principal component analysis (PCA). These loading vectors show that variations in the spectra of the titrated amino acid histidine mimic those seen in lysed blood, but not those seen in plasma. These results suggest that histidine residues of hemoglobin are providing the spectral variation necessary for pH modeling in the lysed blood solutions. It is further shown that the observed pH-sensitive histidine bands do not arise from the exchangeable proton on the imidazole ring of histidine; rather they arise from the variation in the C{endash}H bonds of the C2 and/or the C4 carbons of the imidazole ring as they are influenced by the titration of the nitrogen-bound proton of the imidazole ring. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  3. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Mills, James N; Padula, Paula J; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Mendes, Wellington S; Santos, Elizabeth D; Araújo, Gisele C B; Martinez, Valeria P; Rosa, Jorge F S T; Edelstein, Alexis; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2005-01-01

    Following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Maranhao State, Brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by ELISA for antibodies to Sin Nombre and Andes hantaviruses. Antibody-positive samples were tested by RT-PCR, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. From 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 Bolomys lasiurus, 52 Holochilus sciureus, 12 Oligoryzomys fornesi, and one Proechimys guyannensis), 21 (20.2%) were antibody-positive (one B. lasiurus, five O. fornesi, and 15 H. sciureus). Hantavirus RNA was amplified by PCR from two O. fornesi and four H. sciureus. Viral sequencing identified two hantavirus genotypes. The genotype recovered from O. fornesi, is designated herein as Anajatuba (ANAJ) and the genotype recovered from H. sciureus is designated Rio Mearim (RIME). Phylogenetic analysis of a 643-nucleotide region of the N segment showed both viruses to be most closely related (94-96% nucleotide homology) to Río Mamoré virus, a virus associated with Oligoryzomys microtis in Bolivia and Peru, but not found in northern Brazil. O. fornesi was frequently captured in and around human dwellings. H. sciureus, is a semi-aquatic rodent captured only in remote areas rarely frequented by humans.

  4. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738.

  5. Automated microscopy system for detection and genetic characterization of fetal nucleated red blood cells on slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravkin, Ilya; Temov, Vladimir

    1998-04-01

    The detection and genetic analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood will permit noninvasive prenatal screening for genetic defects. Applied Imaging has developed and is currently evaluating a system for semiautomatic detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells on slides and acquisition of their DNA probe FISH images. The specimens are blood smears from pregnant women (9 - 16 weeks gestation) enriched for nucleated red blood cells (NRBC). The cells are identified by using labeled monoclonal antibodies directed to different types of hemoglobin chains (gamma, epsilon); the nuclei are stained with DAPI. The Applied Imaging system has been implemented with both Olympus BX and Nikon Eclipse series microscopes which were equipped with transmission and fluorescence optics. The system includes the following motorized components: stage, focus, transmission, and fluorescence filter wheels. A video camera with light integration (COHU 4910) permits low light imaging. The software capabilities include scanning, relocation, autofocusing, feature extraction, facilities for operator review, and data analysis. Detection of fetal NRBCs is achieved by employing a combination of brightfield and fluorescence images of nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. The brightfield and fluorescence images are all obtained with a single multi-bandpass dichroic mirror. A Z-stack of DNA probe FISH images is acquired by moving focus and switching excitation filters. This stack is combined to produce an enhanced image for presentation and spot counting.

  6. Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bernard; Ramírez-San-Juan, Julio C.; Lotfi, Justin; Nelson, J. S.

    2006-07-01

    Noninvasive blood flow imaging can provide critical information on the state of biological tissue and the efficacy of approaches to treat disease. With laser speckle imaging (LSI), relative changes in blood flow are typically reported, with the assumption that the measured values are on a linear scale. A linear relationship between the measured and actual flow rate values has been suggested. The actual flow rate range, over which this linear relationship is valid, is unknown. Herein we report the linear response range and velocity dynamic range (VDR) of our LSI instrument at two relevant camera integration times. For integration times of 1 and 10 ms, the best case VDR was 80 and 60 dB, respectively, and the worst case VDR was 20 and 50 dB. The best case VDR values were similar to those reported in the literature for optical Doppler tomography. We also demonstrate the potential of LSI for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the rodent dorsal skinfold chamber model. These findings imply that LSI can provide accurate wide-field maps of microvascular blood flow rate dynamics and highlight heterogeneities in flow response to the application of exogenous agents.

  7. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738. PMID:26595531

  8. Replication and Characterization of Association between ABO SNPs and Red Blood Cell Traits by Meta-Analysis in Europeans.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Stela; Giambartolomei, Claudia; White, Jon; Charoen, Pimphen; Wong, Andrew; Finan, Chris; Engmann, Jorgen; Shah, Tina; Hersch, Micha; Podmore, Clara; Cavadino, Alana; Jefferis, Barbara J; Dale, Caroline E; Hypponen, Elina; Morris, Richard W; Casas, Juan P; Kumari, Meena; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gaunt, Tom R; Drenos, Fotios; Langenberg, Claudia; Kuh, Diana; Kivimaki, Mika; Rueedi, Rico; Waeber, Gerard; Hingorani, Aroon D; Price, Jacqueline F; Walker, Ann P

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) traits are routinely measured in clinical practice as important markers of health. Deviations from the physiological ranges are usually a sign of disease, although variation between healthy individuals also occurs, at least partly due to genetic factors. Recent large scale genetic studies identified loci associated with one or more of these traits; further characterization of known loci and identification of new loci is necessary to better understand their role in health and disease and to identify potential molecular mechanisms. We performed meta-analysis of Metabochip association results for six RBC traits-hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell count (RCC)-in 11 093 Europeans from seven studies of the UCL-LSHTM-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium. We identified 394 non-overlapping SNPs in five loci at genome-wide significance: 6p22.1-6p21.33 (with HFE among others), 6q23.2 (with HBS1L among others), 6q23.3 (contains no genes), 9q34.3 (only ABO gene) and 22q13.1 (with TMPRSS6 among others), replicating previous findings of association with RBC traits at these loci and extending them by imputation to 1000 Genomes. We further characterized associations between ABO SNPs and three traits: hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count, replicating them in an independent cohort. Conditional analyses indicated the independent association of each of these traits with ABO SNPs and a role for blood group O in mediating the association. The 15 most significant RBC-associated ABO SNPs were also associated with five cardiometabolic traits, with discordance in the direction of effect between groups of traits, suggesting that ABO may act through more than one mechanism to influence cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27280446

  9. Replication and Characterization of Association between ABO SNPs and Red Blood Cell Traits by Meta-Analysis in Europeans.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Stela; Giambartolomei, Claudia; White, Jon; Charoen, Pimphen; Wong, Andrew; Finan, Chris; Engmann, Jorgen; Shah, Tina; Hersch, Micha; Podmore, Clara; Cavadino, Alana; Jefferis, Barbara J; Dale, Caroline E; Hypponen, Elina; Morris, Richard W; Casas, Juan P; Kumari, Meena; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gaunt, Tom R; Drenos, Fotios; Langenberg, Claudia; Kuh, Diana; Kivimaki, Mika; Rueedi, Rico; Waeber, Gerard; Hingorani, Aroon D; Price, Jacqueline F; Walker, Ann P

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) traits are routinely measured in clinical practice as important markers of health. Deviations from the physiological ranges are usually a sign of disease, although variation between healthy individuals also occurs, at least partly due to genetic factors. Recent large scale genetic studies identified loci associated with one or more of these traits; further characterization of known loci and identification of new loci is necessary to better understand their role in health and disease and to identify potential molecular mechanisms. We performed meta-analysis of Metabochip association results for six RBC traits-hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell count (RCC)-in 11 093 Europeans from seven studies of the UCL-LSHTM-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium. We identified 394 non-overlapping SNPs in five loci at genome-wide significance: 6p22.1-6p21.33 (with HFE among others), 6q23.2 (with HBS1L among others), 6q23.3 (contains no genes), 9q34.3 (only ABO gene) and 22q13.1 (with TMPRSS6 among others), replicating previous findings of association with RBC traits at these loci and extending them by imputation to 1000 Genomes. We further characterized associations between ABO SNPs and three traits: hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count, replicating them in an independent cohort. Conditional analyses indicated the independent association of each of these traits with ABO SNPs and a role for blood group O in mediating the association. The 15 most significant RBC-associated ABO SNPs were also associated with five cardiometabolic traits, with discordance in the direction of effect between groups of traits, suggesting that ABO may act through more than one mechanism to influence cardiometabolic risk.

  10. Replication and Characterization of Association between ABO SNPs and Red Blood Cell Traits by Meta-Analysis in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Stela; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Charoen, Pimphen; Wong, Andrew; Finan, Chris; Engmann, Jorgen; Shah, Tina; Hersch, Micha; Cavadino, Alana; Jefferis, Barbara J.; Dale, Caroline E.; Hypponen, Elina; Morris, Richard W.; Casas, Juan P.; Kumari, Meena; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gaunt, Tom R.; Drenos, Fotios; Langenberg, Claudia; Kuh, Diana; Kivimaki, Mika; Rueedi, Rico; Waeber, Gerard; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) traits are routinely measured in clinical practice as important markers of health. Deviations from the physiological ranges are usually a sign of disease, although variation between healthy individuals also occurs, at least partly due to genetic factors. Recent large scale genetic studies identified loci associated with one or more of these traits; further characterization of known loci and identification of new loci is necessary to better understand their role in health and disease and to identify potential molecular mechanisms. We performed meta-analysis of Metabochip association results for six RBC traits—hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell count (RCC)—in 11 093 Europeans from seven studies of the UCL-LSHTM-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium. We identified 394 non-overlapping SNPs in five loci at genome-wide significance: 6p22.1-6p21.33 (with HFE among others), 6q23.2 (with HBS1L among others), 6q23.3 (contains no genes), 9q34.3 (only ABO gene) and 22q13.1 (with TMPRSS6 among others), replicating previous findings of association with RBC traits at these loci and extending them by imputation to 1000 Genomes. We further characterized associations between ABO SNPs and three traits: hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count, replicating them in an independent cohort. Conditional analyses indicated the independent association of each of these traits with ABO SNPs and a role for blood group O in mediating the association. The 15 most significant RBC-associated ABO SNPs were also associated with five cardiometabolic traits, with discordance in the direction of effect between groups of traits, suggesting that ABO may act through more than one mechanism to influence cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27280446

  11. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  12. Characterization of the relationship between dose and blood eosinophil response following subcutaneous administration of mepolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Pouliquen, Isabelle J.; Kornmann, Oliver; Barton, Sharon V.; Price, Jeffrey A.; Ortega, Hector G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mepolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks human IL-5 from binding to the IL-5 receptor, which is mainly expressed on eosinophils. Eosinophils are key cells in the inflammatory cascade of various diseases, including asthma. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship between exposure of mepolizumab subcutaneous (SC) administration and blood eosinophil reduction compared with intravenous (IV) administration in adult subjects with asthma. Methods: In this multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, repeat-dose study, 70 adult subjects received one of four possible treatment regimens: mepolizumab 12.5, 125, or 250 mg SC or 75 mg IV. In addition to analyzing the dose and PK/PD relationship, absolute bioavailability, safety, tolerability, and incidence of anti-mepolizumab antibodies were evaluated. Results: Blood eosinophil levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner with the lowest (12.5 mg) dose clearly differentiating from the other doses. A non-linear inhibition Imax model based on blood eosinophil levels at week 12 identified that the SC doses providing 50% and 90% of maximal blood eosinophil inhibition were 11 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.19 – 16.85) and 99 mg (95% CI: 47 – 152), respectively. The route of administration did not affect the exposure-response relationship. The estimated mepolizumab SC absolute bioavailability (arm) was 74% (90% CI: 54 – 102%). The safety profile of mepolizumab was favorable. Conclusions: A dose-dependent reduction in blood eosinophils across all mepolizumab doses investigated was observed. The subcutaneous absolute bioavailability was 74%. The route of administration did not affect the mepolizumab exposure eosinophil response relationship. PMID:26445140

  13. Isolation and biological characterization of a novel type of pulmonary mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wuzhishan miniature pig embryo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Caiyun; Guo, Yu; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Yang, Jinjuan; Li, Xiangchen; Liu, Changqing; Guan, Weijun

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) have great potential in lung tissue engineering and represent attractive candidates for disease treatment in human and veterinary research. However, a reliable method for isolation and localization of porcine PMSCs in situ is still uncertain. In this study, we successfully isolated PMSCs from Wuzhishan miniature pig embryos in vitro and also attempted to unravel its fundamental differentiation potential and biological characteristics. The isolated PMSCs, which could be cultured and passaged for at least 15 passages, exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative potential. Moreover, the PMSCs could express pluripotent marker genes (Oct4 and Nanog) and MSCs-related surface antigens (β-integrin, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD105), while the expressions of CD34 and CD45 were negative. Cell cycle examination showed that the rate of G0/G1 was about 72.1-90.2%. Additionally, the PMSCs not only could be induced to transdifferentiate into mesoblastic cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro, but also the neural ectoderm and endoderm. Together, these data demonstrate the multiple differentiations potential of PMSCs in vitro, which confers potential use in serving as desirable cell types for lung injury regeneration. PMID:27425208

  14. Molecular characterization of the leptin receptor gene as a candidate gene in the pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, O; Van As, P; Elferink, M G

    2012-12-15

    Leptin Receptor Gene (LEPR) is a candidate gene in understanding the genetic basis of the Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS) in broilers. Identification and evaluation of genetic polymorphisms in LEPR may provide a link between traits like Body Weight (BW) and Total Ventricle weight (TV) to the development of PHS. In this study, primers were designed in exons, upstream and downstream sequences to identify mutations in the LEPR on four broilers selected with respect to the PHS-related traits. About 77% of the 11,820 bp of the LEPR gene covered by the primers were sequenced. No mutations were found between the chickens associating the traits to the occurrence of PHS. However, 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms and four Indels were found between the reference sequences of the red jungle fowl and the experimental population. Ten of these mutations were not previously reported in LEPR at the genomic and transcript sequences (NP_989654.1, ENSGALT00000018009). The 10 mutations include six SNPs in intron regions, two Indels and two non-synonymous SNPs. The two new non-synonymous SNPs; G301A and A1637G, led to amino acid change A89T and N534S, respectively. PMID:23755410

  15. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration as a cause of recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Akdag, Arzu; Arici, Sule; Kaya, Mete; Turgut, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is acystic or solid congenital lung malformation comprised of non functional lung tissue that does not communicate with the normal tracheobronchial tree and has a systemic arterial blood supply. There are two forms of sequestration: intralobar and extralobar. Its treatment is surgical resection. Here we presented a case of premature neonate with extralobar pulmonary sequestration who had respiratory failure and recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage. Following surgery, the patient showed significant clinical improvement.

  16. [A case of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy induced by early gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hideki; Akamatsu, Taisuke; Nakamura, Yutarou; Inui, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo; Meguro, Shiori; Baba, Satoshi

    2011-02-01

    A 56-year-old man with chief complaints of dry cough and dyspnea was admitted. He had severe hypoxemia, and his chest radiographs showed enhancement of pulmonary artery opacities with multiple defects on pulmonary blood flow scintigraphy. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed swelling of the mediastinum and hilar lymph nodes, but no apparent thrombi in the pulmonary arteries was seen. A biopsy specimen of a left neck lymph node showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, including signet-ring cell carcinoma components, but the origin was unclear. Despite receiving chemotherapy, his respiratory condition worsened, and he died 3 days after admission. Routine autopsy failed to clarify the tumor origin, but a detailed dissection of specimens confirmed early gastric cancer. Additionally, pathology of the pulmonary arteries was compatible with pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM). PTTM is a rare condition characterized by the presence of diffuse thrombotic microthrombi and fibrocellular intimal proliferation in the pulmonary vasculature. Accompanied with early gastric cancer, this is an extremely rare but important case of PTTM. PMID:21400909

  17. Solitary pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting crystal-storing histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nagaharu, Keiki; Kageyama, Yuki; Watanabe, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Ito, Ryugo; Baba, Youichirou; Masuya, Masahiro; Ohashi, Riuko; Kawakami, Keiki

    2016-08-01

    Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is characterized by the accumulation of large histiocytes with intracytoplasmic crystallized immunoglobulin and is typically associated with hematological malignancies. A 69-year-old man, who had a history of left nephrectomy and chemotherapy for renal pelvic cancer six years earlier, had received a CT scan every year thereafter and a small nodule was found in the left lower lobe of his lungs two years prior to the current presentation. Because of progression of this pulmonary nodule, he underwent pulmonary lobectomy on suspicion of lung cancer. He was ultimately diagnosed as having CSH accompanied by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma stage IAE. In the absence of further treatment, he has been well with no recurrence of the disease for 10 months postoperatively. Because CSH could reportedly be an initial presentation of hematological malignancies, careful observation and evaluation for the presence of these blood disorders is essential.

  18. Solitary pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting crystal-storing histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nagaharu, Keiki; Kageyama, Yuki; Watanabe, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Ito, Ryugo; Baba, Youichirou; Masuya, Masahiro; Ohashi, Riuko; Kawakami, Keiki

    2016-08-01

    Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is characterized by the accumulation of large histiocytes with intracytoplasmic crystallized immunoglobulin and is typically associated with hematological malignancies. A 69-year-old man, who had a history of left nephrectomy and chemotherapy for renal pelvic cancer six years earlier, had received a CT scan every year thereafter and a small nodule was found in the left lower lobe of his lungs two years prior to the current presentation. Because of progression of this pulmonary nodule, he underwent pulmonary lobectomy on suspicion of lung cancer. He was ultimately diagnosed as having CSH accompanied by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma stage IAE. In the absence of further treatment, he has been well with no recurrence of the disease for 10 months postoperatively. Because CSH could reportedly be an initial presentation of hematological malignancies, careful observation and evaluation for the presence of these blood disorders is essential. PMID:27599420

  19. Non-invasive Characterization of the Histopathologic Features of Pulmonary Nodules of the Lung Adenocarcinoma Spectrum using Computer Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) – a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Fabien; Boland, Jennifer M.; Raghunath, Sushravya; Aubry, Marie Christine; Bartholmai, Brian J.; deAndrade, Mariza; Hartman, Thomas E.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Yang, Ping; Yi, Eunhee S.; Robb, Richard A.; Peikert, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum are characterized by distinctive morphological and radiological features and variable prognosis. Non-invasive high-resolution computed-tomography (HRCT)-based risk stratification tools are needed to individualize their management. Methods Radiological measurements of histopathologic tissue invasion were developed in a training set of 54 pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum and validated in 86 consecutively resected nodules. Nodules were isolated and characterized by computer-aided analysis and data were analyzed by Spearman correlation, sensitivity, specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values. Results Computer Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) can non-invasively characterize pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Unsupervised clustering analysis of HRCT data identified 9 unique exemplars representing the basic radiologic building blocks of these lesions. The exemplar distribution within each nodule correlated well with the proportion of histologic tissue invasion, Spearman R=0.87,p < 0.0001 and 0.89,p < 0.0001 for the training and the validation set, respectively. Clustering of the exemplars in three-dimensional space corresponding to tissue invasion and lepidic growth was used to develop a CANARY decision algorithm, which successfully categorized these pulmonary nodules as “aggressive” (invasive adenocarcinoma) or “indolent” (adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this approach for the detection of “aggressive” lesions were 95.4%, 96.8%, 95.4% and 96.8%, respectively in the training set and 98.7%, 63.6%, 94.9% and 87.5%, respectively in the validation set. Conclusion CANARY represents a promising tool to non-invasively risk stratify pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum. PMID:23486265

  20. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index < 2.2l/min/m(2). The process typically presents with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure > 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (< 0.5 ml/kg/h). The most common cause is left ventricular failure due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease.

  1. Purinergic dysregulation in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Visovatti, Scott H; Hyman, Matthew C; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Anyanwu, Anuli C; Kanthi, Yogendra; Robichaud, Patrick; Wang, Jintao; Petrovic-Djergovic, Danica; Rattan, Rahul; Burant, Charles F; Pinsky, David J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the fact that nucleotides and adenosine help regulate vascular tone through purinergic signaling pathways, little is known regarding their contributions to the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension, a condition characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and remodeling. Even less is known about the potential role that alterations in CD39 (ENTPD1), the ectonucleotidase responsible for the conversion of the nucleotides ATP and ADP to AMP, may play in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study we identified decreased CD39 expression on the pulmonary endothelium of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We next determined the effects of CD39 gene deletion in mice exposed to normoxia or normobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen). Compared with controls, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice were found to have a markedly elevated ATP-to-adenosine ratio, higher pulmonary arterial pressures, more right ventricular hypertrophy, more arterial medial hypertrophy, and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice exhibited a marked increase in lung P2X1 receptors. Systemic reconstitution of ATPase and ADPase enzymatic activities through continuous administration of apyrase decreased pulmonary arterial pressures in hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice to levels found in hypoxic CD39(+/+) controls. Treatment with NF279, a potent and selective P2X1 receptor antagonist, lowered pulmonary arterial pressures even further. Our study is the first to implicate decreased CD39 and resultant alterations in circulating purinergic signaling ligands and cognate receptors in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Reconstitution and receptor blocking experiments suggest that phosphohydrolysis of purinergic nucleotide tri- and diphosphates, or blocking of the P2X1 receptor could serve as treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27208163

  2. Electrophoretic characterization of aldehyde-fixed red blood cells, kidney cells, lynphocytes and chamber coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Ground-based electrokinetic data on the electrophoresis flight experiment to be flown on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project experiment MA-011 are stipulated. Aldehyde-fixed red blood cells, embryonic kidney cells and lymphocytes were evaluated by analytical particle electrophoresis. The results which aided in the interpretation of the final analysis of the MA-011 experiment are documented. The electrophoresis chamber surface modifications, the buffer, and the material used in the column system are also discussed.

  3. Expression of myotubularins in blood platelets: Characterization and potential diagnostic of X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Rana; Severin, Sonia; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Gratacap, Marie-Pierre; Laporte, Jocelyn; Buj-Bello, Ana; Tronchère, Hélène; Payrastre, Bernard

    2016-07-29

    Phosphoinositides play a key role in the spatiotemporal control of central intracellular processes and several specific kinases and phosphatases regulating the level of these lipids are implicated in human diseases. Myotubularins are a family of 3-phosphatases acting specifically on phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5 bisphosphate. Members of this family are mutated in genetic diseases including myotubularin 1 (MTM1) and myotubularin-related protein 2 (MTMR2) which mutations are responsible of X-linked centronuclear myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, respectively. Here we show that MTM1 is expressed in blood platelets and that hundred microliters of blood is sufficient to detect the protein by western blotting. Since the most severe cases of pathogenic mutations of MTM1 lead to loss of expression of the protein, we propose that a minimal amount of blood can allow a rapid diagnostic test of X-linked myotubular myopathy, which is currently based on histopathology of muscle biopsy and molecular genetic testing. In platelets, MTM1 is a highly active 3-phosphatase mainly associated to membranes and found on the dense granules and to a lesser extent on alpha-granules. However, deletion of MTM1 in mouse had no significant effect on platelet count and on platelet secretion and aggregation induced by thrombin or collagen stimulation. Potential compensation by other members of the myotubularin family is conceivable since MTMR2 was easily detectable by western blotting and the mRNA of several members of the family increased during in vitro differentiation of human megakaryocytes and MEG-01 cells. In conclusion, we show the presence of several myotubularins in platelets and propose that minimal amounts of blood can be used to develop a rapid diagnostic test for genetic pathologies linked to loss of expression of these phosphatases.

  4. Identification and characterization of HIV-1 latent viral reservoirs in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Chargin, Amanda; Yin, Fangfang; Song, Min; Subramaniam, Srividyabhuvaneswari; Knutson, Grace; Patterson, Bruce K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma viral load and CD4 counts are effective for clinical monitoring, but they do not give a full representation of HIV-1 quasispecies in cellular reservoirs, the major repository of replication-competent HIV-1 in infected individuals. We sought to develop a diagnostic system that might stimulate the replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs for enhanced clinical monitoring, including selection of antiretroviral regimens. Whole-blood samples from 45 HIV-infected individuals were collected into 1 ViraStim HIV-1 activation tube and 1 EDTA tube. Samples were tested for viral load and cell type-specific HIV-1 replication. Further, 7 matched activated/nonactivated samples were sequenced using the Trugene HIV-1 genotyping kit. The percentage of patients with replication-competent virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) varied, depending on the baseline plasma viral load in the EDTA tubes. Six out of 24 patients with a starting plasma viral load of <20 copies/ml (cp/ml), 6 out of 8 patients with starting viral loads of >20 and <1,000 cp/ml, and 8 out of 13 patients with starting viral loads of >1,000 all showed increases in viral replication of >5-fold. These increases came from cellular reservoirs in blood as determined by simultaneous ultrasensitive subpopulation staining/hybridization in situ (SUSHI). When resistance genotypes in plasma from activation tubes were compared to those from EDTA tubes for 7 patients, all patients showed additional mutations in the activation tube, while 3 patients demonstrated additional genotypic resistance determinants. We show that HIV-1 viral replication can be stimulated directly from infected whole blood. The sequencing results showed that 3 of 7 cases demonstrated additional drug resistance following stimulation. PMID:25339403

  5. Prevalence and characterization of occult hepatitis B infection among blood donors in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshayea, Areej I.; Eid, Gamal E.; El-Hazmi, Malak M.; Alhetheel, Abdulkarim F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B viral infections (OBIs) among blood donors considering the clinical and epidemiological importance of identifying OBIs. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and January 2012. Blood donors (n=8501) were screened for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb). All HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive samples were tested further for hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, and HBV genotyping. Results: Of the 8501 serum samples tested, 56 (0.7%) were positive and 8445 (99.3%) were negative for HBsAg. Among the HBsAg-negative samples, 198 (2.3%) were positive for HBcAb and these patients were suspected to have OBIs. Among the HBcAb-positive samples, 119 (60.1%) were positive while 79 (39.9%) were negative for HBsAb. Analysis of HBV-DNA for the suspected OBIs showed that 17 out of 198 samples (8.6%) yielded positive results, and all of them were HBsAb-negative. The viral load was low (<20-186 IU/mL) in all OBIs. Hepatitis B virus genotyping showed that 15 out of 17 samples (88.2%) were genotype D, and the other 2 samples (11.8%) were genotype E. Conclusion: The prevalence of OBIs among blood donors in Riyadh was 0.2%. Therefore, it is recommended that HBV molecular testing should be incorporated with serological assays for screening of blood donors. PMID:27652363

  6. Identification and characterization of the major huperzine a metabolite in rat blood.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gregory E; Hicks, Rickey P; Skanchy, David; Moorad-Doctor, Deborah R; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Ved, Haresh S

    2004-01-01

    Huperzine A (Hup A) is under investigation as a treatment of Alzheimer's disease because of its properties of reversible and specific AChE inhibition. It has additional interesting pharmacological effects such as the protection of primary neuronal cells isolated from embryonic rat brains from glutamate-induced toxicity. We have isolated a new compound which has similar absorbance characteristics as Hup A from blood of rats administered Hup A. Monitoring the effluent from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of blood collected 60 min after Hup A treatment at an absorbance of 308 nm (lambdamax for Hup A), yielded a peak height and area for this compound that was approximately 1.4-fold the initial Hup A peak. The compound was isolated from RP-HPLC fractions from blood and liver for analysis by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The compound gave an (M+H)+ ion with m/z 259 in positive ion mode, yielding a molecular weight (MW) of 258. If derived from Hup A (MW 242), the change in MW indicates a mass gain of 16. This would be consistent with the addition of a single oxygen or a hydroxylation. To determine the location of the modification, it was examined by 1H NMR, and it was found that the added mass was due to a single epoxidation yielding 13,14-epoxy Hup-A. PMID:15239859

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline apatites from solution modeling human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodyankina, Anna; Nikolaev, Anton; Frank-Kamenetskaya, Olga; Golovanova, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Present paper is devoted to the research of the calcification processes in the blood plasma of human body. Spontaneous crystallization from the solution modeling the inorganic part of the blood plasma has been carried out. Obtained precipitates were studied by the various instrumental methods (X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and gas-volumetric method). All gathered data allow to summarize that nonstoichiometric carbonated hydroxyapatite with low crystallinity (CSD lengths 18-28 nm), high water content and small amount of chlorine ion was obtained throughout the syntheses. Part of vacancies at the Ca sites varies from 0.17 to 0.87; the value of the Cat/(P + C) ratio-from 1.52 to 1.64 (where Cat = Ca2+ + Na+ + K+ + Mg2+). The poor crystallized synthetic apatites with high carbonate ion content (from 4.34 to 5.54 wt%) and c parameter (6.888-6.894 Å) are analogues of the apatites of the pathological cardiovascular deposits. They can be obtained from the solution modeling human blood plasma by the inorganic components with calcium phosphate supersaturation 25 and 50 and with 10 and 12 weeks experiment time.

  8. Right Ventricular Hemodynamics in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, James; Fenster, Brett; Hertzberg, Jean; Schroeder, Joyce

    2012-11-01

    Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have allowed for characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV), including calculation of vorticity and circulation, and qualitative visual assessment of coherent flow patterns. In this study, we investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in right ventricular hemodynamics between subjects with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal controls. Fifteen (15) PH subjects and 10 age-matched controls underwent same day 3D time resolved CMR and echocardiography. Echocardiography was used to determine right ventricular diastolic function as well as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Velocity vectors, vorticity vectors, and streamlines in the RV were visualized in Paraview and total RV Early (E) and Atrial (A) wave diastolic vorticity was quantified. Visualizations of blood flow in the RV are presented for PH and normal subjects. The hypothesis that PH subjects exhibit different RV vorticity levels than normals during diastole is tested and the relationship between RV vorticity and PASP is explored. The mechanics of RV vortex formation are discussed within the context of pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular diastolic function coincident with PH.

  9. Microscopic polyangiitis associated with pleuropericarditis, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hemorrhage as a complication of silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rajhi, Amjad; Brega, Elisa Ferreira; Colman, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Silica (silicon dioxide) occupational exposure has been linked to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary toxicity. Silicosis is the major pulmonary toxicity, which has also been associated with the development of collagen-vascular disease and with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis, especially perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA). The most common pulmonary manifestations of microscopic polyangitis (MPA) are interstitial fibrosis and alveolar hemorrhage. We describe a patient who had unusual presentation of microscopic polyangitis, characterized by lung hemorrhage, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, pleuropericarditis and pulmonary embolism that was associated with a history of silica exposure and radiologic evidence for silicosis. PMID:26236617

  10. Pulmonary rehabilitation and exercise in pulmonary arterial hypertension: An underutilized intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Capozzi, Barbara; Iftikhar, Asma; Sgouras, Vasiliki; Ojrzanowski, Marcin; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and devastating disease characterized by progressive increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance which eventually leads to right ventricular failure and death. Early thought process was that exercise and increased physical activity may be detrimental to PAH patients however many small cohort trials have proven otherwise. In addition to the many pharmaceutical options, exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation have also been shown to increase exercise capacity as well as various aspects of psychosomatic health. As pulmonary and exercise rehabilitation become more widely used as an adjuvant therapy patient outcomes improve and physicians should consider this in the therapeutic algorithm along with pharmacotherapy. PMID:25960979

  11. Activity of α1-Antitrypsin and Some Lysosomal Enzymes in the Blood Serum of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease after Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Bartosz; Woźniak, Alina; Konca, Jacek; Górecki, Dariusz; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Sutkowy, Paweł; Wesołowski, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The activity of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and the lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin D (CTS D), arylsulfatase (ASA), and acid phosphatase, (AcP) was determined in patients with COPD (GOLD category A). Moreover, the diagnostic usefulness of these parameters in blood serum was assessed along with establishing whether smoking cessation affects these parameters. The study included 70 patients with COPD who ceased smoking (study group) and two control groups of 33 subjects each: nonsmokers without COPD (control I) and patients with COPD who continued smoking (control II). In control I, blood was taken once and in control II, at the start of the experiment and after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months. AAT in the patients exhibited higher activity than in the healthy subjects at all time points. AAT activity in the patients before the start of the experiment was ~80% higher (P < 0.001) than in control I. No statistically significant differences in CTS D, ASA, and AcP activity were found. COPD involves increased AAT activity and unchanged activities of the assessed lysosomal enzymes. Three-month tobacco abstinence does not affect these parameters in peripheral blood. Determining the AAT levels in blood serum can be used in the diagnostics of COPD. PMID:25802837

  12. In-Depth Comparative Characterization of Hemoglobin Glycation in Normal and Diabetic Bloods by LC-MSMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2014-05-01

    The glycation level at β-Val-1 of the hemoglobin β chain in human blood (HbA1c%) is used to diagnose diabetes and other diseases. However, hemoglobin glycation occurs on multiple sites on different isoforms with different kinetics, but its differential profile has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, hemoglobin was extracted from the blood of normal and diabetic individuals by protein precipitation. Triplicate solutions prepared from each sample were directly analyzed or digested with multiple enzymes and then analyzed by nano-LC/MS via bottom-up approach for side-by-side characterization. Intact hemoglobin analysis indicated a single glucose-dominant glycation, which showed good correlation with the HbA1c% values. Moreover, full sequence (100 %) of α/β globin was mapped and seven glycation sites were unambiguously assigned. In addition to β-Val-1, two other major sites at α-Lys-61 and β-Lys-66, which contain the common sequence HGK K, and four minor sites (<1 %) on α-Val-1, β-Lys-132, α-Lys-127, and α-Lys-40 were identified. All sites were shown to exhibit similar patterns of site distribution despite different glucose levels. Both the intact mass measurement and bottom-up data consistently indicated that the total glycation percentage of the β-globin was twice higher than the α-globin. Using molecular modeling, the 3D structure of the consensus sequence (HGK K) was shown to contain a phosphate triangle cavity, which helps to catalyze the glycation reaction. For the first time, hemoglobin glycation in normal and diabetic bloods was comparatively characterized in-depth with 100 % sequence coverage. The results provide insight about the HbA1c parameter and help define the new and old markers.

  13. Characterization of Adsorbents for Cytokine Removal from Blood in an In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Franz; Hartmann, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cytokines are basic targets that have to be removed effectively in order to improve the patient's health status in treating severe inflammation, sepsis, and septic shock. Although there are different adsorbents commercially available, the success of their clinical use is limited. Here, we tested different adsorbents for their effective removal of cytokines from plasma and the resulting effect on endothelial cell activation. Methods. The three polystyrene divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based adsorbents Amberchrom CG161c and CG300m and a clinically approved haemoperfusion adsorbent (HAC) were studied with regard to cytokine removal in human blood. To induce cytokine release from leucocytes, human blood cells were stimulated with 1 ng/ml LPS for 4 hours. Plasma was separated and adsorption experiments in a dynamic model were performed. The effect of cytokine removal on endothelial cell activation was evaluated using a HUVEC-based cell culture model. The beneficial outcome was assessed by measuring ICAM-1, E-selectin, and secreted cytokines IL-8 and IL-6. Additionally the threshold concentration for HUVEC activation by TNF-α and IL-1β was determined using this cell culture model. Results. CG161c showed promising results in removing the investigated cytokines. Due to its pore size the adsorbent efficiently removed the key factor TNF-α, outperforming the commercially available adsorbents. The CG161c treatment reduced cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules by HUVEC which underlines the importance of effective removal of TNF-α in inflammatory diseases. Conclusion. These results confirm the hypothesis that cytokine removal from the blood should approach physiological levels in order to reduce endothelial cell activation. PMID:26770992

  14. Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response during Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Global Gene Expression by Staphylococcus aureus in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    den Reijer, Paul Martijn; Lemmens-den Toom, Nicole; Kant, Samantha; Snijders, Susan V.; Boelens, Hélène; Tavakol, Mehri; Verkaik, Nelianne J.; van Belkum, Alex; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Wamel, Willem J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to develop an efficient anti-staphylococcal vaccine in humans have so far been unsuccessful. Therefore, more knowledge of the antigens that are expressed by Staphylococcus aureus in human blood and induce an immune response in patients is required. In this study we further characterize the serial levels of IgG and IgA antibodies against 56 staphylococcal antigens in multiple serum samples of 21 patients with a S. aureus bacteremia, compare peak IgG levels between patients and 30 non-infected controls, and analyze the expression of 3626 genes by two genetically distinct isolates in human blood. The serum antibody levels were measured using a bead-based flow cytometry technique (xMAP®, Luminex corporation). Gene expression levels were analyzed using a microarray (BµG@s microarray). The initial levels and time taken to reach peak IgG and IgA antibody levels were heterogeneous in bacteremia patients. The antigen SA0688 was associated with the highest median initial-to-peak antibody fold-increase for IgG (5.05-fold) and the second highest increase for IgA (2.07-fold). Peak IgG levels against 27 antigens, including the antigen SA0688, were significantly elevated in bacteremia patients versus controls (P≤0.05). Expression of diverse genes, including SA0688, was ubiquitously high in both isolates at all time points during incubation in blood. However, only a limited number of genes were specifically up- or downregulated in both isolates when cultured in blood, compared to the start of incubation in blood or during incubation in BHI broth. In conclusion, most staphylococcal antigens tested in this study, including many known virulence factors, do not induce uniform increases in the antibody levels in bacteremia patients. In addition, the expression of these antigens by S. aureus is not significantly altered by incubation in human blood over time. One immunogenic and ubiquitously expressed antigen is the putative iron-regulated ABC transporter SA0688. PMID

  15. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Mun; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2008-07-28

    Members of Norovirus, a genus in the family Caliciviridae, are causative agents of epidemic diarrhea in humans. Susceptibility to several noroviruses is linked to human histo-blood type, and its determinant histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are regarded as receptors for these viruses. Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to genogroup II noroviruses that exhibit a more diverse HBGA binding pattern. To understand the structural basis for how HBGAs interact with the NV capsid protein, and how the specificity is achieved, we carried out x-ray crystallographic analysis of the capsid protein domain by itself and in complex with A- and H-type HBGA at a resolution of {approx}1.4 {angstrom}. Despite differences in their carbohydrate sequence and linkage, both HBGAs bind to the same surface-exposed site in the capsid protein and project outward from the capsid surface, substantiating their possible role in initiating cell attachment. Precisely juxtaposed polar side chains that engage the sugar hydroxyls in a cooperative hydrogen bonding and a His/Trp pair involved in a cation-p interaction contribute to selective and specific recognition of A- and H-type HBGAs. This unique binding epitope, confirmed by mutational analysis, is highly conserved, but only in the genogroup I noroviruses, suggesting that a mechanism by which noroviruses infect broader human populations is by evolving different sites with altered HBGA specificities.

  16. Effectiveness of Multiple Blood-Cleansing Interventions in Sepsis, Characterized in Rats.

    PubMed

    Stojkovic, Ivan; Ghalwash, Mohamed; Cao, Xi Hang; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening condition that presents a growing problem in medicine, but there is still no satisfying solution for treating it. Several blood cleansing approaches recently gained attention as promising interventions that target the main site of problem development-the blood. The focus of this study is an evaluation of the theoretical effectiveness of hemoadsorption therapy and pathogen reduction therapy. This is evaluated using the mathematical model of Murine sepsis, and the results of over 2,200 configurations of single and multiple intervention therapies simulated on 5,000 virtual subjects suggest the advantage of pathogen reduction over hemoadsorption therapy. However, a combination of two approaches is found to take advantage of their complementary effects and outperform either therapy alone. The conducted computational experiments provide unprecedented evidence that the combination of two therapies synergistically enhances the positive effects beyond the simple superposition of the benefits of two approaches. Such a characteristic could have a profound influence on the way sepsis treatment is conducted.

  17. Surface-emitting superconductor laser spectroscopy for characterizing normal and sickled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Meissner, K.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Gourley, M.F.

    1995-02-01

    We have developed a new intracavity laser technique that uses a living or a fixed cell as an integral component of the laser. The cells are placed on an AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting semiconductor wafer and covered with a glass dielectric mirror to form a laser resonator. In this arrangement, the cells serve as optical waveguides (or lens elements) to confine (or focus) light generated in the resonator by the semiconductor. Because of the high transparency, the cells aid the lasing process to generate laser light. This ultra sensitive laser provides a novel imaging/spectroscopic technique for histologic examination which we demonstrate with normal and sickled human red blood cells. Extremely high contrast microscopic images of the cells are observed near 830-850 nm. These images correspond to electromagnetic modes of cell structures and are sensitive to shape of the cell. Using a high resolution spectrometer, we resolve the light emitted from these images into very narrow spectral peaks associated with the lasing modes. Analysis of the spectra reveals that the distribution of peaks is quite different for normal and sickled red blood cells. This technique, in a more developed form, may be useful for the rapid analysis of other kinds of normal and abnormal cells.

  18. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Frolova, A. Y.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of "International Society for Extracellular Vesicles". The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  19. Effectiveness of Multiple Blood-Cleansing Interventions in Sepsis, Characterized in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovic, Ivan; Ghalwash, Mohamed; Cao, Xi Hang; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening condition that presents a growing problem in medicine, but there is still no satisfying solution for treating it. Several blood cleansing approaches recently gained attention as promising interventions that target the main site of problem development–the blood. The focus of this study is an evaluation of the theoretical effectiveness of hemoadsorption therapy and pathogen reduction therapy. This is evaluated using the mathematical model of Murine sepsis, and the results of over 2,200 configurations of single and multiple intervention therapies simulated on 5,000 virtual subjects suggest the advantage of pathogen reduction over hemoadsorption therapy. However, a combination of two approaches is found to take advantage of their complementary effects and outperform either therapy alone. The conducted computational experiments provide unprecedented evidence that the combination of two therapies synergistically enhances the positive effects beyond the simple superposition of the benefits of two approaches. Such a characteristic could have a profound influence on the way sepsis treatment is conducted. PMID:27097769

  20. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  1. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  2. Pulmonary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R; Turk, E P

    1980-09-01

    Two cases are reported of the incidental finding of pulmonary schistosomiasis in the victims of a fatal aircraft accident. The presence of this disease had no bearing on the causation of the accident, but it gives insight into the potential hazards of dissemination of diseases by travellers. The finding also emphasises the value of routine postmortems and histology in all aircraft accident victims.

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  4. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... an increased chance of blood clotting, including: Antiphospholipid antibodies Genetic testing to look for changes that make you more likely to develop blood clots Lupus anticoagulant Protein C and protein S levels

  5. The Transcriptional Signature of Active Tuberculosis Reflects Symptom Status in Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Blankley, Simon; Graham, Christine M.; Turner, Jacob; Berry, Matthew P. R.; Bloom, Chloe I.; Xu, Zhaohui; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Breen, Ronan; Santis, George; Blankenship, Derek M.; Lipman, Marc; O’Garra, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Gene-expression microarray studies profiling the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis (TB) patients have been undertaken in order to better understand the host immune response as well as to identify potential biomarkers of disease. To date most of these studies have focused on pulmonary TB patients with gene-expression profiles of extra-pulmonary TB patients yet to be compared to those of patients with pulmonary TB or sarcoidosis. Methods A novel cohort of patients with extra-pulmonary TB and sarcoidosis was recruited and the transcriptional response of these patients compared to those with pulmonary TB using a variety of transcriptomic approaches including testing a previously defined 380 gene meta-signature of active TB. Results The 380 meta-signature broadly differentiated active TB from healthy controls in this new dataset consisting of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The top 15 genes from this meta-signature had a lower sensitivity for differentiating extra-pulmonary TB from healthy controls as compared to pulmonary TB. We found the blood transcriptional responses in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB to be heterogeneous and to reflect the extent of symptoms of disease. Conclusions The transcriptional signature in extra-pulmonary TB demonstrated heterogeneity of gene expression reflective of symptom status, while the signature of pulmonary TB was distinct, based on a higher proportion of symptomatic individuals. These findings are of importance for the rational design and implementation of mRNA based TB diagnostics. PMID:27706152

  6. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    PubMed

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  7. Disrupted pulmonary vascular development and pulmonary hypertension in transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Le Cras, Timothy D; Hardie, William D; Fagan, Karen; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2003-11-01

    Pulmonary vascular disease plays a major role in morbidity and mortality in infant and adult lung diseases in which increased levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and its receptor EGFR have been associated. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of TGF-alpha disrupts pulmonary vascular development and causes pulmonary hypertension. Lung-specific expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice was driven with the human surfactant protein (SP)-C promoter. Pulmonary arteriograms and arterial counts show that pulmonary vascular development was severely disrupted in TGF-alpha mice. TGF-alpha mice developed severe pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling characterized by abnormally extensive muscularization of small pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary vascular development was significantly improved and pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling were prevented in bi-transgenic mice expressing both TGF-alpha and a dominant-negative mutant EGF receptor under the control of the SP-C promoter. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), an important angiogenic factor produced by the distal epithelium, was decreased in the lungs of TGF-alpha adults and in the lungs of infant TGF-alpha mice before detectable abnormalities in pulmonary vascular development. Hence, overexpression of TGF-alpha caused severe pulmonary vascular disease, which was mediated through EGFR signaling in distal epithelial cells. Reductions in VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease in TGF-alpha mice.

  8. Influence of disease severity on nitrite and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

    PubMed Central

    Dlugovitzky, D; Bay, M L; Rateni, L; Fiorenza, G; Vietti, L; Farroni, M A; Bottasso, O A

    2000-01-01

    Earlier studies in patients with pulmonary TB have revealed a higher production of Th1 cell type cytokines in moderate TB, with predominant Th2-like responses in advanced disease. Given the influence of IL-12 in T cell differentiation, as well as the roles of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the immune response against intracellular pathogens, we decided to analyse the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-12, TGF-β, TNF-α and nitrite concentrations in culture supernatants of PBMC from TB patients showing different degrees of lung involvement. The sample population comprised 18 untreated TB patients with either moderate (n = 9) or advanced (n = 9) disease and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (total population (patients and controls) 12 women, 18 men, aged 37 ± 13 years (mean ±s.d.)). PBMC were stimulated with whole sonicate from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the supernatants were collected on day 4 for measurement of cytokine and nitrite levels. Antigen-stimulated IFN-γ, TGF-β and TNF-α production was found to be significantly increased in TB patients, both moderate and advanced, compared with the controls. Levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher in moderate disease than advanced cases, whereas advanced cases showed significantly higher IL-12, TGF-β and TNF-α concentrations when compared with cases of moderate TB. Nitrite levels were also increased in TB patients and the increase was statistically significant when advanced cases were compared with controls. These findings may contribute to a clearer picture of the net effect of cytokine interactions in TB, essential for a better understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms underlying the distinct clinical forms of the disease. PMID:11122239

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  10. The Pathobiology of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Irene M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a late sequel of venous thromboembolism that cannot be completely reproduced in animal models. The prevalence of CTEPH in humans is estimated at roughly 17-20 per million; however, partly because up to 50% of patients with CTEPH never experience symptomatic pulmonary embolism, precise numbers on the incidence and prevalence are not known. Because CTEPH is diagnosed at a median age of 63 years in patients who often have other concomitant cardiovascular disease or lung disease, assessment of pathophysiology in patients can be challenging, We do know that CTEPH is a dual vascular disorder. Stenoses, webs, and occlusions predominate in large and medium-sized pulmonary arteries at the sites of previous pulmonary emboli. A "secondary vasculopathy" resembling the pulmonary arteriopathy encountered in other forms of pulmonary hypertension predominates in low-resistance vessels. Anastomoses between bronchial artery branches and precapillary pulmonary arterioles appear during evolution of the disease. Other acquired vascular connections between bronchial arteries and pulmonary veins may trigger venous remodeling. Current concepts regarding the pathophysiology of CTEPH include contributions of hyperactive coagulation (e.g., high coagulation factor VIII, combined coagulation defects, dysfibrinogenemias), insufficient anticoagulation, non-O blood groups, and misguided thrombus resolution (e.g., infection, inflammation, dysfunctional innate immunity, abnormal circulating phospholipids). Current research focuses on the question as to whether a genetic predisposition leads to misguided vascular healing after pulmonary thromboembolism in susceptible individuals. PMID:27571003

  11. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P.; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D.; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake) with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]). Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction) in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6), overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown), including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17), ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22), and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears): including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8) and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9), and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21). With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the Diet

  12. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

    PubMed

    Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake) with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]). Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction) in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6), overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown), including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17), ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22), and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears): including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8) and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9), and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21). With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the Diet

  13. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Mara-Koosham, Gopi; Stoltze, Karl; Aday, Jeffrey; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids. PMID:27231692

  14. Perfusion visualization and analysis for pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Michael S.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2005-04-01

    Given the nature of pulmonary embolism (PE), timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. Contrast enhanced high-resolution CT images allow physicians to accurately identify segmental and sub-segmental emboli. However, it is also important to assess the effect of such emboli on the blood flow in the lungs. Expanding upon previous research, we propose a method for 3D visualization of lung perfusion. The proposed method allows users to examine perfusion throughout the entire lung volume at a single glance, with areas of diminished perfusion highlighted so that they are visible independent of the viewing location. This may be particularly valuable for better accuracy in assessing the extent of hemodynamic alterations resulting from pulmonary emboli. The method also facilitates user interaction and may help identify small peripheral sub-segmental emboli otherwise overlooked. 19 patients referred for possible PE were evaluated by CT following the administration of IV contrast media. An experienced thoracic radiologist assessed the 19 datasets with 17 diagnosed as being positive for PE with multiple emboli. Since anomalies in lung perfusion due to PE can alter the distribution of parenchymal densities, we analyzed features collected from histograms of the computed perfusion maps and demonstrate their potential usefulness as a preliminary test to suggest the presence of PE. These histogram features also offer the possibility of distinguishing distinct patterns associated with chronic PE and may even be useful for further characterization of changes in perfusion or overall density resulting from associated conditions such as pneumonia or diffuse lung disease.

  15. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  16. Characterization of the cation-binding capacity of a potassium-adsorption filter used in red blood cell transfusion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takao; Muto, Shigeaki; Miyata, Yukio; Maeda, Takao; Odate, Takayuki; Shimanaka, Kimio; Kusano, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    A K(+) -adsorption filter was developed to exchange K(+) in the supernatant of stored irradiated red blood cells with Na(+) . To date, however, the filter's adsorption capacity for K(+) has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, we characterized the cation-binding capacity of this filter. Artificial solutions containing various cations were continuously passed through the filter in 30 mL of sodium polystyrene sulfonate at 10 mL/min using an infusion pump at room temperature. The cation concentrations were measured before and during filtration. When a single solution containing K(+) , Li(+) , H(+) , Mg(2+) , Ca(2+) , or Al(3+) was continuously passed through the filter, the filter adsorbed K(+) and the other cations in exchange for Na(+) in direct proportion to the valence number. The order of affinity for cation adsorption to the filter was Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >K(+) >H(+) >Li(+) . In K(+) -saturated conditions, the filter also adsorbed Na(+) . After complete adsorption of these cations on the filter, their concentration in the effluent increased in a sigmoidal manner over time. Cations that were bound to the filter were released if a second cation was passed through the filter, despite the different affinities of the two cations. The ability of the filter to bind cations, especially K(+) , should be helpful when it is used for red blood cell transfusion at the bedside. The filter may also be useful to gain a better understanding of the pharmacological properties of sodium polystyrene sulfonate.

  17. The Characterization of Varicella Zoster Virus Specific T Cells In Skin and Blood During Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vukmanovic-Stejic, Milica; Sandhu, Daisy; Seidel, Judith A.; Patel, Neil; Sobande, Toni O.; Agius, Elaine; Jackson, Sarah E.; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Mabbott, Neil A.; Lacy, Katie E.; Ogg, Graham; Nestle, Frank O; Krueger, James G.; Rustin, Malcolm H.A.; Akbar, Arne N.

    2015-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) re-activation increases during ageing. Although the effects of VZV re-activation are observed in the skin (shingles) the number or functional capacity of cutaneous VZV specific T cells have not been investigated. The numbers of circulating IFN-γ secreting VZV specific CD4+ T cells are significantly decreased in old subjects however other measures of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells, including proliferative capacity to VZV antigen stimulation and identification of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells with a MHC class II tetramer (epitope of IE-63 protein), were similar in both age groups. The majority of T cells in the skin of both age groups expressed CD69, a characteristic of skin resident T cells. VZV-specific CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the skin compared to the blood in young and old subjects and their function was similar in both age groups. In contrast the number of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 on CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the skin of older humans. Therefore VZV-specific CD4+ T cells in the skin of older individuals are functionally competent. However their activity may be restricted by multiple inhibitory influences in situ. PMID:25734814

  18. Bioinformatic Characterization of Genes and Proteins Involved in Blood Clotting in Lampreys.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2015-10-01

    Lampreys and hagfish are the earliest diverging of extant vertebrates and are obvious targets for investigating the origins of complex biochemical systems found in mammals. Currently, the simplest approach for such inquiries is to search for the presence of relevant genes in whole genome sequence (WGS) assemblies. Unhappily, in the past a high-quality complete genome sequence has not been available for either lampreys or hagfish, precluding the possibility of proving gene absence. Recently, improved but still incomplete genome assemblies for two species of lamprey have been posted, and, taken together with an extensive collection of short sequences in the NCBI trace archive, they have made it possible to make reliable counts for specific gene families. Particularly, a multi-source tactic has been used to study the lamprey blood clotting system with regard to the presence and absence of genes known to occur in higher vertebrates. As was suggested in earlier studies, lampreys lack genes for coagulation factors VIII and IX, both of which are critical for the "intrinsic" clotting system and responsible for hemophilia in humans. On the other hand, they have three each of genes for factors VII and X, participants in the "extrinsic" clotting system. The strategy of using raw trace sequence "reads" together with partial WGS assemblies for lampreys can be used in studies on the early evolution of other biochemical systems in vertebrates.

  19. Characterization of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by calorimetric analysis of blood serum proteome.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Francisca; Cerdà, Joan J; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Durán, M Antonia; Novo, Andrés; Ros, Teresa; Sampol, Antonia; Portugal, José

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant proliferative disorder that may progress to multiple myeloma, a malignant plasma cell neoplasia. We evaluated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as an experimental tool for differentiating serum samples of MGUS patients from healthy individuals. DSC thermograms can be used for monitoring changes in the serum proteome associated with MGUS. MGUS patients showed great variability in serum thermogram characteristics, which depended on the IgG, IgA or IgM isotypes and/or the κ or λ light chains. Thermogram feature parameters distinguished patients with MGUS from healthy people. Serum samples, named as non-MGUS, were also collected from patients with subjacent immunological pathologies who were discarded of having MGUS through serum immunofixation. They were used to verify the sensitivity of DSC for discriminating MGUS from related blood dyscrasias. Only some DSC thermogram feature parameters differentiated, to a lesser extent, between MGUS and non-MGUS individuals. We contemplate DSC as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of MGUS.

  20. Characterization of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance by Calorimetric Analysis of Blood Serum Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Francisca; Cerdà, Joan J.; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Durán, M. Antonia; Novo, Andrés; Ros, Teresa; Sampol, Antonia; Portugal, José

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant proliferative disorder that may progress to multiple myeloma, a malignant plasma cell neoplasia. We evaluated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as an experimental tool for differentiating serum samples of MGUS patients from healthy individuals. DSC thermograms can be used for monitoring changes in the serum proteome associated with MGUS. MGUS patients showed great variability in serum thermogram characteristics, which depended on the IgG, IgA or IgM isotypes and/or the κ or λ light chains. Thermogram feature parameters distinguished patients with MGUS from healthy people. Serum samples, named as non-MGUS, were also collected from patients with subjacent immunological pathologies who were discarded of having MGUS through serum immunofixation. They were used to verify the sensitivity of DSC for discriminating MGUS from related blood dyscrasias. Only some DSC thermogram feature parameters differentiated, to a lesser extent, between MGUS and non-MGUS individuals. We contemplate DSC as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of MGUS. PMID:25794164

  1. Ceramides as possible nutraceutical compounds: characterization of the ceramides of the Moro blood orange ( Citrus sinensis ).

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Manuela; Mauri, Laura; Casellato, Riccardo; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Sonnino, Sandro

    2012-10-10

    Ceramides are presented as nutraceutical compounds for protection of colon carcinoma and as important cosmetic preparation components, increasing absorption through the skin. Therefore, the ceramide (Cer) content of Moro blood oranges was determined by mass spectrometry. A total of 114 Cer species were identified: ∼160 mg in the peels and ∼140 mg in the pulp per kilogram of oranges, expressed as "milligram equivalents of d18:1,17:0 Cer". The predominant ceramides contained 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(Δ8)) and 4-hydroxysphinganine (t18:0) as long-chain bases (LCBs) and fatty acids (FAs) with different structures. In the pulp, t18:1(Δ8)- and t18:0-containing Cer species comprised 50.5 and 33.5% of the total, respectively, 11.5 and 3.5% non-hydroxylated FAs, respectively, 32.0 and 21.0% α-hydroxylated FAs, respectively, and 7.0 and 9.0% α,β-hydroxylated FAs, respectively. In the peels, t18:1(Δ8)- and t18:0-containing species comprised 49.5 and 34.5% of the total, respectively, 16.0 and 1.5% non-hydroxylated FAs, respectively, 31.5 and 29.0% α-hydroxylated FAs, respectively, and 2.0 and 4.0% α,β-hydroxylated FAs, respectively.

  2. Cloning, characterization and localization of CHS gene from blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xu; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, a full-length DNA of CHS gene (named as CsCHS-bo) was cloned from the blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby. The gene was 1,512 bp in size containing an open reading frame (1,176 bp) encoding 391 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced protein of CsCHS-bo was highly homologous to CHS from other plant species. The protein of CsCHS-bo had four CHS-specific conserved motifs and a CHS-family signature sequence GFGPG. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein of CsCHS-bo was in a subgroup with CHS of Ruta Palmatum. The CsCHS-bo was localized to the chromosomes 2p, 4p and 6p by an improved fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, indicating that at least three copies of CsCHS-bo were present in the genome.

  3. Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features. PMID:23168065

  4. Breath Analysis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Tonelli, Adriano R.; Barnes, Jarrod; Paschke, Kelly; Newman, Jennie; Grove, David; Dababneh, Luma; Wang, Sihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and devastating condition characterized by vascular cell proliferation and is associated with several metabolic derangements. We hypothesized that metabolic derangements in PAH can be detected by measuring metabolic by-products in exhaled breath. Methods: We collected breath and blood samples from patients with PAH at the time of right-sided heart catheterization (n = 31) and from healthy control subjects (n = 34). Breath was analyzed by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry in predetermined training and validation cohorts. Results: Patients with PAH were 51.5 ± 14 years old, and 27 were women (85%). Control subjects were 38 ± 13 years old, and 22 were women (65%). Discriminant analysis in the training set identified three ion peaks (H3O+29+, NO+56+, and O2+98+) and the variable age that correctly classified 88.9% of the individuals. In an independent validation cohort, 82.8% of the individuals were classified correctly. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds 2-propanol, acetaldehyde, ammonia, ethanol, pentane, 1-decene, 1-octene, and 2-nonene were different in patients with PAH compared with control subjects. Exhaled ammonia was higher in patients with PAH (median [interquartile range]: 94.7 parts per billion (ppb) [70-129 ppb] vs 60.9 ppb [46-77 ppb], P < .001) and was associated with right atrial pressure (ρ = 0.57, P < .001), mean pulmonary artery pressure (ρ = 0.43, P = .015), cardiac index by thermodilution (ρ = −0.39, P = .03), pulmonary vascular resistance (ρ = 0.40, P = .04), mixed venous oxygen (ρ = −0.59, P < .001), and right ventricular dilation (ρ = 0.42, P = .03). Conclusions: Breathprint is different between patients with PAH and healthy control subjects. Several specific compounds, including ammonia, were elevated in the breath of patients with PAH. Exhaled ammonia levels correlated with severity of disease. PMID:24091389

  5. Characterization of a human blood monocyte subset with low peroxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Y; Miller, P J; Thurman, G B; Neubauer, R H; Oliver, C; Favilla, T; Beman, J A; Oldham, R K; Stevenson, H C

    1983-01-01

    Two human monocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of healthy donors have been isolated in greater than 90% purity by countercurrent centrifugal elutration and human serum albumin gradients and their functional capabilities have been assessed. We have demonstrated that one subset ("regular" monocytes, RM) showed intense cytoplasmic peroxidase staining and contained substantial peroxidase activity. In contrast, another subset ("intermediate" monocytes, IM) stained poorly for peroxidase and had low peroxidase activity. By electron microscopic analysis combined with peroxidase localization, it was found that IM had fewer peroxidase-positive granules per cell than did RM. IM coelutriated with some lymphocytes and by cell sizing analysis were shown to be slightly smaller than RM. Functional and cytochemical analysis of these subsets indicated that IM had less activity than RM in assays such as accessory cell function for mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and that fewer IM expressed OKM1 antigen and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) receptors on their membranes than did RM. The subset of IM not bearing either the PWM receptor or the OKM1 antigen had very low peroxidase activity. IM also were found to have a greater sensitivity to polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidilic acid (100 micrograms/ml)-induced secretion of interferon. There was no significant difference in the phagocytic capability, the percentage of Fc receptor-positive cells, 5'-nucleotidase activity, DR antigen expression, or the responsiveness to migration inhibitory factor of IM as compared with RM. Furthermore, it was found that the ratio of IM to RM increased after prolonged cytapheresis, which suggests that IM are more mobilizable than RM from the extravascular reservoirs of human monocytes. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:6193141

  6. Characterization of the equine blood-testis barrier during tubular development in normal and cryptorchid stallions.

    PubMed

    Rode, K; Sieme, H; Richterich, P; Brehm, R

    2015-09-15

    The formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is defined as occurring with the first appearance of spermatocytes at around puberty and is vital for normal spermatogenesis. This barrier between two adjacent Sertoli cells (SCs) consists of a cell junctional protein complex, which includes tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions, and gap junctions. In many mammalian species, BTB composition has already been investigated, whereas little is known about the equine BTB. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and qualitative Western Blot analysis were used to assess the expression and distribution patterns of the junctional proteins claudin-11 (TJ), zonula occludens-1 (TJ associated), N-cadherin (adherens junctions), and connexin 43 (gap junctions) in equine testes during tubular development and in testes of stallions exhibiting unilateral cryptorchidism. Therefore, testes of 21 warmblood stallions (aged 12 months-11 years) were obtained during routine surgical castration. In the normal adult equine testis, the junctional proteins are localized at the basolateral region of the seminiferous tubules forming a circumferential seal corresponding to the known BTB localization. N-cadherin is additionally expressed along the lateral SC surface. In immature seminiferous cords still lacking a lumen, a diffuse distribution pattern of the junctional proteins throughout the SC cytoplasm is visible. As lumen formation advances, the immunolocalization shifts progressively toward the basolateral SC membranes. Additionally, apoptotic germ cells were detected and quantified in prepubertal stallions using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and correlated with junctional protein localization. In the retained testis of cryptorchid stallions, which exhibit an aberrant testicular morphology, a deviating expression of the junctional proteins is visible. The present data show for the first time that (1) the equine SC junctional complex contains claudin-11

  7. Automated characterization of blood vessels as arteries and veins in retinal images.

    PubMed

    Mirsharif, Qazaleh; Tajeripour, Farshad; Pourreza, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that alternations in arterial or venular tree of the retinal vasculature are associated with several public health problems such as diabetic retinopathy which is also the leading cause of blindness in the world. A prerequisite for automated assessment of subtle changes in arteries and veins, is to accurately separate those vessels from each other. This is a difficult task due to high similarity between arteries and veins in addition to variation of color and non-uniform illumination inter and intra retinal images. In this paper a novel structural and automated method is presented for artery/vein classification of blood vessels in retinal images. The proposed method consists of three main steps. In the first step, several image enhancement techniques are employed to improve the images. Then a specific feature extraction process is applied to separate major arteries from veins. Indeed, vessels are divided to smaller segments and feature extraction and vessel classification are applied to each small vessel segment instead of each vessel point. Finally, a post processing step is added to improve the results obtained from the previous step using structural characteristics of the retinal vascular network. In the last stage, vessel features at intersection and bifurcation points are processed for detection of arterial and venular sub trees. Ultimately vessel labels are revised by publishing the dominant label through each identified connected tree of arteries or veins. Evaluation of the proposed approach against two different datasets of retinal images including DRIVE database demonstrates the good performance and robustness of the method. The proposed method may be used for determination of arteriolar to venular diameter ratio in retinal images. Also the proposed method potentially allows for further investigation of labels of thinner arteries and veins which might be found by tracing them back to the major vessels.

  8. [Pulmonary melioidosis].

    PubMed

    Perret, J L; Vidal, D; Thibault, F

    1998-12-01

    Melioidosis is most frequently encountered in pulmonary localization. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei first described by Whitmore in 1912 in Burma. B. pseudomallei is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. Soil and water are the natural reservoirs for the germ which is a specific pathogen for several mammal species. Long endemic in Southeast Asia and several tropical zones, B. pseudomallei has recently been found in temperate zones, including France. Human contamination occurs via the transcutaneous route and often leads to dormant inapparent infection. Many conditions, such as diabetes, renal lithiasis, various circumstances of immunodepression or stress, facilitate clinical manifestations which vary greatly. Pulmonary manifestations may be acute and extensive, producing a torpid pseudo-tuberculous condition or a variety of clinical and radiological features mimicking other diseases. Bacteriological and serological tests may be negative. Exposure in an endemic zone, the notion of a favorable context, weight loss, cavitary images on successive chest x-rays and the presence of extra-pulmonary localizations may be suggestive. Ceftazidime or the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination are indicated, but mortality in acute forms still reaches 40%. Relapse can be expected if the treatment duration is too short. PMID:10100350

  9. Preparation of budesonide nanosuspensions for pulmonary delivery: Characterization, in vitro release and in vivo lung distribution studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present article was to prepare stable and well-dispersible budesonide (BUD) nanosuspensions by microfluidizer method. The morphology, particle size, and zeta potential of formulation were investigated and in vitro release and in vivo lung distribution were evaluated. Characterizations showed that BUD nanosuspensions were spherical in shape with a smooth surface. The measured average particle size was 122.5 ± 6.3 nm, and ζ potential was - 13.6 ± 0.4 mV. In vitro release behavior of three batches BUD nanosuspensions had a good reproduction. The deposition distribution of BUD different formulations was measured using a modified multi-stage liquid collision method. The data showed that BUD nanosuspensions have the most outstanding deposition distribution with fine particle ratio 82.2%. Compared with normal particle and micronized particles, nanosuspensions were easier to be distributed in lung. After inhalation of 1 h, the drug concentration can reach 872.9 ng/g, which was extremely significantly different from normal particles (p < 0.01) and significantly different from micronized particles (p < 0.05).

  10. Two-stage operation for isolated pulmonary valve infectious endocarditis with Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wataru; Hirate, Yuichi; Ito, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Osamu

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of isolated pulmonary infectious endocarditis (IE) with Candida parapsilosis. A 66-year-old man presented with fever and cough. Echocardiography showed severe pulmonary regurgitation and vegetations on the pulmonary valves. Initially, antibiotics were prescribed against bacterial IE, and the vegetations disappeared; however, the pulmonary vegetations relapsed, and C. parapsilosis was grown from blood cultures. We performed a debridement without a pulmonary valve replacement. There was no recurrence of IE for 3 years, and then the patient developed right ventricular enlargement and severe tricuspid regurgitation due to severe pulmonary regurgitation. Pulmonary valve replacement was performed. Now the patient is free from infection.

  11. Two-stage operation for isolated pulmonary valve infectious endocarditis with Candida parapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Wataru; Hirate, Yuichi; Ito, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of isolated pulmonary infectious endocarditis (IE) with Candida parapsilosis. A 66-year-old man presented with fever and cough. Echocardiography showed severe pulmonary regurgitation and vegetations on the pulmonary valves. Initially, antibiotics were prescribed against bacterial IE, and the vegetations disappeared; however, the pulmonary vegetations relapsed, and C. parapsilosis was grown from blood cultures. We performed a debridement without a pulmonary valve replacement. There was no recurrence of IE for 3 years, and then the patient developed right ventricular enlargement and severe tricuspid regurgitation due to severe pulmonary regurgitation. Pulmonary valve replacement was performed. Now the patient is free from infection. PMID:23633559

  12. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  13. Comparison of computed tomography pulmonary angiography and point-of-care tests for pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Goggs, R; Chan, D L; Benigni, L; Hirst, C; Kellett-Gregory, L; Fuentes, V L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of CT pulmonary angiography for identification of naturally occurring pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs using predefined diagnostic criteria and to assess the ability of echocardiography, cardiac troponins, D-dimers and kaolin-activated thromboelastography to predict the presence of pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs. Methods Twelve dogs with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and evidence of respiratory distress were prospectively evaluated. Dogs were sedated immediately before CT pulmonary angiography using intravenous butorphanol. Spiral CT pulmonary angiography was performed with a 16 detector-row CT scanner using a pressure injector to infuse contrast media through peripheral intravenous catheters. Pulmonary thromboembolism was diagnosed using predefined criteria. Contemporaneous tests included echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, kaolin-activated thromboelastography, D-dimers and cardiac troponins. Results Based on predefined criteria, four dogs were classified as pulmonary thromboembolism positive, three dogs were suspected to have pulmonary thromboembolism and the remaining five dogs had negative scans. The four dogs identified with pulmonary thromboembolism all had discrete filling defects in main or lobar pulmonary arteries. None of the contemporaneous tests was discriminant for pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis, although the small sample size was limiting. Clinical Significance CT pulmonary angiography can be successfully performed in dogs under sedation, even in at-risk patients with respiratory distress and can both confirm and rule out pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs. PMID:24521253

  14. Characterization of Human Endogenous Retroviral Elements in the Blood of HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Contreras-Galindo, Angie C.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Giusti, Fabiola; Lorenzo, Eric; Gitlin, Scott D.; Dosik, Michael H.; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported finding the RNA of a type K human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K (HML-2), at high titers in the plasma of HIV-1-infected and cancer patients (R. Contreras-Galindo et al., J. Virol. 82:9329–9236, 2008.). The extent to which the HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses become activated and the nature of their activated viral RNAs remain important questions. Therefore, we amplified and sequenced the full-length RNA of the env gene of the type 1 and 2 HERV-K (HML-2) viruses collected from the plasma of seven HIV-1-infected patients over a period of 1 to 3 years and from five breast cancer patients in order to reconstruct the genetic evolution of these viruses. HERV-K (HML-2) RNA was found in plasma fractions of HIV-1 patients at a density of ∼1.16 g/ml that contained both immature and correctly processed HERV-K (HML-2) proteins and virus-like particles that were recognized by anti-HERV-K (HML-2) antibodies. RNA sequences from novel HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses were discovered, including K111, which is specifically active during HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA arose from complete proviruses and proviruses devoid of a 5′ long terminal repeat, suggesting that the expression of HERV-K (HML-2) RNA in these patients may involve sense and antisense transcription. In HIV-1-infected individuals, the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNA showed evidence of frequent recombination, accumulation of synonymous rather than nonsynonymous mutations, and conserved N-glycosylation sites, suggesting that some of the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNAs have undergone reverse transcription and are under purifying selection. In contrast, HERV-K (HML-2) RNA sequences found in the blood of breast cancer patients showed no evidence of recombination and exhibited only sporadic viral mutations. This study suggests that HERV-K (HML-2) is active in HIV-1-infected patients, and the resulting RNA message reveals previously undiscovered HERV-K (HML-2) genomic sequences. PMID:22031938

  15. Physicochemical characterization of human S-protein and its function in the blood coagulation system.

    PubMed Central

    Preissner, K T; Wassmuth, R; Müller-Berghaus, G

    1985-01-01

    S-protein, the main inhibitor of the assembly of the membrane attack complex of complement, was isolated from human plasma by a simple purification procedure, which includes barium citrate adsorption, ammonium sulphate precipitation, chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and Blue Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The homogeneous protein (sedimentation coefficient 4.6 S) was obtained in approx. 5% yield relative to its concentration in plasma, which was found to be 0.3-0.5 mg/ml. The final product did not cross-react with antisera against complement proteins or other proteinase inhibitors of human plasma. On polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, S-protein migrated as a single-chain band with an apparent Mr of 74000 under non-reducing conditions and as a doublet of Mr 78000 and 65000 upon reduction. In plasma or serum S-protein also existed in two forms of corresponding Mr values, as was evidenced by an immunoblot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. S-protein was found to be an acidic glycoprotein with 10% (W/W) carbohydrate content and several isoelectric points in the range pH 4.75-5.25, and it contained one free thiol group per molecule of protein. The functional properties of S-protein in the complement system were demonstrated by its ability to inhibit complement-dependent cell lysis in a concentration-dependent manner (Ki 0.6 microM) and by its incorporation into the nascent SC5b-7 complex. A new function for S-protein could be revealed in the blood coagulation system. The slow progressive inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin III was not affected by S-protein, whereas the purified protein interfered with the fast inactivation of thrombin clotting as well as amidolytic activity by antithrombin III-heparin complex. The acceleration of this inhibition reaction by heparin was counteracted by S-protein, indicating the ability of S-protein to neutralize heparin activity. Images PMID:4062902

  16. Magnetic resonance characterization of septal bounce: findings of blood impact physiology.

    PubMed

    Angheloiu, George O; Rayarao, Geetha; Williams, Ronald; Yamrozik, June; Doyle, Mark; Biederman, Robert W W

    2015-01-01

    'Septal bounce' is a pathognomonic sign of constrictive pericarditis (CP). The objectives of the study are to resolve the etiology of the septal bounce, to generate septal bounce-related diagnostic tools, and to prove that its presence is related to the mechanical interaction between the atrioventricular inflow and the inter-ventricular septum. We compared steady state free precession four-chamber images between 11 CP patients and 11 controls via cardiac magnetic resonance. The septal bounce was composed of two movements observed during every cardiac cycle, simultaneous with the rapid filling and atrial systole respectively. Three parameters (measured at end-systole) were generated: right ventricular (RV) clamp (compression ratio of the RV)-greater in CP (0.88 ± 0.03) than controls (0.85 ± 0.03, p = 0.02), tri-septal angle between the tricuspid valve annulus plane and the interventricular septum (81° ± 9° vs. 91° ± 7°, p = 0.01), and impact angle between the tricuspid inflow vector and septum (8.6° ± 8.7° vs. 0° ± 6.6°, p = 0.01). The accuracy, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of these parameters in differentiating CP from controls ranged from 100 to 82 %. A forth parameter-septal flow ratio, gauging the proportion of tricuspid inflow impacting the septum, was markedly higher in CP than controls (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.01 ± 0.03, p < 0.0001) with 100 % sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. The septal bounce consists of two sequential movements during each cardiac cycle, is time-related with the rapid ventricular filling and atrial systole, and likely represents a result of the tricuspid blood inflow impacting the interventricular septum. Four septal bounce-derived parameters have a good accuracy in differentiating CP from volunteers. PMID:25266227

  17. Characterization of the equine blood-testis barrier during tubular development in normal and cryptorchid stallions.

    PubMed

    Rode, K; Sieme, H; Richterich, P; Brehm, R

    2015-09-15

    The formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is defined as occurring with the first appearance of spermatocytes at around puberty and is vital for normal spermatogenesis. This barrier between two adjacent Sertoli cells (SCs) consists of a cell junctional protein complex, which includes tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions, and gap junctions. In many mammalian species, BTB composition has already been investigated, whereas little is known about the equine BTB. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and qualitative Western Blot analysis were used to assess the expression and distribution patterns of the junctional proteins claudin-11 (TJ), zonula occludens-1 (TJ associated), N-cadherin (adherens junctions), and connexin 43 (gap junctions) in equine testes during tubular development and in testes of stallions exhibiting unilateral cryptorchidism. Therefore, testes of 21 warmblood stallions (aged 12 months-11 years) were obtained during routine surgical castration. In the normal adult equine testis, the junctional proteins are localized at the basolateral region of the seminiferous tubules forming a circumferential seal corresponding to the known BTB localization. N-cadherin is additionally expressed along the lateral SC surface. In immature seminiferous cords still lacking a lumen, a diffuse distribution pattern of the junctional proteins throughout the SC cytoplasm is visible. As lumen formation advances, the immunolocalization shifts progressively toward the basolateral SC membranes. Additionally, apoptotic germ cells were detected and quantified in prepubertal stallions using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and correlated with junctional protein localization. In the retained testis of cryptorchid stallions, which exhibit an aberrant testicular morphology, a deviating expression of the junctional proteins is visible. The present data show for the first time that (1) the equine SC junctional complex contains claudin-11

  18. Characterizing the Mechanistic Pathways of the Instant Blood-Mediated Inflammatory Reaction in Xenogeneic Neonatal Islet Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Liuwantara, David; Chew, Yi Vee; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Hawkes, Joanne M.; Burns, Heather L.; O'Connell, Philip J.; Hawthorne, Wayne J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) causes major loss of islets after transplantation and consequently represents the initial barrier to survival of porcine neonatal islet cell clusters (NICC) after xenotransplantation. Methods This study used novel assays designed to characterize the various immunologic components responsible for xenogeneic IBMIR to identify initiators and investigate processes of IBMIR-associated coagulation, complement activation and neutrophil infiltration. The IBMIR was induced in vitro by exposing NICC to platelet-poor or platelet-rich human plasma or isolated neutrophils. Results We found that xenogeneic IBMIR was characterized by rapid, platelet-independent thrombin generation, with addition of platelets both accelerating and exacerbating this response. Platelet-independent complement activation was observed as early as 30 minutes after NICC exposure to plasma. However, membrane attack complex formation was not observed in NICC histopathology sections until after 60 minutes. We demonstrated for the first time that NICC-mediated complement activation was necessary for neutrophil activation in the xenogeneic IBMIR setting. Finally, using the Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer, we identified substantial loss of islet function (up to 40%) after IBMIR with surviving NICC showing evidence of mitochondrial damage. Conclusions This study used novel assays to describe multiple key pathways by which xenogeneic IBMIR causes islet destruction, allowing further refinement of future interventions aimed at resolving the issue of IBMIR in xenotransplantation. PMID:27500267

  19. Quantification and characterization of ACTH-related peptides produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, G.M.; Maimon, J.; Schneider, B.S. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors have used a sensitive radioimmunoassay to quantify and characterize PBMC-associated immunoreactive ACTH (ACTH-IR). Mean ACTH content of freshly isolated human PBMCs was 3.8 {plus minus} 0.72 pg (SEM) per 10(6) cells. During 3 days of incubation ACTH-IR in conditioned media of control PBMCs increased significantly, p less than 0.02. Gel filtration chromatography revealed a minor peak of ACTH-IR coeluting with ACTH (1-39) and a major peak coeluting with ACTH (11-24). Treatment with 15 nM CRH did not alter the amount of ACTH-IR secreted or its gel pattern. Synthetic ACTH (11-24), was radioiodinated and was used for binding experiments that demonstrated specific high- and low-affinity binding sites for ACTH (11-24) on a human T cell line. These results add support for a role of ACTH and related peptides in immune regulatory systems and suggest that cell-specific post-translational processing of PBMC may generate an expanding number of biologically active moieties.

  20. Acute pulmonary edema associated with naphazoline ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hidetada; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Seki, Tadahiko; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Konobu, Toshifumi; Nishio, Kenji; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    In published reports of naphazoline ingestion, clinical effects are hypertension, bradycardia, pallor, diaphoresis, and respiratory distress. We report three cases of acute pulmonary edema after the intentional ingestion of naphazoline-containing antiseptic first aid liquid. These cases presented with altered mental status, hypertension, bradycardia, and diaphoresis. Chest x-ray on admission revealed acute pulmonary edema. Two cases required mechanical ventilation. All of these clinical effects resolved within 24 hours and the patients were discharged with no sequelae. Since naphazoline stimulates the peripheral alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, we speculate that intense vasoconstriction may have elevated cardiac afterload and left atrial-ventricular blood volume and caused acute pulmonary edema.

  1. Diagnosis and management of primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, U

    2000-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children can occur secondary to shunt lesion like ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus or it may be idiopathic, the so called primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). The progression of PPH is usually rapid in children as compared to adults and the mean survival is 2-3 years after the diagnosis is made. Histological changes in the form of medical muscular hypertrophy, intinal hyperplasia and later angiomatous, plexiform lesions occur in pulmonary vasculature. The pulmonary vasculature normally is a high flow, low resistance circuit and allows large blood flow without marked increase in pulmonary arterial pressure. However, with prolonged increased flow or any other vasoconstrictor stimulus, histological changes start occurring in the pulmonary bed resulting in increasing pressure in pulmonary artery. Right ventricular hypertension follows resulting in right ventricular hyypertrophy and later dysfunction. Life threatening arrhythmias may result in sudden death in some of these patients. Clinical presentation is in the form of exertional dyspnoea with syncope at times. Over 50% of children with PPH are helped by vasodilators. They may be treated with calcium channel blockers (e.g. nifedipine, dose titrated to blood pressure) orally. Those not responding to oral vasodilators can be put on chronic inhaled nitric oxide or continuous intravenous prostacyclin infusion. Chronic anticoagulation therapy may also increase survival. In symptomatic cases, blade/balloon atrial septostomy may increase survival in patients of PPH with intact atrial sptum. For children not responding to medical therapy, lung transplantation may be the answer in near future.

  2. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  3. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculous Pleuritis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Wang, Mao-Yun; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Sai; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis with a wide variety of radiologic findings, which sometimes can be confused with tuberculosis and carcinoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is always warranted. A 43-year-old male farmer, with productive cough, blood-tinged sputum and chest pain, as well as patchy consolidation and pleural effusions in chest computer tomography, was misdiagnosed of community-acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis. Complete blood cell count, sputum smear and culture, chest computer tomography, thoracoscopy, and biopsy. The diagnosis of pulmonary paragonimiasis was established due to the finding of Charcot–Leyden crystals in the pleural necrosis, and antibodies against Paragonimus westermani in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paragonimiasis should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thoracoscopy is an effective and valuable technology that can help make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:27082624

  4. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Nolan, Vikki G.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Methods: Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Measurements and Main Results: Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 ± 14.7% predicted) and DlCO (64.5 ± 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DlCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Conclusions: Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function. PMID:16556694

  5. Pulmonary artery segmentation and quantification in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Mukherjee, Nisha; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Summers, Ronald M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a known complication associated with sickle-cell disease; roughly 75% of sickle cell disease-afflicted patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension at the time of death. This prospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to act as a surrogate for presence and extent of disease, and whether the size change of the pulmonary arteries of sickle cell patients could be linked to sickle-cell associated pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary CT-Angiography scans from sickle-cell patients were obtained and retrospectively analyzed. Randomly selected pulmonary CT-Angiography studies from patients without sickle-cell anemia were used as negative controls. First, images were smoothed using anisotropic diffusion. Then, a combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries. From the centerline, the diameters at the pulmonary trunk and first branch of the pulmonary arteries were measured automatically. Arterial diameters were normalized to the width of the thoracic cavity, patient weight and body surface. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and first right and left pulmonary arterial branches at the pulmonary trunk junction are significantly larger in diameter with increased blood flow in sickle-cell anemia patients as compared to controls (p values of 0.0278 for trunk and 0.0007 for branches). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Ricardo de Amorim; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; Rezende, Cláudia Juliana; Bernardes, Rodrigo Castro; Prata, Tarciane Aline; Silva, Henrique Lima

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery dissection is a fatal complication of long-standing pulmonary hypertension, manifesting as acute, stabbing chest pain, progressive dyspnea, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death. Its incidence has been underestimated, and therapeutic options are still scarce. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, new chest pain, acute chest pain, or cardiogenic shock should raise the suspicion of pulmonary artery dissection, which can result in sudden death. PMID:23670510

  7. Increased Mutagen Sensitivity and DNA Damage in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Chiara; Drake, Kylie M.; Rigelsky, Christina M.; McNelly, Lauren N.; Meade, Sirena L.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious lung condition characterized by vascular remodeling in the precapillary pulmonary arterioles. We and others have demonstrated chromosomal abnormalities and increased DNA damage in PAH lung vascular cells, but their timing and role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. Objectives: We hypothesized that if DNA damage predates PAH, it might be an intrinsic cell property that is present outside the diseased lung. Methods: We measured DNA damage, mutagen sensitivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung and blood cells from patients with Group 1 PAH, their relatives, and unrelated control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline DNA damage was significantly elevated in PAH, both in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (P < 0.001). Remarkably, PBMC from unaffected relatives showed similar increases, indicating this is not related to PAH treatments. ROS levels were also higher (P < 0.01). DNA damage correlated with ROS production and was suppressed by antioxidants (P < 0.001). PBMC from patients and relatives also showed markedly increased sensitivity to two chemotherapeutic drugs, bleomycin and etoposide (P < 0.001). Results were consistent across idiopathic, heritable, and associated PAH groups. Conclusions: Levels of baseline and mutagen-induced DNA damage are intrinsically higher in PAH cells. Similar results in PBMC from unaffected relatives suggest this may be a genetically determined trait that predates disease onset and may act as a risk factor contributing to lung vascular remodeling following endothelial cell injury. Further studies are required to fully characterize mutagen sensitivity, which could have important implications for clinical management. PMID:25918951

  8. Characterization of multidrug-resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small non-Beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates.

    PubMed

    Banno, Hirotsugu; Kimura, Kouji; Tanaka, Yosuke; Kitanaka, Hiromitsu; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-06-01

    We isolated and characterized three multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) that formed small non-beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates but grew well on chocolate agar plates. They can be overlooked in the bacterial identification step, leading to clinical misdiagnosis and treatment failure.

  9. Pulmonary vascular remodelling in a high-altitude Aymara Indian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Donald; Williams, David

    1991-12-01

    A histological study of the pulmonary vasculature in a young male high-altitude Aymara Indian revealed four aspects of interest. There was muscularization of the terminal portion of the pulmonary arterial tree to involve pulmonary arterioles as small as 15 μm in diameter, thus forming a basis for the slightly increased pulmonary vascular resistance of native highlanders. Intimal longitudinal muscle was found in pulmonary arteries and arterioles and thought to be due to chronic alveolar hypoxia. Inner muscular tubes similar to those found in chronic obstructive lung disease were present. Pulmonary veins and venules also showed intimal muscularization suggesting that alveolar hypoxia affects vascular smooth muscle cells per se irrespective of their situation. The nature of the remodelling in a pulmonary blood vessel depends on a combination of hypoxia and haemodynamics.

  10. Branched perfluorooctane sulfonate isomer quantification and characterization in blood serum samples by HPLC/ESI-MS(/MS).

    PubMed

    Riddell, Nicole; Arsenault, Gilles; Benskin, Jonathan P; Chittim, Brock; Martin, Jonathan W; McAlees, Alan; McCrindle, Robert

    2009-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a global contaminant and is currently among the most prominent contaminants in human blood and wildlife samples. Although "total PFOS" (SigmaPFOS) analytical methods continue to be the most commonly used for quantification, recent analytical method developments have made it possible to resolve the various isomers of PFOS by HPLC-MS/MS. Characterized technical PFOS standards (i.e., containing a mixture of PFOS isomers) are now available that enable isomer specific quantification of PFOS, however the advantages of such an analysis have notyet been examined systematically. Herein, PFOS isomers have been individually quantified for the first time in real samples and the results are compared to a traditional SigmaPFOS method; the influence of analytical standards and isomer specific electrospray and MS/ MS behavior were also investigated. The two human serum standard reference materials chosen for analysis contained dramaticallydifferent PFOS isomer profiles (approximately 30-50% total branched isomers) emphasizing that isomer patterns should not be ignored and may provide useful information on exposure sources (i.e., direct exposure to PFOS vs indirect exposure from PFOS-precursors). Depending on the sample and the particular MS/MS transition chosen for SigmaPFOS analysis (i.e., 499-->80 or 499-->99), SigmaPFOS concentrations may be over- or underestimated compared to the isomer specific analysis. Differences in the extent of in-source fragmentation and MS/MS dissociation contributed to the systematic analytical bias. It was also shown that SigmaPFOS data are prone to interlaboratory variation due to various choices of PFOS standards and instrumental conditions used. In the future, for either SigmaPFOS or isomer specific PFOS analyses, we suggest that accuracy can be maximized and interlaboratory discrepancies minimized by using a common chemically pure technical PFOS standard characterized by 19F NMR.

  11. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

  13. Left atrial volume change throughout the cardiac cycle in children with congenital heart disease associated with increased pulmonary blood flow: evaluation using a novel left atrium-tracking method.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Miho; Hayabuchi, Yasunobu; Inoue, Miki; Onishi, Tatsuya; Kagami, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the significance of left atrial (LA) volume and its changes throughout the cardiac cycle in pediatric patients with heart disease. The recently developed LA volume-tracking (LAVT) method can automatically construct the LA volume curve. The study group consisted of 48 pediatric patients with ventricular septal defect (n = 34) or patent ductus arteriosus (n = 14) and age-matched healthy controls. Maximum and minimum LA volumes (LAVmax and LAVmin, respectively) were measured. The total LA emptying volume (LAVtotal) was defined as LAVmax--LAVmin. Volume parameters were standardized by dividing by body surface area (BSA). The total LA emptying fraction (%LAVtotal) was defined as the ratio of LAVtotal to LAVmax. In the patient group, there was a positive correlation between the ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) and LAVmax/BSA, LAVmin/BSA, and LAVtotal/BSA (r = 0.42, 0.44, and 0.34, respectively). LAVmin/BSA was positively correlated with the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early mitral annular diastolic tissue Doppler velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32). The %LAVtotal had a negative correlation with left-ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (r = -0.32). There were significant correlations between serum B-type natriuretic peptide level and LAVmax/BSA, LAVmin/BSA, and %LAVtotal (r = 0.38, 0.49, and -0.35, respectively). The LAVT method is useful in the evaluation of LV diastolic function in pediatric patients with chronic LV volume overload.

  14. Computer-assisted diagnostic tool to quantify the pulmonary veins in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Alam, Shoaib; Mehari, Alem; Kato, Gregory J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. This study investigates the use of pulmonary vein analysis to assist the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension non-invasively with CT-Angiography images. The characterization of the pulmonary veins from CT presents two main challenges. Firstly, the number of pulmonary veins is unknown a priori and secondly, the contrast material is degraded when reaching the pulmonary veins, making the edges of these vessels to appear faint. Each image is first denoised and a fast marching approach is used to segment the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Afterward, a geodesic active contour is employed to isolate the left atrium. A thinning technique is then used to extract the skeleton of the atrium and the veins. The locations of the pulmonary veins ostia are determined by the intersection of the skeleton and the contour of the atrium. The diameters of the pulmonary veins are measured in each vein at fixed distances from the corresponding ostium, and for each distance, the sum of the diameters of all the veins is computed. These indicators are shown to be significantly larger in sickle-cell patients with pulmonary hypertension as compared to controls (p-values < 0.01).

  15. [Heart pathology of extracardiac origin. IV. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Barberà, J A

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the major cardiovascular complication of chronic respiratory disorders and its development is a sign of poor prognosis. Pulmonary circulation is characterized by its low vascular tone and the response to hypoxia by vasoconstriction. Pulmonary endothelium plays an important role in modulating these characteristics. Structural abnormalities of pulmonary arteries in pulmonary hypertension affect preferentially the intimal layer and may damage the endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction of pulmonary arteries has been recognized in the different forms of pulmonary hypertension. Vasodilators are recommended for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension. However, in pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory disorders, both systemic and selective pulmonary vasodilators are not indicated since they may worsen gas exchange due to the inhibition of hypoxic vasoconstriction. The most effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic hypoxic lung diseases is long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:9522610

  16. Computed Tomographic Measures of Pulmonary Vascular Morphology in Smokers and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Estépar, Raúl San José; Kinney, Gregory L.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Bowler, Russell P.; Kindlmann, Gordon L.; Ross, James C.; Kikinis, Ron; Han, MeiLan K.; Come, Carolyn E.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Reilly, John J.; Lynch, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T.; Hokanson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Angiographic investigation suggests that pulmonary vascular remodeling in smokers is characterized by distal pruning of the blood vessels. Objectives: Using volumetric computed tomography scans of the chest we sought to quantitatively evaluate this process and assess its clinical associations. Methods: Pulmonary vessels were automatically identified, segmented, and measured. Total blood vessel volume (TBV) and the aggregate vessel volume for vessels less than 5 mm2 (BV5) were calculated for all lobes. The lobe-specific BV5 measures were normalized to the TBV of that lobe and the nonvascular tissue volume (BV5/TissueV) to calculate lobe-specific BV5/TBV and BV5/TissueV ratios. Densitometric measures of emphysema were obtained using a Hounsfield unit threshold of −950 (%LAA-950). Measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity included single breath measures of diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, oxygen saturation, the 6-minute-walk distance, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score (SGRQ), and the body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index. Measurements and Main Results: The %LAA-950 was inversely related to all calculated vascular ratios. In multivariate models including age, sex, and %LAA-950, lobe-specific measurements of BV5/TBV were directly related to resting oxygen saturation and inversely associated with both the SGRQ and BODE scores. In similar multivariate adjustment lobe-specific BV5/TissueV ratios were inversely related to resting oxygen saturation, diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, 6-minute-walk distance, and directly related to the SGRQ and BODE. Conclusions: Smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by distal pruning of the small blood vessels (<5 mm2) and loss of tissue in excess of the vasculature. The magnitude of these changes predicts the clinical severity of disease. PMID:23656466

  17. Characterization of surface interleukin-2 receptor expression on gated populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Sweat, J M; Johnson, C M; Marikar, Y; Gibbs, E P

    2005-12-15

    An in vitro system to determine surface interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from free-ranging manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris was developed. Human recombinant IL-2, conjugated with a fluorescein dye was used in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis to determine changes in surface expression of IL-2R at sequential times over a 48-h period of in vitro stimulation. Surface expression of IL-2R was detected on manatee PBMC, which also cross-reacted with an anti-feline pan T-cell marker. An expression index (EI) was calculated by comparing mitogen-activated and non-activated PBMC. Based on side- and forward-scatter properties, flow cytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of larger, more granular "lymphoblasts" following concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation. The appearance of lymphoblasts was correlated with an increase in their surface expression of IL-2 receptors. Surface IL-2R expression, in Con A-stimulated PBMC, was detected at 16 h, peaked at 24-36 h, and began to decrease by 48 h. Characterization of the IL-2R expression should provide additional information on the health status of manatees, and the effect of their sub lethal exposure to brevetoxin.

  18. Sevoflurane-Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclodextrin Complex: Preparation, Characterization, Cellular Toxicity, Molecular Modeling and Blood-Brain Barrier Transport Studies.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Puskás, István; Pápai, Katalin; Salvador, Ellaine; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola; Broscheit, Jens-Albert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the ability of sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD) to form an inclusion complex with sevoflurane (SEV), a volatile anesthetic with poor water solubility. The inclusion complex was prepared, characterized and its cellular toxicity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation potential of the formulated SEV have also been examined for the purpose of controlled drug delivery. The SEV-SBEβCD complex was nontoxic to the primary brain microvascular endothelial (pEND) cells at a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane. The inclusion complex exhibited significantly higher BBB permeation profiles as compared with the reference substance (propranolol) concerning calculated apparent permeability values (Papp). In addition, SEV binding affinity to SBEβCD was confirmed by a minimal Gibbs free energy of binding (ΔGbind) value of -1.727 ± 0.042 kcal·mol-1 and an average binding constant (Kb) of 53.66 ± 9.24 mM indicating rapid drug liberation from the cyclodextrin amphiphilic cavity. PMID:26046323

  19. Pulmonary microlithiasis - A case report.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Ubaid, Muhammad; Mahmood, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare diffuse lung disease characterized by widespread sand-like intra-alveolar calcifications (calcospherites composed of calcium and phosphorus). Around 800 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of a 35 years old female with prolonged h/o of exertional dyspnoea and mild cough. Clinical examination was mostly normal. Her Chest X-Ray revealed bilateral multiple nodular opacities (sand storm appearance). CT Scan chest showed diffuse micronodular calcifications with septal thickening, compatible with alveolar microlithiasis. Pulmonary function tests showed moderately restrictive lung disease. Bronchoscopic alveolar lavage revealed calcospherites in the alveloli and bronchi confirming the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:27660745

  20. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    PubMed Central

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  1. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  2. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema treated by lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Matta, Reva; Matta, Judy; Hage, Pierre; Nassif, Yolla; Mansour, Nabil; Diab, Nabil

    2011-10-01

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is a rare condition that occurs in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation, characterized by abnormal accumulation of air in the pulmonary interstitium, due to disruption of the basement membrane. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is observed when small cysts are noted in all lobes of the lung. The management of infants suffering from diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema varies according to severity and stability of the patient, being either conservative treatment or aggressive surgical treatment by pneumonectomy. We report a case of an unstable patient with diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema successfully treated by lobectomy as a form of conservative surgical approach.

  3. Pulmonary tissue volume in dogs during pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Peterson, B T; Petrini, M F; Hyde, R W; Schreiner, B F

    1978-05-01

    Pulmonary tissue volume (Vt) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) were measured in anesthetized dogs by analyzing end-expiratory concentrations of dimethyl ether (DME), acetylene (C2H2), and sulfur hexafluoride during a 30-s rebreathing maneuver. Vt was compared to the postmortem lung weight of control dogs and dogs with hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic (alloxan) pulmonary edema. Qc was compared to the cardiac output measured by dye dilution. A 100-ml increase in alveolar volume (VA) in the range of 1-2 liters resulted in a 9 +/- 3 ml increase in Vt. Vt measured at a VA of 1.9 liters measures 114 +/- 18% of the postmortem lung weight in 20 control dogs and in 6 dogs with moderate edema (lung weight < 250% of predicted). Vt measured only 53 +/- 14% of the lung weight in 11 dogs with more severe edema. DME and C2H2 gave the smae mean values of Vt, but the reproducibility of a series of 3-7 measurements was greater with DME (coefficient of variation was 5% with DME and 8% C2H2). Qc measured 96 +/ 15% of the cardiac output during the rebreathing maneuver, but the maneuver caused a 4-40% fall in the cardiac output. These data show that Vt determined by rebreathing DME is between 86% and 135% of the lung weight in dogs with pulmonary edema until the lung weight is greater than 250% of the predicted value.

  4. Characterization of extracellular vesicles in whole blood: Influence of pre-analytical parameters and visualization of vesicle-cell interactions using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fendl, Birgit; Weiss, René; Fischer, Michael B; Spittler, Andreas; Weber, Viktoria

    2016-09-01

    Extracellular vesicles are central players in intercellular communication and are released from the plasma membrane under tightly regulated conditions, depending on the physiological and pathophysiological state of the producing cell. Their heterogeneity requires a spectrum of methods for isolation and characterization, where pre-analytical parameters have profound impact on vesicle analysis, particularly in blood, since sampling, addition of anticoagulants, as well as post-sampling vesicle generation may influence the outcome. Here, we characterized microvesicles directly in whole blood using a combination of flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry. We assessed the influence of sample agitation, anticoagulation, and temperature on post-sampling vesicle generation, and show that vesicle counts remained stable over time in samples stored without agitation. Storage with gentle rolling mimicking agitation, in contrast, resulted in strong release of platelet-derived vesicles in blood anticoagulated with citrate or heparin, whereas vesicle counts remained stable upon anticoagulation with EDTA. Using imaging flow cytometry, we could visualize microvesicles adhering to blood cells and revealed an anticoagulant-dependent increase in vesicle-cell aggregates over time. We demonstrate that vesicles adhere preferentially to monocytes and granulocytes in whole blood, while no microvesicles could be visualized on lymphocytes. Our data underscore the relevance of pre-analytical parameters in vesicle analysis and demonstrate that imaging flow cytometry is a suitable tool to study the interaction of extracellular vesicles with their target cells. PMID:27444383

  5. [Serotonin hypothesis and pulmonary artery hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kloza, Monika; Baranowska-Kuczko, Marta; Pędzińska-Betiuk, Anna; Jackowski, Konrad; Kozłowska, Hanna

    2014-06-06

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive, complex disease leading to the right ventricular failure and premature death. PAH is characterized by increased pulmonary arterial pressure, increased vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. Pathomechanism of this disease is still unknown. It has been suggested, that endothelial dysfunction is caused by unbalance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors e.g. serotonin (5-HT). Previously, serotonin hypothesis was linked to the anorexigens, derivatives of fenfluramine, which are serotonin transporter (SERT) substrates. Nowadays, it has been proved that all elements of serotonergic system within pulmonary circulation participate in the developement of PAH. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph-1) catalyses synthesis of 5-HT from tryptophan in the pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. 5-HT mediates contraction of pulmonary vessels via 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors. 5-HT is also transported into pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via SERT and through activation of reactive oxygen species and Rho-kinase may contribute to contraction or/and, via stimulation of transcription factors, lead to proliferation and remodelling. There is also increasing number of evidence about functional interaction between 5-HT1B receptor and SERT in modulation of vasoconstriction and proliferation in pulmonary arteries. This review discusses the role of 5-HT in the development of PAH and highlights possible therapeutic targets within serotonergic system.

  6. Pulmonary disability in former Appalachian coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective case-control study was undertaken to assess respiratory disability in 133 former coal miners who were claimants for "black lung" benefits. Consecutive assignment was made to either case or control group based on their chest radiograph having shown coal workers' pneumoconiosis or no coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A respiratory occupational survey was completed with physical examination that placed special emphasis on the cardiorespiratory systems. Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing while 92 of these also received arterial blood gases to assess respiratory disability and pulmonary insufficiency. Arterial blood gases were superior to spirometry in assessment of pulmonary insufficiency/disability. Smoking interacts with coal workers' pneumoconiosis to cause pulmonary insufficiency. The most frequent spirometric pattern was obstructive. Disability was caused by occupational injuries and comorbidities, both of which occurred with greater frequency in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis than in controls. Pulmonary insufficiency appears to be a better discriminator than respiratory disability in coal miners, suggesting that arterial blood gases replace spirometry in their evaluation. Greater emphasis on smoking intervention among coal miners should be given. Images Figure PMID:8803434

  7. Imatinib in pulmonary arterial hypertension: c-Kit inhibition.

    PubMed

    Farha, Samar; Dweik, Raed; Rahaghi, Franck; Benza, Raymond; Hassoun, Paul; Frantz, Robert; Torres, Fernando; Quinn, Deborah A; Comhair, Suzy; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by severe remodeling of the pulmonary artery resulting in increased pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and, ultimately, failure. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells play a critical role in vascular homeostasis and have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. A proliferation of c-Kit(+) hematopoietic progenitors and mast cells has been noted in the remodeled vessels in PAH. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets c-Kit, has been shown to be beneficial for patients with PAH. Here we hypothesize that the clinical benefit of imatinib in PAH could be related to c-Kit inhibition of progenitor cell mobilization and maturation into mast cells. As a corollary to the phase 3 study using imatinib in PAH, blood samples were collected from 12 patients prior to starting study drug (baseline) and while on treatment at weeks 4 and 24. Eight were randomized to imatinib and 4 to placebo. Circulating c-Kit(+) and CD34(+)CD133(+) hematopoietic progenitors as well as biomarkers of mast cell numbers and activation were measured. Circulating CD34(+)CD133(+) and c-Kit(+) progenitor cells as well as c-Kit(+)/CD34(+)CD133(+) decreased with imatinib therapy (all P < 0.05). In addition, total tryptase, a marker of mast cell load, dropped with imatinib therapy (P = 0.02) and was related to pulmonary vascular resistance (R = 0.7, P = 0.02). The findings support c-Kit inhibition as a potential mechanism of action of imatinib in PAH and suggest that tryptase is a potential biomarker of response to therapy. PMID:25621158

  8. Structural characterization of glycosylinositolphospholipids with a blood group type B sugar unit from the edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Itonori, Saki; Yamawaki, Saho; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hada, Noriyasu; Takeda, Tadahiro; Dulaney, John T; Sugita, Mutsumi

    2008-07-01

    Edible fungi, mushrooms, are a popular food in Japan and over 15 cultured mushroom species are available at the food markets. Recently, constituents or ingredients of edible mushrooms have drawn attention because possibilities have been seen for their medical usage. Mycoglycolipids (basidiolipids) of higher mushrooms have been characterized as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, having a common core structure of Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer and extensions of Man, Gal, and/or Fuc sugar moieties. Seven mycoglycolipids were purified from the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus by successive column chromatography on ion exchange Sephadex (DEAE-Sephadex) and silicic acid (Iatrobeads). Their structures were characterized to be Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL0), Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL1), Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL2), Fucalpha1- 2Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL3), Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL4), Galalpha1-2Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL5), and Galalpha1-2Galalpha1-2Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-6Manalpha1-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer (AGL6) by sugar compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, partial acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, immunochemical analysis, gas-liquid chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Ceramide constituents of their mycoglycolipids were composed of phytosphingosine as the sole sphingoid, and mainly 2-hydroxy C22:0 and C24:0 acids as the fatty acids. By immunochemical detection, the terminal structure of AGL4, Galalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta-, was shown to have blood group type B activity. Galalpha1-2 and its repeating sequence in AGL5 and AGL6 are novel structures on the nonreducing sugar end in mycoglycolipids. These two mycoglycolipids in H. marmoreus

  9. Cardiac cavernous hemangioma and multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Dai, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Cheng, Henghui; Ruan, Qiurong

    2014-02-01

    We describe for the first time a rare coexistence of a cardiac cavernous hemangioma with multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas. Computed tomography revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules, left pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. Positron emission tomography showed a pericardial neoplasm. Pathologically, multiple large dilated vascular spaces, lined by a single layer of endothelial cells and filled with blood, were revealed in both the cardiac tumor and the pulmonary nodules. Immunohistochemical examination of the lining cells showed positivity for CD31, FLI1, FVIII, and CD34. Taken together, these findings led to the diagnosis of cardiac cavernous hemangioma and multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas.

  10. The viscous characterization of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) plasma volume expanders in a non-Newtonian blood analog.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Xiao, Yao; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2013-01-01

    Although information pertaining to the viscous characterization of HES 130/0.4 Voluven® and HES 260/0.45 Pentaspan® is available, quantification is limited to 100% concentrations. We focus here on the quantification of their viscous behavior along with HES 130/0.4 Volulyte® in a shear thinning non-Newtonian blood analog of aqueous xanthan gum and glycerol. Dynamic viscosities of multiple batches of HES fluids were measured through capillary viscometry. The viscous behavior of 100%, 25% and 12.5% concentrations were then measured through a closed flow loop across physiologically relevant flow rates. Measured viscosities were 2.57 millipascal second (mPa·s) 6.52 mPa·s and 2.48 mPa·s for HES 130/0.4 Voluven®, HES 260/0.45 and HES 130/0.4 Volulyte®, respectively. Pipe flow analysis found that all HES fluids displayed Newtonian behavior at 100% concentrations. 25% concentrations of both HES 130/0.4 fluids decreased analog viscosity 23%-29% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/s and 16%-21% at a flow rate of 22.5 ml/s. At a flow rate of 22.5 ml/s, 25% and 12.5% concentrations of HES 260/0.45 resulted in analog viscosity changes of 3.9%-4.5%. Capillary viscosity reductions of approximately 7% and 14.5% in HES 130/0.4 Voluven® and HES 260/0.45 suggest changes in molecular composition to batches previously measured. Maintenance of analog viscosity suggests that HES 260/0.45 would be suitable as a high viscosity plasma expander in extreme hemodilution through preservation of microcirculatory function and wall shear stress (WSS).

  11. 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging characterization of acute blood-brain-barrier disruption achieved with intracranial irreversible electroporation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Paulo A; Rossmeisl, John H; Robertson, John L; Olson, John D; Johnson, Annette J; Ellis, Thomas L; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle to the delivery of systemically administered chemotherapeutics for the treatment of brain cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology that uses pulsed electric fields for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. We hypothesized that there is a minimal electric field at which BBB disruption occurs surrounding an IRE-induced zone of ablation and that this transient response can be measured using gadolinium (Gd) uptake as a surrogate marker for BBB disruption. The study was performed in a Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) compliant facility and had Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval. IRE ablations were performed in vivo in normal rat brain (n = 21) with 1-mm electrodes (0.45 mm diameter) separated by an edge-to-edge distance of 4 mm. We used an ECM830 pulse generator to deliver ninety 50-μs pulse treatments (0, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 V/cm) at 1 Hz. The effects of applied electric fields and timing of Gd administration (-5, +5, +15, and +30 min) was assessed by systematically characterizing IRE-induced regions of cell death and BBB disruption with 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic evaluations. Statistical analysis on the effect of applied electric field and Gd timing was conducted via Fit of Least Squares with α = 0.05 and linear regression analysis. The focal nature of IRE treatment was confirmed with 3D MRI reconstructions with linear correlations between volume of ablation and electric field. Our results also demonstrated that IRE is an ablation technique that kills brain tissue in a focal manner depicted by MRI (n = 16) and transiently disrupts the BBB adjacent to the ablated area in a voltage-dependent manner as seen with Evan's Blue (n = 5) and Gd administration. PMID:23226293

  12. 7.0-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characterization of Acute Blood-Brain-Barrier Disruption Achieved with Intracranial Irreversible Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Robertson, John L.; Olson, John D.; Johnson, Annette J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle to the delivery of systemically administered chemotherapeutics for the treatment of brain cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology that uses pulsed electric fields for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. We hypothesized that there is a minimal electric field at which BBB disruption occurs surrounding an IRE-induced zone of ablation and that this transient response can be measured using gadolinium (Gd) uptake as a surrogate marker for BBB disruption. The study was performed in a Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) compliant facility and had Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval. IRE ablations were performed in vivo in normal rat brain (n = 21) with 1-mm electrodes (0.45 mm diameter) separated by an edge-to-edge distance of 4 mm. We used an ECM830 pulse generator to deliver ninety 50-μs pulse treatments (0, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 V/cm) at 1 Hz. The effects of applied electric fields and timing of Gd administration (−5, +5, +15, and +30 min) was assessed by systematically characterizing IRE-induced regions of cell death and BBB disruption with 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic evaluations. Statistical analysis on the effect of applied electric field and Gd timing was conducted via Fit of Least Squares with α = 0.05 and linear regression analysis. The focal nature of IRE treatment was confirmed with 3D MRI reconstructions with linear correlations between volume of ablation and electric field. Our results also demonstrated that IRE is an ablation technique that kills brain tissue in a focal manner depicted by MRI (n = 16) and transiently disrupts the BBB adjacent to the ablated area in a voltage-dependent manner as seen with Evan's Blue (n = 5) and Gd administration. PMID:23226293

  13. Characterization of microRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a neglected blood fluke of human and animal health significance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ren; Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a "directed mutation" pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  14. Management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Shah, Sanjiv J; Souza, Rogerio; Humbert, Marc

    2015-05-12

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common and may result from a number of disorders, including left heart disease, lung disease, and chronic thromboembolic disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon disease characterized by progressive remodeling of the distal pulmonary arteries, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and, eventually, in right ventricular failure. Over the past decades, knowledge of the basic pathobiology of PAH and its natural history, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic options has exploded. A thorough evaluation of a patient is critical to correctly characterize the PH. Cardiac studies, including echocardiography and right heart catheterization, are key elements in the assessment. Given the multitude of treatment options currently available for PAH, assessment of risk and response to therapy is critical in long-term management. This review also underscores unique situations, including perioperative management, intensive care unit management, and pregnancy, and highlights the importance of collaborative care of the PAH patient through a multidisciplinary approach.

  15. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Fernández F, Cristina; Salinas F, Mauricio; de Grazia K, José Andrés; Díaz P, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an extremely rare disease characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of calcified spherical particles (called microliths), due to a mutation of the gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the alveolar surface. Most patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis. The course of the disease is slowly progressive, with development of pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. The "sandstorm" pattern is the characteristic finding of this disease. We report a 39-year-old female presenting with progressive dyspnea. A chest X ray showed ground-glass opacities and a high resolution CT scan showed numerous calcified lung micronodules. A surgical lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:25427025

  16. Systemic Sclerosis with Multiple Pulmonary Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Parinita; Reddy, Venkata Siva Prasad; Sharma, Tarun; Salim, Nabil Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune multisystem disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and fibroblast dysfunction, which results in progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs more frequently the lungs and gastro intestinal tract. Pulmonary involvement is common in the course of SSc, with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) being the leading causes of death. Here we report, case of an elderly female patient presenting with Diffuse SSc with multiple uncommon pulmonary manifestations like ILD with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern (usually less common), PAH and right sided pleural effusion. PMID:27504339

  17. Determinants of an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sakao, Seiichiro; Voelkel, Norbert F; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Given the difficulty of diagnosing early-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to the lack of signs and symptoms, and the risk of an open lung biopsy, the precise pathological features of presymptomatic stage lung tissue remain unknown. It has been suggested that the maximum elevation of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (P pa) is achieved during the early symptomatic stage, indicating that the elevation of the mean P pa is primarily driven by the pulmonary vascular tone and/or some degree of pulmonary vascular remodeling completed during this stage. Recently, the examination of a rat model of severe PAH suggested that the severe PAH may be primarily determined by the presence of intimal lesions and/or the vascular tone in the early stage. Human data seem to indicate that intimal lesions are essential for the severely increased pulmonary arterial blood pressure in the late stage of the disease.However, many questions remain. For instance, how does the pulmonary hemodynamics change during the course of the disease, and what drives the development of severe PAH? Although it is generally acknowledged that both pulmonary vascular remodeling and the vascular tone are important determinants of an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, which is the root cause of the time-dependent progression of the disease? Here we review the recent histopathological concepts of PAH with respect to the progression of the lung vascular disease.

  18. Pulmonary vascular wall stiffness: An important contributor to the increased right ventricular afterload with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with structural and mechanical changes in the pulmonary vascular bed that increase right ventricular (RV) afterload. These changes, characterized by narrowing and stiffening, occur in both proximal and distal pulmonary arteries (PAs). An important consequence of arterial narrowing is increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Arterial stiffening, which can occur in both the proximal and distal pulmonary arteries, is an important index of disease progression and is a significant contributor to increased RV afterload in PH. In particular, arterial narrowing and stiffening increase the RV afterload by increasing steady and oscillatory RV work, respectively. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the causes and consequences of pulmonary arterial stiffening in PH and its impact on RV function. We review direct and indirect techniques for measuring proximal and distal pulmonary arterial stiffness, measures of arterial stiffness including elastic modulus, incremental elastic modulus, stiffness coefficient β and others, the changes in cellular function and the extracellular matrix proteins that contribute to pulmonary arterial stiffening, the consequences of PA stiffening for RV function and the clinical implications of pulmonary vascular stiffening for PH progression. Future investigation of the relationship between PA stiffening and RV dysfunction may facilitate new therapies aimed at improving RV function and thus ultimately reducing mortality in PH. PMID:22034607

  19. Acoustic characterization in whole blood and plasma of site-targeted nanoparticle ultrasound contrast agent for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael S; Marsh, Jon N; Hall, Christopher S; Fuhrhop, Ralph W; Lacy, Elizabeth K; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2005-02-01

    The ability to enhance specific molecular markers of pathology with ultrasound has been previously demonstrated by our group employing a nanoparticle contrast agent [Lanza et al., Invest. Radiol. 35, 227-234 (2000); Ultrasound Med. Biol. 23, 863-870 (1997)]. One of the advantages of this agent is very low echogenicity in the blood pool that allows increased contrast between the blood pool and the bound, site-targeted agent. We measured acoustic backscatter and attenuation coefficient as a function of the contrast agent concentration, ambient pressure, peak acoustic pressure, and as an effect of duty cycle and wave form shape. Measurements were performed while the nanoparticles were suspended in either whole porcine blood or plasma. The nanoparticles were only detectable when insonified within plasma devoid of red blood cells and were shown to exhibit backscatter levels more than 30 dB below the backscatter from whole blood. Attenuation of nanoparticles in whole porcine blood was not measurably different from that of whole blood alone over a range of concentrations up to eight times the maximum in vivo dose. The resulting data provide upper bounds on blood pool attenuation coefficient and backscatter and will be needed to more precisely define levels of molecular contrast enhancement that may be obtained in vivo.

  20. Possible role of lysophosphatidic acid in rat model of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the vascular wall of pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid, is implicated in this vascular remodeling in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Exposure of Wistar rats to 10% O2 for 3 weeks induced an increase in the mean serum levels of LPA, to 40.9 (log-detransformed standard deviations: 23.4–71.7) μM versus 21.6 (11.0–42.3) μM in a matched control animal group (P = 0.037). We also observed perivascular LPA immunohistochemical staining in lungs of hypoxic rats colocalized with the secreted lysophospholipase D autotaxin (ATX). Moreover, ATX colocalized with mast cell tryptase, suggesting implication of these cells in perivascular LPA production. Hypoxic rat lungs expressed more ATX transcripts (2.4-fold) and more transcripts of proteins implicated in cell migration: β2 integrin (1.74-fold), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; 1.84-fold), and αM integrin (2.70-fold). Serum from the hypoxic group of animals had significantly higher chemoattractant properties toward rat primary lung fibroblasts, and this increase in cell migration could be prevented by the LPA receptor 1 and 3 antagonists. LPA also increased adhesive properties of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells as well as those of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, via the activation of LPA receptor 1 or 3 followed by the stimulation of gene expression of ICAM-1, β-1, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule integrins. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia increases circulating and tissue levels of LPA, which might induce fibroblast migration and recruitment of mononuclear cells in pulmonary vasculature, both of which contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:25621161

  1. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms. PMID:23248168

  2. Hemoptysis in a patient with multifocal primary pulmonary angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Piechuta, Aleksandra; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz; Szołkowska, Małgorzata; Krenke, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary angiosarcoma (PPA) is a rare tumour arising from arterial or venous pulmonary vessels of various size. It is characterized by aggressive course and poor prognosis. The early diagnosis is difficult due to diverse clinical and radiological manifestations. We present a case report of 70 year-old man, active cigarette-smoker, with a 2-month history of non-massive hemoptysis. The thorax CT revealed several solid pulmonary nodules surrounded by areas of ground glass opacity. As bronchoscopy failed to deliver adequate tissue samples, video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with pleura and lung biopsy was necessary. Histopathological findings were consistent with pulmonary angiosarcoma. Since no extrapulmonary lesions were demonstrated, the final diagnosis of primary pulmonary angiosarcoma was made. The patient died three months after the onset of symptoms. Our case report highlights that differential diagnosis in patients with hemoptysis and pulmonary nodules should include primary pulmonary sarcoma. PMID:27672071

  3. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  4. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation unmasked in pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Anin, Sheba Reshmi; Sabharwal, Tarun; Harrison-Phipps, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are anomalous communications between arteries and veins of the pulmonary vasculature. Its incidence is rare. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations can be asymptomatic or cause profound cardiovascular compromise and adverse neurological sequelae, as a result of right to left shunting of deoxygenated blood. Pregnancy and its physiological demands can unmask and exacerbate pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with attendant risks of life threatening complications and rarely, death. This case report describes a first presentation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in pregnancy and the tendency for misdiagnosis with pulmonary embolism. A multidisciplinary approach to management is pertinent considering the challenges involved in deciding the appropriate therapeutic management in pregnancy which has to be weighed against potential maternal and fetal risks.

  5. Circulation of blood through the heart (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood comes into the right atrium from the body, moves into the right ventricle and is pushed into the pulmonary arteries in the lungs. After picking up oxygen, the ... left ventricle and out to the body's tissues through the aorta.

  6. Automated method for relating regional pulmonary structure and function: integration of dynamic multislice CT and thin-slice high-resolution CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Jehangir K.; Kugelmass, Steven D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    We have developed a method utilizing x-ray CT for relating pulmonary perfusion to global and regional anatomy, allowing for detailed study of structure to function relationships. A thick slice, high temporal resolution mode is used to follow a bolus contrast agent for blood flow evaluation and is fused with a high spatial resolution, thin slice mode to obtain structure- function detail. To aid analysis of blood flow, we have developed a software module, for our image analysis package (VIDA), to produce the combined structure-function image. Color coded images representing blood flow, mean transit time, regional tissue content, regional blood volume, regional air content, etc. are generated and imbedded in the high resolution volume image. A text file containing these values along with a voxel's 3-D coordinates is also generated. User input can be minimized to identifying the location of the pulmonary artery from which the input function to a blood flow model is derived. Any flow model utilizing one input and one output function can be easily added to a user selectable list. We present examples from our physiologic based research findings to demonstrate the strengths of combining dynamic CT and HRCT relative to other scanning modalities to uniquely characterize pulmonary normal and pathophysiology.

  7. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  8. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  10. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  11. Pulmonary vascular effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide in COPD patients with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; Ferreira, Francisca; Quinn, Deborah A; Hufkens, Annemie; Claes, Rita; De Backer, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH), which worsens prognosis. PH can be lowered by oxygen, but also by inhaled nitric oxide (NO), which has the potential to improve the health status of these patients. NO is an important mediator in vascular reactions in the pulmonary circulation. Oral compounds can act through NO-mediated pathways, but delivering pulsed inhaled NO (iNO) directly to the airways and pulmonary vasculature could equally benefit patients. Therefore, a proof-of-concept study was performed to quantify pulmonary blood vessel caliber changes after iNO administration using computed tomography (CT)-based functional respiratory imaging (FRI). Methods Six patients with secondary PH due to COPD received “pulsed” iNO in combination with oxygen for 20 minutes via a nasal cannula. Patients underwent a high-resolution CT scan with contrast before and after iNO. Using FRI, changes in volumes of blood vessels and associated lobes were quantified. Oxygen saturation and blood pressure were monitored and patients were asked about their subjective feelings. Results Pulmonary blood vessel volume increased by 7.06%±5.37% after iNO. A strong correlation (Ω20=0.32, P=0.002) was obtained between ventilation and observed vasodilation, suggesting that using the pulsed system, iNO is directed toward the ventilated zones, which consequently experience more vasodilation. Patients did not develop oxygen desaturation, remained normotensive, and perceived an improvement in their dyspnea sensation. Conclusion Inhalation of pulsed NO with oxygen causes vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation of COPD patients, mainly in the well-ventilated areas. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in the level of vasodilation. Patients tend to feel better after the treatment. Chronic use trials are warranted. PMID:27462149

  12. Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy performed before and after pulmonary embolectomy for saddle-type pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Shih, W J; Robinson, M C; Huber, C; Pulmano, C

    1995-02-01

    A 58-year-old man had shortness of breath, hypotension, and decreased partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) on the eighteenth day after undergoing craniotomy for a meningioma. Tc-99m MAA pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy showed little perfusion to the right lung and left lower lung and multiple perfusion defects in the left upper lung. Although the results of concurrent chest radiography were negative for pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary angiography demonstrated a saddle-type embolism. The patient underwent emergency pulmonary artery embolectomy to remove blood clots and organized thromboemboli from the main pulmonary artery and the right and left pulmonary arteries. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and a second Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan demonstrated marked improvement in lung perfusion.

  13. Characterization of Transcription Factor Networks Involved in Umbilical Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells-Derived Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Biaoru; Ding, Lianghao; Yang, Chinrang; Kang, Baolin; Liu, Li; Story, Michael D.; Pace, Betty S.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) possess a great capacity for proliferation and differentiation and serve as a valuable model system to study gene regulation. Expanded knowledge of the molecular control of hemoglobin synthesis will provide a basis for rational design of therapies for β-hemoglobinopathies. Transcriptome data are available for erythroid progenitors derived from adult stem cells, however studies to define molecular mechanisms controlling globin gene regulation during fetal erythropoiesis are limited. Here, we utilize UCB-CD34+ stem cells induced to undergo erythroid differentiation to characterize the transcriptome and transcription factor networks (TFNs) associated with the γ/β-globin switch during fetal erythropoiesis. UCB-CD34+ stem cells grown in the one-phase liquid culture system displayed a higher proliferative capacity than adult CD34+ stem cells. The γ/β-globin switch was observed after day 42 during fetal erythropoiesis in contrast to adult progenitors where the switch occurred around day 21. To gain insights into transcription factors involved in globin gene regulation, microarray analysis was performed on RNA isolated from UCB-CD34+ cell-derived erythroid progenitors harvested on day 21, 42, 49 and 56 using the HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip. After data normalization, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified transcription factors (TFs) with significant changes in expression during the γ/β-globin switch. Forty-five TFs were silenced by day 56 (Profile-1) and 30 TFs were activated by day 56 (Profile-2). Both GSEA datasets were analyzed using the MIMI Cytoscape platform, which discovered TFNs centered on KLF4 and GATA2 (Profile-1) and KLF1 and GATA1 for Profile-2 genes. Subsequent shRNA studies in KU812 leukemia cells and human erythroid progenitors generated from UCB-CD34+ cells supported a negative role of MAFB in γ-globin regulation. The characteristics of erythroblasts derived from UCB-CD34+ stem cells

  14. Acetazolamide and chronic hypoxia: effects on haemorheology and pulmonary haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Aurélien; Connes, Philippe; Quidu, Patricia; Marchant, Dominique; Brunet, Julien; Levy, Bernard I; Vilar, José; Safeukui, Innocent; Cymbalista, Florence; Maignan, Maxime; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Favret, Fabrice

    2012-12-01

    We tested the effect of acetazolamide on blood mechanical properties and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during chronic hypoxia. Six groups of rats were either treated or not treated with acetazolamide (curative: treated after 10 days of hypoxic exposure; preventive: treated before hypoxic exposure with 40 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) and either exposed or not exposed to 3 weeks of hypoxia (at altitude >5,500 m). They were then used to assess the role of acetazolamide on pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, blood volume, haematological and haemorheological parameters. Chronic hypoxia increased haematocrit, blood viscosity and PVR, and decreased cardiac output. Acetazolamide treatment in hypoxic rats decreased haematocrit (curative by -10% and preventive by -11%), PVR (curative by -36% and preventive by -49%) and right ventricular hypertrophy (preventive -20%), and increased cardiac output (curative by +60% and preventive by +115%). Blood viscosity was significantly decreased after curative acetazolamide treatment (-16%) and was correlated with PVR (r=0.87, p<0.05), suggesting that blood viscosity could influence pulmonary haemodynamics. The fall in pulmonary vascular hindrance (curative by -27% and preventive by -45%) after treatment suggests that acetazolamide could decrease pulmonary vessels remodelling under chronic hypoxia. The effect of acetazolamide is multifactorial by acting on erythropoiesis, pulmonary circulation, haemorheological properties and cardiac output, and could represent a pertinent treatment of chronic mountain sickness. PMID:22523353

  15. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Gans, S J; van der Elst, A M; Straks, W

    1988-04-01

    A patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is presented. PHG is a rare disease with very specific histological characteristics. Roentgenograms display multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules which may be cavitated. Evidence exists that the nodules are the result of an exaggerated chronic immune response. The course of the disease is generally favourable. PHG should be considered in patients showing multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. PMID:2456228

  16. Creation of a federated database of blood proteins: a powerful new tool for finding and characterizing biomarkers in serum.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John; Bowden, Peter; Schmit, Jean Claude; Betsou, Fay

    2014-01-29

    Protein biomarkers offer major benefits for diagnosis and monitoring of disease processes. Recent advances in protein mass spectrometry make it feasible to use this very sensitive technology to detect and quantify proteins in blood. To explore the potential of blood biomarkers, we conducted a thorough review to evaluate the reliability of data in the literature and to determine the spectrum of proteins reported to exist in blood with a goal of creating a Federated Database of Blood Proteins (FDBP). A unique feature of our approach is the use of a SQL database for all of the peptide data; the power of the SQL database combined with standard informatic algorithms such as BLAST and the statistical analysis system (SAS) allowed the rapid annotation and analysis of the database without the need to create special programs to manage the data. Our mathematical analysis and review shows that in addition to the usual secreted proteins found in blood, there are many reports of intracellular proteins and good agreement on transcription factors, DNA remodelling factors in addition to cellular receptors and their signal transduction enzymes. Overall, we have catalogued about 12,130 proteins identified by at least one unique peptide, and of these 3858 have 3 or more peptide correlations. The FDBP with annotations should facilitate testing blood for specific disease biomarkers.

  17. Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

  18. Time course of pulmonary vascular response to an acutely repetitive pulmonary microembolism in dogs--an analysis using pulmonary vascular impedance.

    PubMed

    Tobise, K; Tosaka, S; Onodera, S

    1992-05-01

    To understand the mechanism leading to progressive pulmonary hypertension, we investigated the time course of vascular response to an acutely repetitive pulmonary microembolism in dogs by using pulmonary vascular impedance. In a normal state, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was transiently increased by emboli, and the impedance moduli of 0 Hz (= Rin), 1.5 Hz and 3 Hz were slightly increased. A four-element electrical vascular model showed the transient increase in peripheral pulmonary vascular resistance (R2) and inertia, and reduction in compliance (C). In contrast, in a state of a slight pulmonary hypertension, mPAP was continuously increased by the same amount of emboli, and the impedance moduli of both 0 Hz and 3 Hz were significantly increased. By a four-element model, a severe increase in R2 and reduction in C were observed, and these changes continued. Therefore, although the vascular response to pulmonary microembolism basically depends on the degree of mechanical obstruction, this response is thought to be modulated by the responsiveness of pulmonary vessels at that time, which is involved in the alteration in the local characteristics of pulmonary vessels, and/or the recruitment of a new blood flow.

  19. Aldosterone Inactivates the Endothelin-B Receptor via a Cysteinyl Thiol Redox Switch to Decrease Pulmonary Endothelial Nitric Oxide Levels and Modulate Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Zhang, Ying-Yi; White, Kevin; Chan, Stephen Y.; Handy, Diane E.; Mahoney, Christopher E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized, in part, by decreased endothelial nitric oxide (NO•) production and elevated levels of endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 is known to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) via the endothelin-B receptor (ETB), suggesting that this signaling pathway is perturbed in PAH. Endothelin-1 also stimulates adrenal aldosterone synthesis; in systemic blood vessels, hyperaldosteronism induces vascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreasing NO• levels. We hypothesized that aldosterone modulates PAH by disrupting ETB-eNOS signaling through a mechanism involving increased pulmonary endothelial oxidant stress. Methods and Results In rats with PAH, elevated endothelin-1 levels were associated with elevated aldosterone levels in plasma and lung tissue and decreased lung NO• metabolites in the absence of left heart failure. In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), endothelin-1 increased aldosterone levels via PGC-1α/steroidogenesis factor-1-dependent upregulation of aldosterone synthase. Aldosterone also increased ROS production, which oxidatively modified cysteinyl thiols in the eNOS-activating region of ETB to decrease endothelin-1-stimulated eNOS activity. Substitution of ETB-Cys405 with alanine improved ETB-dependent NO• synthesis under conditions of oxidant stress, confirming that Cys405 is a redox sensitive thiol that is necessary for ETB-eNOS signaling. In HPAECs, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism with spironolactone decreased aldosterone-mediated ROS generation and restored ETB-dependent NO• production. Spironolactone or eplerenone prevented or reversed pulmonary vascular remodeling and improved cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in two animal models of PAH in vivo. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aldosterone modulates an ETB cysteinyl thiol redox switch to decrease pulmonary endothelium-derived NO• and promote PAH

  20. Electrocardiographic findings in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Boey, Elaine; Teo, Swee-Guan; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) poses a challenge to physicians, as it can be difficult to diagnose but results in significant mortality and morbidity in patients. Diagnosing PE requires an integrated approach using clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), blood investigations and imaging modalities. Abnormalities in ECG are common among patients with massive acute PE and can serve as a prognostic indicator. In this article, we describe the ECG presentations of two patients diagnosed with PE, and review the literature on the various types of ECG presentations and their role in predicting the prognosis of PE.

  1. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  2. A Historical Review of the Characterization of Blood and Secretion Stains in the Forensic Science Laboratory Part One: Bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P H

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory tests were established during the latter part of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that determined whether or not a stain was blood and, if so, from which species it originated. A few years after the discovery of the ABO blood groups in 1900, it was possible to detect these groups in bloodstains using the absorption-inhibition (A/I) technique. However, in the 1960s a new technique emerged that was more sensitive and quicker than A/I - the absorbtion-elution (A/E) method. Furthermore, it could be adapted to grouping semen and saliva stains. The biochemical technique of electrophoresis allowed the study of polymorphic forms of serum proteins and red cell enzymes in bloodstains. By 1980 it was theoretically possible to type a bloodstain in at least 16 different blood group systems. Even if a smaller number of these systems was identified in a stain, often very high levels of discrimination were achieved. Fewer blood grouping systems were applicable to secretion stains. The latest development of DNA profiling, however, allows the determination of the source of a stain from blood or semen with a degree of certainty never before attained. Technical success has nevertheless brought problems both for the laboratory and the courts, some of which are addressed here.

  3. Diffuse Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulas With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rong; Gong, Su-Gang; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Zhao, Qin-Hua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (PAVFs) are rare. Diffuse type PAVFs with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are even rarer and can elude anatomy imaging like a plain chest film or a computed tomography. The rapid blood flow that ensues due to lack of a capillary bed leads to various degrees of ischemia depending on the number and size of the PAVF. This is a case report of diffuse PAVF in a patient with PAH.This case report describes a patient with recurrent hemoptysis and chest pain. Systemic examination was unremarkable except for P2 attenuation on auscultation. Echocardiograghy showed confirmed pulmonary hypertension with mild dilation of right atrium and ventricle and a tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient of 40 mm Hg and ruled out congenital heart diseases. Right heart catheterization revealed precapillary PAH with mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 88 mm Hg. Pulmonary angiography showed enlarged pulmonary arterial trunk and diffuse spiral tortuous pulmonary arterial branches indicting diffuse PAVFs. The patient was diagnosed as PAH and began treatment of 25 mg tid of sildenafil.The case highlights a rare and unique presentation of PAH.

  4. Diffuse Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulas With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rong; Gong, Su-Gang; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Zhao, Qin-Hua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (PAVFs) are rare. Diffuse type PAVFs with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are even rarer and can elude anatomy imaging like a plain chest film or a computed tomography. The rapid blood flow that ensues due to lack of a capillary bed leads to various degrees of ischemia depending on the number and size of the PAVF. This is a case report of diffuse PAVF in a patient with PAH.This case report describes a patient with recurrent hemoptysis and chest pain. Systemic examination was unremarkable except for P2 attenuation on auscultation. Echocardiograghy showed confirmed pulmonary hypertension with mild dilation of right atrium and ventricle and a tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient of 40 mm Hg and ruled out congenital heart diseases. Right heart catheterization revealed precapillary PAH with mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 88 mm Hg. Pulmonary angiography showed enlarged pulmonary arterial trunk and diffuse spiral tortuous pulmonary arterial branches indicting diffuse PAVFs. The patient was diagnosed as PAH and began treatment of 25 mg tid of sildenafil.The case highlights a rare and unique presentation of PAH. PMID:27057843

  5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: a clot in question.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavin; Pakala, Aneesh; Aronson, Willard; Magharyous, Hany; Brown, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a group of disorders characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure and premature death. We present an unusual case of PAH diagnosed initially as Idiopathic PAH (IPAH) after secondary causes were excluded which was successfully managed for a number of years with vasodilators and anticoagulation. Over the months after stopping anticoagulation (because of recurring small bowel hemorrhaging) patient developed progressive findings of right heart failure, which failed to respond to escalating doses of prostacyclin. The patient died and an autopsy revealed the surprising finding of extensive organized central pulmonary artery thrombi as is seen in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We discuss the question of whether these thrombi are generally embolic or develop in situ and recommend that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for central thrombi in patients with IPAH were anticoagulation is contraindicated. PMID:25223151

  6. Computational Simulation of the Pulmonary Arteries and its Role in the Study of Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Shandas, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The hemodynamic state of the pulmonary arteries is challenging to routinely measure in children due to the vascular circuit's position in the lungs. The resulting relative scarcity of quantitative clinical diagnostic and prognostic information impairs management of diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, or high blood pressure of the pulmonary circuit, and invites new techniques of measurement. Here we examine recent applications of macro-scale computational mechanics methods for fluids and solids – traditionally used by engineers in the design and virtual testing of complex metal and composite structures – applied to study the pulmonary vasculature, both in healthy and diseased states. In four subject areas, we briefly outline advances in computational methodology and provide examples of clinical relevance. PMID:21499523

  7. Diagnostic Evaluation of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Deepa; Blanchard, Daniel; Auger, William R

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is defined as pulmonary hypertension in the presence of an organized thrombus within the pulmonary vascular bed that persists at least 3 months after the onset of anticoagulant therapy. Because CTEPH is potentially curable by surgical endarterectomy, correct identification of patients with this form of pulmonary hypertension and an accurate assessment of surgical candidacy are essential to provide optimal care. Patients most commonly present with symptoms of exertional dyspnea and otherwise unexplained decline in exercise capacity. Atypical chest pain, a nonproductive cough, and episodic hemoptysis are observed less frequently. With more advanced disease, patients often develop symptoms suggestive of right ventricular compromise. Physical examination findings are minimal early in the course of this disease, but as pulmonary hypertension progresses, may include nonspecific finding of right ventricular failure, such as a tricuspid regurgitation murmur, pedal edema, and jugular venous distention. Chest radiographs may suggest pulmonary hypertension, but are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis. Radioisotopic ventilation-perfusion scanning is sensitive for detecting CTEPH, making it a valuable screening study. Conventional catheter-based pulmonary angiography retains an important role in establishing the presence and extent of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging are playing a growing diagnostic role. Innovative technologies such as dual-energy computed tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography show promise for contributing diagnostic information and assisting in the preoperative characterization of patients with CTEPH. PMID:27571004

  8. B Cell–Activating Factor. An Orchestrator of Lymphoid Follicles in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polverino, Francesca; Cosio, Borja G.; Pons, Jaime; Laucho-Contreras, Maria; Tejera, Paula; Iglesias, Amanda; Rios, Angel; Jahn, Andreas; Sauleda, Jaume; Divo, Miguel; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Sholl, Lynette; Rosas, Ivan O.; Agustí, Alvar; Celli, Bartolome R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased pulmonary lymphoid follicle (LF) counts. B cell–activating factor of tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) regulates B cells in health, but its role in COPD pathogenesis is unclear. Objectives: To determine whether BAFF expression in pulmonary LFs correlates with COPD severity, LF size or number, and/or readouts of B-cell function in LFs. Methods: We correlated BAFF immunostaining in LFs in lung explants or biopsies from nonsmoking control subjects (NSC), smokers without COPD (SC), and patients with COPD with the number and size of LFs, and LF B-cell apoptosis, activation, and proliferation. We analyzed serum BAFF levels and BAFF expression in B cells in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the same subject groups. We assessed whether: (1) cigarette smoke extract (CSE) increases B-cell BAFF expression and (2) recombinant BAFF (rBAFF) rescues B cells from CSE-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Measurements and Main Results: Patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD had increased numbers and larger pulmonary LFs than patients with GOLD stages I–II COPD and SC. We identified two main types of pulmonary LFs: (1) type A, the predominant type in GOLD stages I–II COPD and SC, characterized by abundant apoptotic but few BAFF-positive cells (mostly B cells); and (2) type B, the main type in GOLD stage IV COPD, characterized by abundant BAFF-positive cells but few apoptotic cells (mostly B cells). BAFF levels were also higher in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage B cells in patients with COPD versus NSC and SC. Surprisingly, rBAFF blocked CSE-induced B-cell apoptosis by inhibiting CSE-induced NF-κB activation. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that B-cell BAFF expression creates a self-perpetuating loop contributing to COPD progression by promoting pulmonary B-cell survival and LF

  9. Molecular characterization of Italian Candida parapsilosis isolates reveals the cryptic presence of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis in blood cultures from newborns.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Delfino, Demetrio; Costanzo, Barbara; Cascio, Antonio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The authors report the molecular characterization of Candida parapsilosis isolates recovered from the blood and venous central catheter tips of patients admitted to different care units of the Polyclinic Hospital, University of Messina, Italy. Among 97 presumed C. parapsilosis isolates examined, 94 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the remaining 3 isolates were found to belong to the cryptic species Candida orthopsilosis which was recovered only from blood cultures of neonates (<30 days old) born prematurely. No C. metapsilosis was found in this study. This study emphasizes the role of C. parapsilosis as an important nosocomial pathogen, and it also describes, for the first time, the occurrence of C. orthopsilosis in newborns.

  10. Septic pulmonary embolism induced by dental infection.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Yutaro; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Yuzurio, Syota; Horita, Naokatsu; Hosokawa, Shinobu; Watanabe, Yoichi; Tohmori, Hidetoshi; Ono, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Dental infection can be an important source for septic pulmonary embolism (SPE), but only a few cases of SPE accompanying dental infection have been reported. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of SPE induced by dental infection. Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria described in the text were recruited in a retrospective fashion. All 9 patients were men, with a median age of 59 years (range:47 to 74 years). Eight patients had chest pain (88.9%), 5 had a preceding toothache (55.6%) and 3 had preceding gingival swelling (33.3%). Blood cultures obtained from 7 patients were negative. Periodontitis was found in all of the cases, periapical periodontitis in 5 cases, and gingival abscess in 3 cases. The median duration of hospitalization was 15 days, and symptoms were mild in some cases. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, tooth extraction was performed in 3 cases, tooth scaling in 6. SPE induced by dental infection has prominent clinical characteristics such as male preponderance, chest pain, preceding toothache, and mild clinical course.

  11. Identification and characterization of a genome-wide significant region associated with red blood cell phenotypes in domestic sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome wide association study (GWAS) investigating red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes was performed with over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three economically important breeds in the US (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, hereafter the discovery SNP) sh...

  12. Purification and characterization of a heteromultimeric glycoprotein from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex with an inhibitory effect on human blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2011-01-01

    Plant latex has many health benefits and has been used in folk medicine. In this study, the biological effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex on human blood coagulation was investigated. By a combination of heat precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, a heat stable heteromultimeric glycoprotein (HSGPL1) was purified from jackfruit milky latex. The apparent molecular masses of the monomeric proteins on SDS/PAGE were 33, 31 and 29 kDa. The isoelectric points (pIs) of the monomers were 6.63, 6.63 and 6.93, respectively. Glycosylation and deglycosylation tests confirmed that each subunit of HSGPL1 formed the native multimer by sugar-based interaction. Moreover, the multimer of HSGPL1 also resisted 2-mercaptoethanol action. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis indicated that HSGPL1 was a complex protein related to Hsps/chaperones. HSGPL1 has an effect on intrinsic pathways of the human blood coagulation system by significantly prolonging the activated partial thrombin time (APTT). In contrast, it has no effect on the human extrinsic blood coagulation system using the prothrombin time (PT) test. The prolonged APTT resulted from the serine protease inhibitor property of HSGPL1, since it reduced activity of human blood coagulation factors XI(a) and α-XII(a).

  13. Purification and Electrophoretic Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase from Mammalian Blood: A Different Twist on a Classic Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    A multiweek protein purification suite, suitable for upper-division biochemistry or biotechnology undergraduate students, is described. Students work in small teams to isolate the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from a nontraditional tissue source, mammalian blood, using a sequence of three column chromatographic procedures: ion-exchange, size…

  14. [Pulmonary Amyloidosis: A Diagnostic Challenge].

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana; Alfaro, Tiago M; Madama, Daniela; Freitas, Sara; Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos; Gamboa, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid extracellular deposition in organs and tissues. Pulmonary involvement is a rare manifestation of the disease and it can be focal or as part of systemic amyloidosis. We report two cases. Case 1: 71 year-old female with bronchiectasis and Sjogrenâ syndrome, who complained of anorexia, weight loss and a productive cough. The diagnostic study included a surgical lung biopsy and histological examination demonstrated pulmonary amyloidosis. Case 2: 83 year-old male patient, ex-smoker, asymptomatic, whose routine chest x-ray showed a nodular opacity in the right lung field. A transthoracic biopsy revealed an amyloid lung tumor. These cases illustrate a rare disease which in Case 1 also coexisted with Sjögrenâs syndrome and bronchiectasis. The most important differential diagnosis is cancer and so a definitive diagnosis is essential, as amyloidosis is usually benign and indolent.

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eric B; Noble, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000) than in women (13.2/100,000). The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock). IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis), forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational) exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant disability. The median

  16. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mara-Koosham, Gopi; Stoltze, Karl; Aday, Jeffrey; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids. PMID:27231692

  17. The pathogenesis of pulmonary edema in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Warshaw, A L; Lesser, P B; Rie, M; Cullen, D J

    1975-01-01

    Acute pulmonary edema appeared 3 or more days after the onset of acute pancreatitis in 7 patients, an approximate incidence of 8%. The severity of pancreatitis in these patients was characterized by massive requirements for intravenous colloid and by marked hypocalcemia. In addition, at least 5 of the 7 patients had very high serum levels of triglycerides at the time of hospital admission. Hemodynamic studies during pulmonary edema showed normal central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Cardiac index was appropriately elevated. Respiratory treatment, consisting of endotracheal intubation and controlled ventilation with PEEP, was successful in allowing reversal of the pulmonary injury and recovery of respiratory function within 1-2 weeks in all cases. Two patients died later from pancreatic abscesses. The findings indicate that a distinct form of pulmonary injury may occur in acute pancreatitis, characterized by loss of integrity of the alveolar-capilllary membrane, leading to pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury is not known but may be caused by circulating free fatty acids, phospholipase A, or vasoactive substances. The pulmonary membrane lesion appears to heal during the period of intensive respiratory support. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1101836

  18. The Warburg effect: A new story in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hongyan; Xiao, Yunbin; Deng, Xicheng; Luo, Jingfei; Hong, Chenliang; Qin, Xuping

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare yet fatal condition that is characterized by a continuous and notable elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), resulting in right heart failure and death. Pulmonary arterial remodelling does not result from abnormal proliferation of pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) but from pulmonary arterial endothelial cell (PAEC) dysfunction. However, the pathological mechanism of these two types of vascular cells in pulmonary artery remodelling is unclear. The Warburg effect describes aerobic glycolysis wherein cells commonly reprogram their energy metabolism to preferentially utilize glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Recent research has demonstrated that the Warburg effect plays a significant role in the development of PAH, which involves the abnormal proliferation of PASMCs and endothelial dysfunction. This review attempts to illustrate the functions of the Warburg effect in PAH, which may provide a new therapeutic target for PAH treatment.

  19. Ageing and endurance training effects on quantity and quality of pulmonary vascular bed in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in healthy individuals, peak oxygen consumption is associated with a greater pulmonary capillary blood volume and a more distensible pulmonary circulation. Our cross-sectional study suggests that, in healthy men aged 20 to 60 years (n = 63), endurance sport practice (vigorous-intensity domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) is associated with better quantity (pulmonary capillary blood volume) and quality (slope of increase in lung diffusion for carbon monoxide on exercise) of the pulmonary vascular bed, partly counterbalancing the deleterious effects of ageing, which remains to be demonstrated in a prospective longitudinal design. PMID:24460636

  20. Pulmonary transvascular flux of transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B. )

    1989-11-01

    We compared the pulmonary transvascular fluxes of transferrin and albumin in the intact sheep lung. Anesthetized sheep were prepared with lung lymph fistulas. The vascular blood pool was marked with {sup 99m}Tc-erythrocytes, autologous transferrin was labeled with {sup 113m}In, and albumin was labeled with {sup 125}I. Samples of blood, plasma, lymph, and lung were obtained up to 180 min after tracer infusion. Lymph tissue radioactivities were corrected for the intravascular component and expressed as extravascular-to-plasma concentration ratios. Clearance of transferrin and albumin from the plasma space followed a two-compartment model. The clearance rate constant was 2.1 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for albumin and 2.4 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for transferrin (P less than 0.05). Lymph-to-plasma ratios for albumin and transferrin were not different. However, the extravascular-to-plasma ratio for albumin was greater than transferrin (P less than 0.05). The lymph and lung data were deconvoluted for the plasma input function and fit to a two-compartment model. The results indicate that albumin and transferrin have similar permeabilities across the vascular barrier but have different pulmonary circulation to lymph kinetics because the extravascular volume of distribution of albumin is greater than transferrin.

  1. Saddle pulmonary thromboembolism with zero Wells' score.

    PubMed

    Pai, Rajasree Pai Ramachandra; Kangath, Raghesh Varot; Brown, Thomas A

    2011-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 2,218 patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism during a 25-year period from 1966-1990 in Minnesota showed an annual incidence of venous thromboembolism of 117 per 100,000 (deep vein thrombosis, 48 per 100,000; pulmonary embolism, 69 per 100,000). Higher rates were found in males than females (130 vs 110 per 100,000, respectively) after adjusting for age. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of DVT and PE have been shown to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism include alterations in blood flow (surgery, injury or long-distance air travel, pregnancy, obesity), hypercoagulability (factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria) and vessel wall abnormalities. Eighty percent of deep venous thrombosis resolves spontaneously and less than 15% embolize to pulmonary arteries. PMID:21476378

  2. Pulmonary involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Pares, A; Bruguera, M; Coll, J; Picado, C; Agusti-Vidal, A; Burgos, F; Rodes, J

    1981-01-01

    The association of pulmonary fibrosis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains controversial. To determine the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis in PBC, a carefully selected series of 14 PBC patients, seven patients with Sicca complex, and 14 control subjects have been studied. Seven of the 14 patients with PBC had Sjögren's syndrome, four of whom had some clinical evidence of pulmonary disease. Evaluation of ventilatory capacity, gas transfer factor, arterial blood gases, and lung mechanics were performed. Gas transfer was reduced in patients with PBC associated with Sjögen's syndrome and in patients with the Sicca complex. These results suggest that the respiratory, clinical, ad functional abnormalities found in PBC are related to the presence of an associated Sjögen's syndrome. PMID:7281088

  3. Reduced iC3b-mediated phagocytotic capacity of pulmonary neutrophils in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, MR; Doull, IJM; Dewitt, S; Hallett, MB

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a neutrophil-dominated chronic inflammation of the airways with persistent infections. In order to investigate whether neutrophils contribute to an inadequacy in the pulmonary defence mechanism, the phagocytic activity of pulmonary and peripheral blood neutrophils from CF and non-CF respiratory patients were compared. Neutrophils were isolated from both the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 21 patients with CF (12 male, 9 female; mean age 7·5 years, range 0·25–16·4 years) and 17 non-CF subjects (9 male, 8 female; mean age 5·4 years, range 0·2–13·1 years). The ex vivo phagocytic rate of normal pulmonary neutrophils to internalize zymosan particles opsonized with iC3b was faster than that of circulating neutrophils (P < 0·05), but the maximum capacity (9 particles/cell) was similar. In contrast, pulmonary neutrophils from patients with CF had a lower phagocytic capacity than circulating neutrophils either from the same patients or from normal subjects. This deficiency could not be attributed to (i) the cell surface density of CR3 (CD18/CD11b) receptors, which were not significantly different between the other groups (ii) the signalling ability of the CR3 receptors, using cytosolic free Ca2+ signalling as the receptor activity read-out or (iii) a decrease in cellular ATP concentration. As CFTR was not detectable on neutrophils from any source by either histochemistry or Western blotting, it was concluded that the reduced phagocytic capacity was not the direct result of a CFTR mutation, but was attributed to a failure of neutrophil phagocytic priming during translocation into the CF lung. PMID:16178858

  4. Impairments of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sakhno, Ludmila V; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya; Tikhonova, Marina A; Nikonov, Sergey D; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Chernykh, Elena R

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype and functional properties of antigen-presenting cells (APC), that is, circulating monocytes and generated in vitro macrophages and dendritic cells, were investigated in the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) differing in lymphocyte reactivity to M. tuberculosis antigens (PPD-reactive versus PPD-anergic patients). We revealed the distinct impairments in patient APC functions. For example, the monocyte dysfunctions were displayed by low CD86 and HLA-DR expression, 2-fold increase in CD14(+)CD16(+) expression, the high numbers of IL-10-producing cells, and enhanced IL-10 and IL-6 production upon LPS-stimulation. The macrophages which were in vitro generated from peripheral blood monocytes under GM-CSF were characterized by Th1/Th2-balance shifting (downproduction of IFN-γ coupled with upproduction of IL-10) and by reducing of allostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte culture. The dendritic cells (generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes upon GM-CSF + IFN-α) were characterized by impaired maturation/activation, a lower level of IFN-γ production in conjunction with an enhanced capacity to produce IL-10 and IL-6, and a profound reduction of allostimulatory activity. The APC dysfunctions were found to be most prominent in PPD-anergic patients. The possible role of APC impairments in reducing the antigen-specific T-cell response to M. tuberculosis was discussed. PMID:26339660

  5. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  6. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Rebecca L

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a description of a physiological finding rather than a diagnosis. Pulmonary arterial pressure is the result of interactions among pulmonary blood flow (right ventricular cardiac output), pulmonary vascular impedance and post-capillary pressure (typically reflecting left atrial pressure). When elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic/diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure > approximately 30/19 mmHg at rest) are accompanied by increased left atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial hypertension may be considered secondary to left-heart failure. Introduction of Doppler methods to diagnose pulmonary arterial hypertension has increased the awareness of the prevalence and importance of pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs with left-heart failure. Increasing understanding of the mechanism of development of pulmonary venous hypertension and reactive pulmonary arterial hypertension in dogs with left-heart disease has led to the development of successful additive therapies for progressive clinical signs in the setting of chronic therapy for congestive heart failure due to left-sided valvular and myocardial dysfunction. Because effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction are now available, screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension should be a regular part of the Doppler echocardiographic examination in a clinical setting of chronic therapy for left-sided congestive heart failure due to valvular or myocardial disease.

  8. Characterization of nasal and blood culture isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from patients in United States Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tenover, Fred C; Tickler, Isabella A; Goering, Richard V; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Mediavilla, José R; Persing, David H

    2012-03-01

    A total of 299 nares and 194 blood isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), each recovered from a unique patient, were collected from 23 U.S. hospitals from May 2009 to March 2010. All isolates underwent spa and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing; a subset of 84 isolates was typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI. Seventy-six spa types were observed among the isolates. Overall, for nasal isolates, spa type t002-SCCmec type II (USA100) was the most common strain type (37% of isolates), while among blood isolates, spa type t008-SCCmec type IV (USA300) was the most common (39%). However, the proportion of all USA100 and USA300 isolates varied by United States census region. Nasal isolates were more resistant to tobramycin and clindamycin than blood isolates (55.9% and 48.8% of isolates versus 36.6% and 39.7%, respectively; for both, P < 0.05). The USA300 isolates were largely resistant to fluoroquinolones. High-level mupirocin resistance was low among all spa types (<5%). SCCmec types III and VIII, which are rare in the United States, were observed along with several unusual PFGE types, including CMRSA9, EMRSA15, and the PFGE profile associated with sequence type 239 (ST239) isolates. Typing data from this convenience sample suggest that in U.S. hospitalized patients, USA100 isolates of multiple spa types, while still common in the nares, have been replaced by USA300 isolates as the predominant MRSA strain type in positive blood cultures.

  9. [Pulmonary hypertension: current aspects].

    PubMed

    Tello de Meneses, R; Gómez Sánchez, M A; Delgado Jiménez, J; Gómez Pajuelo, C; Sáenz de la Calzada, C; Zarco Gutiérrez, P

    1996-08-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension, although less frequent than secondary forms, represents the true paradigm of this disease. The recent investigations on pulmonary vascular response mechanisms to different stimuli has increased our knowledge about the mechanism of high pulmonary pressure. Molecular biology of the endothelial cell has provided evidence that endothelial injury plus a genetic individual predisposition may be the pathogenic mainstream of this disease. The histologic findings of pulmonary hypertension are still a matter of controversy, although the clinical, epidemiological and prognostic features are better defined. Therapeutically, there has been important advances, specially with various vasodilators, like calciumantagonists, prostacyclin, adenosine and nitric oxide, as well as new routes of administration. In more advance stages of the disease, atrial septostomy (only paliative) and pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary transplantation, are other therapeutic options to consider, after an adequate selection of patients.

  10. Characterization of the elemental composition of newborn blood spots using sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Erica K.; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Gorski, Patrick; Overdier, Joel; Musselman, Jessica; Ross, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed extraction and analysis protocols for element detection in neonatal blood spots (NBSs) using sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). A 5% (v/v) nitric acid element extraction protocol was optimized and used to simultaneously measure 28 elements in NBS card filter paper and 150 NBSs. NBS element concentrations were corrected for filter paper background contributions estimated from measurements in samples obtained from either unspotted or spotted NBS cards. A lower 95% uncertainty limit (UL) that accounted for ICP-MS method, filter paper element concentration, and element recovery uncertainties was calculated by standard methods for each individual’s NBS element concentration. Filter paper median element levels were highly variable within and between lots for most elements. After accounting for measurement uncertainties, 11 elements (Ca, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, S, Zn) had lower 95% ULs >0 ng/spot with estimated concentrations ranging from 0.05->50,000 ng/spot in ≥50% of NBS samples in both correction methods. In a NBS sample minority, Li, Cd, Cs, Cr, Ni, Mo, and Pb had estimated concentrations ≥20-fold higher than the respective median level. Taking measurement uncertainties into account, this assay could be used for semiquantitative newborn blood element measurement and for detection of individuals exposed to supraphysiologic levels of some trace elements. Adequate control of filter paper element contributions remains the primary obstacle to fully quantitative element measurement in newborn blood using NBSs. PMID:20588324

  11. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  12. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xue-Man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-04-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10(6) human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery. PMID:27212930

  13. The physcial properties of human pulmonary arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Banks, J; Booth, F V; MacKay, E H; Rajagopalan, B; Lee, G D

    1978-11-01

    1. We have studied the extensibility of circumferential strips of main pulmonary artery and large pulmonary veins obtained at post mortem from patients of all ages, dying from conditions other than heart and lung disease. 2. The vessel strips were submitted to increasing loads in a tension balance. The pulmonary arteries were found to be readily extensible. This extensibility became less with increasing age. The pulmonary veins were virtually inextensible at all ages. 3. It is postulated that the large extraparenchymal pulmonary veins have a capacitative role in supplying blood from the lungs to the left atrium. This may be accomplished by their collapsible nature, as they have little capability of distension. PMID:720001

  14. Small pulmonary arteries in some natives of La Paz, Bolivia.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D; Smith, P; Rios Dalenz, J; Williams, D; Harris, P