Science.gov

Sample records for charley river areas

  1. Hydrologic data from Nation, Kandik, and Yukon rivers, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-01-01

    Flow data were collected from two adjacent rivers in Yukon?Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska?the Nation River (during 1991?2000) and the Kandik River (1994?2000)?and from the Yukon River (1950?2000) at Eagle, Alaska, upstream from the boundary of the preserve. These flow records indicate that most of the runoff from these rivers occurs from May through September and that the average monthly discharge during this period ranges from 1,172 to 2,210 cubic feet per second for the Nation River, from 1,203 to 2,633 cubic feet per second for the Kandik River, and from 112,000 to 224,000 cubic feet per second for the Yukon River. Water-quality data were collected for the Nation River and several of its tributaries from 1991 to 1992 and for the Yukon River at Eagle from 1950 to 1994. Three tributaries to the Nation River (Waterfall Creek, Cathedral Creek, and Hard Luck Creek) have relatively high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. These three watersheds are underlain predominantly by Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks. The Yukon River transports 33,000,000 tons of suspended sediment past Eagle each year. Reflecting the inputs from its major tributaries, the water of the Yukon River at Eagle is dominated by calcium?magnesium bicarbonate.

  2. Panoramic View of Hurricane Charley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  3. New ichnological, paleobotanical and detrital zircon data from an unnamed rock unit in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve (Cretaceous: Alaska): Stratigraphic implications for the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiorillo, Anthony R.; Fanti, Federico; Hults, Chad; Hasiotis, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    A paleontological reconnaissance survey on Cretaceous and Paleogene terrestrial units along the Yukon River drainage through much of east-central Alaska has provided new chronostratigraphic constraints, paleoclimatological data, and the first information on local biodiversity within an ancient, high-latitude ecosystem. The studied unnamed rock unit is most notable for its historic economic gold placer deposits, but our survey documents its relevance as a source rock for Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates, invertebrates, and associated flora. Specifically, new U-Pb ages from detrital zircons combined with ichnological data are indicative of a Late Cretaceous age for at least the lower section of the studied rock unit, previously considered to be representative of nearly exclusively Paleogene deposition. Further, the results of our survey show that this sedimentary rock unit preserves the first record of dinosaurs in the vast east-central Alaska region. Lastly, paleobotanical data, when compared to correlative rock units, support previous interpretations that the Late Cretaceous continental ecosystem of Alaska was heterogeneous in nature and seasonal.

  4. The black hole in Charley Toorop's "The three generations": a neuro-iconographic analysis and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lakke, J P

    1995-08-01

    The painting "The Three Generations" is considered one of the highlights in Charley Toorop's works. It essentially represents a self portrait of the artist herself, with John Rädeker's sculpture of her father Jan Toorop, and her son Edgar Fernhout. The completion of this painting took 9 years (1941-1950). However, the left lower corner of the canvas, sometimes referred to as "the black hole", Charley's left thumb with the palette and the conspicuously raised right arm with the brush can be considered structural imperfections. During the last 5 years of her life Charley Toorop suffered at least three cerebrovascular accidents, which raises the question whether the described pictorial inadequacies were of a neuropathological origin. Closer examination of the "black hole" area on the canvas disclosed a subtle ridge, as predicted and reconstructed by computer image manipulation. It is argued that Charley Toorop suffered multiple brain infarctions with subsequent partial visuo-spatial agnosia which prevented her from either recognizing and/or restoring the alleged imperfections in the painting "The Three Generations".

  5. Effects of Hurricane Charley on fish chorusing

    PubMed Central

    Locascio, James V; Mann, David A

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane Charley, a category 4 hurricane, passed through Charlotte Harbor, Florida, directly over an autonomous underwater acoustic datalogger used to record sound production by fishes associated with courtship and spawning. Acoustic recordings made on 9 days prior to the storm, during and 3 days after the storm provided unprecedented documentation of the hurricane's passage and its effect on fishes' calling behaviour. The hurricane did not inhibit nightly chorusing events of spawning fish. Sound levels produced by spawning fish on the night of and 3 days after the hurricane were higher and lasted longer than any of the 9 days recorded prior to the hurricane. PMID:17148207

  6. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delaware Bay and River, Salem... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.510 Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina... Regulated Navigation Area: The navigable waters of Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River, and...

  7. Characters named Charles or Charley in novels by Charles Dickens.

    PubMed

    Barry, Herbert

    2007-10-01

    12 fictional characters named Charles or Charley are contained in eight of the 14 completed novels by Charles Dickens. Most of the author's namesakes have humorous attributes, an unusually close relationship with one or more other characters, and a happy subsequent life. Three stages of the author's adult life are youthful, mature, and after separation from his wife. The fictional namesakes are most humorous in the author's youthful stage and least humorous after separation from his wife. The 12 fictional namesakes of Charles Dickens are compared with the two fictional namesakes of Jane Austen.

  8. Preliminary medical examiner reports of mortality associated with Hurricane Charley--Florida, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    On August 13, 2004, at approximately 3:45 p.m. EDT, Hurricane Charley made landfall at Cayo Costa, a Gulf of Mexico barrier island west of Cape Coral, Florida, as a Category 4 storm, with sustained winds estimated at 145 mph. Charley was the strongest hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Hurricane Andrew in August 1992. Charley created a 7-foot storm surge in Fort Myers, then traversed the state in 9 hours, continuing in a northeast direction across eight counties. This report presents preliminary data from Florida medical examiners (MEs), which indicated that 31 deaths were associated with Hurricane Charley. Deaths might be reduced through coordinated hurricane planning, focused evacuations, and advance communication to the public regarding the environmental hazards after a natural disaster.

  9. What's working on working rivers: a handbook for improving urban rivers: examples from Chicago area rivers.

    Treesearch

    Naomi Cohn

    1998-01-01

    What's been done on Chicago Area Rivers is truly an inspiration. People's ability to improve these rivers shows what can be improved anywhere, even in a highly developed and complex urban setting like Chicago. A veteran staffer with the Friends of the Chicago River recently concluded: "People look at what's being accomplished on the Chicago River...

  10. Hurricane Charley Exposure and Hazard of Preterm Delivery, Florida 2004.

    PubMed

    Grabich, Shannon C; Robinson, Whitney R; Engel, Stephanie M; Konrad, Charles E; Richardson, David B; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-12-01

    Objective Hurricanes are powerful tropical storm systems with high winds which influence many health effects. Few studies have examined whether hurricane exposure is associated with preterm delivery. We aimed to estimate associations between maternal hurricane exposure and hazard of preterm delivery. Methods We used data on 342,942 singleton births from Florida Vital Statistics Records 2004-2005 to capture pregnancies at risk of delivery during the 2004 hurricane season. Maternal exposure to Hurricane Charley was assigned based on maximum wind speed in maternal county of residence. We estimated hazards of overall preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks) and extremely preterm delivery (<32 gestational weeks) in Cox regression models, adjusting for maternal/pregnancy characteristics. To evaluate heterogeneity among racial/ethnic subgroups, we performed analyses stratified by race/ethnicity. Additional models investigated whether exposure to multiples hurricanes increased hazard relative to exposure to one hurricane. Results Exposure to wind speeds ≥39 mph from Hurricane Charley was associated with a 9 % (95 % CI 3, 16 %) increase in hazard of extremely preterm delivery, while exposure to wind speed ≥74 mph was associated with a 21 % (95 % CI 6, 38 %) increase. Associations appeared greater for Hispanic mothers compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Hurricane exposure did not appear to be associated with hazard of overall preterm delivery. Exposure to multiple hurricanes did not appear more harmful than exposure to a single hurricane. Conclusions Hurricane exposure may increase hazard of extremely preterm delivery. As US coastal populations and hurricane severity increase, the associations between hurricane and preterm delivery should be further studied.

  11. Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) reproduction and seedling colonization after Hurricane Charley: Comparisons of Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proffitt, C.E.; Milbrandt, E.C.; Travis, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive aspects of life history are known to be important in recovery following disturbance in many plant species although this has not been well studied in mangroves. Hurricane Charley devastated large areas of mangroves in Charlotte Harbor, Florida, in August 2004. We surveyed 6 forests in Charlotte Harbor (2002, 2003, and 2005) and 16 in Tampa Bay, Florida (2001, 2002, 2003, and 2005) for total numbers of reproducing trees and trees heterozygotic for albinism that produce both normal and albino propagules. Tree size (estimated height and diameter at breast height) was also recorded for sentinel heterozygotic trees. Total number of reproducing trees km-1 was used as an index of reproductive output of the population, and deviation from the 3:1 (normal:albino propagules) ratio on heterozygotic trees expected with 100% selfing was used to estimate outcrossing. Numbers of Rhizophora mangle reproducing trees km-1 of shoreline in Charlotte Harbor were reduced by an order of magnitude following Hurricane Charley, while numbers of reproducing trees in Tampa Bay were similar to those of previous years. Reduced reproduction in Charlotte Harbor was accompanied by fewer new recruits in plots on Sanibel and Captiva Islands. Numbers of new recruits after the storm also tended to be fewer in plots where canopy loss was greater. More new recruits occurred in sites that had higher densities of pre-storm Rhizophora seedlings and greater relative dominance by Rhizophora. Outcrossing of sentinel trees was 2.5 times greater in Charlotte Harbor (mean site-1 = 33.6 ?? 6.7%; with 17% of forest sites completely selfing) than in Tampa Bay (mean site-1 = 13.4 ?? 4.7%; with 40% of sites completely selfing), although the implications for seedling recruitment of this difference are not known. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  12. EAARL Coastal Topography-Western Florida, Post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 16 and 18, 2004. Click on a tile number (1 - 68) to view the corresponding 1-meter-resolution images and links to each data directory. Click on the red tile in the index map to view the 3-meter-resolution mosaic and link to the corresponding directory.

  13. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest..., Colorado River Storage Project Manager, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social.... Thomas Hackett, Rates Team Lead, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social...

  14. Rapid community health and needs assessments after Hurricanes Isabel and Charley--North Carolina, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    On September 18, 2003, Hurricane Isabel, a Category 2 hurricane, made landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina (NC). The storm, moving to the northeast with winds exceeding 100 mph, caused extensive power outages and structural damage in northeastern NC and southern Virginia. In NC, approximately 762,000 residents lost power during the storm, and the shelter population peaked at an estimated 16,600 persons. Six storm-related fatalities were reported, and 26 eastern NC counties were included in a federal disaster area declaration. The North Carolina Division of Public Health (NCDPH) activated the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR) and seven Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) to conduct a rapid community health and needs assessment for the affected population. CDC deployed staff to provide technical support to NCDPH. The assessment determined that the majority of public health emergencies resulted from electric power outages, which affected access to food, water, and medical care. Data and recommendations were provided immediately to local and state emergency responders, who used the information to direct Hurricane Isabel recovery efforts and also to improve the assessment, which was next deployed in August 2004 with Hurricane Charley.

  15. Monitoring river discharge with remotely sensed imagery using river island area as an indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Feng; Cai, Xiaobin; Li, Wenbo; Xiao, Fei; Li, Xiaodong; Du, Yun

    2012-01-01

    River discharge is an important parameter in understanding water cycles, and consistent long-term discharge records are necessary for related research. In practice, discharge records based on in situ measurement are often limited because of technological, economic, and institutional obstacles. Satellite remote sensing provides an attractive alternative way to measure river discharge by constructing an empirical rating curve between the parameter provided by remote sensing techniques and simultaneous ground discharge data. River width is a popular parameter for constructing the empirical curve, since change in river discharge can be represented by a change in river width. In some rectangular channels, however, river width does not change significantly with river discharge, so an alternative parameter is necessary. We analyze a novel technique using river island area as an indicator of discharge. A river island often has a flat terrain, and its area decreases with higher discharge. This technique is validated by three river islands in the Yangtze River in China. All 61 remotely sensed images acquired by the HuanJing (HJ) satellites from 2009 to 2010 were correlated with corresponding in situ discharge of the nearby Zhicheng hydrological station. The performance of fitted curves for inferring river discharge is validated using 36 HJ images taken in 2011, and the influence of remotely sensed imagery and river islands is discussed. All three river islands can be used as indicators of river discharge, although their performances are much different. For the river island with the best result, the mean accuracy of the estimates is less than 10% of the observed discharge, and all relative errors are within 20%, validating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.540 Section 165.540 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.540 Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Description of the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA...

  17. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.540 Section 165.540 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.540 Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Description of the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA...

  18. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.540 Section 165.540 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.540 Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Description of the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA...

  19. River flow fluctuation analysis: Effect of watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirpa, Feyera A.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Over, Thomas M.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River Basin in Georgia in the southeastern United States with special focus on the effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 23 to 19,606 km2. The climatic and seasonal trends are removed using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique. Results show that (1) river flow fluctuations have two distinct scaling regimes, and the scaling break is delayed for large watershed areas; (2) large watersheds have more persistent river flow fluctuations and stronger long memory (i.e., for lag times beyond the scale break) than small watersheds do; (3) the long memory of river flow fluctuations does not come from the long memory of precipitation; (4) a linear reservoir unit hydrograph transfer function approach does not capture correctly the basin processes that convert short-memory precipitation to long-memory streamflow; and (5) the degree of multifractality of river flow fluctuations decreases with increasing watershed area. The results clearly indicate that watershed area is an important factor in the long-memory studies of streamflow such as streamflow prediction.

  20. 33 CFR 165.T01-0876 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and Quincy, MA. 165.T01-0876 Section 165.T01... River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and Quincy, MA. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: all U.S. navigable waters surrounding the Weymouth Fore River bridge (Mile 3.5...

  1. River Restoration Within Water Supply Areas - Problems and Solution Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regli, C.; Huggenberger, P.; Guldenfels, L.

    2004-05-01

    The demand of river restoration in many areas of Europe and North America clarifies the existing problems of a sustainable use of water resources. River restoration generally intensifies the exchange between surface- and groundwater and related dissolved compounds or particles. Recommendations concerning ecological measures of river restoration within water supply areas should allow differentiated solutions, which take into account groundwater and flood protection. Model scenarios play an important role in decision-making processes. An application of this approach is given for the groundwater production system of the city of Basel, Switzerland: The former channelized river Wiese should be restored to more natural conditions to re-establish the biological connectivity and to increase the recreational value of this area. These initiatives might conflict with the requirements of groundwater protection, especially during flood events. Therefore, processes of river-groundwater interaction have been characterized by analyses of physical, chemical, and microbiological data sampled in several well clusters between the river and production wells. The well clusters allow sampling of groundwater in different depths of the aquifer. These data together with data from tracer experiments are used for modeling the river-groundwater interaction. The large- and medium-scaled, transient groundwater models are used to evaluate the well capture zones in the different river restoration scenarios. Well capture zones have to satisfy the safety requirements of groundwater protection. A further step includes optimizations of water supply operation such as artificial recharge and pumping. At the small scale, uncertainty estimations concerning delineation of well capture zones are made by stochastic approaches including geological and geophysical data of the aquifer. The methods presented can be used to define and evaluate groundwater protection zones in heterogeneous aquifers associated with

  2. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  3. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  4. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  5. 33 CFR 110.72d - Ashley River anchorage areas, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following locations are special anchorage areas: (a) Ashley River Anchorage 1. The waters lying within an.... (b) Ashley River Anchorage 2. The waters lying within an area across the Ashley River Channel from...

  6. KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

  7. SALMON RIVER BREAKS PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Salmon River Breaks Primitive Area and vicinity in Idaho confirmed a substantiated gold resource potential in placer deposits along the Salmon River but determined that large-scale mining of the deposits probably would not be feasible. Except for demonstrated fluorspar resources at the Big Squaw Creek deposit, no other mineral resources were found in the area. The geologic environment, geochemical findings, and geophysical data all suggest little likelihood for the occurrence of additional mineral resources in the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  8. 36 CFR 7.90 - Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Recreation Area. (a) Bicycling. (1) Where may I ride a bicycle within Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area? The following routes are designated for bicycle use: (i) The approximately 500-foot-long... three trails will be posted at trail junctions indicating they are open to bicycle use. (3) Where can I...

  9. 36 CFR 7.90 - Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Recreation Area. (a) Bicycling. (1) Where may I ride a bicycle within Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area? The following routes are designated for bicycle use: (i) The approximately 500-foot-long... three trails will be posted at trail junctions indicating they are open to bicycle use. (3) Where can I...

  10. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Treesearch

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  11. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  12. Systematization of river valleys in different morphostructural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opekunova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our research was to identify the features of development of river valleys within the south of Eastern Siberia. One of the objectives to achieve this aim was the typing of river valleys, which was based on the principle of the location of a river valley or its part within different morphostructural areas, determining the morphology and individual (general or specific) development features that make it possible to specify the pattern of development of river valleys at different topological levels. Within the study area the following major morphostructures are distinguished: Altai-Sayan and Baikal mountain-folded regions, the Baikal rift zone, and the Siberian platform, within which morphostructures of the lower order are identified. Thus, a large variability in types of interaction and interpenetration of different areas provides for the development of various types of river valleys, depending on their location in the morphostructural areas. This approach was the basis for the typing of river valleys, i.e. idenifying their typological characteristics, depending on their location within a particular morphostructural area, geological and geomorphological conditions, and the history of development. The basic principles for the typing of river valleys are: 1) their location with respect to morphostructural areas, and 2) a set of characteristics of valleys of different morphostructural areas. Based on the above mentioned approach, and using GIS (MapInfo software), a map of river valleys typing was compiled, which included the database of the hydrographic network with space-time characteristics, tabulated for each streamflow. The procedure for determining the types of river valleys within each morphostructure was as follows. Boundaries of morphostructures of different orders were identified according to cartographic and literature data and allocated in the GIS space (MapInfo software). In the database, each distinguished morphostructure has the following

  13. Charley horse

    MedlinePlus

    ... running or jumping activities. Spasm in the neck (cervical spine) can be a sign of stress. Symptoms When ... Geiderman JM, Katz D. General principles of orthopedic injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  14. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major

  15. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  16. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  17. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  18. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  19. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  20. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua

    2012-07-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area. Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer, biological fixation by leguminous and other crops, wet/dry atmospheric deposition, excreta from humans and animals, and crop residues. The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg, of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies. Of the total N transported into waterbodies, the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%), followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%), synthetic fertilizer N (17%), N in sewage wastes (17%), N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%). We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins, from upstream to downstream: the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD, the headwater drainage area, 138 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD, 347 000 km2, less disturbed by human activities, approx. 3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD, 520 500 km2, large-scale human disturbance, about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD, 699 900 km2, large-scale human disturbance, approx. 620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary). The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3, 7.3, 24.1, and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD, JSD, PYD, and YDD sub-basins, respectively, suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the...

  8. CHAMA RIVER CANYON WILDERNESS AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    Results of mineral surveys indicate that the Chama River Canyon Wilderness and contiguous roadless area in new Mexico have a probable mineral-resource potential for copper with associated uranium and silver. Gypsum occurs throughout the area, exposed in the canyon walls. Further study of the wilderness should concentrate on exploratory drilling to test the oil and gas potential of Pennsylvanian strata and evaluate vanadium anomalies in the Todilto as a prospecting guide for locating uranium.

  9. MIDDLE FORK OF THE JUDITH RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Hamilton, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Middle Fork of the Judith River Wilderness Study Area in Montana has several prospects containing local small inferred resources and several exposed mineral occurrences bearing silver, lead, copper, and gold along its north and west edges with no identified resource potential. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies, conducted to appraise the mineral resources of the study area, identified no other anomalous concentrations of metallic elements. A gem-quality sapphire resource, present near the east boundary, cannot be identified within the study area. The area holds little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  10. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  11. Water resources of the Myakka River basin area, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, Boyd F.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Myakka River basin area of southwest Floria is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gpm and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/liter except in coastal areas and the peninsula southwest of the Myakka River estuary. Wells in the Venice area that tap zone 1 usually yield less than 30 gmp. The quality of water is good except in the peninsula area. Zone 2 is the most highly developed aquifer in the heavily populated coastal areas. Wells yield as much as 200 gpm. In most areas, water is of acceptable quality. Wells that tap zone 3 yield as much as 500 gmp. Fluoride concentration ranges from 1 to 3.5 mg/liter. Zone 4 yields as much as 1,500 gpm to large diameter wells. Except in the extreme northeastern part of the area water from zone 4 usually contains high concentrations of fluoride and sulfate. Zone 5 is the most productive aquifer in the area, but dissolved solids concentrations usually are too high for public supply except in the extreme northeast. Surface water derived from natural drainage is of good quality except for occasional high color in summer. Most of the streams in the Myakka River basin area have small drainage basins, are of short channel length, and do not yield high volumes of flow. During the dry season, streamflow is maintained by groundwater discharge, and, as a result, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations and the hardness of the water are above drinking water standards for some streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  13. Satellite mapping of areas evaporating river and groundwater flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan Pablo; Warren, Garth A.

    2010-05-01

    The 500m resolution CSIRO MODIS reflectance scaling evapotranspiration product (CMRSET) was combined with a gridded rainfall product to determine where in the landscape evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall over longer time periods, and by implication, where lateral inflows of river or groundwater are received and evaporated. This procedure produces valuable information for hydrological applications, including the spatial distribution of water use, the temporal distribution, and the absolute magnitude of (net) evaporation across the landscape. Practical uses that have been tested in Australia include evaluating the realism of simulated water use components in river models, attributing apparent losses from river reaches to processes and spatial locations, and identifying river and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Satellite observed inundation patterns have been used to separate surface water from groundwater use. Higher resolution Landsat imagery has been used for image enhancement, allowing smaller irrigation and wetland areas to be detected. Satellite-based land use classification helps to separate agricultural from environmental water use. The information produced is used in the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system under development by CSIRO and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to underpin operational delivery of water resources information.

  14. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek...

  15. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek...

  16. 76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy... published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of...

  17. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, C.

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  18. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port...

  19. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 2. Illinois River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    FOREST 50.2 MADISON STREET RIVER FOREST 50.5 IL PT 56 RIVER FOREST 51.0 C & NW RR RIVER FOREST 51.1 LAKE STREET RIVER FOREST 51.6 CHICAGO AVENUE RIVER ... FOREST 51.9 SILVER CREEK R RIVER FOREST 53.9 DAM S35v40NoRI2E RIVER FOREST 54.2 NORTH PUEBLO AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1 GRAND AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1...USGS GAGE 05530600 AT RIVER GROVE 451 415546 O75040 RIVER

  20. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  1. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  2. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River, Miami, Florida. 165.726 Section 165.726 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.726 Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida. (a) Location. The following are Regulated Navigation Areas: (1) All the waters of the Miami River, Miami, Florida, from the Brickell Avenue...

  3. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River, Miami, Florida. 165.726 Section 165.726 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.726 Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida. (a) Location. The following are Regulated Navigation Areas: (1) All the waters of the Miami River, Miami, Florida, from the Brickell Avenue...

  4. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River, Miami, Florida. 165.726 Section 165.726 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.726 Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida. (a) Location. The following are Regulated Navigation Areas: (1) All the waters of the Miami River, Miami, Florida, from the Brickell Avenue...

  5. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Miami, Florida. 165.726 Section 165.726 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.726 Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida. (a) Location. The following are Regulated Navigation Areas: (1) All the waters of the Miami River, Miami, Florida, from the Brickell Avenue...

  6. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River, Miami, Florida. 165.726 Section 165.726 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.726 Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida. (a) Location. The following are Regulated Navigation Areas: (1) All the waters of the Miami River, Miami, Florida, from the Brickell Avenue...

  7. 77 FR 6133 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY... interested in serving on the Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to the Captain of the Port, Sector Upper Mississippi River....

  8. 33 CFR 165.815 - Ohio River at Louisville, KY; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ohio River at Louisville, KY... § 165.815 Ohio River at Louisville, KY; regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: The waters of the Ohio River from the Clark Memorial (Highway) Bridge at Mile...

  9. 33 CFR 165.815 - Ohio River at Louisville, KY; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ohio River at Louisville, KY... § 165.815 Ohio River at Louisville, KY; regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: The waters of the Ohio River from the Clark Memorial (Highway) Bridge at Mile...

  10. Soybean Area and Baseflow Driving Nitrate in Iowa's Raccoon River.

    PubMed

    Villarini, Gabriele; Jones, Christopher S; Schilling, Keith E

    2016-11-01

    Improved understanding of the drivers of stream nitrate is necessary to improve water quality. This is particularly true for Iowa, a large contributor to Mississippi River Basin nitrate loads. Here, we focus on the Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa, and develop statistical models to describe the monthly (from March to August) nitrate concentrations in terms of eight drivers representing monthly climate, monthly hydrology, and yearly cropping practices. We consider six two-parameter distributions, linear and nonlinear dependencies between the predictors, and the distributions' parameters. Model selection was performed by penalizing more complex models. Our results show that the Weibull and Gumbel distributions are the only two selected distributions. Baseflow and the previous year's soybean [ (L.) Merr.] area were the two predictors most often identified as important. Our modeling results imply that increases in soybean area have led to increasing nitrate concentrations. Moreover, nitrate concentrations are related to baseflow in a nonlinear way, with effects strongest when baseflow is near or below the average condition. Additional relevant predictors were precipitation and, to a lesser extent, temperature. We conclude that best management practices and improved conservation targeting soybean in a corn ( L.)-soybean rotation will improve water quality in this artificially drained system. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  12. The Pine-Popple River basin--Hydrology of a wild river area, northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.; Field, Stephen J.; Seeger, Lawrence P.

    1973-01-01

    The Pine and Popple Rivers, virtually unaltered by man, flow through a semiprimitive area of forests, lakes, and glacial hills. White-water streams, natural lakes, fish and animal life, and abundant vegetation contribute to the unique recreational and aesthetic characteristics of the area. Resource planning or development should recognize the interrelationships within the hydrologic system and the possible effects of water and land-use changes upon the wild nature of the area. The basin covers about 563 square miles in northeastern Wisconsin. Swamps and wetlands cover nearly 110 square miles, and the 70 lakes cover about 11 square miles. The undulating topography is formed by glacial deposits overlying an irregular, resistant surface of bedrock. An annual average of 30 inches of precipitation, highest from late spring to early autumn, falls on the basin. Of this amount, evapotranspiration, highest in mid summer and late summer, averages 19 inches; the remaining 11 inches is runoff, which is highest in spring and early summer. Ground water from the glacial drift is the source of water for the minor withdrawal use in the basin. Ground-water movement is to streams and lakes and regionally follows the slope of topography and the bedrock surface, which is generally west to east. Ground water is of good quality, although locally high in iron. The major uses of water are for recreation and power generation. Domestic use is slight. No water is withdrawn from lakes or streams, and no sewage or industrial wastes are added to lakes or streams. Most of the flow of the Pine River is used for power generation. The main stems of the Pine and Popple Rivers contain 114 canoeable miles, of which 95 percent is without such major obstructions as falls or large rapids. In general streams support cold-water fish, and lakes support warm-water fish. Trout is the principal stream and game fish in the basin. The basin has no significant water problems. Future development between the Pine

  13. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    UAD-AOBE 172 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CHAPAIGN IL WATER RESOURCES DIV F/6 8/8 RIVER MI1LEASES AND DR INAGE AREAS FOR ILLINOIS STREAMS. VOLUME -ETC(U...Name and Address 10. Prolect/Task/Work Unit N. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 11. CotatC or Grant(G) No. 605 N. Neil StreetM...Champaign, IL 61820(G 12. Sponsoring Organization Namei and Address 23. Type of Report A Period Corered U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 605 N

  14. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction AGENCY... area which will be needed during construction of the new Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, and which could... Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction, in the Federal Register (77 FR 47331). One comment...

  15. 76 FR 10524 - Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base... waters of the Potomac River extending offshore from the Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF) at Marine Corps... placed across the Chopawamsic Creek channel at the entrance to the channel from the Potomac River and...

  16. Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

    1982-01-01

    The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  17. 33 CFR 167.251 - In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. 167.251 Section 167.251 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established bounded by a...

  18. 33 CFR 167.251 - In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. 167.251 Section 167.251 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established bounded by a...

  19. 33 CFR 167.251 - In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. 167.251 Section 167.251 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established bounded by a...

  20. 33 CFR 167.251 - In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. 167.251 Section 167.251 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Cape Fear River: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established bounded by a...

  1. Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Monique G; Muldoon, Breda; Wilson, Julie; Maracle, Karonhiakta'tie Bryan

    2013-07-01

    A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.

  2. An Allocation of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources to Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Milici, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources that may underlie Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River in West Virginia. Using the results of an assessment of undiscovered resources from ten assessment units in the Appalachian Basin Province that include these land parcels, the USGS allocated 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas, 1.6 thousand barrels of oil, and 45 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to part of Gauley River National Recreation Area, and 39 billion cubic feet of gas, 24 thousand barrels of oil, and 644 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to New River Gorge National River. These allocated volumes of undiscovered resources represent potential volumes in undiscovered fields.

  3. Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Savannah River Plant Area, South Carolina and Georgia (ARMS-I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-03-01

    Savannah River Plant area where it is found along the Savannah River near the Effingham-Screven county line, Ga., and possibly also near the Edisto River , S...layers found on the east bank of the North Fork of the Edisto River (along State Highway 215, southwest of Pelion in Lexington County, S. C.) are...distinctly higher or lower than the surrounding Coastal Plain. Parts of the Ogeechee River (Ga.), Savannah River and Edisto River (S. C.) flood plains

  4. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  5. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. 165.811 Section 165.811 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.811 Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a...

  6. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line down...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line down...

  13. 76 FR 34852 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Area of Responsibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... River Area of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian Tribes. Energy Effects We...; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Area of Responsibility (a) Location. The following...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a..., Colorado River, beginning at the approximate center of the mouth of Copper Canyon and drawing a line...

  17. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... operates a fixed degaussing range in New London Harbor, New London, CT. This range is buried in sand on the... sensors and cables encompasses a much larger area of the river bottom, from the river's west shore by Fort... supporting system's boundaries are outlined with a magenta dotted line and labeled ``Cable Area''. The Navy...

  18. 78 FR 12260 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and Quincy, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... navigable waters of Weymouth Fore River under and surrounding the Fore River Bridge (Mile 3.5) between... speed and wake restrictions and prohibit all vessel traffic through the RNA during bridge replacement...

  19. 78 FR 59237 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and Quincy, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... navigable waters of Weymouth Fore River in the vicinity of the Fore River Bridge (Mile 3.5) between Weymouth... bridge replacement operations. This rule is necessary to provide for the safety of life in the vicinity...

  20. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  1. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately...

  2. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately...

  3. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately...

  4. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within the regulated navigation area and: (i) Sustained winds are greater than 25 knots but less than 40 knots, ensure the main engines are ready to provide full power in five minutes or less; and (ii) Sustained winds are 40 knots or over, ensure that the main engines are on line to immediately provide...

  5. River flow forecasting in mountainous areas using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikweiri, Fathi Saleh

    The objective of this research is to develop a simple semi-distributed, physically based hydrologic model (SDPB_HM) for mountainous watershed areas. Most of the required watershed parameters in this developed model were acquired using remotely sensed imagery and digital terrain data. A modified technique to involve the use of the land cover properties in the Morton (1983) evapotranspiration model was proposed in this research. This new modified technique was proposed to overcome one of the major disadvantages of the Morton's evapotranspiration model for not having any allowances for the properties of different land cover types (Kite, 1997). The suitability of estimation the evapotranspiration using this modified technique was judged in this research by comparing its results with other average daily evapotranspiration data for an adjacent basin; Cross River Basin in the Rocky Mountain in British Columbia, Canada during year 1987. A new modified procedure for estimating maximum storage capacity in a basin that could estimate the retained rain or snowmelt water within the watershed area related to sink pixels on DTED was presented in this research. A simplified procedure for performing the geometric correction to satellite images based on the Oguro et al. (2001) technique that is used to register these images by utilizing a simulated shaded DTED overlaid with simulated streamlines network image was proposed in this work. A complete three-stage computer classifier (EBPANN) was built in this research that was aimed at minimizing the negative affect of overlapping spectral signatures. This developed computer classifier model was written in C computer program language and utilized in its procedures the error back-propagation neural network this proposed classifier technique was applied to classify a large part from Kananaskis Country area in the Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada. An enhanced method was employed in this work for dividing the watershed areas. This new

  6. The evolution of the Shiwanghe River valley in response to the Yellow River incision in the Hukou area, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.

  7. Andean Basins Morphometry: Assesing South American Large Rivers' Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, R. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presently there are no regional-scale morphometric analyses of Andean fluvial basins. Therefore, we created a continental-scale database of these basins. Our data covers over an area 1,000,000 km2 of the Andes, from Venezuela to Argentina. These basins are the source of some of the largest rivers in the world including the Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, and Magdalena. Morphometric parameters including shape factor, relief ratio, longitudinal profiles and different indices of basin elevation were calculated based on the CGIAR SRTM 4.1 DEM (~90 m resolution). FAO Hydrosheds were used to segment the DEM by major catchment and then manually cut at the Andean zone. In the North and Central Andes, this produced over 500,000 subcatchments, which we reduced to 619 by setting minimum catchment area to 100 km2. We then integrate lithologic data from DNPM geologic data. Our results indicate that sedimentary lithologies dominate Central Andean catchments (n=268,k=4), which cover an area 767,00 km2, while the Northern Andean catchments (covering 350,000 km2) are more varied, dominated by volcanics in the Pacific (n=78), a sedimentary (48%) dominant mix in the Caribbean (n=138) and 60% sedimentary in the Amazon-Orinoco subregion catchments (n=138). Elevation averages are smallest in the north Andes and average maximum elevations (6,026 m) in the Argentinian catchments (n=65) of the Central Andes are the highest. Shape factors range from 0.49 to 0.58 in the North and 0.52 to 0.58 in the Central Andes. There are clear differences in all categories between region and subregion, but that difference does not hinge on a single morphometric or geologic parameter. Morphometric parameters at a watershed scale (listed in Table) are analyzed and hydrologic data from gauging stations throughout the Andes (n=100) are used to compare morphometric parameters with lithology and characteristics from the basin hydrograph (peak discharge timing, minimum and maximum discharge, and runoff).

  8. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  9. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Buffalo River, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Contaminants Accumulated by Clams (Eliptio dilatata) Exposed to Lake Erie and Niagara River Waters in 1980. 7 NO Title 57 Benthic Macroinvertebrate Data...the river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in 1982. Data from this sam- pling are presented in Table 57. The populations of benthic ...Quantity R16, RIO Quality-Tumors R2 PI Tissue Content R16, R9 (Zooplankton) Water Column R16, R35 Macroinvertebrates Advisory R16 Tainting Flesh R16

  10. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area and volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Chengfeng; Lehrter, John C.; Hu, Chuanmin; Obenour, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L-1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and volume were related to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived monthly estimates of river plume area (km2) and average, inner shelf chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a, mg m-3). River plume area in June was negatively related with midsummer hypoxic area (km2) and volume (km3), while July inner shelf Chl a was positively related to hypoxic area and volume. Multiple regression models using river plume area and Chl a as independent variables accounted for most of the variability in hypoxic area (R2 = 0.92) or volume (R2 = 0.89). These models explain more variation in hypoxic area than models using Mississippi River nutrient loads as independent variables. The results here also support a hypothesis that confinement of the river plume to the inner shelf is an important mechanism controlling hypoxia area and volume in this region.

  11. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Estimation of potential runoff-contributing areas in the Kansas-Lower Republican River Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    1999-01-01

    Digital soils and topographic data were used to estimate and compare potential runoff-contributing areas for 19 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability within the Kansas-Lower Republican (KLR) River Basin. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated separately and collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental conditions that represented high, moderate, and low potential runoff. For infiltration-excess overland flow, various rainfall intensities and soil permeabilities were used. For saturation-excess overland flow, antecedent soil-moisture conditions and a topographic wetness index were used. Results indicated that the subbasins with relatively high potential runoff are located in the central part of the KLR River Basin. These subbasins are Black Vermillion River, Clarks Creek, Delaware River upstream from Muscotah, Grasshopper Creek, Mill Creek (Wabaunsee County), Soldier Creek, Vermillion Creek (Pottawatomie County), and Wildcat Creek. The subbasins with relatively low potential runoff are located in the western one-third of the KLR River Basin, with one exception, and are Buffalo Creek, Little Blue River upstream from Barnes, Mill Creek (Washington County), Republican River between Concordia and Clay Center, Republican River upstream from Concordia, Wakarusa River downstream from Clinton Lake (exception), and White Rock Creek. The ability to distinguish the subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff was possible mostly due to the variability of soil permeability across the KLR River Basin.

  13. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  14. Catchment scale analysis on river-return ratio of irrigation water from densely developed paddy areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Masumoto, T.; Horikawa, N.; Kudo, R.; Minakawa, H.; Nawa, N.

    2013-12-01

    Irrigation in Japan is predominantly used for rice cultivation, and it accounts for 70% of total water withdrawal. Water loss, which is attributable to nature of open channel irrigation system and percolation from fields, leads to relatively low irrigation efficiencies compared with ones for upland crops. However, because part of water gradually returns to rivers (river-return flow), it contributes to stable water use in downstream. This study investigated how irrigation water circulates and returns to rivers, and quantified a ratio of river-return flow to irrigation intake for an irrigation area (river-return ratio). One difficulty in river-return flow analysis lies in the fact that two types of flow pathways exist in an irrigation area; natural rivers that drain water from the areas, and channel networks whose directions do not necessarily coincide with river directions. In addition, outflux from irrigation area is consisted of water from different sources, such as water loss during water allocation, rainfall, irrigation, and influx from adjacent upstream areas. To cope with such difficulties, we used a grid-based distributed water circulation model that represents both catchment scale hydrological cycles and water flows related to irrigation channel network. The model calculates water flow for irrigation networks based on a GIS database of water use facilities. The model also incorporates operation rules for facilities and field level water management. Using the modeled river network, we first identify grid-cells where influx and outflux occurs across boundaries of irrigation areas. Then, to eliminate the effect of influx from adjacent upstream areas, we subtract influx from outflux. This makes us to capture outflux that purely originates in rainfall and irrigation within an irrigated area. Next, we separate the amount of outflux that originates in irrigation from the total amount of outflux. As residence time of each flow pathway had not been clarified yet, we

  15. 33 CFR 334.260 - York River, Va.; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. 334.260 Section 334.260 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.260 York River, Va.; naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Naval mine service-testing area (prohibited). A rectangular...

  16. 33 CFR 334.260 - York River, Va.; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. 334.260 Section 334.260 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.260 York River, Va.; naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Naval mine service-testing area (prohibited). A rectangular...

  17. Hydrogeology and Simulated Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Big River Area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Barlow, Paul M.; Dickerman, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering expanded use of ground-water resources from the Big River area because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. This report describes the hydrology of the area and numerical simulation models that were used to examine effects of ground-water withdrawals during 1964?98 and to describe potential effects of different withdrawal scenarios in the area. The Big River study area covers 35.7 square miles (mi2) and includes three primary surface-water drainage basins?the Mishnock River Basin above Route 3, the Big River Basin, and the Carr River Basin, which is a tributary to the Big River. The principal aquifer (referred to as the surficial aquifer) in the study area, which is defined as the area of stratified deposits with a saturated thickness estimated to be 10 feet or greater, covers an area of 10.9 mi2. On average, an estimated 75 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) of water flows through the study area and about 70 ft3/s flows out of the area as streamflow in either the Big River (about 63 ft3/s) or the Mishnock River (about 7 ft3/s). Numerical simulation models are used to describe the hydrology of the area under simulated predevelopment conditions, conditions during 1964?98, and conditions that might occur in 14 hypothetical ground-water withdrawal scenarios with total ground-water withdrawal rates in the area that range from 2 to 11 million gallons per day. Streamflow depletion caused by these hypothetical ground-water withdrawals is calculated by comparison with simulated flows for the predevelopment conditions, which are identical to simulated conditions during the 1964?98 period but without withdrawals at public-supply wells and wastewater recharge. Interpretation of numerical simulation results indicates that the three basins in the study area are in fact a single ground-water resource. For example, the Carr River Basin above Capwell Mill Pond is naturally losing water

  18. 78 FR 1145 - Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River, Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River, Bridge... waters of the Housatonic River surrounding the Interstate 95 (I-95) Bridge, between Stratford and Milford... traffic through the RNA during bridge replacement operations, both planned and unforeseen, that could pose...

  19. 62 FR 6265 - Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-02-11

    ... Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area AGENCY: Vale District, Bureau of Land... Main Owyhee River as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and... part of the implementation of the 1993 Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and...

  20. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  1. 78 FR 34255 - Regulated Navigation Area; Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Illinois River. This Temporary Final Rule... transiting the Illinois River from Mile Marker 240.0 to Mile Marker 271.4. This RNA is necessary to protect... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated...

  2. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  3. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  4. Estimating the global surface area of rivers and streams using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, George; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2017-04-01

    Global observational assessments of river and stream systems are based largely on gauge station data, which are fragmented and often limited to country-level statistics. This limitation severely impedes our understanding of global-scale hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical fluvial processes. In contrast, satellite remote sensing data provide a globally-consistent and spatially-continuous tool for studying rivers. Here we present a novel method estimate the total surface area of all rivers and stream globally using measurements from the recently-developed Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database and field surveys. The surface area of rivers and streams is a key model parameter in global evaluations of greenhouse gas emissions from inland waters. Preliminary analysis suggests that rivers occupy a total area of 80 thousand square kilometers, or 0.58% of Earth's land surface. This result is 30% greater than the previous best estimate that is based on digital elevation models and gauge station measurements. Compared to previous regional assessments, we find that rivers and streams occupy a greater proportion of the land surface in the arctic and in the tropics, and a lower proportion of land surface in the United States and in Europe. Our results suggest that current estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from inland waters should be revised upwards to account for the greater abundance of river and stream surface area.

  5. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  6. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  7. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  8. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  9. 75 FR 53264 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries... regulation for the restricted area in the Cape Fear River and its tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal... ``Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC'' rule...

  10. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Treesearch

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  11. 76 FR 58105 - Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... River at mile 2.3 to remove the damaged piping support structure. The hazard that the damaged portion of... support structure for the Energy Systems Pipeline Bridge located at approximately mile 2.3 of the Saugus... removal of damaged abandoned pipeline and associated steel support structure. Demolition operations...

  12. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  13. A pilot study of river flow prediction in urban area based on phase space reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Hamid, Nor Zila Abd; Mohamed, Zulkifley; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md

    2017-08-01

    River flow prediction is significantly related to urban hydrology impact which can provide information to solve any problems such as flood in urban area. The daily river flow of Klang River, Malaysia was chosen to be forecasted in this pilot study which based on phase space reconstruction. The reconstruction of phase space involves a single variable of river flow data to m-dimensional phase space in which the dimension (m) is based on the optimal values of Cao method. The results from the reconstruction of phase space have been used in the forecasting process using local linear approximation method. From our investigation, river flow at Klang River is chaotic based on the analysis from Cao method. The overall results provide good value of correlation coefficient. The value of correlation coefficient is acceptable since the area of the case study is influence by a lot of factors. Therefore, this pilot study may be proposed to forecast daily river flow data with the purpose of providing information about the flow of the river system in urban area.

  14. Cross-Sectional Data for Selected Reaches of the Chattahoochee River within the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Georgia, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic data for selected reaches of the Chattahoochee River within the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area (CRNRA). Data about transect location, width, depth, and velocity of flow for selected reaches of the river are presented in tabular form. The tables contain measurements collected from shoal and run habitats identified as critical sites for the CRNRA. In shoal habitats, measurements were collected while wading using a digital flowmeter and laser range finder. In run habitats, measurements were collected using acoustic Doppler current profiling. Fifty-three transects were established in six reaches throughout the CRNRA; 24 in shoal habitat, 26 in run habitat, and 3 in pool habitat. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, hydrology, transect locations, and cross-sectional information. A study area location figure is followed by figures identifying locations of transects within each individual reach. Cross-sectional information is presented for each transect, by reach, in a series of graphs. The data presented herein can be used to complete preliminary habitat assessments for the Chattahoochee River within the CRNRA. These preliminary assessments can be used to identify reaches of concern for future impacts associated with continual development in the Metropolitan Atlanta area and potential water allocation agreements between Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

  15. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  16. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  17. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  18. Spatial variation in river runoff into a coastal area — An ecological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to investigate spatial variation in terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) input to a coastal area off the Tagus river estuary. Isotopic variation in higher trophic level organisms was also examined, along the coast. This study was carried out in late summer, after a period of 3 months of low river flow. The overall aim was to determine if under such conditions the coastal area is enriched by the river plume and, particularly, if lower secondary productivity should be expected in some areas. Spatial variation was detected as a gradient of decreasing terrestrial input with increasing distance from the river. It was concluded that terrestrial carbon input was also incorporated into higher trophic levels and that organisms with lower mobility are more sensitive to the gradient in terrestrial input. Even in low flow conditions the whole fishing area remained under the influence of the river plume, which still accounted for 24% of the total POM 30 km from the river mouth. Additionally, δ 15N values indicated pollution input from the river Tagus.

  19. Detection of Area Changes in River Mouthbars at the Mekong River Delta using ALOS/PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Uehara, K.; Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Projected sea-level rise by the year 2100 would be ~1m recently and its negative impact on the coastal zone has been pointed out, particularly for mega-deltas in Asia by the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). The relative sea-level rise varies with specific conditions and processes over broad spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, long-term monitoring of geomorphological changes in coastal areas over wide areas is of highly interest and importance for coastal management. However, due to limited data availability and accessibility in developing countries, there is not enough systematic coastal monitoring. The Mekong River Delta is one of typical mega-deltas in Asia, which has a low-lying wide delta-plain located in Cambodia to South Vietnam. Sediment and water discharges of the Mekong River are controlled by the monsoon with high and low discharge in summer (wet season) and winter (dry season), respectively. Therefore, technologies such as SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. In this study, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired over a period from December 2006 to January 2011 are analyzed to investigate the relation between the sea level and the shape of mouthbars in the Mekong River. Level-1.0 PALSAR data were processed, coregistered, and geocoded to make SAR backscatter intensity images. River mouthbars with strong backscatter, which is surrounded by the water with weak backscatter, are successfully extracted using a histogram thresholding algorithm. Estimated areas of river mouthbars, which are located at the central part of the delta and openly faced to the South China Sea, gradually increase on an annual time scale. These river mouthbars are growing to the seaward. Besides this overall increasing trend, seasonal variations of areas are observed; these correlate with

  20. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... northeastern corner, the Chalk Hill viticultural area (27 CFR 9.52), and in the southwest, the Green Valley of... located entirely within the Northern Sonoma viticultural area as follows: Chalk Hill, Alexander Valley..., Russian River Valley, and Knights Valley. The Sonoma County Green Valley and Chalk Hill areas are each...

  1. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... restricted area provided their vessels display registration numbers issued by the Naval Submarine Base, New... above, providing: (i) The Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, and the Coast...

  2. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  3. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  4. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  5. 78 FR 71495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the Piscataqua River near Portsmouth, NH... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History and... Guard has the authority to establish RNAs in defined water areas that are determined to have hazardous...

  6. 75 FR 20523 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4... establishing two Regulated Navigation Areas (RNA) at the Port of Portland Terminal 4 on the Willamette River in... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette...

  7. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Municipalities Suspected of Generating Intermittent Point Sources (The Chester Engineers 1976) Table 28. Average Erosion Rates (metric tons/acre) and Estimated...Annual Sheet, Rill and Wind Erosion (metric tons/year) on Cropland for Selected Counties in the Saginaw Bay Drainage Basin in 1982 (USDA- SCS et al...Saginaw River tributaries, 1972-1986 Figure 22c. Annual average biochemical oxygen demand in west coastal basin tributaries, 1963-1989 Figure 22d. Annual

  8. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Ashtabula River, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Buffalo; and Ms. Julie Letterhos, Ohio State Environmental Protection Agency. Mr. Larry Bird, ERSD, provided technical assistance in preparing tabulated ...River, Ashta- bula, Ohio, on November 30 and December 2, 1982. (RI) 8 Bulk Chemical Analyses (Inorganic Parameters) Conducted on Sediments from...Ashtabula Harbor. (R2) 9 Bulk Chemical Analyses (Organic Parameters) Conducted on Sediments from Ashtabula Harbor, Ashtabula, Ohio. (R2) 10 Bulk Analyses

  9. Effects of river discharge on hyporheic exchange flows in salmon spawning areas of a large gravel-bed river

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-01-01

    The flow magnitude and timing from hydroelectric dams in the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States is managed in part for the benefit of salmon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of current Hells Canyon Dam discharge operations on hydrologic exchange flows between the river and riverbed in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. Interactions between river water and pore water within the upper 1 m of the riverbed were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. The data were recorded at 20 min intervals over a period of 200 days when the mean daily discharge was 218–605 m3 s–1, with hourly stage changes as large as 1.9 m. Differences in head pressure between the river and riverbed were small, often within ±2 cm. Measured temperature gradients in the riverbed indicated significant interactions between the surface and subsurface water. Neither hydraulic nor temperature gradients at most sites were significantly affected by either short- or long-term changes in discharge operations from Hells Canyon Dam. Only 2 out of 14 study sites exhibited acute flux reversals between the river and riverbed resulting from short-term, large magnitude changes in discharge. The findings suggest small-scale piezometric head differences play a minor role in the hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed at the study sites. The processes controlling hydrologic exchange at the study sites are likely to be bedform-induced advective pumping, turbulence at the riverbed surface, and large-scale hydraulic gradients along the longitudinal profile of the riverbed. By incorporating the knowledge of hydrologic exchange processes into water management planning, regional agencies will be better prepared to manage the limited water resources among competing priorities that include salmon recovery, flood control, irrigation supply, hydropower production, and

  10. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Geochemical map of the North Fork John Day River Roadless Area, Grant County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.

    1986-01-01

    The North Fork John Day River Roadless Area comprised 21,210 acres in the Umatilla and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests, Grant County, Oregon, about 30 miles northwest of Baker, Oregon. The irregularly shaped area extends for about 1 mile on both sides of a 25-mile segment of the North Fork John Day River from Big Creek on the west to North Fork John Day Campground on the east. Most of the roadless area is in the northern half of the Desolation Butte 15-minute quadrangle. The eastern end of the area is in parts of the Granite and Trout Meadows 7½-minute quadrangles.

  12. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  13. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.

  14. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  15. Characterization of ground-water discharge from bedrock aquifers to the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers at three areas, Minneapolis-St. Paul area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogeology at three areas along the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area were studied to characterize ground-water discharge from bedrock aquifers to the two rivers. Along the Mississippi River between Fridley and Brooklyn Center, a buried valley underlying the Mississippi River cuts through the overlying terrace deposits and glacial-drift deposits into two underlying bedrock hydro- geologic units: the St Peter aquifer, and a rubble zone between the St. Peter and Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifers. Shallow ground-water flow in the near-surface gray and upper red tills and sand and gravel outwash aquifer discharges to springs along the edge of the river. Ground water flowing through the rubble zone and upper part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer probably discharges through alluvial deposits to the river. In study area 2, along the Minnesota River between Eagan and Bloomington, almost 200 feet of post-glacial alluvium, glaciofluvial sand and gravel, Pleistocene lake deposits, and peat fill a bedrock valley under the present-day Minnesota River. As much as 40 feet of post-glacial peat, silty clay, clay, and muck lie near the river-valley walls. Confining units beneath the river channel impede the discharge of ground water from the underlying Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer to the river. Ground water discharges to wetlands, lakes, and springs along both the north and south side of the river. Along the Mississippi River at Minneapolis about 5 miles upstream of the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers, the Mississippi River lies in a post-glacial valley cut through thin glacial drift into the St. Peter aquifer. Beneath the river, ground water flows from the St. Peter aquifer through the overlying post-glacial ailuvium to the Mississippi River. No confining unit separates the St. Peter aquifer and the river.

  16. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  17. Characteristics of soil salinity in the typical area of Yellow River Delta and its control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Pang, Xiaoke; Liu, Hui; Wang, Qun

    2017-05-01

    The Yellow River Delta is one of important ecological areas in eastern China, however sustainable development of the Yellow River Delta is seriously restricted because of severe soil salinization. The main sources of soil salinity are chloride, sodium and sulfate ions. The distribution of soil salinity in soil profiles showed that surface accumulation of soil salt was significant in the Yellow River Delta. Some control measures including soil improvement and regulation, reasonable combination of salt-fresh water irrigation in farmland, land cover and effective drainage were put forward for soil salinity control.

  18. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. 110.72aa Section 110.72aa Navigation and... Anchorage Areas § 110.72aa Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. (a) Special Anchorage Areas. (1) The waters of the Elizabeth River bounded by the shore and a...

  19. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  20. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  1. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  2. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  3. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  4. 33 CFR 334.260 - York River, Va.; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosives. (5) The regulations of this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Naval Base, Norfolk... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false York River, Va.; naval restricted....; naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Naval mine service-testing area (prohibited). A...

  5. 33 CFR 165.756 - Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Savannah River, Georgia. 165.756 Section 165.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  6. 77 FR 19544 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property... Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) at the Zidell Waterfront Property located on the Willamette River in... Information On August 8, 2011, we published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) titled Regulated...

  7. 33 CFR 165.810 - Mississippi River, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi River, LA-regulated navigation area. 165.810 Section 165.810 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  8. Fine particle emission potential from overflowing areas of Tarim River in the Tarim Basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the low-precipitation zone (<100 mm annual precipitation) of the Tarim Basin, wind erosion and fugitive dust emission is a recognized problem. There is limited information, however, regarding wind erosion on river overflowing areas, areas of temporal flooding, in the Tarim Basin. The objectives o...

  9. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  10. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  11. 33 CFR 165.803 - Mississippi River-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River-regulated navigation area. 165.803 Section 165.803 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Mississippi River—regulated navigation area. The following is a Regulated Navigation Area—The waters of the...

  12. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  13. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  14. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  15. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  16. 33 CFR 165.807 - Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calcasieu River, Louisiana-regulated navigation area. 165.807 Section 165.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  17. Isotopic tracking of Hanford 300 area derived uranium in the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Christensen, John N; Dresel, P Evan; Conrad, Mark E; Patton, Gregory W; DePaolo, Donald J

    2010-12-01

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area and to follow that U downriver to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low level of Hanford-derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to <1% of natural background U, 400 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern or insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  18. Abnormal pH elevation in the Chaobai River, a reclaimed water intake area.

    PubMed

    He, Bao-Nan; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2017-02-22

    The pH is a primary index reflecting water quality in rivers. The Jian River and Chaobai River are two reclaimed water intake areas which have elevated pH. This elevated pH has a marked effect on both the phytoplankton, species in water and vegetation on the shore. Understanding the main reasons causing pH elevation in river water has important implications for river ecosystem management and the improvement of water quality and can provide a theoretical basis for the direction of water quality improvement. For this reason, each biogeochemical and physical process influencing pH changes in water was quantified along the flow direction in the Wenyu to Chaobai reclaimed water diversion project, in which proton consumption and production by such processes were monitored and calculated at five monitoring sections. The calculations indicated that photosynthesis and denitrification were the primary reasons for the increase of pH in the Jian River and Chaobai River. Oppositely, carbonate precipitation and sediment decomposition restricted the increase of pH in both rivers. In addition, CO2 emission to the air also promoted a increase of pH in the Jian River, while CO2 absorption from the air restricted the increase of pH in the Chaobai River. NO3(-) nitrogen in reclaimed water was not efficiently removed and the reclaimed water flow condition in the intake area created favorable conditions for photosynthesis of algae breeding and denitrification by microorganisms. Therefore, biogeochemical and physical processes that promoted the increase of pH were greater than inhibiting processes and the pH gradually increased along the flow direction. The contribution rates of photosynthesis and denitrification for the increase of pH were 55.48 and 27.09%, respectively, in the Jian River and 78.08 and 21.92%, respectively, in the Chaobai River. In addition, CO2 emission contributed 17.43% of the increase in pH in the Jian River.

  19. In situ Detection and Habitat Characteristics Analysis of Anammox Bacteria in Sediments from River-network Area, Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ao, J.; Ma, T.

    2010-12-01

    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is the conversation of NO2-and NH4+ to N2 in anaerobic condition processed by anammox bacteria. Recently, anammox bacteria has been identified in many different freshwater systems around the world. However, Many reports have only focused on the distribution and diversity of anammox bacteria in freshwater systems, little is known about the habitat characteristics of sediments suitable for anammox bacteria. Yangtze River Delta, located in the east of China, has many shallow lakes and river networks. In this study, 41 sediment samples were collected from three typical study areas (shallow lake, regional river and urban rivers) for in situ detection of anammox bacteria and physical-chemical analysis of deposital environment of sediments. Anammox specified sequences were analyzed by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA from the sediments. Phylogentic analysis revealed that sequences from shallow lakes and regional rivers were related to 'Candidatus Brocadia fulgida', 'Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans' and 'Candidatus Scalindua', and most of the sequences were affiliated to'Candidatus Brocadia'. No sequence was amplified from urban river's sediments. Principal Components and Classification Analysis (PCCA) of all samples shows that, 13 sites from shallow lake fell in the same set, and 28 samples from the rivers differed from each other. The nitrogen concentration of porewater from the sediments where anammox bacteria were detected in situ are: NH4+-N 6.5~33.71mg/L, NO2--N 0~0.22 mg/L, NO3--N 0.08~3.27mg/L, and the ammonium is the main form of inorganic nitrogen. The total organic carbon (TOC) in porewater varied from 15.07 mg/L to 500.49 mg/L, and the loss on ignition (LOI) in sediments is 3.9%~10.0%. The physical-chemical parameters of deposital environment of urban rivers fell in the former range, but no anammox bacteria was detected from the samples. Further study of the biological characteristics of the bacteria is needed.

  20. Nutrient dynamics in mangrove areas of the Red River Estuary in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wösten, J. H. M.; de Willigen, P.; Tri, N. H.; Lien, T. V.; Smith, S. V.

    2003-05-01

    Nutrient dynamics of mangrove in the 107 km 2 large estuary of the Red River Delta in Vietnam are studied using the existing LOICZ-CABARET budget model. The methodology and assumptions underlying this model are described. Input data for evaporation, rainfall, river discharge, and concentrations of salt, phosphorus and nitrogen are obtained during measurement campaigns in Vietnam. The calculated P-balance of the estuary together with measured data on the C/P ratio of mangroves yield a calculated mangrove biomass growth rate of 80 kg dry matter ha -1 d -1. Direct measurements of mangrove growth show a rate of 31 kg dry matter ha -1 d -1. Considering the uncertainties involved in this study where nutrient exchange with mineral particles is ignored, the nutrient budget model established for the Red River Estuary proves to give acceptable results. The model demonstrates that the mangroves in the estuary act as clear sinks of nutrients and sequester some 26 000 kg N d -1 and some 3100 kg P d -1 for their biomass production. Next the model is used in an explorative way to investigate effects of realistic future scenarios. Increasing river discharge in combination with constant or proportionally increasing river nutrient concentration results in increasing nutrient concentrations in the estuary. Increasing river discharge in combination with decreasing river nutrient concentration results in decreasing nutrient concentrations in the estuary. Constant river discharge in combination with increasing river nutrient concentration results in increasing nutrient concentrations in the estuary. The scenario analysis helps to understand the different interactions in the nutrient dynamics of the Red River mangrove area.

  1. Wildlife and habitat damage assessment from Hurricane Charley: recommendations for recovery of the J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J. Michael; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Pednault-Willett, Kendra

    2006-01-01

    • On 13 August 2004, the first of four hurricanes to strike Florida in <6 weeks came ashore near J. N. “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge (JNDDNWR) Complex, Sanibel Island, Florida. The eye of Category 4 Hurricane Charley passed just north of Sanibel Island with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (123 knots) and a storm surge of 0.3-2.7 m (1-9 ft). Three USGS-BRD scientists (coastal ecologist and research wildlife biologists) and a USFWS wildlife biologist surveyed the storm damage to JNDDNWR Complex on the ground from 20-24 September 2004. • At the request of United States Fish and Wildlife Service refuge staff, the USGS team concentrated on assessing damage to wetlands and habitat for selected bird populations (especially mangrove forests, Mangrove Cuckoos [Coccyzus minor], and Black-whiskered Vireo [Vireo altiloquus]), waterbird rookeries (mangrove islands), impoundments (waterbirds and waterfowl), sea grass beds (manatees), and upland hardwood hammocks and ridges (threatened eastern indigo snake [Drymarchon couperi]). • The refuge complex sustained moderate to catastrophic damage to vegetation, especially mangrove forests and waterbird nesting or roosting islands. Lumpkin Island, Hemp Island, and Bird Key waterbird nesting areas had >50% and sometimes 90% of their vegetation severely damaged (dead, broken tree stems, and tipped trees). The Shell Mound Trail area of JNDDNWR sustained catastrophic damage to its old growth mangrove forests. Direct storm mortality and injury to manatees in the area of the JNDDNWR Complex was probably slight as manatees may have several strategies to reduce storm mortality. Damage to seagrass beds, an important habitat for manatees, fishes and invertebrates, is believed to be limited to the breach at North Captiva Island. At this breach, refuge staff documented inundation of beds by sand and scarring by trees dragged by winds. • Because seagrass beads and manatee habitat extend beyond refuge boundaries (see p. 28

  2. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Guth, L.R.; Bruhn, R.L.; Beck, S.L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene Salt Lake Formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the Salt Lake Formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 5/sup 0/ on top of metamorphosed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 50/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/ and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field. The north-trending joint set is prominent in the fold's hinge. Surface joint intensity decreases in proximity to known faults, indicating that surface joint intensity mapping may be useful for locating the surface traces of faults in the reservoir.

  3. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins: effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Kronvang, B; Bechmann, M; Lundekvam, H; Behrendt, H; Rubaek, G H; Schoumans, O F; Syversen, N; Andersen, H E; Hoffmann, C C

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly important for the P concentration in most European rivers, lakes, and estuaries, even though the quantity of P lost from agricultural areas in European catchments varies at least one order of magnitude (<0.2 kg P ha(-1) to >2.1 kg P ha(-1)). We focus on the importance of P for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and discuss the benefits, uncertainties, and side effects of the different targeted mitigation measures that can be adopted to combat P losses from agricultural areas in river basins. Experimental evidence of the effects of some of the main targeted mitigation measures hitherto implemented is demonstrated, including: (i) soil tillage changes, (ii) treatment of soils near ditches and streams with iron to reduce P transport from source areas to surface waters, (iii) establishment of buffer zones for retaining P from surface runoff, (iv) restoration of river-floodplain systems to allow natural inundation of riparian areas and deposition of P, and (v) inundation of riparian areas with tile drainage water for P retention. Furthermore, we show how river basin managers can map and analyze the extent and importance of P risk areas, exemplified by four catchments differing in size in Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Finally, we discuss the factors and mechanisms that may delay and/or counteract the responses of mitigation measures for combating P losses from agricultural areas when monitored at the catchment scale.

  4. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  5. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  6. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John L; Finlay, Jacques C; Kennedy, Theodore; Post, David M

    2010-11-12

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  7. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  8. 33 CFR 165.T01-0329 - Regulated Navigation Area; Maine Kennebec Bridge Construction and Removal, Kennebec River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Kennebec Bridge Construction and Removal, Kennebec River, Richmond, ME. 165.T01-0329 Section 165.T01-0329... Bridge Construction and Removal, Kennebec River, Richmond, ME. (a) Location. The following area is a... yard radius of position 44°05'27” N, 069°46'57” W in the vicinity of the Maine Kennebec River Bridge...

  9. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the Atlantic Ocean restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section...

  10. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the Atlantic Ocean restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section...

  11. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the Atlantic Ocean restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section...

  12. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the Atlantic Ocean restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section...

  13. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the Atlantic Ocean restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR. 165.1326 Section 165.1326 Navigation and... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1326 Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4... navigation area: (1) All waters of the Willamette River in the head of the Port of Portland's Terminal 4 Slip...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR. 165.1326 Section 165.1326 Navigation and... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1326 Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4... navigation area: (1) All waters of the Willamette River in the head of the Port of Portland's Terminal 4 Slip...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR. 165.1326 Section 165.1326 Navigation and... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1326 Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4... navigation area: (1) All waters of the Willamette River in the head of the Port of Portland's Terminal 4 Slip...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR. 165.1326 Section 165.1326 Navigation and... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1326 Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4... navigation area: (1) All waters of the Willamette River in the head of the Port of Portland's Terminal 4 Slip...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR. 165.1326 Section 165.1326 Navigation and... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1326 Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4... navigation area: (1) All waters of the Willamette River in the head of the Port of Portland's Terminal 4 Slip...

  19. A study of ecological red-line area partitioning in the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. F.; An, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Maintaining ecosystem balance and realizing the strategic goal of sustainable development are key objectives in the field of environmental sciences. Accordingly, drawing ecological red lines in sensitive and vulnerable environmental areas and important ecological function areas, determining the distribution range of ecological red-line areas, providing scientific guidance for developmental activities, and effectively managing the ecological environment are significant work tasks supported by policy guidance from the State Council and from knowledge gained in educational circles. Taking the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou as the study object, this research selected water and soil loss sensitivity, as well as assessments of karst rocky desertification sensitivity as background assessments of the eco-environment. Furthermore, the functions of soil conservation, water conservation, and biodiversity protection were integrated with exploitation-prohibited areas, and an organic combination of ecological needs and social service functions was created. Spatial comprehensive overlay analysis and processing revealed that the combination marked nine major ecological red-line areas in a total area of 5,030.58 km2, which occupied 44.16% of the total basin area. By combining the current eco-environmental situation of the Chishui River Basin with the marked out red-line areas, this research proposed corresponding ecological red-line area management suggestions. These suggestions are expected to provide a scientific foundation for eco-environmental protection and subsequent scientific research in Chishui River Basin.

  20. Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

    2006-08-01

    To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

  1. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  2. The effects of urban areas on benthic macroinvertebrates in two Colorado Plains rivers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Neal J; Zuellig, Robert E; Shieh, Sen-Her; Ward, J V

    2005-02-01

    Water demands in arid and semi-arid areas, coupled with increased human populations and concomitant changes in land use, can greatly alter aquatic ecosystems. A good example of this type of system occurs along the eastern slope of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. Long-term macroinvertebrate metric data from the Big Thompson and Cache la Poudre Rivers, Colorado, were collected at one site above, and three sites in and downstream from urban areas. These data were compared both with regional reference and single reference sites in the respective rivers. Using the surrogate variables of potential urban impact (population and housing units), and the environmental gradient represented primarily by chemical factors, it was determined that there was an effect of urban land use that was reflected in the macroinvertebrate assemblages in both rivers. The most robust results were usually seen when regional reference data were used. However, even using only the upstream reference site in either river indicated some negative impacts from the urban areas. The long-term data, particularly in the Cache la Poudre River, showed that water quality has not been getting worse and there is some evidence of a slight improvement in downstream reaches, even with increased urban development.

  3. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  4. Nutrient flows and related impacts between a Mediterranean river and the associated coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markogianni, Vassiliki; Varkitzi, Ioanna; Pagou, Kalliopi; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Taking into consideration the Water Framework Directive's requirements, water samples were collected monthly and/or bimonthly between 2014 and 2015 from Spercheios River, its estuary and the adjacent Maliakos Gulf in order to assess the quality of these water bodies. A study on dissolved nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations was carried out, to investigate the impact between the river and the associated coastal area and assess the nutrient loads based on water flows from Spercheios River into the marine system.Furthermore a seasonal distribution of nutrient concentrations have been studied, dividing the sampling period into dry and wet season according to the river's discharges. Correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis among the available chemical data were conducted in order to enhance the detection of the two systems' interaction. Nutrients' concentrations increased from upstream to downstream sampling stations, particularly in areas where human-induced activities are detected. Marine samples were characterized by lower nutrient concentrations than the river ones, and the ecological quality of Maliakos Gulf, based on chlorophyll-a values, is characterized as moderate, except for the stations close to the river, which constantly presented poor quality. Chemical analyses and statistical analysis indicated high nutrient flows and a strong impact between the freshwater and marine systems, accompanied by the profound effect of the adjacent aquafarming areas and the wastewater treatment plant of Lamia city. The highest nutrients' and chlorophyll-a values of the coastal stations were detected close to the river mouth and they were decreasing towards the outer Maliakos Gulf.

  5. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to document trends in surface-water quality, specifically for trends in nutrients and suspended sediment. Surface-water samples were collected from streams at specific sampling stations. Water-quality characteristics at each station are influenced by the natural and cultural characteristics of the drainage area upstream from the sampling station. Efficient quantification of the drainage area characteristics requires a digital map of the drainage area boundary that may be processed, together with other digital thematic maps (such as geology or land use), in a geographic information system (GIS). Digital drainage-area boundary data for one stream-sampling station in the Missouri River Basin (MRB4) study area is included in this data release. The drainage divides were identified chiefly using 1:24,000-scale hypsography.

  6. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jay P.; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K.

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  7. Rapid assessment of the needs and health status of older adults after Hurricane Charley--Charlotte, DeSoto, and Hardee Counties, Florida, August 27-31, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    On August 13, 2004, Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 storm with sustained winds of 145 mph, made landfall at a Gulf of Mexico barrier island in Florida, resulting in an estimated 31 deaths statewide and extensive property damage in Charlotte, DeSoto, and Hardee counties. The Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) requested that CDC conduct a rapid needs assessment of older adults (i.e., aged >/=60 years) because this vulnerable age group constitutes a substantial proportion of the population in the most severely affected counties (Charlotte County [43% older adult residents of 141,627 total population], DeSoto County [24% of 32,209], and Hardee County [18% of 36,938]). This report summarizes the findings and recommendations from three rapid needs assessments in these Florida counties. Older adult residents experienced disruptions in both quality-of-life status and medical care for preexisting conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and physical disabilities). On the basis of these findings, recommendations were provided to FLDOH for immediate use in deploying resources for response to Hurricane Charley and in planning responses to future disasters.

  8. The inflow of polonium (210)Po from Vistula river catchments area.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Jahnz, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The activities of polonium (210)Po in Vistula unfiltered water samples, collected from November 2002 to November 2003, were measured using the alpha spectrometry. In winter, the highest concentration of (210)Po was in Vistula river water from Torun (2.72 +/- 0.04 Bq x m(-3)) and from the Wieprz river (5.46 +/- 0.07 Bq x m(-3) [Bequerel per cubic metre]), and the lowest was in water from Nida river (0.59 +/- 0.02 Bq x m(-3)). During spring, the highest concentration of (210)Po was observed in Vistula water collected in Deblin (5.98 +/- 0.03 Bq x m(-3)) and the lowest in water from the Narew river (1.20 +/- 0.12 Bq x m(-3)). In summer, the highest concentration of (210)Po was in Nogat river water collected in Malbork (3.18 +/- 0.04 Bq x m(-3)) and the Bzura river (5.30 +/- 0.02 Bq x m(-3)), the lowest in Wieprz river (0.49 +/- 0.09 Bq x m(-3)) and Vistula river water from Kraków (1.44 +/- 0.05 Bq x m(-3)). In autumn, the highest (210)Po concentration was in Bzura river (8.93 +/- 0.03 Bq x m(-3)), the lowest in Vistula water from Grudziadz (1.51 +/- 0.04 Bq x m(-3)), and Toruń (1.89 +/- 0.05 Bq x m(-3)). The highest quantity of (210)Po was transported from Vistula catchments area to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched by about 73.7 GBq (210)Po (with Leniwka and Nogat rivers), with 71.6 GBq going to Gdańsk Bay and 2.1 GBq to Vistula Lagoon. The highest surface (210)Po runoff was observed in spring (to 1370 kBq x km(-2) x quarter(-1) for Dunajec catchment's area), the lowest in summer (for Nida catchment's area to 100 kBq x km(-2) x quarter(-1)).

  9. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  10. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Electromagnetic Delineation and Confirmation of Areas of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in a Large River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, J.; Dawe, M. R.; Butler, K. E.; Macquarrie, K. T.

    2004-05-01

    Riverbank filtration systems are typically located in heterogeneous alluvial river valley deposits. Delineation of riverbed areas where there is downward river water infiltration is important for determining the fluxes, quality, and travel time of water supplied to production wells. Efficient methods of delineation are especially required in large rivers that may also have relatively large water depths. A portion of the City of Fredericton well field recharge zone lies beneath the adjacent Saint John River, where a discontinuity in the clay/silt aquitard may allow hydraulic connection between the esker-like aquifer and the river. In this project we have investigated the potential for using electromagnetic methods to delineate zones of low electrical conductivity. Such zones, in a fresh water environment, suggest the absence of clay/silt materials. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, a total of 120 km of electromagnetic data were acquired using the Geonics EM31 and EM34 ground conductivity meters. The survey was carried out using an outboard-motor-powered canoe and raft with onboard DGPS system. Both electromagnetic instruments were operated in the vertical dipole mode, thereby providing maximum depths of exploration of approximately 30 meters. The water depths in the survey area fall in the range where the EM31 and EM34 results are very sensitive to the conductivity structure. We applied a novel bathymetry correction approach to compensate for water depth effects. Contouring of the apparent conductivity data revealed a conductivity low with an approximate area of 6 hectares. The absence of the clay/silt aquitard was confirmed by high resolution seismic profiling and drilling and sampling of riverbed sediments. Further confirmation of river water infiltration has been provided by hydraulic data from mini-piezometers and temperature time series collected beneath the riverbed. Apparent conductivity mapping proved to be a sensitive and efficient method for delineating

  12. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  13. Hydrologic budget for A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Haselow, J.S.; Jackson, D.G.; Ehrke, L.

    1994-09-01

    In this investigation different components of the hydrologic budget for the groundwater flow system beneath the A/M Area were quantified. To accomplish this a regional groundwater flow mode, previously calibrated to the groundwater flow system beneath the A/M Area, was used to generate flux terms which could then be used to quantify specific components of the hydrologic budget. Sub-zones within the constructed model were defined in terms of groups of model nodes using the US Geological Survey code ZONEBUDGET. Cell-by-cell flux terms generated by the groundwater model for each node were used as input to calculate the hydrologic budgets for each of the defined sub-zones. Results were tabulated both as actual groundwater fluxes and as normalized quantities to allow easy comparison of flux magnitudes for different sub-zones. In the process of defining sub-zones and calculating the flux magnitude for different components of the hydrologic flow system, the adequacy of the groundwater flow model in describing the actual flow system was better determined. In effect, quantification of flux terms from the groundwater model functioned as a ``calibration tool`` in that specific changes to the groundwater model which would enhance its calibration were identified and are described in this report.

  14. Palynostratigraphic correlation of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) in the Wind River Reservation and Waltman Area, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Flores, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Palynologic samples of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) were collected from selected composite measured sections and a drill hole in the Wind River Basin. Intervals studied are in outcrop in the Wind River Reservation in the Shotgun Butte area and near Hudson, Wyoming, and in the subsurface in the Muddy Ridge field. Age determinations were made using the palynostratigraphic zonation originally developed near Waltman, Wyoming, in the northeastern part of the basin. Although parts of the zonation have been called into question by other recent work in the basin, only the basal Paleocene biozone (P1) is in need of modification, and the zonation remains an effective tool for age determination and correlation in these rocks. Age control is sparse in parts of some sections studied, mostly because of a dominance of sandstone and conglomerate facies, but palynostratigraphy permits correlation of the study areas with each other and with the Waltman reference section.Palynology supports the following correlations: The lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation in the Shotgun Butte area correlates stratigraphically and chronologically with the lower part of the formation in the subsurface at Muddy Ridge field, with a short interval in the Hudson area, and with the lower and middle parts of the unnamed member in the Waltman area. The Shotgun Member correlates chronologically with the coal-bearing upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the subsurface at Muddy Ridge field and with the upper part of the unnamed member and Waltman Shale Member in the Waltman area. These correlations show that significant coal deposits in the subsurface have little or no expression in outcrop because of changes in facies.

  15. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  16. Incidence of Mink, Mustela vison, and River Otter, Lutra canadensis, in a Highly Urbanized Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  17. Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

  18. 78 FR 53668 - Regulated Navigation Area; Maine Kennebec Bridge Construction Zone, Kennebec River, Richmond, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Maine Kennebec Bridge... navigable waters of the Kennebec River surrounding the Maine Kennebec Bridge between Richmond, ME, and... vessel traffic through the RNA during bridge replacement operations, both planned and unforeseen, that...

  19. 77 FR 1020 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge...) on the navigable waters of the Mystic River under and surrounding the S99 Alford Street Bridge which... where the bridge is being repaired. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on January 9, 2012 through...

  20. 77 FR 41717 - Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge Removal, Penobscot River, Bucksport, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge... of the Penobscot River near Bucksport, ME, under and surrounding the original Waldo-Hancock Bridge in... life on the navigable waters during bridge deconstruction operations that could pose an imminent hazard...

  1. 60 FR 4921 - Notice of Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area; Correction AGENCY: Vale District, Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: In...

  2. Kentucky River Area Development District (KRADD): Historic Trends and Geographic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Timothy; Eller, Ronald D.; Taul, Glen Edward

    Lying within the Cumberland Plateau of Appalachia, the Kentucky River Area Development District (KRADD) comprises eight rural Kentucky counties: Breathitt, Knott, Lee, Leslie, Letcher, Owsley, Perry, and Wolfe. This report reviews regional history of economic development and examines socioeconomic indicators, including education, poverty, and the…

  3. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13 on...

  4. 77 FR 67566 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Coast Guard is temporarily establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Thames River in New London Harbor, New London, CT. The RNA will establish speed and wake restrictions and allow the Coast Guard to prohibit all vessel traffic through the RNA during degaussing range replacement...

  5. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13 on...

  6. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13 on...

  7. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13 on...

  8. 33 CFR 165.821 - Ohio River at Cincinnati, OH; regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated navigation area (RNA)—The waters of the Ohio River between mile 466.0 and mile 473.0. (b.... (1) Transit through the RNA by all downbound vessels towing cargoes regulated by Title 46 Code of... navigation channel of the RNA. (3) All commercial vessels shall continually monitor VHF-FM channel 13 on...

  9. 76 FR 48070 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Guard proposes the establishment of a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) at the Zidell Waterfront Property located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. This RNA is necessary to preserve the integrity of an... action. This proposed RNA will do so by prohibiting activities that could disturb or damage the...

  10. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... north of the U.S. 90 Highway Bridge and on the southside from 4,000 yards south of the Southern Pacific Railroad (SPRR) Bridge. (b) Within the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this section... Bridge. (c) When the Morgan City River gauge reads 3.0 feet or above mean sea level, in addition to the...

  11. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... north of the U.S. 90 Highway Bridge and on the southside from 4,000 yards south of the Southern Pacific Railroad (SPRR) Bridge. (b) Within the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this section... Bridge. (c) When the Morgan City River gauge reads 3.0 feet or above mean sea level, in addition to the...

  12. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... north of the U.S. 90 Highway Bridge and on the southside from 4,000 yards south of the Southern Pacific Railroad (SPRR) Bridge. (b) Within the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this section... Bridge. (c) When the Morgan City River gauge reads 3.0 feet or above mean sea level, in addition to the...

  13. Deer browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River project area

    Treesearch

    William H. Moore

    1967-01-01

    A procedure developed in Georgia was used to inventory the browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River Project Area near Aiken, South Carolina. Through this procedure, the forest land manager is supplied with relative carrying capacity data for deer . If silvical practices can be related to habitat quality and quantity, he can adjust...

  14. EPA Awards New Great Lakes Restoration Funding for Projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    No. 15-OPA166 HARRISON TOWNSHIP, MICH. (Nov. 9, 2015) -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of new funding for major Great Lakes Restoration Initiative projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern totaling nearly $20 m

  15. 75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Glenn, Colusa, Yolo, and Sutter Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and...

  16. 77 FR 20295 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard, Marinette, WI; Corrections AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of... the United States Coast Guard, and local or state law enforcement vessels, are prohibited from...

  17. 76 FR 30024 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard, Marinette, WI AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD... Marinette Marine Corporation. DATES: Effective date: June 23, 2011. ADDRESSES: Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps...

  18. 210Pb mass accumulation rates in the depositional area of the Magra River (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbono, I.; Barsanti, M.; Schirone, A.; Conte, F.; Delfanti, R.

    2016-08-01

    Nine sediment cores were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the inner continental shelf (Mediterranean Sea, Italy) mainly influenced by the Magra River, at water depths ranging from 11 to 64 m. Mass Accumulation Rates (MARs) were calculated through 210Pb analysed by Gamma spectrometry. Three different dating models (single and two-layer CF-CS, CRS) were applied to clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles and 137Cs was used to validate the 210Pb geochronology. The maximum MAR values (>2 g cm-2 yr-1) were found in the region adjacent to the Magra River mouth and outside the Gulf of La Spezia (0.9±0.1 g cm-2 yr-1 at St. 3-C6 and 4-C4). Results from 137Cs/210Pbxs ratios calculated in Surface Mixed Layers (SMLs) evidenced the coastal boundaries of the Magra River depositional area, which is very limited towards south. Differently, in the north-west sector, fine sediments are generally driven by the Ligurian Current and move towards north-west: at the deepest and most distant station from the River mouth, the MAR value is the lowest one in the study area. Few major Magra River floods occurred during the sediment core sampling period. By using the short-lived radioisotope 7Be as a tracer of river floods, a clear 7Be signature of 2009 flood is present at St. 1-SA1C. Finally, by analyzing the clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles, a decrease of its activity dating the years 1999 and 2000 is observed in four cores, corresponding to two major Magra River floods occurring in those years.

  19. Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adaelson Campelo; Faial, Kleber Raimundo Freitas; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; da Silva Lopes, Iris Danielly; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mendonça, Neyson Martins

    2017-09-15

    In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Source area and seasonal variation of dissolved Sr isotope composition in rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis; Cochonneau, Gerard; Lagane, Christelle; Brunet, Pierre; Hattingh, Karina; Chaves, Jeane G. S.

    2014-05-01

    We present dissolved Sr isotope data collected over 8 years from three main river systems from the Amazon Basin: Beni-Madeira, Solimões, Amazon, and Negro. The data show large 87Sr/86Sr ratio variations that were correlated with the water discharge and geology of the source areas of the suspended sediments. The Beni-Madeira system displays a high average 87Sr/86Sr ratio and large 87Sr/86Sr fluctuations during the hydrological cycle. This large average value and fluctuations were related to the presence of Precambrian rocks and Ordovician sediments in the source area of the suspended sediment of the river. In contrast, the Solimões system displays a narrow range of Sr isotope ratio variations and an average value close to 0.709. This river drains mostly Phanerozoic rocks of northern Peru and Ecuador that are characterized by low Sr isotope ratios. Despite draining areas underlain by Precambrian rocks and having high 87Sr/86Sr ratios, such rivers as the Negro and Tapajós play a minor role in the total Sr budget of the Amazon Basin. The isotopic fluctuations in the Beni-Madeira River were observed to propagate downstream at least as far as Óbidos, in the Amazon River. This signal is characterized by an inverse relationship between the concentration of elemental Sr and its isotopic ratios. During the raining season there is an increase in Sr isotopic ratio accompanied by a decrease in elemental Sr concentration. During the dry season, the Sr isotopic ration decreases and the elemental Sr concentration increases.

  1. Shallow Groundwater Movement in the Skagit River Delta Area, Skagit County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2009-01-01

    Shallow groundwater movement in an area between the lower Skagit River and Puget Sound was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology with the identification of areas where water withdrawals from existing and new wells could adversely affect streamflow in the Skagit River. The shallow groundwater system consists of alluvial, lahar runout, and recessional outwash deposits composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. Upland areas are underlain by glacial till and outwash deposits that show evidence of terrestrial and shallow marine depositional environments. Bedrock exposures are limited to a few upland outcrops in the southwestern part of the study area, and consist of metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Water levels were measured in 47 wells on a quarterly basis (August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, and May 2008). Measurements from 34 wells completed in the shallow groundwater system were used to construct groundwater-level and flow-direction maps and perform a linear-regression analysis to estimate the overall, time averaged shallow groundwater-flow direction and gradient. Groundwater flow in the shallow groundwater system generally moves in a southwestward direction away from the Skagit River and toward the Swinomish Channel and Skagit Bay. Local groundwater flow towards the river was inferred during February 2008 in areas west and southwest of Mount Vernon. Water-level altitudes varied seasonally, however, and generally ranged from less than 3 feet (August 2007) in the west to about 15 feet (May 2008) in the east. The time-averaged, shallow groundwater-flow direction derived from regression analysis, 8.5 deg south of west, was similar to flow directions depicted on the quarterly water-level maps. Seasonal changes in groundwater levels in most wells in the Skagit River Delta follow a typical pattern for shallow wells in western Washington. Water

  2. 33 CFR 165.T01-0394 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, between Prospect and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, between Prospect and Verona, ME. 165.T01-0394 Section 165.T01... Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, between Prospect and Verona, ME. (a) Location. The following area is...

  3. 33 CFR 165.T01-0868 - Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction, Sakonnet River, Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 24 Bridge Construction, Sakonnet River, Rhode Island. 165.T01-0868 Section 165.T01-0868 Navigation... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.T01-0868 Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge..., within 100 yards of the Route 24 bridge over the Sakonnet River. (b) Regulations. The general regulations...

  4. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  5. Morphology analysis in middle-downstream area of Progo River due to the debris flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriadin, Ahmad Azmi; Ikhsan, Jaza'ul; Harsanto, Puji

    2017-06-01

    One of the problems that occur in Progo River is the formation of sediment in the downstream section. The sediment material in the upstream becomes the source of sediment at the downstream area. Excess sediment supply from the upstream causes morphological changes in a relatively short time. The morphological changes in riverbed will affect hydraulics conditions. Hydraulic has an important role in the process of aggradation and degradation in the riverbed. Furthermore, the process of erosion and sedimentation will affect the stability of the construction in the water. In Progo River, there are some buildings of infrastructure such as revetment, bridge, irrigation intake, groundsill, and weir. Based on the results of a numerical model of the hydraulic analysis system, there was approximately 87,000,000 m3 of sediment on Progo River in 2015. In fact, aggradation and degradation occurred very intensively in the middle-downstream area of Progo River. Sediment movement simulation also showed that the sediment supply of lava could prevent excessive bed degradation. Nevertheless, the absence of sediment supply will lead to bed degradation process. It indicates that the management of the sediment supply in the upstream area must be managed properly.

  6. Chemical characteristics and heavy metal mass flux of an Armenian river in a mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiedek, Thomas; Nersissian, Lidia; Nalbandyan, Marine

    2017-04-01

    In Armenia, a serious heavy metal problem exists in some areas due to decades of mining activity and the operation of mining related industries, based on a regularly framework of the former Soviet Union with low or absent environmental standards. The Armenian government and local authorities have acknowledged this problem and put hydrochemical river monitoring programs into force. Often, the data (ions, metals) from those programs are not investigated in detail. In this research we analyzed the heavy metal (HM) databases for Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn from rivers in Armenia for the period 2004-2008. Basic statistical analyses (min, max, median, average and potential outlier) were performed for 13 stations after a plausibility check of all data. The HM mass flux for Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn was calculated using hydrological databases for the catchment-system of the rivers Pambak-Debed (Northern Armenia), which was awaited to be strongly influenced by mining activities. The analyzed river gauges were up- and downstream of mining sites (2 stations upstream, 1 downstream), offering the possibility to investigate the quantitative influence of mining activities into the rivers. The results showed that the 13 Armenian rivers studied have a median concentration of Cr = 0,4 - 0,8 µg/l, Cu = 2 - 13 µg/l, Mn = 17 - 53 µg/l, Ni = 0,7 - 1,3 µg/l and Zn = 17,5 - 38,1 µg/l (for all HMs n > 500 cases). A comparison with HM concentrations in river water in Central Europe showed that armeinan rivers are usually in the same order of magnitude. The scattering of the HM concentration in the Armenian rivers was high (high standard deviation) before 2007 and seemed to become more evenly distributed until 2008. The mass flux of HM with high geogenic background concentration in the Pambak-Debed-system was usually increasing downstream of mining areas (more than a factor of 2). For some HM (Cr, Cu) an increase of the mass flux since 2005 could be observed, the total mass flux of all HM studied

  7. EFFECTS OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ON WATER QUALITY IN THE BIG SOUTH FORK NATIONAL RIVER AND RECREATION AREA, TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, William P.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The South Fork Cumberland River begins in Tennessee at the confluence of the New River and Clear Fork. Strip mining for coal in the New River basin has been ongoing for decades with little reclamation prior to 1977. Water-quality data show that suspended-sediment and dissolved-constituent loads from the New River dominate the water quality in the National River and Recreation Area. The suspended sediment can impart a highly turbid and aesthetically displeasing appearance to the water during low-flow periods which are times of maximum recreational use. High suspended-sediment concentrations are also potentially harmful to the aquatic habitat in the Recreation Area. In addition to the suspended-sediment load, a large supply of coarse material is slowly moving through the channels of the New River basin toward the Recreation Area.

  8. Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Takeshi; White, Paul A; DeMarini, David M

    2003-01-10

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not having to bring large volumes of water back to the laboratory for extraction of organic materials. Therefore, for the same effort the hanging blue rayon technique allows for the analysis of more samples from remote sites, although it has a disadvantage of not allowing quantitative analysis. In this study, the blue rayon hanging technique was used to collect organic mutagens in river waters that flow through metropolitan areas in northeastern North America. Monitoring was performed at a total of 21 sites: the Providence River system (4 sites), the Charles River (2 sites), the Potomac River (6 sites), the St. Lawrence River (5 sites), the Hudson River (3 sites), and the East River (1 site). Mutagenicity was evaluated using the Salmonella assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1024, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation. The results demonstrated that strains YG1041 and YG1024 were much more sensitive than TA98 with S9 mix. Fifteen samples out of 21 were positive in YG1041 with S9 mix. Six samples gave 5000-18,400 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent. YG1042 was also much more sensitive than TA100. Eight samples were positive in YG1042 with S9 mix. The highest activity was 10,200 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent. The overall results showed that rivers flowing through major cities in North America contain frameshift-type, aromatic amine-like mutagenic activity. However, the levels of mutagenic activity in these rivers were much lower than expected based on prior analyses and calculated population-to-discharge ratios. Further research, such as detailed chemical analyses and/or simultaneous comparisons of several different adsorbents (e.g. XAD and blue rayon), will be needed to clarify the observed differences between North American blue rayon values and published values for European and

  9. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River.The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter.Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons.Water samples collected from selected sites within

  10. Shelf to basin transition of Silurian-Devonian rocks, Porcupine River area, east-central Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Colean, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    Exposures of Silurian to lowermost Devonian strata in the Porcupine River region consist of an unnamed carbonate unit and the Road River Formation. Petrographic studies indicate that these rocks display facies representative of five depositional environments: basin, open sea shelf, deep shelf margin, open platform, and restricted shelf. The unnamed carbonate unit, exposed in the Linear Ridge area, is 390 ft (126 m) thick and records a history of restricted shelf to basinal sedimentation. Stratigraphic relations and paleontological studies suggest a Middle to Late Silurian (Ludlovian) age for this unit. The Road River Formation is Late Silurian (Ludlovian) to Early Devonian (Lochkovian) in age and is exposed near the confluence of the Porcupine-Salmontrout Rivers and downstream along the Lower Ramparts. It consists of 30-190 ft (10-61 m) of graptolitic shale with interbeds of siliceous limestone. Petrographic studies of the shales are interpreted to reflect deposition in a basinal setting, whereas the siliceous limestones represent deep shelf-margin debris flows derived from nearby, coeval shallow-water shelf environments. Together, the unnamed carbonate unit and the Road River Formation represent a shelf to basin transition on a carbonate ramp that transcends the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Petrographic examination of these rocks reveals that they are susceptible to a wide range of diagenetic processes, including (1) micritition, (2) neomorphism, (3) syntaxial overgrowths, (4) pressure solution (stylolitization), (5) trapping of dried hydrocarbons, (6) tensional stress (calcite veining), and (7) silicification.

  11. Extraction of potential areas of river dust emissions using SPOT imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu-Fen, Tsai; Chao-Yuan, Lin

    2017-04-01

    During the winter, an increase of exposed bare riverbed at the estuary of Jhuoshuei River in Taiwan often causes river dust episodes which harm the health of nearby residents. This study selected the river section from bridge Ziqiang to bridge Xibin as study area. The SPOT satellite imageries, within 15 days of the aeolian dust event during 2005 - 2014, were obtained to classify the land cover and discuss the relationship of bare land change and aeolian dust emission. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) derived from SPOT imageries can display the spatial distribution of moisture content and particle size in the surface of soil layers. The bare land can be categorized into coarse, medium and fine particles using K-mean cluster analysis, and then combined with the meteorological factors from a nearby air quality monitoring station to explore the contribution to aeolian dust emission. The results show that the bare land with fine particle has a positive correlation with daily average PM10. Therefore, the bare land with fine particle could be the potential zones of river dust emissions. Monitoring the changes of bare riverbed using remote sensing technology is an effective way for river dust episodes prediction.

  12. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  13. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of land cover change and grassland degradation pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area].

    PubMed

    Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-Hong; Xue, Da-Yuan; Cai, Liang

    2012-05-01

    Based on field survey data, remote sensing images and statistical data, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal differentiation of land use and grassland degradation patterns in Yangtze River headwaters area in 1987-2007, and discussed the main natural factors (elevation, position and slope) leading to the changes of this area's grassland ecological environment. In 1987-2007, the fragmentation of this area' s landscape patterns had an increasing trend, and natural environment and climate change were the main driving forces of land use pattern change. There existed significant differences in the areas of grassland degradation at different altitudes. Grassland degradation mainly occurred at altitudes 4800-5100 m. The grassland degradation area tended to increase with increasing elevation, and the proportions of the degradation area varied greatly over different slopes and aspects. The climate in the study area became warm and dry, and the spatial structure of regional land cover changed obviously. The distribution patterns of grassland degradation at different elevation, position and slope coincided with alpine environment and human disturbances, suggesting that alpine environment and climatic change were the decisive factors to the grassland ecosystem pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area.

  14. 33 CFR 165.T01-0048 - Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA Saugus River Railroad Drawbridge rehabilitation project, Saugus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and... a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All navigable waters, surface to bottom, on the Saugus River... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA...

  15. Nitrogen and Sediment Inputs to the San Pedro River Riparian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Huth, A. K.; Hamblen, J.; Villinski, J.; Grimm, N.; Lewis, D.; Schade, J.

    2002-05-01

    The San Pedro River in southern Arizona is the last undammed major river in the Western U.S. The riparian habitat along the upper San Pedro is under pressure due to competing water use by nearby agriculture and municipal demands. Numerous nongovernmental organizations and government agencies are cooperating to investigate the functioning of the riparian area, including water and nutrient cycling. The multi-institutional NSF Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) is using two 500-m study sites along the upper San Pedro River (one gaining and one losing-intermittent) to investigate nutrient and sediment fluxes. Sampling of over 80 shallow piezometers installed in the stream, in gravel bars and in riparian terraces (among cottonwoods and willows) showed nitrate levels were highest in the riparian terrace and gravel bars throughout the year. Nitrate levels in shallow stream piezometers were lower and more variable. Seasonal algal blooms were correlated with decreases in nitrate and organic nitrogen in the stream channel. Intensive sampling during a 300 cfs flood (July 17-18, 2001) in the intermittant-losing reach showed significant increases in nitrate levels during the storm, apparently from the gravel bars and riparian terrace. Hydrograph separation indicated a substantial fraction of the water in the river had been in contact with the river banks. During storm events, substantial sediment transport occurs, as well as scour and fill. As much of the nitrogen cycling in microbially controlled, sediment scour and fill is being monitored concomitantly with respiration measurements in a meander point bar in the losing-intermittant reach. By focusing on key processes in the shallow stream sediments, gravel bars and riparian terraces, we are establishing linkages between the different zones of the riparian area in order to characterize nitrogen uptake capacity of the riparian system.

  16. Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.

  17. State game and wildlife area recreation use assessment: Michigan's Maple River state game area, fall 2005

    Treesearch

    Charles M. Nelson; Eric Steffey; Eric Clark

    2007-01-01

    Michigan state game and wildlife areas (SGA) provide the most public land in southern Michigan, where 8.5 million people reside. These areas are managed for wildlife habitat and wildlife associated recreation. They charge no entry fee, have many access points, and have little or no on-site staff. Recreational use on SGAs has not been assessed since the 1970s. This...

  18. [Identification of critical area of phosphorus loss in agricultural areas of Guishui River watershed by phosphorus loss risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Li-Ding; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Ma, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural non-point sources pollution is one of severe problems for water environment of agricultural areas in China. Because of the big difficulties, identifying the critical source areas for phosphorus loss becomes the focal point of the non-point sources pollution control. A modified catchment scale phosphorus ranking scheme was developed for agricultural areas in Guishui River watershed. The new scheme included eight assessment factors, which had three phosphorus loss risk ranks respectively and selected quantitative analysis method. The result shows that the phosphorus fertilizer management of the vegetable fields is the most unfit method and has high phosphorus loss probabilities. Most study areas have high soil available phosphorus content and low soil erosion degree. The figure of the assessment result shows that the areas that are categorized as "low" phosphorus loss risk are small. Based on the figure of the result, the critical source areas were confirmed and the management strategies were brought forward according to the analysis on the distribute characteristics of the critical source areas. The result shows that the modified catchment scale phosphorus ranking scheme has operability and practicability to a certain extent.

  19. Valuing nature-based recreation in public natural areas of the Apalachicola River region, Florida.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ram K; Stein, Taylor V; Clark, Julie

    2007-12-01

    As more people visit natural areas for tourism and recreation purposes, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the value they place on these natural resources. Specifically, tourists to Florida have been increasingly interested in visiting natural areas, forests, parks, and preserves-highlighting the importance of this new and growing phenomenon. We analyze visitors' demand for nature-based recreation in the Apalachicola River region of Florida using the travel cost method. The results from a count data regression model reveal that on average visitors would pay 74.18 dollars per visit-day for nature-based recreation resulting in a total economic value of 484.56 million dollars attributable to nature-based recreation in the Apalachicola River region. Results of this study provide useful information for natural resources management in the region and a rationale to preserve Florida's unique ecosystems.

  20. Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Olive, N.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes results from a comprehensive assessment of resource conditions on a large (24%) sample of the trail system within Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area (BSF). Components include research to develop state-of-knowledge trail impact assessment and monitoring methods, application of survey methods to BSF trails, analysis and summary of results, and recommendations for trail management decision making and future monitoring. Findings reveal a trail system with some substantial degradation, particularly soil erosion, which additionally threatens water quality in areas adjacent to streams and rivers. Factors that contribute to or influence these problems are analyzed and described. Principal among these are trail design factors (trail topographic position, soil texture, grade and slope alignment angle), use-related factors (type and amount of use), and maintenance factors (water drainage). Recommendations are offered to assist managers in improving the sustainability of the trails system to accommodate visitation while enhancing natural resource protection.

  1. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Virgin River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Bales, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    This study is the last of a series of eight geohydrologic reconnaissance studies that were done in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. The studies were done to evaluate the water resources in the recreation area and to identify areas having potential for the development of water supplies that would be adequate for marinas and campgrounds. The study area includes about 250 square miles north of Lake Mead from Las Vegas Wash to the Virgin River (Overton Arm), Nevada. Volcanic rocks, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated to semiconsolidated sedimentary rocks underlie the area. Surface-water sources include the Colorado River, Virgin River, Muddy River, and Las Vegas Wash. Elsewhere in the area, streamflow is meager and extremely variable. Ground water originates from four sources: (1) subsurface flow in local basins, (2) infiltration of water from Lake Mead into permeable rocks near the lake, (3) subsurface flow in valleys of perennial streams, and (4) subsurface flow in consolidated rocks of the Muddy Mountains. The quantity of water from Lake Mead that has saturated rocks adjacent to the lake probably is greater than the quantity of ground water from all the Other sources. Rocks saturated by water from the lake probably extend less than 0.5 mileinland from the lake shore. The quality of virtually all the ground water in the area is not acceptable for drinking purposes. The most favorable areas for obtaining ground water are those underlain by the coarse-grained deposits of the older alluvium and the younger alluvium adjacent to Lake Mead. The least favorable areas are those underlain by the mudstone facies of the Muddy Creek Formation and fine-grained rocks of the Horse Spring Formation. Four areas identified as having potential for ground-water development are (1) near Overton Beach, (2) west of Callville Bay, (3) near Middle Point, and (4) in the lower Moapa Valley. Usable quantities of water probably can be obtained at these sites, but the

  2. Preliminary Cultural Resource Survey and Geomorphological Assessment of Selected Areas in Navigation Pool 16, Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED S9CUR1*rY Cl:ASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When, D~a Eneed _______________ PRELIMINARY CULTURAL RESOURCE SURVEY AND GE(X4ORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF...anumber) This report describes a cultural resource inventory and geomorphological assessment of Navigation Pool 16, situated on the Mississippi River...virtually the entire survey area. Eleven previously unrecorded prehistoric sites were found, including one Archaic shell midden with a C-34 date of 5680

  3. Bedform morphology of salmon spawning areas in a large gravel-bed river

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-05-01

    While the importance of river channel morphology to salmon spawning habitat is increasingly recognized, quantitative measures of the relationships between channel morphology and habitat use are lacking. Such quantitative measures are necessary as management and regulatory agencies within the Pacific Northwestern region of the USA, and elsewhere, seek to quantify potential spawning habitat and develop recovery goals for declining salmon populations. The objective of this study was to determine if fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Snake River, Idaho, USA, were correlated with specific bed form types at the pool-riffle scale. A bed form differencing technique was used to objectively quantify the longitudinal riverbed profile into four distinct pool-riffle units that were independent of discharge. The vertical location of thalweg points within these units was quantified with a riffle proximity index. Chinook salmon spawning areas were mapped and correlated with the pool-riffle units through the use of cross-tabulation tables. The results indicate that 84% of fall Chinook salmon spawning areas were correlated with riffles (Chi-square=152.1, df=3, p<0.001), with 53% of those areas located on the upstream side of riffle crests. The majority of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning occurred at a vertical location within 80% of the nearest riffle crest elevation. The analyses of bed form morphology will assist regional fish mangers in quantifying existing and potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, and will provide a quantitative framework for evaluating general ecological implications of channel morphology in large gravel-bed rivers.

  4. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  5. Effects of Winter Navigation on Waterfowl and Raptors in the St. Mary’s River Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    vegetation reducing waterfowl reproductive habitat; ship traffic depriving eagles of critical habitat or areas which have not yet been identified as such...reflected in direct mortality or reduced reproductive success the following spring. Some waterfowl may winter wherever open water is available and they...could reduce water- fowl nesting habitat and brood cover, thus reducing reproductive success. Finally, increased turbidity of river water due to prop

  6. Archaeological Investigations at the Grant River Public Use Area. Volume 1. Narrative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    This ;.- ~ ~ ~ *.’ - "/.-:’.-. *- " *- - ..*i- .’.’i;’ .KC.Z. " .’.. --:...< .:. .--3..;.; ; ’-. ., .q -? .. ’ ’’" ; - - 68 - banded textural B horizon...Notched, Matanzas , Raddatz, and Godar styles have been recovered from .- surface and sub-surface contexts at the Grant River Recrea- tion Area. In...Missouri: The Turner Site, 23 Bu 21a. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan Anthropological Papers No. 68 . Ann Arbor. BOCKHEIM, J.G. 1980

  7. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  8. Scientific information in support of water resource management of the Big River area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Masterson, John P.; Robinson, Keith W.; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the RIWRB has conducted a series of cooperative studies with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goals of these studies have been to (1) evaluate and characterize the water resources of the BRMA and the greater Big River area, and (2) identify sustainable levels of groundwater use that would minimize effects on water resources. This fact sheet describes the major findings of those studies.

  9. Evaluation and assessment of water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidya, R. C. G.; Sajidu, S. M. I.; Mwatseteza, J. F.; Masamba, W. R. L.

    Likangala is one of the perennial rivers in Malawi that flow into a closed Lake Chilwa, a designated wetland ratified by Ramsar Convention in 1997. Earlier work conducted on this river revealed considerable social-economic activities at riverbanks resulting in indiscriminate disposal of wastes. This study intended to evaluate water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area. Water samples were collected thrice (dry, early rainy and mid rainy seasons) and tested for major physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The EC, pH, and selected ions ( NO3-, PO43-, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+) were analysed in soil samples obtained in crop fields along the river banks. Elevated EC levels (>1035.00 μS/cm) were measured during mid rainy season at site S15 (Zomba Sewage Works), near and in the lake. Most of the water samples (86%, n = 28) registered phosphate levels above 1.50 mg/L during mid rainy season with a maximum value (10.70 ± 0.01 mg/L) at site S15. Lower amounts (<0.05 mg/L) of Pb 2+, Cd 2+, Cr 3+, Zn 2+ and Mn 2+ were measured at few sites, while Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ were all below detection limits. The water was classified as soft (0-75 mg/L CaCO 3) to moderately hard (75-150 mg/L CaCO 3). The total and fecal coliform counts above the World Health Organisation (2008) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (2005) limits (0 cfu/100 ml) at some sites signified that the water is unsuitable for human consumption without treatment. The study showed that the river is fairly polluted, the effects being significant in the urban area, near and in the lake. This calls for awareness campaigns aiming at behavioural change and integrated control of water, land use and waste management in order to prevent escalation of the effects.

  10. Preconstruction and simulated postconstruction ground-water levels at urban centers in the Red River Navigation Project area, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Red River Valley in Louisiana is 3 to 10 miles wide and is underlain by the Red River alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is in hydraulic connection with the Red River. Precipitation infiltrates the aquifer and water discharges from the aquifer at the Red River and major tributaries. Construction of locks and dams along the Red River will cause new, higher minimum stages for the river for each of the pools. Water levels will rise and outflow from the alluvial aquifer to the river after construction of the locks and dams will be at higher elevations because of the new river stages. Mathematical models of the stream-aquifer system simulate the effects of the lock and dam system for plan B-3, modified. Water-level changes in the aquifer in response to the changes imposed by the system are greatest near the river and are progressively smaller away from the river. The saturated zone in the fine-grained material overlying the aquifer provides the principal potential impact on structures and vegetation in urban areas. As water levels in the aquifer rise, the saturated zone above the aquifer will decrease the thickness. The soil zone in low areas in some communities will be waterlogged. (USGS)

  11. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  12. Water resources of the Mobile area, Alabama, with a section on salinity of the Mobile River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.H.; Powell, William J.; Brown, Eugene; Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army

    1956-01-01

    Water is an abundant resource of the Mobile area. The Mobile River has an estimated average flow of 60, 000 cubic feet per second (cfs), or about 39,000 million gallons per day (mgd). It is the largest single source of water. Water is available in substantial quantities from the many local streams and extensive water-bearing formations almost anywhere in the area. Surface water is low in dissolved mineral matter and is extremely soft. Salt water moving up the Mobile River from Mobile Bay during periods of low river flow, however, limits the use of that stream as a source of supply. The principal water-bearing formations are the alluvium and sediments of Miocene age. The Miocene strata dip toward the southwest, forming an artesian basin in the downtown area of Mobile. Small groundwater supplies can be developed practically everywhere, and supplies for industrial or other large-scale uses are available north of Mobile. The average use of water from all sources in the area during 1954 was about 356 mgd, of which about 20 mgd was used for domestic supplies and 336 mgd was used by industry. An estimated 42 mgd of ground water is used in the Mobile area. The discharge from wells used by industry ranges from 10 to 1,500 gallons per minute (gpm}, and the specific capacity of the large-capacity wells ranges from less than 6 to about 6 3 gpm per foot of drawdown. Concentrated pumping in the downtown area of Mobile between 1941 and 1945 resulted in encroachment of salt water from the Mobile River into the alluvium. Because of a decrease in pumping in that vicinity, the sodium chloride content of the water has decreased substantially since 1945. The quality of ground water is variable. Hardness of waters sampled ranged from 1 to 2, 190 parts per million (ppm}, the dissolved solids from 27 to 13, 000 ppm, and the chloride from 2.2 to 6,760 ppm. The water of best quality occurs between McIntosh and Prichard, and the water of poorest quality occurs in the downtown area of Mobile

  13. Map showing ground-water conditions in the lower Verde River area, Maricopa, Yavapai, and Gila Counties, Arizona, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    Arizona is divided into 67 ground-water areas, and individual areas are selected for intensive data collection once every 6 years. The data collected in the lower Verde River area are given on a map that shows altitude of the water level, depth of water, well depth, chemical quality of the water, and irrigated area. Scale 1:125,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  15. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  16. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  17. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  18. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  19. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area. 334.160 Section 334.160 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.160 Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin and adjacent waters of...

  20. Identifying the breeding areas of locusts in the Yellow River estuary using Landsat ETM+ imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Gaohuan; Yang, Yuzhen; Liu, Peng; Huang, Jianjie

    2006-03-01

    The Yellow River Estuary became an important plague region of locusts because of its special geographic location. Many years' survey data showed that the environment was the chief factor that influenced locust pest occurring. In the recent years, because the amount of water from the Yellow River and precipitation reduced and distributed asymmetrically, and soil salinization became serious much more, and many farmlands went out of cultivation, which improved the habitats for locusts, the plague of locusts happened frequently under condign climate. The field survey data from 1991 to 2000 showed that the plague of locust became more aggravating year after year. Therefore, it is important to monitor and control the plague of locusts. According to many years' investigation data analysis, got the condign habitat conditions for Locusta Migratoria Manilensis (Meyen) in the Yellow River Estuary. So the breeding areas of locusts monitoring with remote sensing imagery was to identify those regions according to the condign habitat conditions. Landsat ETM+ imagery (2000-05-02) data was chosen to identify the breeding areas of locusts in the Yellow River Estuary. Firstly classified Landsat TM imagery (2000-5-2) and extract reed lands and lawn lands and slightly salinized soils. Secondly made mask images through transforming these three raster classes into vector layers, then calculated a anti-atmospheric visible light vegetation index VARIg = (B2-B3)/(B2+B3-B1). According to field investigation data of vegetation fractional cover in 2000, got the relationship between vegetation fractional cover and VARIg values, 70% to 3.0, 50% to 2.3. As a result, the infrequent areas were where VARIg values were great than 3.0, and the moderate areas were where VARIg values were between 2.3 and 3.0, and frequent areas were where VARIg values were under 2.3. According to statistical analysis, the infrequent areas were percent 10 of the lands that have the condign soil salt content for locust

  1. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. 165.T01-1130 Section 165.T01-1130... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  2. 33 CFR 165.T10-0693 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3. 165.T10-0693 Section 165.T10-0693... Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3. (a) Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a... potential safety hazards involved in the demolition of the Greenville Bridge; Demolition means the removal...

  3. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. 165.T01-1130 Section 165.T01-1130... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T10-0693 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3. 165.T10-0693 Section 165.T10-0693... Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 531.3. (a) Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a... potential safety hazards involved in the demolition of the Greenville Bridge; Demolition means the removal...

  5. 33 CFR 165.T01-1125 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA 165.T01-1125 Section 165.T01-1125... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-0174 - Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. 165.T01-0174 Section 165...; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. (a) Boundaries. The...

  7. Resource management planning efforts on the Bureau of Land Management's Snake River birds of prey national conservation area

    Treesearch

    John Sullivan

    2005-01-01

    In 1993, Congress passed Public Law 103-64, which established the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) for the purpose of conserving, protecting, and enhancing raptor populations and habitats. The NCA encompasses over 485,000 acres of public land along 130 km of the Snake River in southwest Idaho, and is located within a 30-minute drive of Boise...

  8. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Venditti, David A.; Robinson, T. Craig; Beeman, John W.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed fish assemblages in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir of the upper Columbia River to aid in understanding this ecosystem. Fish distributions and abundances were examined during April-July 1999 in relation to environmental conditions in the reservoir. We also compared the fish assemblages in Chief Joseph reservoir in 1999 to a past study conducted during 1974-1975, and to assemblages in other areas of the Columbia River. During 67 hr of electrofishing and 78 beach seine hauls in Chief Joseph Reservoir, 7460 fishes representing 8 families were collected. The majority of the catch was native – northern pikeminnow; redside shiners; longnose, bridgelip, and largescale suckers; and sculpins. The most abundant introduced species was walleye, and one species, rainbow trout, was mostly of net-pen origin. Larger sizes of suckers and northern pikeminnow were most abundant in the upper reservoir, likely due to upstream spawning migrations. The lower reservoir contained greater abundances of smaller fishes, and this area had lower flows, smaller substrates, and more complex shorelines that offered these fishes refugia. Only adult suckers displayed significant differences in abundances related to substrate. The relative abundances of species appeared to have changed since the 1970s, when the dominant fishes were northern pikeminnow, peamouth, largescale suckers, and walleye. Fish assemblage differences between Chief Joseph Reservoir and lower Columbia River reservoirs were also evident due to the morphology of the reservoir, its more northerly location, and the lack of fish passage facilities at Chief Joseph Dam. Our study is one of the few descriptions of fishes in the upper Columbia Rivers.

  9. Investigation of seasonal river-aquifer interactions in a tropical coastal area controlled by tidal sand ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-08-01

    Water exchanges between streams and aquifers influence the quantity and quality of water in both domains. Seasonal river-aquifer interactions were investigated in a tropical coastal area where tidal sand ridges control river discharge to the sea. The study site is located in southwestern Nicaragua, dominated by humid tropical hydro-climatic conditions. The aquifer provides water to the rural town of Ostional. Connectivity between the river and the aquifer influences water quality and water availability for humans and for the downstream estuarine ecosystem. The effect of stream stage fluctuations on river-aquifer flows and pressure propagation in the adjacent aquifer was investigated analyzing high temporal resolution hydraulic head data and applying a numerical model (HYDRUS 2-D). Tidal sand ridges at the river outlet control the flow direction between the river and the aquifer. Surface water accumulation caused by these features induces aquifer recharge from the river. Simulations show groundwater recharge up to 0.2 m3 h-1 per unit length of river cross section. Rupture of the sand ridges due to overtopping river flows causes a sudden shift in the direction of flow between the river and the aquifer. Groundwater exfiltration reached 0.08 m3 h-1 immediately after the rupture of the sand ridges. Simulated bank storage flows are between 0.004-0.06 m3 h-1. These estimates are also supported by the narrow hysteresis loops between hydraulic heads and river stage. The aquifer behaves as confined, rapidly transmitting pressure changes caused by the river stage fluctuations. However, the pressure wave is attenuated with increasing distance from the river. Therefore, we concluded that a dynamic pressure wave is the mechanism responsible for the observed aquifer responses. Pressure variation observations and numerical groundwater modeling are useful to examine river-aquifer interactions and should be coupled in the future with chemical data to improve process understanding.

  10. Baseline water-quality characteristics of the Alaska Army National Guard Stewart River Training Area near Nome, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, Josh D.

    2005-01-01

    The Alaska Army National Guard Stewart River Training Area is approximately 23 miles north of Nome on the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska. The Stewart River Training Area encompasses much of the Stewart River Basin and a small part of the Snake River Basin. Hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat data were collected at seven surface-water sites within the Stewart River Training Area during the summer runoff months (late-May to early-September) in 2004. Two of the sampling sites selected for this study were on the main stem Stewart River, one at the upstream boundary and one at the downstream boundary of the training area. Continuous hydrologic, precipitation, and water temperature data were collected at these two sites throughout the summer of 2004. Three pond sites, along the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Stewart River within the training area, were each sampled twice during the summer of 2004 for analysis of water-quality constituents. Two tributaries to the Snake River Basin, Goldbottom Creek and North Fork Snake River, within the Stewart River Training Area boundary, also were sampled twice during the summer of 2004. Water-quality data collected from the Stewart River at the upstream and downstream study sites indicate similar constituent concentrations. Concentrations of most water-quality constituents collected during the summer of 2004 did not exceed standards for drinking water or recreational contact. Analysis of trace-element concentrations in bed sediment samples indicate the threshold effect concentration (below which no adverse effects on organisms is expected) was exceeded for arsenic, chromium, and nickel concentrations at all sample sites within the Stewart River Training Area and cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were found to exceed the threshold effect concentration in varying degrees at the sample sites. The probable effect concentration (above which toxic effects on organisms is likely) was exceeded by

  11. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg−1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg−1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg−1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  12. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  13. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  14. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1)) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1)). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1)). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b)), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  15. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood modelling for populated valley areas of Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, V. V.; Krylenko, I. N.; Alabyan, A. M.; Sazonov, A. A.; Glotko, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of flood modelling for three cities located in different parts of Russia: (1) Veliky Ustyug at the Northern Dvina river (Europe); (2) Mezhdurechensk at the Tom river (Siberia); and (3) Blagoveschensk at the Amur river (Far East) are presented. The two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of flow in channels and on floodplain STREAM_2D on the basis of the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh was used for the simulations. Verification of the model through a comparison of simulated inundated areas with outlines of flooded zones from satellite images for known hydrologic situations demonstrate close correspondence (relative errors of 7-12% in terms of the area for peaks of the analysed floods). Analyses of embankment influence of large-scale levees on the water flow demonstrate that, in some cases, water levels could rise by more than 1 m and the patterns of the flooding zones could significantly differ.

  16. Assessment of benz(a)pyrene pollution in the flood area of the Luga river.

    PubMed

    Funtova, V G; Kalinina, I A; Dikun, P P; Likhachev, A Ia

    1998-01-01

    Benz(a)pyrene pollution levels have been identified in the soils and vegetation of the flood plains of the River Luga, Leningrad Region. Maximum pollution exceeding background levels 2-10 times (11.02-52.71 mkg/kg) was detected in the soils around the towns of Luga and Kingisepp. The benz(a)pyrene levels in the vegetation (2.04 mkg/kg) were below background values. No significant correlation was established between the concentrations of pollution in the soil and vegetation. Our data suggest that the area of the mid-course of the River Luga should be preserved as a natural habitat of the plants of the Poaceae family.

  17. Factors regulating benthic food chains in tropical river deltas and adjacent shelf areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Robertson, A. I.

    1995-09-01

    Benthic food chains of the Amazon (Brazil) and Fly (Papua New Guinea) river deltas and adjacent shelves are compared. Abundance patterns of the major trophic groups (bacteria, meiofauna, and macroinfauna) are similar between regions, with very low densities, or the absence of benthos, within and near the deltas. For muds in the more quiescent areas, benthic abundance and productivity are highest, commonly coinciding with maximum pelagic primary production. Episodes of physical disturbance, erratic food supply, and dilution of river-derived, particulate organic matter foster the development of opportunistic benthic communities of variable diversity and low biomass, dominated by bacteria. These pioneering assemblages are the main food of penaeid shrimp, which dominate the demersal trawl fisheries of both fluvial-dominated regions.

  18. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of part of the headwaters area of the Price River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, Robert M.

    1963-01-01

    The area investigated comprises 33 square miles in the Price River drainage basin ad is in the High Plateaus section of Utah. Precipitation on most of the area ranges from about 20 to 23 inches per year, and the average annual precipitation for the entire area was assumed to be 22 inches, of which approximately 65 percent is lost by evapotranspiration. The geologic formations underlying the area are the Blackhawk and Price River Formations of Cretaceous age, the North Horn Formation of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, the Flagstaff Limestone and Colton Formation of tertiary age, and unconsolidated deposits of probable Quaternary age.Some ground water issues from springs and seeps and is used by stock and the cities of Price and Helper. The annual discharge from the springs and seeps in the area averages about 3,000 acre-feet. Two deep wells supply about 400 acre-feet per year for use at a steam-generating plant. The aquifers penetrated by the wells are in the Flagstaff Limestone and the North Horn formation, the deepest aquifer being about 1,500 feet below the land surface. Most of the ground water in the area is suitable for municipal and industrial use.The surface discharge from the area is approximately 6,000 acre-feet per year. By means of a water budget, it is calculated that approximately 4,000 acre-feet per year leaves the area by subsurface flow. Further development of ground water on a large scale can be accomplished only by the use of wells. It is possible, however, that part of any newly developed supply from wells may be drawn from existing spring discharge or streamflow.

  19. Evaluation of numerical sediment quality targets for the St. Louis River Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crane, J.L.; MacDonald, D.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Smorong, D.E.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Severn, C.G.; Berger, T.A.; Field, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical sediment quality targets (SQTs) for the protection of sediment-dwelling organisms have been established for the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), 1 of 42 current AOCs in the Great Lakes basin. The two types of SQTs were established primarily from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines. Level I SQTs are intended to identify contaminant concentrations below which harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms are unlikely to be observed. Level II SQTs are intended to identify contaminant concentrations above which harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms are likely to be observed. The predictive ability of the numerical SQTs was evaluated using the matching sediment chemistry and toxicity data set for the St. Louis River AOC. This evaluation involved determination of the incidence of toxicity to amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midges (Chironomus tentans) within five ranges of Level II SQT quotients (i.e., mean probable effect concentration quotients [PEC-Qs]). The incidence of toxicity was determined based on the results of 10-day toxicity tests with amphipods (endpoints: survival and growth) and 10-day toxicity tests with midges (endpoints: survival and growth). For both toxicity tests, the incidence of toxicity increased as the mean PEC-Q ranges increased. The incidence of toxicity observed in these tests was also compared to that for other geographic areas in the Great Lakes region and in North America for 10- to 14-day amphipod (H. azteca) and 10- to 14-day midge (C. tentans or C. riparius) toxicity tests. In general, the predictive ability of the mean PEC-Qs was similar across geographic areas. The results of these predictive ability evaluations indicate that collectively the mean PEC-Qs provide a reliable basis for classifying sediments as toxic or not toxic in the St. Louis River AOC, in the larger geographic areas of the Great Lakes, and elsewhere in North America.

  20. River slopes on basalts: Slope-area trends and lithologic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Adalto Gonçalves; Flores, Diego Moraes

    2017-07-01

    River incisions in continental basalts are distinct and heterogeneous. Knickpoints and the predominance of erosion by plucking contribute to that distinction, whereas significant differences in the vesicularity and jointing of basaltic flows are suggested as controls on the heterogeneities of incisions. We investigated 11 small river channels (<80 km long) installed on continental basalts of the Paraná Volcanic Province, South Brazil, using slope-area analysis (S = ksA-θ), to explore the possible relationships of steepness (ks) and concavity (θ) indices with characteristics of flow basalts. Channels were chosen that did not present signs of significant tectonic interference on a longitudinal profile, i.e., convex reaches and prominent knickpoints. The data were extracted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment from digital topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000. Basaltic flow zones and morphologies, jointing styles, as well as river bed morphologies and erosion processes were surveyed in the field. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers are stepped, and the lower slope reaches are associated predominantly with vesicular basalts and basaltic breccias. Knickpoints are generated by contrasts in the erodibility of the substrate due to vesicular-massive differences and the partial insertion of channels in tectonically fractured zones (lineaments). The normalized steepness index (ksn) is positively correlated (R2 = 0.8) with the knickzone index (the ratio between the number of knickzones and the channel length). Rivers occurring in simple basaltic flows have distinct upper and lower limits of the steepness index (ks), which are represented by massive and vesicular basalts, respectively. The average concavity index (θ) is 0.56 ± 0.16, and its range is from 0.34 to 0.82. The range in θ is inversely related to the rate of downstream variation in the drainage area (discharge). However, the greatest control is exerted by the proportion of basalts that are

  1. Field survey of pollutants discharged from different types of residential area in the Yamuna River Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, A; Sakurai, K; Hiraide, R; Minamiyama, M; Fujiki, O

    2011-01-01

    The Ganges River, one of the most heavily populated and urbanized river basins in Asia, is polluted by increasing wastewater influent and water-borne diseases are caused in the metropolitan area. This study focused on the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges. We determined the pollutant load per unit of urban area classified by the income of the residents to help design an appropriate sewerage system. In addition, a simple method of estimating runoff pollutant load was examined using data on pollutant load per unit and runoff coefficient.

  2. Ground-Water Geology and Hydrology of the Kern River Alluvial-Fan Area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, R.H.; French, James J.; Gordon, G.V.

    1966-01-01

    The Kern River alluvial fan is the southernmost major alluvial fan built by the streams which drain the west side of the Sierra Nevada. The climate is semiarid with rainfall near 5 inches per year. Agricultural development within the area uses over half the 700,000 acre-feet per year flow of the Kern River, plus a considerable amount drawn from the ground-water reservoir particularly during periods of low flow. The area overlies a deep structural trough between crystalline rocks of the Sierra Nevada and the marine rocks of Tertiary age of the Coast Ranges. The top horizon of the marine rocks that lap on the Sierra Nevada block underlies the report area at an average depth of 2,000 feet. The overlying continental deposits that form the groundwater reservoir consist of alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The continental deposits are subdivided into three lithologic units on the basis of grain size and sorting. The gravel and clay unit consists of older alluvial-fan material, of both Sierra Nevada and Coast Range provenance, that shows extremely poor sorting with some diagenetic decomposition through chemical weathering. The fine sand to clay unit consists principally of fine sand, silt, and clay deposited in a lacustrine environment, although some of the unit is of alluvial-fan origin derived from poorly consolidated marine shale of the Coast Ranges. Within the fine sand to clay unit three distinct clays, which affect ground-water conditions, can be recognized. The gravel to medium sand unit consists of unweathered alluvial-fan material that shows much better sorting than the gravel and clay unit. In the eastern part of the area the basal part of this unit is a gravel lentil that can be traced in the subsurface more than 250 square miles. The overlying deposits consist principally of medium sand. In the western part of the area the unit is a heterogeneous gravel and sand unit. Permeability in Meinzer units of the gravel and clay unit ranges between 10 and 100 with

  3. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 36515 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River and Oglala Geographic Areas, Pine Ridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Area (OGA) of the Oglala National Grassland on the Pine Ridge Ranger District and the West Geographic Area (WGA) of the Buffalo Gap National Grassland on the Fall River Ranger District of the Nebraska... Area on the Oglala National Grassland call Lora O'Rourke, Co-Interdisciplinary Team Leader, at 308-432...

  5. 75 FR 33239 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas, Fall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... within the Oglala Geographic Area (OGA) of the Oglala National Grassland on the Pine Ridge Ranger District and the West Geographic Area (WGA) of the Buffalo Gap National Grassland on the Fall River Ranger... the Oglala Geographic Area on the Oglala National Grassland call Lora O'Rourke, Co-Interdisciplinary...

  6. Flooding Mitigation of seawalls and river embankments to storm surges in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Xina

    2017-04-01

    The coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China are susceptible to the destructions of tropical cyclones and storm surges. The projected global warming, coastal subsidence and sea level rise together will bring about greater flooding risk to these areas. The seawall and river embankment have played a significant role in mitigating and preventing the coastal low-land areas from the impairment of storm surges flooding and wave runup. However, few risk assessment studies in this region consider the existence of seawall and river embankment and often overestimate the risk and potential economic loss and population affected due to storm surge flooding. This study utilizes a hydraulic model to simulate the overtop flooding and compare those without seawall and river embankment using several specific tropic storm events and extreme events of tropic storm surges in different return periods of 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. Most seawalls are 4 or 5 meters plus another meter of wave levee above the local mean sea level. The river embankments are usually 4 or 5 meter higher than the local mean sea level as well and decrease from the outer estuary to the inner riverine. The modeling results considering seawall and river embankments and from real storm surges are in agreement with on-site survey and observations, while those without infusing seawall and river embankments overestimate the inundation condition and economic loss. Modeling results demonstrate that seawall and river embankment greatly reduce the flooding risk and prevent the low-land area from inundation for most tropic storm events, e.g., for extreme events less than 20 to 50 years, in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China. However, the seawall and river embankment may also cause catastrophic disasters once there is an engineering failure of seawalls and river embankment, especially once encountering with an extreme typhoon event, e.g., the 1969 super typhoon Viola in Shantou China and the 2005

  7. Status of native stream fishes within selected protected areas of Niobrara River in western Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Stasiak, Richard H.; Cunningham, George R.; Pope, Kevin L.; Pegg, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Lotic systems within the Great Plains are characterized by highly fluctuating conditions through both space and time. Fishes inhabiting these systems have adopted specific life-history strategies to survive in such environments; however, anthropogenic disturbance to prairie streams has resulted in declines and extirpation of many native stream fishes. Terrestrial protected areas (i.e., parks and reserves) are designated to support native flora and fauna and, it is assumed, to provide protection to native fishes. We assessed the presence and relative abundance of stream fish populations within protected areas along the Niobrara River in western Nebraska based on data collected during 1979, 1989, 2008, and 2011. The spatial extent of protection, landscape changes resulting in degraded physiochemical parameters, and introduced species may reduce the effectiveness of these terrestrial protected areas in protecting native fishes in Great Plains stream environments.

  8. The 1977 tundra fire in the Kokolik River area of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Presumably caused by lightning, a large fire occurred due east of Point Lay several kilometers southwest of the Kokolik River, the farthest north a fire was ever fought by Bureau of Land Management personnel in Alaska. The progress and area extent of the fire were determined by analysis of LANDSAT MSS band 5 and 7 imagery. Low altitude observations from helicopter showed the fire burned a range of vegetation and relief types which included low polygonized and upland tussock tundras. The burned area appeared wetter on the surface than the unburned area, due to a lack of moisture absorbing organic matter and the possible release of moisture from the deeper thawed zone. Suggestions for future investigations of the effects of fire on tundra and permafrost terrains are discussed.

  9. Occurrence and Spatial Distribution of Microplastics in River Shore Sediments of the Rhine-Main Area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sascha; Worch, Eckhard; Knepper, Thomas P

    2015-05-19

    Plastic debris is one of the most significant organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. Because of properties such as buoyancy and extreme durability, synthetic polymers are present in rivers, lakes, and oceans and accumulate in sediments all over the world. However, freshwater sediments have attracted less attention than the investigation of sediments in marine ecosystems. For this reason, river shore sediments of the rivers Rhine and Main in the Rhine-Main area in Germany were analyzed. The sample locations comprised shore sediment of a large European river (Rhine) and a river characterized by industrial influence (Main) in areas with varying population sizes as well as sites in proximity to nature reserves. All sediments analyzed contained microplastic particles (<5 mm) with mass fractions of up to 1 g kg⁻¹ or 4000 particles kg⁻¹. Analysis of the plastics by infrared spectroscopy showed a large abundance of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene, which covered more than 75% of all polymer types identified in the sediment. Short distance transport of plastic particles from the tributary to the main stream could be confirmed by the identification of pellets, which were separated from shore sediment samples of both rivers. This systematic study shows the emerging pollution of inland river sediments with microplastics and, as a consequence thereof, underlines the importance of rivers as vectors of transport of microplastics into the ocean.

  10. Bajocian ammonoids from Pumani River area (Ayacucho, Peru): Palaeobiogeographical and palaeoenvironmental implications for the Arequipa Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sixto; Carlotto, Victor; Giraldo, Edwin; Chacaltana, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Deposits of the Socosani Formation in the Pucayacu and Pumani sections (Ayacucho Department, Peru), along several kilometres, have yielded Upper Bajocian ammonoid fossil-assemblages characterized by the occurrence of juvenile individuals belonging to endemic or pandemic genera, such as Megasphaeroceras and Spiroceras respectively. In addition, certain Bajocian genera relatively common in the Mediterranean-Caucasian Subrealm, but very scarce in the Eastern Pacific Subrealm, such as the strigoceratid Cadomoceras and the phylloceratid Adabofoloceras, occur in this area. According to the taphonomic, palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical evidence from the Pumani River area, the maximum deepening, relative sea-level rise and oceanic accessibility of a Bajocian-Bathonian, second-order, transgressive/regressive facies cycle in the marine Arequipa Basin were reached during the Late Bajocian Niortense Biochron. However, synsedimentary regional tectonics in the Pumani River area disturbed this general deepening/shallowing cycle of the Arequipa Basin, particularly during the Late Bajocian post-Niortense time-interval of the Garantiana and Parkinsoni biochrons.

  11. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  12. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data, Ochlockonee River basin area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Sohm, James E.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data collected within the Ochlockonee River basin area, in the panhandle of northwest Florida. The data are presented in graphs and tables. Surface-water data include streamflow measurements and analyses of water collected at 58 sites; ground-water data include descriptions of 360 wells and core holes, analyses of water and hydrographs of selected wells, lithologic logs of 131 wells and test borings, and natural-gamma logs of selected wells ranging in depth from 110 to 1,346 feet. Rainfall and municipal pumpage data also are compiled. Maps show the location of the data-collection sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. [Fleas (Siphonaptera) of mammals from the mountain area between the Kuban and Great Laba Rivers].

    PubMed

    Kotti, B K; Kotova, E G

    2014-01-01

    The flea fauna of mammals in the area between the Kuban and Great Laba Rivers contributes 47 species. The majority of mammal fleas parasitize on several hosts. Peculiarities of the species composition and the structure of flea communities dwelling in different altitudinal belts is estimated. The flea Ctenophthalmus wagneri and some other flea species possessing ancient Mediterranean range show the highest dominance indices in foothills. Ctenophthalmus proximus and Leptopsylla taschenbergi, possessing ranges of the Caucasian type, prevail in the middle mountain belt. Megabothris turbidus and some other boreal species dominate among species collected in the high mountain belt.

  16. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle.

  17. 77 FR 47331 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction AGENCY... Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, and which could be needed at other times as well. This proposed revision... Memorial Bridge (sometimes referred to as the I-95 Bridge, Quinnipiac Bridge, or ``Q'' Bridge). This bridge...

  18. A model to locate potential areas for lake sturgeon spawning habitat construction in the St. Clair–Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In response to a need for objective scientific information that could be used to help remediate loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair River and Detroit River International Areas of Concern, this paper summarizes a large-scale geographic mapping investigation. Our study integrates data on two variables that many riverine fishes respond to in selecting where to spawn in these waters (water flow velocity and water depth) with available maps of the St. Clair–Detroit River System (SC–DRS). Our objectives were to locate and map these two physical components of fish habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair using a geographic information system (GIS) and to identify where, theoretically, fish spawning habitat could be remediated in these rivers. The target fish species to which this model applies is lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), but spawning reefs constructed for lake sturgeon in this system have been used for spawning by 17 species of fish. Our analysis revealed areas in each river that possessed suitable water velocity and depth for fish spawning and therefore could theoretically be remediated by the addition of rock-rubble substrate like that used at two previously remediated sites in the Detroit River at Belle Isle and Fighting Island. Results of our analysis revealed that only 3% of the total area of the SC–DRS possesses the necessary combination of water depth and high flow velocity to be indicated by the model as potential spawning habitat for lake sturgeon.

  19. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K Q; Lima, S B; Passig, F H; Gusmão, L K; Souza, D C; Kreutz, C; Belini, A D; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paraná State or trap plateau of Paraná, at the middle portion between the rivers Ivaí and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23° 53 and 24° 10' South Latitude and 52° 15' and 52° 31' West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km² area, being 247 km² in the municipality of Campo Mourão and 137 km² in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paraná State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mourão River, which flows into the Ivaí River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mourão River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI) used by the Water Institute of Paraná State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated.

  20. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of rivers in northern area of Haihe River Basin, China].

    PubMed

    Shang, Lin-Yuan; Sun, Ran-Hao; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Ji, Yu-He; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-02-01

    Using Håkanson potential ecological risk index, the paper assesses heavy metal risk levels in northern parts of Haihe River basin based on 39 sampling sites. The results indicate that, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Cr in Haihe River basin are higher than the background values of heavy metals in China mainland, while the concentration of Pb is close to the background value in China mainland. Based on the potential ecological risk index for single heavy metal, the risk of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr belongs to the "slight" level, while Cd has various risk levels at different sampling sites. Generally, the risk order of the heavy metals is Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. According to Håkanson potential ecological risk index, 32 monitoring sites belong to "slight" level, 5 sampling sites belong to "middle" level, and 2 monitoring sites belong to "very strong" level. The most polluted sites are Tang River and Dashi River of Beijing, Juma River in Baoding. Therefore, these rivers should be taken more considerations in the river management.

  1. A STUDY ON VARIABILITY CHARACTERISTIC OF WATER QUALITY IN TIDAL AREA OF URBAN RIVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakado, Yasuki

    In order to clarify variability characteristic of water quality in tidal area of urban river, results of field observation at ordinary water (about the water quality change before and after dredging) and rainfall in the tidal area of the Nihonbashi River are reported in this paper. From the results of field observation, following results are obtained;1) The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers decreased by 25.8% at the spring tide, by 20.4% at the neap tide before and after dredging. 2) BOD concentration decreased and T-P concentration increased after dredging. T-N concentration decreased after dredging at the low tide. 3) When total rainfall was 10.5mm in 7 hours, value of dissolved oxygen saturation did not change in all layers, and it increased by 20% after 7 days. 4) During daytime both air temperature and water temperature increased. On the other hand, during nighttime water temperature decreased in spite of air temperature increased. 5) Water velocity repeated reverse flow and uniform flow during a hour period.

  2. Surfactants and Sterols Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Estuarine Areas of Selangor River, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. T.; Alsalahi, M. A.; Ali, M. M.; Dominick, D.; Khan, M. F.; Wahid, N. B. A.; Mustaffa, N. I. H.

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to determine the concentration of surfactant and sterols as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. SML samples were collected during different seasons using a rotation drum method. The compositions of surfactants were determined as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) as anionic and cationic surfactants respectively. The concentration of sterols was determined using a gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results show that the concentrations of surfactants around the estuarine area were dominated by anionic surfactants (MBAS) with average concentrations of 0.39 µmol L-1. .The concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L-1. The surfactants and total sterol concentrations were found to be higher in the wet season compare to dry season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML of the Selangor River. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).

  3. Chemical analyses of ground water related to geothermal investigations in the Teton River area, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Water samples from 31 wells and springs in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming were collected to help evaluate the potential geothermal resources in the Teton River area. Water analyses included anions and cations, oxygen-18, deuterium, and several minor elements. Actual temperature of the thermal waters ranged from 23 to 49C. Estimated aquifer temperatures, as derived from geochemical thermometers, ranged from 45 to 145C based on sodium-potassium-calcium ratios. Using the cation thermometer, two analyses indicated aquifer temperatures lower than actual measured temperatures. Using a mixing model method, estimated temperatures ranged from 205 to 320C, the higher being of questionable value. The different methods used showed little correlation. Based on isotope data, the warm waters may be of local meteoric origin and not heated enough to react significantly with aquifer rocks; or, they originated as precipitation at high altitude and great distance from the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Assessing metal toxicity in sediments of Yellow River wetland and its surrounding coastal areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aimei; Yang, Gang; Liu, Jihua

    2014-12-01

    Seventy one surface sediments were collected from Yellow River (YR) wetland and its surrounding coastal areas, mainly in Laizhou Bay, China. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) model and empirical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were applied to assess the potential metal toxicity in the collected sediments. The results show that, based on the EqP model, 15% of stations exhibited potential metal toxicity. Several metals (Cu, Ni and Cr) exceeded the empirical SQGs (59-100% of the time), however these guidelines may not be suitable for use in the Bohai Sea owing to the background concentrations. As a result, the EqP model is found to be a more useful method for assessing potential metal toxicity in Bohai Sea sediment than the empirical SQGs. Additionally, we have provided new insights on assessing metal toxicity in sediment of low organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide concentrations, which may be useful for other coastal areas in China.

  5. Flood Hazard Map for Masachapa Urban Area and Maravilla River Flood Plain, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udono, T.; Palacio, L.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A flooding hazard study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting hazard map shows the inundated area for a 200 years return period flood in a small riverbasin (65 square kilometers) near the Nicaraguan Pacific Coast. This area is affected by heavy rainfall induced by tropical storms in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The map results from a study performed by a Nicaraguan-Japanese team that developed a flood hazard approach for a small river basin with scarce hydrometeorological data to be replicated to other basins. The team elaborated 25, 50,100 and 200 year return period flood hydrographs to be applied to a bidimensional mathematic model. The simulation results were transformed into a cartographic map using GIS. The map was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use.

  6. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  7. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7,800 square kilometers or about 25 percent of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and over- lying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sand- stone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of ground- water outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated.The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds o£ salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges' have been identified.

  8. 33 CFR 334.180 - Patuxent River, Md.; restricted areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels and the civilian craft shall proceed at a speed not greater than five knots when within 1,000... River between Town Point and Hog Point shoreward of a line described as follows: Beginning at a point on...

  9. Groundwater renewable resources in karst areas, the case of the Kleśnica River basin (Sudety Mountains, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Otrębski, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The karst-fractured medium constitutes a considerable groundwater capacity, as shown on the example of the Kleśnica River basin. The paleozoic crystalline limestones in the research area are good collectors of the groundwater. The Kleśnica River basin, one of the largest crystalline limestone lens, is situated in the Sudety Mountains. Groundwater renewable resources were distinguished with the use of hydrological methods, on the basis of hydrometric measurements of the flow discharge of the Kleśnica River during the low-flow period (2009-2010). The mean module of the groundwater runoff equals 20.79 dm3/s*km2, and includes the study of the river catchments areas with extremely high groundwater runoff. The groundwater renewable resources in the Kleśnica River basin are almost twice higher than in the neighbouring river basins (the Kamienica and Morawka River basins), in which there are no significant outcrops of carbonate rocks. These considerable renewable resources also provide a high runoff in the spring, 7.98 dm3/s*km2. The high values of the runoffs indicate, that the groundwater is coming from the regional circulation system and, on a smaller scale, from the local system. The groundwater from both systems flows into the fractured system through the karst of carbonate massif rocks and their weathering fringes.

  10. Groundwater renewable resources in karst areas, the case of the Kleśnica River basin (Sudety Mountains, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Otrębski, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The karst-fractured medium constitutes a considerable groundwater capacity, as shown on the example of the Kleśnica River basin. The paleozoic crystalline limestones in the research area are good collectors of the groundwater. The Kleśnica River basin, one of the largest crystalline limestone lens, is situated in the Sudety Mountains. Groundwater renewable resources were distinguished with the use of hydrological methods, on the basis of hydrometric measurements of the flow discharge of the Kleśnica River during the low-flow period (2009-2010). The mean module of the groundwater runoff equals 20.79 dm3/s*km2, and includes the study of the river catchments areas with extremely high groundwater runoff. The groundwater renewable resources in the Kleśnica River basin are almost twice higher than in the neighbouring river basins (the Kamienica and Morawka River basins), in which there are no significant outcrops of carbonate rocks. These considerable renewable resources also provide a high runoff in the spring, 7.98 dm3/s*km2. The high values of the runoffs indicate, that the groundwater is coming from the regional circulation system and, on a smaller scale, from the local system. The groundwater from both systems flows into the fractured system through the karst of carbonate massif rocks and their weathering fringes.

  11. Tucannon River Temperature Study, Prepared for : Watershed Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35.

    SciTech Connect

    HDR Engineering.

    2006-06-30

    This report presents the results of a temperature analysis of the Tucannon River completed for the WRIA 35 Planning Unit. The Tucannon River is located in southeastern Washington and flows approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) from the Blue Mountains to the Snake River. High water temperature in the Tucannon River has been identified as a limiting factor for salmonid fish habitat (Columbia Conservation District, 2004). Several segments of the Tucannon River are included on Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to temperature. Ecology is currently conducting scoping for a temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study of the Tucannon River. The WRIA 35 Planning Unit retained HDR Engineering to evaluate water temperature in the Tucannon River. The project objectives are: (1) Review recent and historic data and studies to characterize temperature conditions in the river; (2) Perform field studies and analyses to identify and quantify heating and cooling processes in the river; (3) Develop and calibrate a computer temperature model to determine the sources of heat to the Tucannon River and to predict the temperature of the river that would occur with increased natural riparian shading assuming the current river morphology; (4) Evaluate differences in river temperatures between current and improved riparian shading during the 'critical' period - low river flows and high temperatures; and (5) Determine the potential benefits of riparian shading as a mechanism to decrease river temperature.

  12. [The routes of helminth egg appearance on the territory of recreational areas and sites of the lower Don River].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P

    1993-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitologic problems of recreation use of water bodies and coast lines are still to be studied. The author has examined the routes of invasion at recreation areas by the lower Don river. The river bed depositions and water as well as coastline soil were found contaminated with helminthic eggs. These eggs were brought by sewage water, feces, and surface flow. Effective ecologically justified measures should be developed to prevent it.

  13. Drainage Area-Dependent Knickpoint Generation Mechanisms, Smith River, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, D. J.; Kelsey, H. M.

    2011-12-01

    Knickpoints and knickzones (reaches of relatively high gradient located immediately downstream of a knickpoint) are a prominent characteristic of the channel slopes of both mainstem and tributary channels of the 1,575 km2 Smith River drainage in northern California. We have investigated these knickpoints using aerial photos, 10 m and 1 m digital elevation models (DEM's), and NAIP images supplemented by Schmidt hammer rock strength measurements and field verification of channel and terrace elevations using real time kinematic GPS surveys. Two types of knickpoints occur. At higher drainage areas (threshold of greater than ~250 km2), knickpoints occur within rock types with no significant difference in rock strength. There is a distinct upstream convergence of the modern channel with the lowest elevated strath surface along these knickzones, resulting in elevated strath surfaces downstream of the knickzones. We infer that the knickpoints are transient and that the straths are more vertically separated from the modern channel only after the knickpoint has migrated upstream. The causative baselevel fall that generates migrating knickpoints in the Smith River may be eustatic sea level fall following Quaternary highstands. For instance, fluvial terraces are cut into stage 5 marine terraces at the coast and these fluvial terraces likely are generated in the wake of knickpoints migrating upstream. In contrast, at drainage areas less than ~250 km2, the only knickpoints present in channels are those associated with large landslides that mobilize entire hillslopes into the channel, forcing a channel response. Notably absent along the Smith River are any knickpoints associated with changes in rock strength, as measured by Schmidt hammer values. From these observations, we infer that, first, major knickpoints along channels above a threshold drainage area of about 250 km2 are generated by baselevel fall that propagates upstream through channels of varying rock type; and second

  14. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  15. High rates of geomorphological processes in a tropical area: the Remparts River case study (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Manuel; Poisson, Blanche; Pouget, Richard

    2005-04-01

    Reunion Island is characterized by rapid landscape evolution resulting from its cyclonic tropical climate. However, local active surface processes are not well understood. The relationships between climatic events, large scale landslides and torrential transport of sediment by the rivers remain unclear. The Remparts River is an appropriate area for studying such geomorphological processes, as it deeply incises the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano. In this study, different approaches are used to analyze the morphological evolution of the river from the sediment production areas to the outlet over the last 40 years. Recurrent events of huge mass wasting occur at Mahavel Cliff, upstream of one of the river tributaries, the most recent producing around 50×10 6 m 3 of sediment in 1965. Combined analyses of the sequence of cyclonic events, major mass wasting events and aerial photography interpretation over the last 40 years led to the proposal of a functional model of river system responses to these events. The river system can be divided into three compartments, each affected by three classes of geomorphological events. The sedimentary response (erosion and/or aggradation) of each compartment to a triggering event, such as cyclonic rainfall and/or seasonal rise of water discharge, is controlled both by the magnitude of the climatic event and by the state of the compartment resulting from previous evolution. A set of five aerial photographs and a satellite image showing the evolution of the studied area during the last 40 years are examined in detail in the light of the functional model. Observations confirm a rapid and complex evolution of the river bed (erosion and aggradation), and provide information about the dynamics of the sediment transfer from the production areas to the ocean. Analysis of two distinct topographic datasets bracketing the last major cyclone Dina in 2002 allows the estimation of the river sediment budget resulting from this event. The net

  16. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Oregon Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and..., Oregon Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  18. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and running....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T01-1097 - Regulated Navigation Area; Memorial Bridge Construction, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Memorial Bridge Construction, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH. 165.T01-1097 Section 165.T01-1097... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.T01-1097 Regulated Navigation Area; Memorial Bridge... position 43°04′46″ N, 70°45′10″ W in the vicinity of the Memorial Bridge construction zone between...

  20. 78 FR 59231 - Regulated Navigation Area-Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--Tappan Zee Bridge... area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River surrounding the Tappan Zee Bridge. This... traffic through the RNA during bridge replacement operations, both planned and unforeseen, that could pose...

  1. 33 CFR 165.T01-1097 - Regulated Navigation Area; Memorial Bridge Construction, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Memorial Bridge Construction, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH. 165.T01-1097 Section 165.T01-1097... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.T01-1097 Regulated Navigation Area; Memorial Bridge... position 43°04′46″ N, 70°45′10″ W in the vicinity of the Memorial Bridge construction zone between...

  2. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and running...

  3. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and running...

  4. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and running...

  5. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and running...

  6. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  7. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    SL3-88-004 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, and is indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the centre of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hollister is the gray area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soledad, Greenfield and King City appear as gray areas along U.S. 101 in the Salinas Valley. The geology of the area is complex, and has been racked by several earthquakes resulting from movement along the San Andreas and subsidiary faults. Here, the surface expression of the San Andreas Fault can be traced from a point just west of Hollister at the contrast of dark brown and tan to a point about one inch left of the lower right (southeast) corner of the picture. Subsidiary faults are indicated by the curving trend of the rocks along the right side. The photograph will provide detailed information on land use patterns (Dr. R. Colwell, University of California, Berkeley) and fault tectonics (Dr. P. Merifield, Earth Science Res., Inc. and Dr. M. Abdel-Gawad, Rockwell International). Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of

  8. Predicting River Macroinvertebrate Communities Distributional Shifts under Future Global Change Scenarios in the Spanish Mediterranean Area.

    PubMed

    Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Sáinz-Bariáin, Marta; Poquet, José Manuel; Rodríguez-López, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Several studies on global change over the next century predict increases in mean air temperatures of between 1°C to 5°C that would affect not only water temperature but also river flow. Climate is the predominant environmental driver of thermal and flow regimes of freshwater ecosystems, determining survival, growth, metabolism, phenology and behaviour as well as biotic interactions of aquatic fauna. Thus, these changes would also have consequences for species phenology, their distribution range, and the composition and dynamics of communities. These effects are expected to be especially severe in the Mediterranean basin due its particular climate conditions, seriously threatening Southern European ecosystems. In addition, species with restricted distributions and narrow ecological requirements, such as those living in the headwaters of rivers, will be severely affected. The study area corresponds to the Spanish Mediterranean and Balearic Islands, delimited by the Köppen climate boundary. With the application of the MEDPACS (MEDiterranean Prediction And Classification System) predictive approach, the macroinvertebrate community was predicted for current conditions and compared with three posible scenarios of watertemperature increase and its associated water flow reductions. The results indicate that the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities will undergo a drastic impact, with reductions in taxa richness for each scenario in relation to simulated current conditions, accompanied by changes in the taxa distribution pattern. Accordingly, the distribution area of most of the taxa (65.96%) inhabiting the mid-high elevations would contract and rise in altitude. Thus, families containing a great number of generalist species will move upstream to colonize new zones with lower water temperatures. By contrast, more vulnerable taxa will undergo reductions in their distribution area.

  9. Predicting River Macroinvertebrate Communities Distributional Shifts under Future Global Change Scenarios in the Spanish Mediterranean Area

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz-Bariáin, Marta; Poquet, José Manuel; Rodríguez-López, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Several studies on global change over the next century predict increases in mean air temperatures of between 1°C to 5°C that would affect not only water temperature but also river flow. Climate is the predominant environmental driver of thermal and flow regimes of freshwater ecosystems, determining survival, growth, metabolism, phenology and behaviour as well as biotic interactions of aquatic fauna. Thus, these changes would also have consequences for species phenology, their distribution range, and the composition and dynamics of communities. These effects are expected to be especially severe in the Mediterranean basin due its particular climate conditions, seriously threatening Southern European ecosystems. In addition, species with restricted distributions and narrow ecological requirements, such as those living in the headwaters of rivers, will be severely affected. The study area corresponds to the Spanish Mediterranean and Balearic Islands, delimited by the Köppen climate boundary. With the application of the MEDPACS (MEDiterranean Prediction And Classification System) predictive approach, the macroinvertebrate community was predicted for current conditions and compared with three posible scenarios of watertemperature increase and its associated water flow reductions. The results indicate that the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities will undergo a drastic impact, with reductions in taxa richness for each scenario in relation to simulated current conditions, accompanied by changes in the taxa distribution pattern. Accordingly, the distribution area of most of the taxa (65.96%) inhabiting the mid-high elevations would contract and rise in altitude. Thus, families containing a great number of generalist species will move upstream to colonize new zones with lower water temperatures. By contrast, more vulnerable taxa will undergo reductions in their distribution area. PMID:28135280

  10. Systems Modeling to Improve River, Riparian, and Wetland Habitat Quality and Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alafifi, A.

    2016-12-01

    The suitability of watershed habitat to support the livelihood of its biota primarily depends on managing flow. Ecological restoration requires finding opportunities to reallocate available water in a watershed to increase ecological benefits and maintain other beneficial uses. We present the Watershed Area of Suitable Habitat (WASH) systems model that recommends reservoir releases, streamflows, and water allocations throughout a watershed to maximize the ecosystem habitat quality. WASH embeds and aggregates area-weighted metrics for aquatic, floodplain, and wetland habitat components as an ecosystem objective to maximize, while maintaining water deliveries for domestic and agricultural uses, mass balance, and available budget for restoration actions. The metrics add spatial and temporal functionality and area coverage to traditional habitat quality indexes and can accommodate multiple species of concern. We apply the WASH model to the Utah portion of the Bear River watershed which includes 8 demand sites, 5 reservoirs and 37 nodes between the Utah-Idaho state line and the Great Salt Lake. We recommend water allocations to improve current conservation efforts and show tradeoffs between human and ecosystem uses of water. WASH results are displayed on an open-source web mapping application that allows stakeholders to access, visualize, and interact with the model data and results and compare current and model-recommended operations. Results show that the Bear River is largely developed and appropriated for human water uses. However, increasing reservoirs winter and early spring releases and minimizing late spring spill volumes can significantly improve habitat quality without harming agricultural or urban water users. The spatial and temporal reallocation of spring spills to environmental uses creates additional 70 thousand acres of suitable habitat in the watershed without harming human users. WASH also quantifies the potential environmental gains and losses from

  11. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediment and bioavailability in streams in the New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, West Virginia, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messinger, Terrence

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including some on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's priority pollutant list, were found in bottom sediment in streams in the coal-producing region of the Kanawha River Basin in 1996-1998, and in and near the New River Gorge National River in 2002, in concentrations exceeding those thought likely to cause adverse effects to wildlife. Very low concentrations of bioavailable PAHs were measured in streams in and near the New River Gorge National River by the use of semipermeable membrane devices. The apparent contradiction between the high concentrations of total PAHs and the low concentrations of bioavailable PAHs may result from the presence of a substantial amount of particulate coal in bottom sediment.

  13. Karst groundwater protection in the Kupa River catchment area and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondić, B.; Biondić, R.; Kapelj, S.

    2006-03-01

    One of the most significant water resources in the Republic of Croatia is the catchment area of the Kupa River, located in the region bordering the Republic of Slovenia. About 88% of the total amount of water in this catchment originates in Croatia and just 12% from Slovenia; therefore, the largest part of the catchment area (about 1000 km2) is on the Croatian side of the border. It is a typical karst area of the Dinarides with aquifers characterized by a relatively rapid water exchange, high groundwater flow velocities and aquifers open to human impact from the surface. Consequently, the aquifers are highly vulnerable and at risk. Due to the availability of large quantities of high-quality spring water (about 6 m3/s), the entire area has a strategic importance within the context of any future development strategy pertaining to the western part of Croatia. The catchment area on the Croatian side was investigated using a wide range of research methods that included a classical hydrogeological approach, the detailed hydrologic calculation of water balance to the hydrogeochemical analyses and modelling. The objective was to determine protection zones and protection measures for the whole area. The difficulties are increased due to the fact that the karst catchment area is crossed by major traffic corridors, oil pipelines and a railway and that many settlements and a highly developed wood industry are present. The combination of protecting water resources with adequate prevention measures and necessary remedial activities that should satisfy the very strict requirements necessary for the protection of the karst aquifers while still allowing for present and future human activities is difficult but not impossible to achieve. One good example is the present highway with a closed dewatering system and waste water treatment before the water passes into the karst underground system.

  14. Availability of ground water in the Blackstone River area Rhode Island and Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Herbert E.; Dickerman, David C.

    1974-01-01

    The Blackstone River study area covers 83 square miles of northern Rhode Island and 5 square miles of adjacent Massachusetts (fig. 1). It includes parts of the Blackstone, Moshassuck, and Tenmile River basins, and a coastal area that drains to the brackish Seekonk and Providence Rivers. In Rhode Island, all or parts of the suburban towns of Cumberland, Lincoln, North Smithfield, and Smithfield and all or parts of the cities of Central Falls, East Povidence, Pawtucket, Providence, and Woonsocket are within the study area. Also included are parts of the towns Attleboro and North Attleborough in Massachusetts. In 1970, total population was about 240,000, which was equivalent to about one-fourth of the total population of Rhode Island. Fresh water usage in 1970 by public-supply systems and self-supplied industry was about 33 mgd (million gallons per day), which was equal to 22 percent of total fresh water use in Rhode Island for all purposes except generation of electric power (fig. 2). Anticipated increases in population and per capita water requirements are likely to cause the demand for water to more than double within the next 50 years. A significant part of this demand can be met from wells that tap the principal streams. This aquifer yielded an average of 10 mgd in 1970 and is capable of sustaining a much higher yield. The primary objectives of the study were to determine and map the saturated thickness and transmissivity of the stratified-drift aquifer and to assess the potential sustained yield of those parts of the aquifer favorable for large-scale development of water. A secondary objective was to describe ground-water quality and to evaluate the impact of induced infiltration of polluted stream water on the quality of native ground water. This report is based on analysis of drillers' records of more than 700 wells and borings which include 462 lithologic logs; 35 specific-capacity determinations; 12 aquifer tests, including detailed tests at two sites to

  15. Variability of rainfall over Lake Kariba catchment area in the Zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchuru, Shepherd; Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Landman, Willem A.; Adeola, Abiodun M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, average monthly and annual rainfall totals recorded for the period 1970 to 2010 from a network of 13 stations across the Lake Kariba catchment area of the Zambezi river basin were analyzed in order to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of rainfall across the catchment area. In the analysis, the data were subjected to intervention and homogeneity analysis using the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) technique and step change analysis using rank-sum test. Furthermore, rainfall variability was characterized by trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic. Additionally, the rainfall series were decomposed and the spectral characteristics derived using Cross Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WC) analysis. The advantage of using the wavelet-based parameters is that they vary in time and can therefore be used to quantitatively detect time-scale-dependent correlations and phase shifts between rainfall time series at various localized time-frequency scales. The annual and seasonal rainfall series were homogeneous and demonstrated no apparent significant shifts. According to the inhomogeneity classification, the rainfall series recorded across the Lake Kariba catchment area belonged to category A (useful) and B (doubtful), i.e., there were zero to one and two absolute tests rejecting the null hypothesis (at 5 % significance level), respectively. Lastly, the long-term variability of the rainfall series across the Lake Kariba catchment area exhibited non-significant positive and negative trends with coherent oscillatory modes that are constantly locked in phase in the Morlet wavelet space.

  16. Synoptic Discharge, Water-Property, and pH Measurements for Muddy River Springs Area and Muddy River, Nevada, February 7, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, David A.; Wilson, Jon W.

    2006-01-01

    On February 7, 2001, synoptic discharge measurements at selected sites along the Muddy River in Nevada, indicated three trends in discharge resulting from contributions of spring discharge, influences of diversionary flow, and contributions from shallow ground water. Effects from diversionary and tributary flow were local in nature and resulted in a net gain of 2.6 cubic feet per second throughout the measured reach. The minor increase in discharge may be the result of contributions from ground-water flow and measurement error. Comparison of 1963 and 2001 discharge measurements within the Muddy River Springs area indicated that discharge rates and trends from these source waters were similar. Along the mainstem of the Muddy River, water-temperature measurements indicated a net decrease of 8.8 degrees Celsius. Water samples collected and analyzed for specific conductance indicated a net increase of 390 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, whereas pH measurements remained relatively constant.

  17. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  18. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian

    2004-02-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  19. A global framework for future costs and benefits of river-flood protection in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Bates, Paul D.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kind, Jarl M.; Kwadijk, Jaap; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.

    2017-09-01

    Floods cause billions of dollars of damage each year, and flood risks are expected to increase due to socio-economic development, subsidence, and climate change. Implementing additional flood risk management measures can limit losses, protecting people and livelihoods. Whilst several models have been developed to assess global-scale river-flood risk, methods for evaluating flood risk management investments globally are lacking. Here, we present a framework for assessing costs and benefits of structural flood protection measures in urban areas around the world. We demonstrate its use under different assumptions of current and future climate change and socio-economic development. Under these assumptions, investments in dykes may be economically attractive for reducing risk in large parts of the world, but not everywhere. In some regions, economically efficient investments could reduce future flood risk below today’s levels, in spite of climate change and economic growth. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions and parameters. The framework can be used to identify regions where river-flood protection investments should be prioritized, or where other risk-reducing strategies should be emphasized.

  20. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  1. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1337 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approximate river mile 14.2 near the Ross Island Bridge and approximate river mile 13.5 near the Marquam Bridge. (b) Regulations. All vessels are prohibited from anchoring, dragging, dredging, or trawling in... additional information and requirements. ...

  3. 33 CFR 110.72d - Ashley River anchorage areas, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Channel. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (b) Ashley River Anchorage 2. The waters lying... southwest boundary of the Ashley River Channel. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983....

  4. Structural Model of the Basement in the Central Savannah River Area, South Carolina and Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.; Stieve, A.

    1992-03-01

    Interpretation of several generations of seismic reflection data and potential field data suggests the presence of several crustal blocks within the basement beneath the Coastal Plain in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA). The seismic reflection and refraction data include a grid of profiles that capture shallow and deep reflection events and traverse the Savannah River Site and vicinity. Potential field data includes aeromagnetic, ground magnetic surveys, reconnaissance and detailed gravity surveys. Subsurface data from recovered core are used to constrain the model.Interpretation of these data characteristically indicate a southeast dipping basement surface with some minor highs and lows suggesting an erosional pre-Cretaceous unconformity. This surface is interrupted by several basement faults, most of which offset only early Cretaceous sedimentary horizons overlying the erosional surface. The oldest fault is perhaps late Paleozoic because it is truncated at the basement/Coastal Plain interface. This fault is related in timing and mechanism to the underlying Augusta fault. The youngest faults deform Coastal Plain sediments of at least Priabonian age (40-36.6 Ma). One of these young faults is the Pen Branch faults, identified as the southeast dipping master fault for the Triassic Dunbarton basin. All the Cenozoic faults are probably related in time and mechanism to the nearby, well studied Belair fault.The study area thus contains a set of structures evolved from the Alleghanian orogeny through Mesozoic extension to Cenozoic readjustment of the crust. There is a metamorphosed crystalline terrane with several reflector/fault packages, a reactivated Triassic basin, a mafic terrane separating the Dunbarton basin from the large South Georgia basin to the southeast, and an overprint of reverse faults, some reactivated, and some newly formed.

  5. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  6. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This study consists in an innovative application of environmental physico-chemical techniques on fluvial sediments with the aim to trace the seasonal changes in suspended sediment transport of the complex Seine river catchment area in northern France. The aim of this project is to develop a detailed understanding for the discrimination of naturally triggered and anthropogenic induced processes and their temporal changes with weather conditions. With a focus on the heavy metal fraction, we determine the regional distribution of the suspended material and search for environmental fingerprints demonstrating the influence of fluvial transport mechanisms, changes in concentration related to discharge variations or different sediment sources, and in-situ alteration caused by variations in the geochemical conditions (oxy-redox, pH, Eh, etc.). To achieve these goals, we apply a combination of straightforward rock magnetic hysteresis measurements (performed using an AGM2900 at the LSCE) and advanced scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). This interdisciplinary approach allows refining the detailed analysis of sediment trap samples, originating from Tessier et al. (2003), as recently shown by Franke et al. (2009). In our preliminary results, we observe a general increase in magnetic concentrations from summer to winter conditions, coupled with a magneto-mineralogic change to rather reduced metallic mineral phases. However, each riversection of the Seine system shows its specific trend line depending on the regional initial input, weathering conditions, drainage area and potential pollution sources. A systematic analysis of the detailed results will allow highlighting the climatic/seasonal influence on the metallic particle assembly. Keywords: Seine river system, environmental magnetism, suspended particulate matter, anthropogenic and natural input, magnetic hysteresis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),, heavy metal pollution, seasonal variability References: Franke

  7. Annotated report and data inventory for the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winterstein, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This inventory of reports and data concerning the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the Twin Cities metropolitan area was compiled from November 1981 through January 1982 for a planned river-quality assessment to be conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Metropolitan Waste Control Commission. There are 260 annotated citations: 176 citations of reports; 8 citations of computer models that have been used to model either or both rivers; and 76 citations of data in reports , in field notes, lab sheets, or handwritten tabulations, and in computer data bases. Citations of all the reports and data located that might conceivably be useful in understanding and interpreting the biological and chemical quality of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the past, present, or future were included. The accuracy of the citations was not verified and secondary sources, such as other annotated bibliographies, were used in the compilation of this inventory.

  8. Savannah River Site A/M Area Southern Sector Characterization Cone Penetrometer Report

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plaingeologic province. This area is characterized by low relief, predominantly unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous though Tertiary age. A multiple aquifer system underlies the A/M Area and affects the definition and distribution of a contaminant plume. The water table and uppermost confined aquifer (Steed Pond Aquifer) are contaminated with elevated concentrations of trichloroethylene(TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their associated compounds. The deeper aquifers in this area have less widely spread chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.Cone penetrometer testing was selected as the method of investigation because it is minimally invasive, offers advanced technological capabilities in gathering lithologic data, and offers groundwater sampling capabilities. CPT testing utilizes a hydraulic push tool system. The probe collects real-time data that is processed by computer into soil/lithology classifications. The system can also be used to collect sediment and soil vapor samples although these features were not utilized during this project. Advantages of the CPT system include a small borehole diameter which minimizes cross-contamination of lithologic units, virtual elimination of drill cuttings and fluids that require disposal, collection of various types of undisturbed sediment and water samples and plotting of hydrostratigraphic and lithologic data while in the field.

  9. Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

    2010-05-01

    The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

  10. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  11. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    PubMed

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  12. Zone of capture analysis for the A/M area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.; Beaudoin, C.M.; Schreuder, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    The groundwater of the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) as the result of the past use and disposal of these solvents. For the purpose of remediating this contamination, the A/M Area of the SRS has been divided into three sectors termed the central, northern (or SRL), and southern sectors. The central portion of the A/M Area has had an active remediation system of eleven recovery wells since 1985 and its effectiveness has been evaluated through groundwater modeling. Remediation will soon begin at the northern or SRL sector with a pump and treat system of six wells distributed at four different locations with total pumping of approximately 250 gallons per minute (gpm). The locations and effectiveness of the capture system for each sector has been estimated through groundwater modeling without full consideration of the central recovery system. This report will provide an estimate of the number of recovery wells required for the southern sector and also consider the effects of the current and planned recovery systems for the northern and central plumes. The southern sector contamination (which is defined as the area south of the M-Area basin) has been initially characterized and one recovery well (RWM-16) has been installed, for which an aquifer test was performed. However, to date a recovery well system has not been designed for the southern sector nor has a comprehensive evaluation of the recovery systems for all three sectors been completed. The purpose of this groundwater modeling study is to: (1) determine the location and number of recovery wells necessary to contain or remediate the southern sector, and (2) complete an analysis of the combined central, northern and estimated southern sector remediation so that the interactions of the systems can be determined.

  13. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data for the Cache River/Heron Pond area in southern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    1996-01-01

    Heron Pond, located in extreme southern Illinois, lies immediately adjacent to the upper Cache River. The upper Cache River is encroaching on Heron Pond, which has raised the issue of the possibility of a failure of the Heron Pond wall, the area between Heron Pond and the upper Cache River. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Water Resources (IDNR/OWR) for use in designing a mitigation plan by the IDNR/OWR to prevent the failure of the Heron Pond wall. The river is sluggish during floods with velocities generally 1-2 feet per second. Biologic activity in the area have increased bank instability, which already is a problem because of saturated soils in the Heron Pond wall. In the area adjacent to the Heron Pond, the right descending bank of the upper Cache River receded 0.5 foot between September 21, 1995 and June 25, 1996. Comparisons between two surveys, 1958 and 1995, indicate that the channel near the discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging station near the Burlington Northern Railroad crossing has widened by more than 10 feet with less than 0.5 foot of incision.

  14. Protected areas and freshwater conservation: a survey of protected area managers in the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins, USA.

    PubMed

    Thieme, M L; Rudulph, J; Higgins, J; Takats, J A

    2012-10-30

    As the scientific community has highlighted the plight of freshwater species, there have been increasing calls for protected area (PA) designation and management specific to the conservation of aquatic species and ecosystems. In this study we examined PA management in one relatively well-resourced (high levels of financial and technical resources) part of the world: the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins, USA. We asked managers their perceptions about the current status of freshwater ecosystems within PAs, the sources of stress that are degrading freshwater ecosystem integrity, the degree to which PAs address these stressors, and the availability of technical, human, and financial resources for management activities that benefit freshwater ecosystems and the species they support. Managers generally perceive that freshwater ecosystems within PAs are under low levels of stress, with less than half reporting any alteration to ecosystem integrity, and very few reporting alterations at medium or high levels. Most PAs have fewer resources dedicated to freshwater conservation and management than to other activities, and some PAs completely lack resources for freshwater management. We recommend a review of every PA's goals and objectives and any needed updates to include the conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We also recommend an analysis to determine the most pressing stressors to aquatic life within each PA, stemming from sources both from within and outside of a PA's boundaries, and that this information be used to guide future management. Finally, we suggest that management resources be prioritized for PAs that include large portions of the catchments of their freshwater systems; that can address the dominant sources of stress within the PA; or that contain representative ecosystems, species assemblages or populations of rare, endemic, and threatened species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  16. Mercury Fate and Transport in Hunza River Watershed, Northern Areas, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, K.; Khan, S. D.; Shah, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    smelting processes were acquired through interviews with miners. Panning, amalgamation and roasting processes were being done at workers huts where large amount of mercury is released to environment particularly due to no mercury recycling in the smelting process. This ongoing research study attempted to explore the source, fate and transport dynamics of mercury by 1) using high frequency sampling to examine potential source locations and transport dynamics of mercury; 2) determining the relationship between total suspended solids in the water column and mercury transport; 3) comparing analytical and observational data in GIS. Results of this study show that mercury concentrations are elevated in the upstream parts of Hunza watershed, where observational and earlier geochemical data confirm that gold panning activities are common in these areas. Furthermore, particulate bound mercury concentration is 3 orders of magnitude greater than that of dissolved mercury. This suggests that mercury contamination in the rivers is mostly associated with suspended sediments. Abrupt decrease in particulate and dissolved mercury concentration downstream of a naturally formed lake due to landslide, suggests that mercury is being deposited or used in methylation processes.

  17. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  18. Amazon And Negro River Breeze And Manaus Urban Area Influence In Surface Wind And Water Vapor Daily Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, M.; da Silva Dias, M. F.; Freitas, E. D.; Meteorologia Aplicada A Sistemas de Tempo Regionais-Master

    2013-05-01

    Close to the urban area of Manaus the Negro and Amazon rivers provide a scenario where river breeze can be particularly well detected due to their width of about 5 - 10 km. Previous studies have looked into the river breeze in the Amazon Basin and detected their influence in surface data, particularly into the effect on wind and moisture. The heat island effect of the Manaus urban area has also been demonstrated using surface temperature data. Here we present an analysis using 35 years of surface weather station hourly data from the two Manaus airports, Eduardo Gomes (AEG) and Ponta de Pelada (APP). The location of these stations allows the analysis of local circulations contrasting the evolution close to the margin and in the Southern tip of the urban area and a more inland location (APP) about 25 km to the Northewest of AEG. We focus on dew point temperature, water vapor pressure, wind speed and direction providing direction statistics for the two stations and contrasting the evolution in the dry and wet seasons.In the AEG weather station data we found relatively high values of accumulated frequency of the southwest and northwest wind in the period from 9 am to 6 pm (local time - LT) due to the action of the river breeze associated to the Negro River. In June and July (dry season), when the wind was blowing from the Southeast (river-breeze wind), high values of vapor pressure (VP) were observed during the daytime due to the transport of moist air from river to land. In the wind frequency data of the APP weather station we verified maximums in nighttime and minimums in daytime period when the wind direction was from the Northwest. These characteristics of maximums and minimums of wind frequency were observed in Northeastern winds only in the dry season. High frequency of South winds in daytime and minimums in nighttime period also indicates the action of river breeze. When the wind direction was southern, we found high values of VP (e.g, higher than 30.5 hPa in

  19. Monitoring and modeling of cold region hydrological processes in a high mountain river basin in the upstream area of the Heihe River Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Che, T.; Li, H.; Jin, R.; Liu, S.; Huang, C.

    2015-12-01

    We provide an overview of a high mountain river basin observing system in the Qilian Mountains of China. Mountain cryosphere is very sensitive to climate change, however, monitoring and modeling of cryospheric process and its interaction with hydrology and ecology needs to be further strengthened. We establish a multi-scale high mountain river basin observing system in the upstream area of the Heihe River Basin, Qilian Mountains of China. This system consists of flux towers on alpine tundra, alpine meadow and alpine steppes, a network of automatic meteorological stations, a wireless sensor network of soil moisture, soil temperature, snow depth, and precipitation, and two super observatories for monitoring snow and frozen soil, respectively. Super-high resolution (1 meter) DEMs of four experiment sub-watersheds (each about 20-40 km2) within this river basin were obtained via airborne LiDAR remote sensing.We introduce the data obtained since 2012 and present some preliminary modeling and data assimilation results. The results show that runoff, precipitation, snowmelt, and glacier melt keep increasing in the upstream area of the Heihe River Basin due to a warming climate. The ratio of snowmelt in total runoff has increased and the onset of snowmelt has gone ahead. The contribution of glacier melt to total runoff has almost doubled in the past decade. Frozen soil melt advances in time as well, and it may also contributes to the increase of the portion of baseflow in total runoff.This observatory has joined the International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (NARCH) and will work as a unique site to monitor cryospheric and hydroclimatological changes in very high mountains.

  20. The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in the Brazos River area (Texas): new sections and revised interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, M.; Leighton, A.; Yancey, T.; Miller, B.; Smart, C.; Twitchett, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazos River area of Texas is famous for outcrops of the K/Pg transition and lowermost Paleocene strata. A number of new, un-described sections have been investigated and they provide biostratigraphical and sedimentological information on the events preceding, during and following the Chixculub impact event. The mudstones of the Corsicana Formation (Maastrichtian) contain a number of very thin volcanic ashes, including the yellow/white gypsum-rich horizon incorrectly regarded by some workers as evidence of a pre-K/Pg boundary impact. The mudstones of the Corsicana Mudstone Fm (uppermost Maastrichtian) were significantly eroded by the end-Cretaceous tsunami and the surficial unconsolidated muds as well as a thickness of lithified mudstone eroded and put into suspension, thereby providing the reworked Cretaceous assemblages of microfossils recorded by a number of authors. Erosional relief on the 75-100 m deep sea floor is visible in Cottonmouth Creek and the new River Bank South section as a series of ridges and erosional troughs, trending NW-SE. Trough lows are in-filled with mud-matrix mass flow deposits containing large blocks of Maastrichtian mudstones and transported concretions. These are overlain with granular shell-rich sediments containing spherules, fish teeth, bone fragments and re-worked foraminifera and hummocky cross-stratified storm sands with mudstone inter-beds. Sea floor ridges remained exposed to open marine waters and were colonized with a thin oyster pavement before burial by Kincaid Formation mudstones and siltstones. A return to quiet water conditions during the earliest Paleocene is recorded in a new 3-6 m section of foraminifera-rich mudstones, siltstones and sandstones bounded above and below with zones of carbonate and pyrite concretions, best seen in the River bank South section. The foraminiferal sand unit contains steinkerns and phosphatic concretions indicative of a condensed deposit. The P1a/P1b zonal boundary lies near the top of

  1. Connectivity from source to sink in a lowland area: the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Degan, Francesca; Salvador, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Sediment connectivity relates to the transfer of sediments from sources to sinks via runoff and in channel transport. It is highly dependent on spatial variability of landscape properties such as differences in morphology, land use and infiltration/runoff characteristics but may also vary in time due to differences in rainfall amount/intensity and changes in vegetation cover throughout the year. In the Loire river basin, we found that sediment fluxes displayed strong variations in space but also at the interannual and seasonnal time scales (Gay et al. 2013). In this context, our goal is to better understand and quantify hillslope sediment redistributions within this lowland area thanks to the use of semi distributed connectivity approach. To this aim, Borselli's index of connectivity (IC, Borselli et al., 2008) is selected to assess hillslope connectivity at annual and seasonal time scales. Several improvements are proposed to take into account the coupling of the structural landscape connectivity and its hydrosedimentary response. Parameters such as rainfall intensity and differences in seasonal land cover are integrated into the model to account for landscape variations through time. Infiltration and runoff indices were also tested. Preliminary results confirm the variability of landscape connectivity throughout the year. The integration of the index of infiltration and runoff properties of landscape (IDPR) as defined by Mardhel et al. 2004 seems to improve the IC model outputs. From this first step, in-stream sediment connectivity index should be developed for a better understanding and assessment of sediment redistributions at the entire catchment scale. L. Borselli L., Cassi P., Torri D. Prolegomena to sediment and flow connectivity in the landscape: a GIS and field numerical assessment. Catena, 75 (2008), pp. 268-277 Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments

  2. Hydrogeology of the eastern part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa and Pinal Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Hahn, Mary Ellen

    1986-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major agricultural and metropolitan area in semiarid south-central Arizona. Groundwater in the permeable sedimentary deposits underlying the area is a major water supply for agricultural, municipal, and industrial users. Groundwater levels have declined as much as 400 ft in recent years. Management of the remaining groundwater resources and their protection from contamination will require knowledge of the hydrogeologic framework and the water-bearing characteristics of the sedimentary units in the groundwater system. The rocks in the eastern part of the Salt River Valley are divided into six units--crystalline rocks, extrusive rocks, red units, lower unit, middle unit, and upper unit. The crystalline and extrusive rocks underlie the basin and form virtually impermeable hydrologic boundaries. The red, lower, middle and upper sedimentary units contain most of the groundwater. The red unit contains usable quantities of ground water, principally near Scottsdale, where it yields as much as 1 ,000 gallons/min (gpm) of water to wells. The lower unit, which makes up the largest volume of sedimentary deposits, consists mostly of mudstone, clay, silt, and evaporite deposits that may be as much as 10,000 ft thick in the central part of the basin. Wells tapping the mudstone, clay, silt yield 50 (gpm) or less but the conglomerate and the sand and gravel may yield as much as 3,500 gpm. The middle unit is the principal water-bearing unit in the basin and consists mostly of silt, siltstone, and silty sand and gravel. The unit is as much as 1,000 ft thick in the central part of the basin and as much as 700 ft is saturated. The unit will yield as much as 1,000 gpm where the saturated thickness is at least 500 ft. Locally, north of Mesa, the unit yields as much as 4,000 gpm. The upper unit is gravel, sand, and silt and is saturated only in a small area in the southwestern part of the basin. Where saturated, the unit may yield as much as 4,500 gpm. The upper

  3. Stratigraphic Sedimentary Environmental Change of the Mount Bruce Supergroup, Beasley River Area, Southern Pilbara, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komure, M.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Horie, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Mount Bruce Supergroup is deposited from Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic in the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. It is filed the information of the period that changes from the Late Archean to the Early Proterozoic, and is the key sequences which could reconstruct the sedimentary environment because of its low metamorphic grade. The evidence of early Proterozoic global ice age as the glacial sediment is reported in this uppermost group (Martin 1999). In this study, we focus the lithological changes of the Mount Bruce Supergroup at the Beasley River - Rocklea Dome area in the Southern Pilbara. Along the Beasley River, this supergroup distributes more than 10000m thick with 5 billion years sequences, and is divided into three groups. The Fortescue Group is identified with the flood basalt to the Shallow marine or the non-marine sediment, the middle Hamersley Group rich in the banded iron formation and the acidic volcanic rock and the upper Turee Creek Group mainly of the Shallow marine sediment. Here we focused origin of the sandstone in each group, especially in the Meteorite Bore Member of Turee Creek Formation which is identified as the early snowball earth events. At the matrix of the diamictite of the Meteorite Bore Member, Origin of diamictite matrix in the Turee Creek Group sediment by the U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology by CHIME and SHRIMP2. The zircon ages points between 2.7Ga and 2.4Ga. In addtion from this matrix, TOC value indicate 0.1-0.05%, the delta 13 C value is -30--20 par mil. These evidence suggested that the organic activity might take place at during ice age.

  4. Cadmium and lead in bovine milk in the mining area of the Caudal River (Spain).

    PubMed

    González-Montaña, José Ramiro; Senís, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Abner; Prieto, Felipe

    2012-07-01

    The levels of cadmium and lead in 36 raw bovine milk samples were analysed. These samples come from seven farms with a semi-extensive grazing system and were collected between the autumn of 2007 and the winter of 2008. All the farms were located in Asturias (Spain), a zone of great industrial and mining activity in the proximities of the Caudal River. The samples were collected in sterile precleaned polypropylene tubes and frozen until the analysis. After a lyophilization process, the samples were treated with nitric acid and microwave treatment. Cadmium and lead determinations were carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with sensibility under 0.2 ppb for liquid matrix. The lead content was found to vary from 0.71 to 16.06 μg/kg wet weight (w.w.), and the cadmium was lower than 2 μg/kg w.w. The levels of lead in milk are higher in those farms near zones of storage of mining waste depots, thermal power and areas with high levels of traffic. All the values found are in concordance with research carried out at non-polluted areas, and those for the lead are well below the European Union limitations.

  5. Information summary, Area of Concern: Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay. Final report, Aug-Dec 88

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Simmers, J.W.; Tatem, H.E.; Skogerboe, J.G.

    1991-03-01

    A 5-year study and demonstration project, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was authorized, with emphasis on the removal of toxic pollutants from bottom sediments. Information from the ARCS program is to be used to guide the development of Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) for 42 identified great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC) as well as Lake-wide Management Plans. The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of beneficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc.) is known to exist, or where environmental quality criteria are exceeded to the point that such impairment is likely. Research was conducted on the various aspects of contaminant mobility in the aquatic environment. A list of information was developed to evaluate the potential for contaminant mobility. This report summarizes the information obtained for the Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay AOC in Michigan. Data tables include information on discharge, volume and migration of contaminants, sediment transport, oil spills, hazardous materials, superfund sites, bioassay data and biological data (i.e. fish, wildlife habitats, plankton, fish and endangered species).

  6. AREA COMPLETION STRATEGIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: CHARACTERIZATION FOR CLOSURE AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, L; Mark Amidon, M; Sadika Baladi, S

    2007-06-11

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990s, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an ''area completion'' strategy that: (1) unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, (2) integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D&D activities, (3) reduces the number of required regulatory documents, and (4) in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state.

  7. Geochronology of priority pollutants in a sedimentation area of the Rhine River

    SciTech Connect

    Beurskens, J.E.M.; Mol, G.A.J.; Barreveld, H.L.; Munster, V. van ); Winkels, H.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Eight sediment cores were taken from Lake Ketelmeer, a sedimentation area of the Rhine River. Priority pollutants (eight metals, six planar and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls, seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all or in a selected number of cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers ([sup 137]Cs, [sup 134]Cs) and area-specific geological time markers. Postdepositional redistribution of pollutants and possible transformations were evaluated by analyzing sediment top-layer samples that were taken in 1972. For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as for the somewhat changed concentrations of chlorinated aromatics, trends in the concentration profiles during the last five decades are described. Rather low concentrations of almost all studied chlorinated compounds were observed in the early 1940s. These low levels were in contrast to the metal and PAH concentrations, which were already high in the late 1930s and were lowered during the second world war. For all studied compounds, maximum concentrations were found between 1955 and 1975. Cadmium and nickel levels remained high until 1980. The highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reached concentrations up to 400 ng/kg in the mid-1960s. Recently deposited sediments showed lower pollutant levels. The levels of lead, arsenic, and all studied PAHs were the lowest observed in the past five decades.

  8. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  9. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  10. Map showing geochemical summary for the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas, Butte and Plumas counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Sorensen, Martin L.

    1985-01-01

    The Bald Rock Roadless Area consists of 3,850 acres in Butte County, Calif. The Middle Rock Feather River Roadless Area consists of 29,300 acres ub Butte and Plumas Counties, Calif. Both roadless areas are in the Plumas National Forest and are on the west slope of the northern Sierra Nevada southwest of Quincy, Calif. (fig. 1). The two roadless areas are alined along the Middle Fork of the Feather River where they include the narrow canyon bottoms and precipitous sidewalls of the Middle Fork and several tributary drainages. Altitudes range from 800 ft in the canyon of the Middle Fork to approximately 6,600 ft at the northwest corner of the map area. The geology of the roadless areas has been briefly summarized by Sorenson and Pietropaoll (1982). This paper summarizes and interprets the semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses of 106 rock sample and 165 samples of nonmagnetics heavy-mineral stream-sediment concentrates from the Blad Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area (Sorenson and others, 1982).

  11. Map Showing Principal Coal Beds and Bedrock Geology of the Ucross-Arvada Area, Central Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ucross-Arvada area is part of the Powder River Basin, a large, north-trending structural depression between the Black Hills on the east and the Bighorn Mountains on the west. Almost all of the study area is within Sheridan and Johnson Counties, Wyoming. Most of the Ucross-Arvada area lies within the outcrop of the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age; the extreme northeast corner falls within the outcrop of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Within the Powder River Basin, both the Wasatch Formation and the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation contain significant coal resources. The map includes locations and elevations of coal beds at 1:50,000 scale for an area that includes ten 7½-minute quadrangles covering some 500 square miles. The Wasatch Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Monument Peak, Walters (also called Ulm 1), Healy (also called Ulm 2), Truman, Felix, and Arvada. The Fort Union Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Roland (of Baker, 1929) and Smith.

  12. 33 CFR 165.T01-0824 - Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Housatonic River Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT. 165.T01-0824 Section 165.T01-0824 Navigation... Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation... to bank, surface to bottom; bounded to the north by the Metro North Railroad (RR) Bridge marked by a...

  13. 75 FR 67216 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River Mile 531.3, AR, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition... demolition of the Greenville Bridge, Lower Mississippi River Mile 531.3. Additionally, vessels will not be... personnel and vessels from the potential safety hazards during the demolition of the Greenville Bridge...

  14. 33 CFR 165.T01-0824 - Regulated Navigation Area; Housatonic River Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Housatonic River Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT. 165.T01-0824 Section 165.T01-0824 Navigation... Bridge Replacement Operations; Stratford, CT. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation... to bank, surface to bottom; bounded to the north by the Metro North Railroad (RR) Bridge marked by a...

  15. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps...

  16. Water quality in the St. Louis River Area of Concern, Lake Superior: Historical and current conditions and delisting implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the lower St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) from two stations over a 60 year period (19532013) and system-wide (20122013) was examined to determine if the AOC beneficial use impairment of excessive loading of sediment and nutrients could be considered for rem...

  17. Central Savannah River Area P-16 Professional Development School Network: A Reflective Summary of Four Years of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mary Gendernalik

    This article traces the development of the Central Savannah River Area P-16 Professional Development School Network Initiative (PDSNI), which began in 1998 as a collaboration between the Department of Teacher Development at Augusta State University, Georgia, and four adjacent school systems. The collaboration's mission was to cultivate a network…

  18. Water quality in the St. Louis River Area of Concern, Lake Superior: Historical and current conditions and delisting implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the lower St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) from two stations over a 60 year period (19532013) and system-wide (20122013) was examined to determine if the AOC beneficial use impairment of excessive loading of sediment and nutrients could be considered for rem...

  19. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  20. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  1. Promoting Peace Education for Behaviourial Changes in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality Council Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uko, E. S.; Igbineweka, P. O.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the promotion of peace education for behavioural changes in public secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A set of questionnaire items were validated and used for the collection of data involving 310 respondents, selected…

  2. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  3. Flood-plain areas of the Mississippi River, mile 866.8 to mile 888.0, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, George H.; Gue, Lowell C.

    1980-01-01

    Profiles of the regional flood, 500-year flood, and flood-protection elevation have been developed for a 21-mile reach of the Mississippi River. Areas flooded by the regional flood and by the 500-year flood were delineated by photogrammetric mapping techniques and are shown on seven large-scale map sheets. Over 1,300 acres of flood plain are included in the cities of Anoka, Champlin, Coon Rapids, Dayton, Ramsey and Elk River, and in unincorporated areas of Wright County. The flood-outline maps and flood profiles comprise data needed by local units of government to adopt, enforce, and administer flood-plain management regulations along the Mississippi River throughout the study reach. Streamflow data from two gaging stations provided the basis for definition of the regional and 500-year floods. Cross-section data obtained at 83 locations were used to develop a digital computer model of the river. Flood elevation and discharge data from the 1965 flood provided a basis for adjusting the computer model. Information relating the history of floods, formation of ice jams, and duration of flood elevations at Anoka and at Elk River are included.

  4. Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?

    PubMed

    Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution of urban runoff in Taipei metropolitan area to dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Jien, Shih-Hao; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chen, Yao-Te; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS). DIN concentrations in the downstream (urban) reaches are substantially elevated. The upstream tributaries annually discharge ∼2709 t DIN to the downstream reaches. However, the DIN discharge off the downstream reaches rises to ∼17,918 t, resulting from the contribution of RWPS-collected water, i.e., ∼14,632 t, and the effluents of two WWTP, i.e., ∼577 t. RWPS-collected water inherently contains the contribution of atmospheric deposition, ∼2937 t DIN. This finding implies that ∼11,695 t (∼66 % of the downstream output) DIN flux off the Danshui River is from urban runoff and can be attributed to human activities in the Taipei metropolitan area. To improve the water quality in the Danshui River, water quality controls in urban runoff are important.

  6. Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) Upper Yellowstone River, Montana: Environmental Assessment, FONSI, and Selected Alternative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Yellowstone River that is most susceptible to forced morphology . Some of the channel segments within the SRMZ already have forced morphology . Where...the upper Yellowstone River that is most susceptible to forced morphology . Some of the channel segments within the SRMZ already have forced morphology ...beneficial effects on water quality, vegetation, wildlife, river morphology , visual, and socio-cultural values. Negative effects related to the

  7. Glacial geology of the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melchior, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    During middle and late Wisconsin time in the Shingobee River headwaters area, the Laurentide Wadena lobe, Hewitt and Itasca phases, produced terminal and ground moraine along with a variety of associated glacial features. The stratigraphic record is accessible and provides details of depositional mode as well as principal glacial events during the advance and retreat of middle and late Wisconsin ice tongues. Geomorphic features such as tunnel valleys, stream terraces, and postglacial stream cuts formed by erosional events persist to the present day. Middle Wisconsin Hewitt phase deposits are the oldest and include drumlins, ground moraine, boulder pavements, and outwash. Together, these deposits suggest a wet-based, periodically surging glacier in a subpolar thermal state. Regional permafrost and deposition from retreating ice are inferred between the end of the Hewitt phase and the advance of late Wisconsin Itasca phase ice. Itasca phase glaciation occurred as a contemporaneous pair of adjacent ice tongues whose contrasting moraine styles suggest independent flow modes. The western (Shingobee) portion of the Itasca moraine contains composite ridges, permafrost phenomena, hill-hole pairs, and debris flows. By contrast, eastern (Onigum) moraine deposits generally lack glaciotectonic features and consist almost exclusively of mud and debris flows. Near the end of the Itasca phase, large-scale hill-hole pairs developed in the Shingobee division, and debris flows from the Onigum division blocked the preexisting Shingobee tunnel valley to form glacial lake Willobee. Postglacial streams formed deep valleys as glacial lake Willobee catastrophically drained. Dates based on temperature trends in Greenland ice cores are proposed for prominent glacial events in the Shingobee area. This report proposes that Hewitt phase glaciation occurred between 27.2 and 23.6 kiloannum and Itasca phase glaciation between 22.8 and 14.7 kiloannum. Des Moines lobe (Younger Dryas) glaciation

  8. Geology and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Blome, Charles D.; Morris, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Miocene Balcones Fault Zone, which is an extensional system of faults that generally trend southwest to northeast in south-central Texas. An igneous dike, containing aphanitic texture, cuts through the center of the study area near the confluence of Honey Creek and the Guadalupe River. The dike penetrates the Cow Creek Limestone and the lower part of the Hensell Sand, which outcrops at three locations.

  9. 3D Geological Modeling of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site: A Preliminary Workflow and Model

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2002-10-29

    The Savannah River Site, located in South Carolina, contains nuclear defense products and nuclear waste byproducts as result of national defense operations dating to the 1950s. The facility has been the subject of a variety of scientific investigations focusing on potential groundwater transportation of nuclides and other hazardous materials through the different aquifers within the air. The area of particular interest, and the subject of this report, is the General Separations Area.

  10. Nitrogen budget of a typical subterranean river in peak cluster karst area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Jiang, Guanghui

    2009-10-01

    Karst groundwater is one of the important water resources for people in the world. There is an estimate that by 2028 karst groundwater will supply more than 80% of people in the world. However, several areas in the world are characterized by high nitrate concentrations in karst aquifers. In China, karst groundwater is also threatened by extensive use of fertilizer and pesticides, industry waste, septic systems and poultry, hog or cattle manure. In order to understand the water quality of a subterranean river in south China, especially the dynamic variation of nitrate, nitrogen input and output were determined via auto-monitored apparatus, manual observation and samples from 2004 to 2008 in Guancun subterranean river drainage area. Land use and anthropogenic activities were also investigated frequently. The results showed the range of nitrate variation was 2.56-15.40 mg l-1, with an average value of 6.60 mg l-1. Spatial variation of nitrate concentrations showed nitrate rose where there were villages and agriculture distribution. Long series of nitrate and discharge monitoring revealed there was a nitrate peak in spring just before the beginning of rainy season. Three rainfall events were selected for analysis of relations among hydrological process, water chemistry, and nitrate of the spring. The flood processes of the spring were divided into three or four phases according to change of water level and water chemistry. They were dominated by initial condition of aquifer, piston flow in soil and vadose, piston flow in conduit, diffuse recharge, and bypass recharge. The original condition of aquifer and rainfall pulse controlled recharge flow and changes of nitrate and hydro-chemical graphs of the spring. The quantity of nitrogen input in a year was 66.61 t, and the output was 21.24 t. Nitrogen leaching loss in base flow accounted for 76.11% in a year. Some measures should be taken to protect karst water in the very near future, so that health risks to the local

  11. Raft River Geothermal Area Data Models - Conceptual, Logical and Fact Models

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cuyler, David

    2012-07-19

    Conceptual and Logical Data Model for Geothermal Data Concerning Wells, Fields, Power Plants and Related Analyses at Raft River a. Logical Model for Geothermal Data Concerning Wells, Fields, Power Plants and Related Analyses, David Cuyler 2010 b. Fact Model for Geothermal Data Concerning Wells, Fields, Power Plants and Related Analyses, David Cuyler 2010 Derived from Tables, Figures and other Content in Reports from the Raft River Geothermal Project: "Technical Report on the Raft River Geothermal Resource, Cassia County, Idaho," GeothermEx, Inc., August 2002. "Results from the Short-Term Well Testing Program at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Cassia County, Idaho," GeothermEx, Inc., October 2004.

  12. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  13. Geochemical map of the Chama River Canyon Wilderness and contiguous roadless area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.

    1986-01-01

    The Chama River Canyon Wilderness, in Rio Arriba County, north-central New Mexico, covers 50,300 acres (20,364 hectares) within the Coyote and Cuba Ranger Districts of the Santa Fe National Forest and the Canjilon Ranger District of the Carson National Forest. In 1979 the U.S. Forest Service, under the Forest Service Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) program, designated three additional areas, contiguous to the wilderness, for further planning to assess wilderness characteristics. These areas, totaling 4,800 acres (1,945 hectares), were collectively designated Roadless area 03098; they have since been dropped from consideration. 

  14. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunling; Yang, Renxiu; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil>vegetable soil>paddy soil>natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrologic monitoring in the area of the proposed Yazoo River navigation project, west-central Mississippi, 1978-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data on ground-water levels collected from the area of the proposed Yazoo River Navigation Project for the years 1978-80 are presented without interpretation. These data were obtained as part of a hydrologic study to understand the hydrologic effects of construction and operation of a waterway on the Yazoo River. The data were collected in cooperation with the Vicksburg District, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. During the data collection period, water-level measurements were made on about a monthly schedule in 62 observation wells in the network. Three of the wells were equipped with continuous water-level recorders. (USGS)

  16. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  17. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  18. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  19. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  20. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  1. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  2. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  3. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  4. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  5. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  6. Area Completion Strategies at Savannah River Site: Characterization for Closure and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Laura; O'Quinn, Sadika; Amidon, Mark

    2008-01-15

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990's, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an 'area completion' strategy that: - unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, - integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D and D activities - reduces the number of required regulatory documents, - and, in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state. The area completion approaches being implemented at SRS reflect an evolution of the traditional RCRA/ CERCLA remedial process. Area completion strategies: - group waste units and/or D and D facilities together for characterization, remediation, and possible reuse; - identify data needs and integrate data collection activities for D and D, characterization, and remediation; - identify problems that require action

  7. Lidar-enhanced geologic mapping, examples from the Medford and Hood River areas, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, T. J.; McClaughry, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Lidar-based 3-foot digital elevation models (DEMs) and derivatives (slopeshade, hillshade, contours) were used to help map geology across 1700 km2 (650 mi2) near Hood River and Medford, Oregon. Techniques classically applied to interpret coarse DEMs and small-scale topographic maps were adapted to take advantage of lidar's high resolution. Penetration and discrimination of plant cover by the laser system allowed recognition of fine patterns and textures related to underlying geologic units and associated soils. Surficial geologic maps were improved by the ability to examine tiny variations in elevation and slope. Recognition of low-relief features of all sizes was enhanced where pixel elevation ranges of centimeters to meters, established by knowledge of the site or by trial, were displayed using thousands of sequential colors. Features can also be depicted relative to stream level by preparing a DEM that compensates for gradient. Near Medford, lidar-derived contour maps with 1- to 3-foot intervals revealed incised bajada with young, distal lobes defined by concentric contour lines. Bedrock geologic maps were improved by recognizing geologic features associated with surface textures and patterns or topographic anomalies. In sedimentary and volcanic terrain, structure was revealed by outcrops or horizons lying at one stratigraphic level. Creating a triangulated irregular network (TIN) facet from positions of three or more such points gives strike and dip. Each map area benefited from hundreds of these measurements. A more extensive DEM in the plane of the TIN facet can be subtracted from surface elevation (lidar DEM) to make a DEM with elevation zero where the stratigraphic horizon lies at the surface. The distribution of higher and lower stratigraphic horizons can be shown by highlighting areas similarly higher or lower on the same DEM. Poor fit of contacts or faults projected between field traverses suggest the nature and amount of intervening geologic structure

  8. Screening of recreational areas of rivers for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in the suburbs of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Nazar, Mahdieh; Haghighi, Ali; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA), especially Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in river recreation areas in Tehran Province, Iran. All rivers surveyed were associated with human activity, and two were also a source of municipal tap water. Fifty-five water samples from 10 major rivers were screened for FLA and identified by morphological characters, PCR amplification targeting specific genes for Acanthamoeba (DF3 region of Rns gene) and other FLA (ITS PCR), and homology analysis. The percentage of positive FLA isolates was 27.3%, of which 80% were Acanthamoeba, assigned to the T4 and T15 genotype, and 20% were Naegleria. Isolation of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (91.7%) from recreation areas could be a health threat and a sanitary risk associated with human activity where young people and tourists congregate in summer. Posting of warning signs and education of high-risk individuals are important for disease prevention. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of genotype T15 (clustered with A. jacobsi) identified in Iran and the first report of the distribution of FLA such as Naegleria (N. pagei, N. clarki and N. fultoni) in recreation areas in rivers of Tehran Province using molecular methods.

  9. Tidal river sediments in the Washington, D.C. area. 11. Distribution and sources of organic containmants

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.L.; Velinsky, D.J.; Reinharz, E.; Schlekat, C.E.

    1994-06-01

    Concentrations of aliphatic, aromatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined from 33 surface-sediment samples taken from the Tidal Basin, Washington Ship Channel, and the Anacostia and Potomac rivers in Washington, D.C. In conjunction with these samples, selected storm sewers and outfalls also were sampled to help elucidate general sources of contamination to the area. All of the sediments contained detectable concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, DDT (total dichlorodiphenytrichloroethande), DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene), DDD (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane), PCBx (total polychlorinated biphenyls) and total chlordanes (oxy-, {alpha}-, and {gamma}-chlordane and cis + trans-nonachlor). Sediment concentrations of most contaminants were highest in the Anacostia River just downstream of the Washington Navy Yard, except for total chlordane, which appeared to have upstream sources in addition to storm and combined sewer runoff. This area has the highest number of storm and combined sewer outfalls in the river. Potomac River stations had lower concentrations than other stations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) distributions reflect mixtures of combustion products and direct discharges of petroleum products. Sources of PCBs appear to be related to specific outfalls, while hydrocarbon inputs, especially PAHs, are diffuse, and may be related to street runoff. This study indicates that in large urban areas, nonpoint sources deliver substantial amounts of contaminants to ecosystems through storm and combined sewer systems, and control of these inputs must be addressed. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Leaf area index measurements at the middle reaches of Heihe River forest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Yan, Guang-jian; Zhang, Wu-ming; Zhu, Ling; Chen, Ling

    2008-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important parameters of canopy structure as it related to many biophysical and physiological processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, carbon cycling, rain intercepting, net primary productivity, energy exchanging etc. Rapid, accurate and reliable estimations of LAI are required in these studies above. There are two main categories of procedures to estimate LAI: direct and indirect methods. The objective of this study is to evaluate LAI estimations obtained by different methods in HeiHe River forest sites. These methods include the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer, HemiView, fifty-seven degree photography method, fisheye photography method, the tracing radiation and architecture of canopies (TRAC), and Multi-Purpose Canopy Observation System (MCOS). HemiView shows a large variation on gap fraction measurements compared to LAI-2000, fifty-seven degree photography method is the superior choice to provide initial LAI values compared to other methods. To determine the non-photosynthesis elements and foliage clumping effects for optical methods, a new device named MCOS (Multi- Purpose Canopy Observation System) and TRAC were used. Finally, the results show that with the combination of MCOS or TRAC and LAI-2000 or hemispherical photography can provide accurate and efficient LAI values.

  11. Aquatic habitat modifications in La Plata River basin, Patagonia and associated marine areas.

    PubMed

    Mugetti, Ana Cristina; Calcagno, Alberto Tomás; Brieva, Carlos Alberto; Giangiobbe, María Silvia; Pagani, Andrea; Gonzalez, Silvia

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the environmental characteristics and situation of aquatic habitats and communities in southern continental and maritime areas of southeastern South America (Patagonian Shelf GIWA Subregion), resulting from an overall assessment carried out within the framework of a GIWA project, mostly on the basis of publicly available data. The main focus of the analysis was on the current situation of transboundary water resources and anthropogenic impacts. In the inland waters, habitat and community modifications result, principally, from dams and reservoirs built in the main watercourses for hydroelectric power generation and other uses. The transformation of lotic environments into lentic ones have affected habitats and altered biotic communities. In the La Plata River basin, invasive exotic species have displaced native ones. Habitats in the ocean have been degraded, as their biodiversity becomes affected by overfishing and pollution. This article includes a discussion on the causal chain and the policy options elaborated for the Coastal Ecosystem of Buenos Aires province and the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone, where fishing resources are shared by both countries.

  12. Savannah River Site/K Area Complex getter life extension report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Woodsmall, Todd; Nissen, April

    2008-08-01

    The K Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been utilizing HiTop hydrogen getter material in 9975 Shipping Containers to prevent the development of flammable environments during storage of moisture-containing plutonium oxides. Previous testing and subsequent reports have been performed and produced by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to demonstrate the suitability and longevity of the getter during storage at bounding thermal conditions. To date, results have shown that after 18 months of continuous storage at 70 C, the getter is able to both recombine gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into water when oxygen is available, and irreversibly getter (i.e. scavenge) hydrogen from the vapor space when oxygen is not available, both under a CO{sub 2} environment. [Refs. 1-5] Both of these reactions are catalytically enhanced and thermodynamically favorable. The purpose of this paper is to establish the justification that maintaining the current efforts of biannual testing is no longer necessary due to the robust performance of the getter material, the very unlikely potential that the recombination reaction will fail during storage conditions in KAC, and the insignificant aging effects that have been seen in the testing to date.

  13. Stream-aquifer interactions in the Straight River area, Becker and Hubbard counties, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Armstrong, David S.; Zwilling, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    Daily fluctuations of stream temperature are as great as 15 degrees Celsius during the summer, primarily in response to changes in air temperature. Ground-water discharge to the Straight River decreases stream temperature during the summer. Results of simulations from a stream-temperature model indicate that daily changes in stream temperature are strongly influenced by solar radiation, wind speed, stream depth, and ground-water inflow. Results of simulations from ground-water-flow and stream-temperature models developed for the investigation indicate a significant decrease in ground-water flow could result from ground-water withdrawal at rates similar to those measured during 1988. This reduction in discharge to the stream could result in an increase in stream temperature of 0.5 to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Nitrate concentrations in shallow wells screened at the water table, in some areas, are locally greater than the limit set by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Nitrate concentrations in water from deeper wells and in the stream are low, generally less than 1.0 milligram per liter.

  14. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  15. An experimental study of a minette from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37: 1629-1650, 2000) studied the minettes and xenoliths from the Milk River area of southern Alberta, Canada. Based on previous work, they hypothesized that the minettes were derived from a source containing phlogopite + clinopyroxene ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. To test this hypothesis, liquidus experiments were performed on a primitive minette between 1.33 and 2.21 GPa and between 1,300 and 1,400 °C to constrain the mineralogy of its source region. We found a multiple saturation point along the liquidus at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C, where the liquid coexists with orthopyroxene and olivine. Neither phlogopite nor clinopyroxene were found to be liquidus phases, which is inconsistent with Buhlmann et al.'s hypothesis. We suggest that our minette is not primary, but had re-equilibrated with harzburgitic mantle subsequent to formation. In such a scenario, partial melting of a veined source containing mica and clinopyroxene occurred at or near the base of the Wyoming craton (~200 km). Minimal heating or the introduction of hydrous fluids into the source would be required to induce partial melting. Rapid ascent rates, coupled with slow cooling rates, of the "primary minette magma" would preserve the high temperature observed in our experiments. At ~58 km, our "primary minette magma" likely stalled and re-equilibrated with the harzburgite surroundings.

  16. [Mapping environmental vulnerability from ETM + data in the Yellow River Mouth Area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Yan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Xia, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Shu-Qian

    2013-10-01

    The environmental vulnerability retrieval is important to support continuing data. The spatial distribution of regional environmental vulnerability was got through remote sensing retrieval. In view of soil and vegetation, the environmental vulnerability evaluation index system was built, and the environmental vulnerability of sampling points was calculated by the AHP-fuzzy method, then the correlation between the sampling points environmental vulnerability and ETM + spectral reflectance ratio including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed to determine the sensitive spectral parameters. Based on that, models of correlation analysis, traditional regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the spectral reflectance and the environmental vulnerability. With this model, the environmental vulnerability distribution was retrieved in the Yellow River Mouth Area. The results showed that the correlation between the environmental vulnerability and the spring NDVI, the September NDVI and the spring brightness was better than others, so they were selected as the sensitive spectral parameters. The model precision result showed that in addition to the support vector model, the other model reached the significant level. While all the multi-variable regression was better than all one-variable regression, and the model accuracy of BP neural network was the best. This study will serve as a reliable theoretical reference for the large spatial scale environmental vulnerability estimation based on remote sensing data.

  17. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  18. Mineral resources of the Trinity River tributary area in Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weissenborn, A. E.

    1946-01-01

    In March 1945 Colonel George R. Goethels, Chief of the Civil Works Division of the Corps of Engineers, requested the Director of the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, to prepare a report on the mineral resource of the area that, according to economic studies made by the Corps of Engineers, would be affected by the canalization of the Trinity River to Fort Worth. As a consequence, the staff of the Geological Survey's Regional Office in Rolla, Mo., was assigned the task of preparing the desired information. A. E. Weissenborn, acting Regional Geologist, called on Major H. R. Norman, Division Engineer of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, and discussed with him the purpose, scope, and form of the proposed report. Following this discussion, Dr. John T. Lonsdale, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas, at Mr. Weissenborn's request, agreed that the Bureau of Economic Geology should participate in the preparation of the report. My. Weissenborn also called on Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma State Geological Survey at Norman, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey was unable to participate in writing the report, but was very helpful in supplying published and unpublished or out-of-print information on the mineral resources of Oklahoma.

  19. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  20. Influence of river level on temperature and hydraulic gradients in chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Murray, Christopher J.; McGrath, Kathy; Bott, Yi-Ju; Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-02-01

    Chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon segregate spatially during spawning in the Ives Island side channel of the lower Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Previous research during one spawning season (2000) suggested that these species selected spawning habitats based on differences in hyporheic temperature and vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) with the river. In this study, we confirmed the spatial segregation of spawning based on hyporheic characteristics over four years (2001–2004) and examined the effects of load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Bonneville Dam on hyporheic function and characteristics. We found that during the study period, hyporheic temperature and VHG in chum salmon spawning areas were highly variable during periods of load-following operation when river levels fluctuated. In contrast, hyporheic water temperature and VHG within chum spawning areas fluctuated less when river levels were not changing due to load-following operation. Variable temperature and VHG could affect chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning segregation and incubation success by altering the cues each species uses to select redd sites. Alterations in site selection would result in a breakdown in the spatial segregation of spawning between chum and fall Chinook salmon, which would expose earlier spawning fall Chinook eggs to a greater risk of dislodgement from later spawning chum salmon. Additional research will be required to fully assess the effects of load-following operations on the hyporheic environment and spawning and incubation success of chum and fall Chinook salmon downstream from Bonneville Dam.

  1. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... to begin. Due to delays on other construction projects in the Gulf of Mexico, the calendar dates for... over the Harlem River. The replacement bridge span for this project is being constructed at Port Coeymans, NY on the Hudson River, approximately 115 nautical miles north of The Battery, Manhattan, NY....

  2. Standards of quality for river use within the Fort Niobrara wilderness area

    Treesearch

    John B. Davis; Mark Lindvall

    2000-01-01

    The visual survey methodology of Manning and others (1996) was used to measure visitor response to the number of other floaters encountered on the Niobrara River within the Fort Niobrara Wilderness in Nebraska. An optical scanner and photo-editing software were used to produce 12 composite photographs of the Niobrara River, depicting a range of visitor use levels. In a...

  3. 59 FR- Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-12-15

    ... INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [OR-030-03-1220-04: G5-042] Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and... and restrictions within the boundaries of the Main Owyhee River as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic Rivers Management Plan. SUMMARY: The Vale...

  4. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  5. Hydrology of the Price River basin, Utah, with emphasis on selected coal-field areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Dodge, J.E.; Darby, D.W.; Theobald, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Data obtained during a hydrologic study of the Price River basin, Utah, are used to describe seasonal variations of flow of springs, relation between ground water and surface water, hydraulic properties of the ground-water reservoir, ground-water recharge and discharge, flood characteristics of streams, mineralogic composition and depositional rates of sediments, nutrient and inorganic loading in streams and Scofield Reservoir, and water budgets for selected basins. Additional study and monitoring are needed to detect possible hydrologic changes caused by coal mining. Much of the ground-water discharge from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mesaverde Group in the Wasatch Plateau occurs along faults. In the Book Cliffs, where faulting is less extensive, most of the ground-water discharge is from the Flagstaff Limestone. The Flagstaff Limestone is greatly diffusive, has a small storage coefficient, and contains water which is perched. Springs issuing from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mud Creek drainage (Wasatch Plateau) had recession indexes greater than 365 days per log cycle. Springs issuing at higher altitudes from the Colton Formation and the Flagstaff Limestone in the Soldier Creek area (Book Cliffs) have great seasonal variability, with recession indexes ranging from 24 to 115 days per log cycle. Estimated transmissivities in the Soldier Creek area ranged from 0.003 foot squared per day in the lower part of the Castlegate Sandstone to 0.07 foot squared per day in the Price River Formation. Seepage from the Star Point Sandstone is the major contributor to base flow of the stream in Eccles Canyon (Wasatch Plateau). Gains of as much as 230 gallons per minute occurred near a fault zone which crosses Eccles Canyon at the junction with South Fork Canyon. The potentiometric surface of water in the Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau (Mud Creek drainage) and the Book Cliffs (Soldier Creek area) generally is above the coal zones, and dewatering will be necessary

  6. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering use of groundwater resources from the Big River Management Area in central Rhode Island because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. Previous water-resources investigations in this glacially derived, valley-fill aquifer system have focused primarily on the effects of potential groundwater-pumping scenarios on streamflow depletion; however, the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands have not been assessed, and such assessments are a requirement of the State’s permitting process to develop a water supply in this area. A need for an assessment of the potential effects of pumping on wetlands in the Big River Management Area led to a cooperative agreement in 2008 between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island. This partnership was formed with the goal of developing methods for characterizing wetland vegetation, soil type, and hydrologic conditions, and monitoring and modeling water levels for pre- and post-water-supply development to assess potential effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands. This report describes the hydrogeology of the area and the numerical simulations that were used to analyze the interaction between groundwater and surface water in response to simulated groundwater withdrawals. The results of this analysis suggest that, given the hydrogeologic conditions in the Big River Management Area, a standard 5-day aquifer test may not be sufficient to determine the effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wetlands. Model simulations showed water levels beneath Reynolds Swamp declined by about 0.1 foot after 5 days of continuous pumping, but continued to decline by an additional 4 to 6 feet as pumping times were increased from a 5-day simulation period to a simulation period representative of long-term average monthly conditions. This continued decline in water levels with

  7. Analysis on radiocesium concentration in rivers that have catchment areas affected by the fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. This study showed the monitoring results of radiocesium concentration in river waters and suspended sediments in Abukuma river basin and smaller coastal river catchments. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs- 137 on suspended sediments were generally decreasing at all sites. The decreasing rate changed lower at about one year later from the accident. Activity concentration in river waters also showed the same tendency although there are only few data within 1 year from the accident. Activity concentrations measured at the same day are proportional to the mean catchment inventory. Therefore, the activity concentration can be normalized by the mean catchment inventory. The normalized activity can be fitted to following double exponential function: [At] = 1.551 exp (-5.265t) + 0.069 exp (-0.266 t), where t [year] is the time from the accident. There is no time evolution of Kd between suspended sediments and river water. Instead, Kd was varied spatially. Although the reason of the spatial variation is not clear for now, geology of the catchment (i.e. mineral composition of suspended particles) seems to relate to the variation.

  8. Geology and metallization of the White River Area, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McCulla, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock of the White River area is dominated by Miocene age volcanics of andesite to rhyolite composition, which may be in part coeval with plutonic phases of the nearby 26 - 14 m.y. Tatoosh batholith. These volcanic rocks host two spatially distinct and gold-bearing epithermal deposits of the acid-sulfate type that are structurally, temporally, and genetically related to the formation and resurgent magmatic activity at the margin of an early Miocene caldera (22.6 - 19.1 m.y.). The age of hydrothermal activity is 20.4 +/- 0.1 m.y. based on UAr/TZAr analysis of hypogene alunite from the mineralized zone. Hydrothermal alteration and metallization of both deposits is chemically and mineralogically similar and consists of a central core of pervasive silicification that grades outward into zones of advanced argillic, argillic, and propylitic alteration. The largest of the two target areas is defined by a silica capping. Sulfur isotope analyses of cogenetic alunite-pyrite-enargite demonstrate a (34)S of +28.8 per thousand for the alunite-pyrite mineral pair. This large fractionation corroborates other field and mineralogic evidence for the hypogene origin of the alunite, and provides a geologically reasonable isotopic temperature estimate of 190 C for this epithermal deposit. Fold was introduced in at least 3 distinct episodes of structural-hydrothermal activity. The highest concentration of gold is within a zone measuring 1600 by 300-600 feet, and is localized in parts of the similar capping that contain outcrops of matrix-supported explosion breccias and veins having anomalous concentrations of up to 480 ppb Au, 13.7 ppm Ag, 1900 ppm As, 213 ppm Sb, 7.5 ppm Hg, and 10 ppm Mo.

  9. Estimating Vadose Zone Drainage From a Capped Seepage Basin, F Area, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Denham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Large volumes of waste solutions were commonly discharged into unlined seepage basins at many different facilities in the past. Plutonium was extracted from depleted uranium from 1955 to 1988 at the F-Area within the Savannah River Site, with contaminated process waters disposed of in permeable seepage basins. The primarily acidic solutions contained radioactive components (including tritium, 129I, and multiple isotopes of U, Pu, Sr, and Cs), elevated nitrate, and some metals (Hg, Pb, Cd). Basin 3 was the largest F-Area seepage basin, covering 2.0 hectare, with the water table typically at about 20 m below the soil surface. The local groundwater flows at an average velocity of 200 m/y in the approximately 10 m thick shallow aquifer, and is underlain by the low permeability Tan Clay. We used nearly 20 years of groundwater quality data from a monitoring well immediately downstream of Basin 3 to estimate the post-closure drainage of waste solutions through its underlying vadose zone, into the shallow aquifer. The measurements of tritium, nitrate, and specific conductance, were used as plume tracers in our estimates of vadose zone drainage. These calculations indicate that early stages of post-closure waste drainage occurred with high fluxes (≈ 1 m/y), and quickly declined. However, even after 20 years, drainage continues at a low but significant rate of several cm/y. These estimated drainage fluxes can help constrain predictions on the waste plume behavior, especially with respect to its emerging trailing gradient and anticipated time scales suitable for monitored natural attenuation.

  10. Summary of hydrologic data for the San Gabriel River basin and Edwards Aquifer, Georgetown area, Texas, water year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, William E.; Land, Larry F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of freshwater for municipal, domestic, and industrial users in the Georgetown area.  Other sources of freshwater are Lake Georgetown and the streams draining the San Gabriel River basin.  Lake Georgetown, located on the North Fork San Gabriel River west of Georgetown, is a freshwater supply for some municipalities in the area.  Water in the San Gabriel River basin also suppliesa variety of needs east of Georgetown.  Because of the importance of the Edwards aquifer and the surface waters as a source of freshwater in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Georgetown, established a local streamflow and ground-water monitoring network in principal streams and teh Edwards aquifer, and conducted surveys of the network in water years 1987, 1988, and 1990.  The study area was centered on Georgetown and emcompassed an area of about 150 mi2 (fig. 1).

  11. Epidote Eclogites From Ross River Area, Yukon, Canada, Indicate Very High Pressure Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, E. D.; Erdmer, P.

    2009-05-01

    Eclogites occur as tectonic inclusions in metasedimentary rocks at several locations within Yukon Territory. In the Ross River area the eclogites contain omphacite-garnet-Ca-Na amphibole-epidote-rutile-quartz. Phengite, paragonite, and titanite are local additional phases. The matrix of omphacite and Ca-amphibole is fine-grained and strongly deformed. Using bulk X-ray fluorescence analyses we have calculated isochemical phase diagram P-T sections (P-T pseudosections). The chemical system used is SiO2-TiO2- Al2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-H2O. We have not modeled MnO and ferric iron because of the lack of activity-composition data for minerals other than garnet. The P-T boundary of lawsonite- out provides approximate lower P and T limits on the stability of epidote with garnet and omphacite. The results are: 480-520°C at 20 kbar, near the lawsonite-eclogite/epidote-eclogite boundary at ˜ 500°C and 23 kbar. Garnet analyses indicate compositional zoning with Mn-rich cores. Intersections of the calculated grossular and pyrope isopleths (with observed compositions) provide estimates of P and T at the time of crystallization of garnet cores. The results range from 475-493°C and 19.7-23.5 kbar. Temperature estimates using the Zr in rutile geothermometer yield a T range of 521-557°C at 20 kbar. A metasedimentary host rock yielded three matrix results with 560 ± 54°C. These last results lead us to suggest that the host rocks experienced a similar T history to the eclogite inclusions. These eclogites were formed by subduction-related metamorphism, but did not involve continental collision. Ultrahigh pressures (coesite stability field) are usually associated with continental collision. The implied tectonic uplift of Ross River eclogite is greater than previously thought.

  12. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Geist, D. R.; Arntzen, E. V.; Abernethy, C. S.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  13. The distribution of mercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki river, Bogor, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kono, Yuriko; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury in the soil, sediment and river water around the artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia, was investigated. The total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in the forest soil ranged from 0.11 to 7.0mgkg(-1), and the highest value was observed at the ASGM village. In the vertical T-Hg profile around the villages, the highest value was observed at the soil surface, and the concentration decreased with depth. This result suggested that the mercury released by mining activity was dispersed through the atmosphere and deposited on the surface. The total organic carbon content (TOC) showed a similar vertical profile as the T-Hg, and a linear relationship was found between T-Hg and TOC. Mercury deposited on the surface can be absorbed by organic matter. The slope of the line was larger near the ASGM village, implying a higher rate of deposition of mercury. The T-Hg in the sediment ranged from 10 to 70mgkg(-1), decreasing gradually toward the lower reaches of the river. Mining waste can be transported with the river flow and deposited along the river. The distribution of the mining waste can be determined using the mineralogical composition measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

  14. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in a sharp river bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Labeur, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small-scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches, and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large-scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of 3 compared with the reach-averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a three-dimensional finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm s-1) advects longitudinal momentum toward the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  16. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in sharp river bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of three compared with the reach averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a 3D finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm/s) advects longitudinal momentum towards the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross-section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross-section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  17. Distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy rivers in the Columbus, Ohio, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to determine the distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy Rivers. Fecal-indicator bacteria are among the contaminants of concern to recreational users of these rivers in the Columbus area. Samples were collected to be analyzed for fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and selected water-quality constituents and physical properties at 10 sites-- 4 on the Olentangy River and 6 on the Scioto River during the recreational seasons in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Measurements of streamflow also were made at these sites at various frequencies during base flow and runoff. The concentrations of fecal-coliform and E. coli bacteria in the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers spanned a range of five orders of magnitude, from less than 20 to greater than 2,000,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters). In addition, the concentrations of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria are well correlated (r=0.97) in the study area. At times, relatively high concentrations, for fecal-indicator bacteria (concentrations greater than 51,000 col/100 mL for fecal-coliform and E. coli ) were found in Olentangy River at Woody Hayes Drive and at Goodale Street, and in Scioto River at Greenlawn Avenue and at Columbus. Intermediate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 5,100 to 50,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and (from 510 to 50,000 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found in Scioto River at Town Street and below O'Shaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio, and in Olentangy River at Henderson Road. The lowest (median) concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 20 to 5,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and from 20 to 500 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found at Olentangy River near Worthington, Ohio, Scioto River at Dublin Road Water Treatment Plant and below Griggs Reservoir. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the geometric

  18. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  19. 1989 and 2010/11 Aquatic Areas Data: Mississippi River Navigation Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, Open River Section 2, and the Illinois River’s La Grange Pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhser, Janis; DeJager, Nathan R.; Rogala, James T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). Aerial images of Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010 at 8”/pixel and 16”/pixel respectively using a mapping-grade Applanix DSS 439 digital aerial camera. In August 2011, CIR aerial images of Pools 14-Open River South, Upper Mississippi River and Pools Dresden-Lockport, Illinois River were collected at 16”/pixel with the same camera. The CIR aerial images were interpreted and automated using a 31-class LTRMP vegetation classification. These data have been used to create a variety of products, one of which is a data set used to classify aquatic areas. The 2010/11 aquatic areas data sets were created by first generalizing the available land cover/use data into a land/water data set, then reinterpreting the areas classified as water to determine the type of aquatic area. Area coverage for this data set is the Upper Mississippi River between Minneapolis, MN and Cairo, IL, and the Illinois River from its confluence with the Mississippi to Joliet, IL.

  20. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  1. [Distribution of phytoplankton and water dynamical environmental factors in high red tide occurrence area of Changjiang River estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Genhai; Xu, Weiyi; Zhu, Dedi; Shi, Qingsong; Zhang, Jian

    2003-07-01

    Species composition and cell abundance of phytoplankton, and its relations with environmental factors were investigated in the Changjiang River estuary of east China sea (30 degrees 50'-31 degrees 50'N, 121 degrees 50'-123 degrees 00'E). A total of 110 taxa belonging to 45 genera of phytoplankton in the investigation area were identified. The main species of phytoplankton resulted in red tide were Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum dentatum, etc. Phytoplankton abundance in the day was higher than that at night. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton in different water bodies was not obvious. The ecological groups of phytoplankton were freshwater group, estuarine and brackish water and low salinity group in the coast, high salinity and warm water group in off-sea, and widely ranging group. The abundance of phytoplankton in the Changjiang River estuary was 1.6 x 10(3)-75.2 x 10(3) ind.dm-3. The species composition and cell abundance of phytoplankton were related to the freshwater pouring into the Changjiang River estuary. The three waters in the area affecting the distribution of phytoplankton were the Changjiang River estuary water, freshwater, and warm water from outsea.

  2. Identification of erosional and inundation hazard zones in Ken-Betwa river linking area, India, using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Singh, Chander Kumar; Shashtri, Satayanarayan; Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2011-11-01

    Ken-Betwa river link is one of the pilot projects of the Inter Linking of Rivers program of Government of India in Bundelkhand Region. It will connect the Ken and Betwa rivers through a system of dams, reservoirs, and canals to provide storage for excess rainfall during the monsoon season and avoid floods. The main objective of this study is to identify erosional and inundation prone zones of Ken-Betwa river linking site in India using remote sensing and geographic information system tools. In this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper data of year 2005, digital elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, and other ancillary data were analyzed to create various thematic maps viz. geomorphology, land use/land cover, NDVI, geology, soil, drainage density, elevation, slope, and rainfall. The integrated thematic maps were used for hazard zonation. This is based on categorizing the different hydrological and geomorphological processes influencing the inundation and erosion intensity. Result shows that the southern part of the study area which lies in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh, India, is more vulnerable than the other areas.

  3. Water budget estimates for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River Basin of north-central Nevada. The water budgets include estimates of average annual precipitation, runoff, water yield, ground-water recharge and subsurface flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) determined from recently developed or revised methods. Ground-water pumping is not included in the budget estimates. The estimated budgets represent average annual volumes over a 30-year reference period ( 1961-90) and are compared to water budgets developed more than 30 years ago. Annual inflow to the middle Humboldt River basin is about 5 million acre-feet. An estimated 4.6 million is from precipitation in the 14 hydrographic areas and about 350,000 acre-feet is inflow from the Humboldt River. Annual outflow is about 5.1 million acre-feet, of which ET accounts for 4.8 million acre-feet, and outflow of the Humboldt River is about 300,000 acre-feet. Average annual precipitation in the hydrographic areas for 1961-90 ranged from 105 to 128 percent of that for the 1912-63 period. The annual volume ofET in the 14 areas was 102 to almost 134 percent of that previously estimated, although the percentage of annual precipitation lost to ET is similar. About 15 percent of the annual precipitation in mountain-block areas becomes water yield (either ground water or runoff) as compared to previous estimates of 11 percent. On the basis of mass-balance calculations, ground-water recharge on average is about 145 percent of previous estimates.

  4. Low-flow characteristics of the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 1932-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Erich; Lorenz, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council, conducted a study to characterize regional low flows during 1932?2007 in the Mississippi River upstream from the Twin Cities metropolitan area in Minnesota and to describe the low-flow profile of the Mississippi River between the confluence of the Crow River and St. Anthony Falls. Probabilities of extremely low flow were estimated for the streamflow-gaging station (Mississippi River near Anoka) and the coincidence of low-flow periods, defined as the extended periods (at least 7 days) when all the daily flows were less than the 10th percentile of daily mean flows for the entire period of record, at four selected streamflow-gaging stations located upstream. The likelihood of extremely low flows was estimated by a superposition method for the Mississippi River near Anoka that created 5,776 synthetic hydrographs resulting in a minimum synthetic low flow of 398 cubic feet per second at a probability of occurrence of 0.0002 per year. Low-flow conditions at the Mississippi River above Anoka were associated with low-flow conditions at two or fewer of four upstream streamflow-gaging stations 42 percent of the time, indicating that sufficient water is available within the basin for many low flows and the occurrence of extremely low-flows is small. However, summer low-flow conditions at the Mississippi River above Anoka were almost always associated with low-stage elevations in three or more of the six upper basin reservoirs. A low-flow profile of the Mississippi River between the confluence of the Crow River and St. Anthony Falls was completed using a real-time kinematic global positioning system, and the water-surface profile was mapped during October 8?9, 2008, and annotated with local landmarks. This was done so that water-use planners could relate free-board elevations of selected water utility structures to the lowest flow conditions during 2008.

  5. Immobilization of U(VI) from oxic groundwater by Hanford 300 Area sediments and effects of Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bulbul; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M; Fredrickson, Jim K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-09-01

    Regions within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300 A) site experience periodic hydrologic influences from the nearby Columbia River as a result of changing river stage, which causes changes in groundwater elevation, flow direction and water chemistry. An important question is the extent to which the mixing of Columbia River water and groundwater impacts the speciation and mobility of uranium (U). In this study, we designed experiments to mimic interactions among U, oxic groundwater or Columbia River water, and 300 A sediments in the subsurface environment of Hanford 300 A. The goals were to investigate mechanisms of: 1) U immobilization in 300 A sediments under bulk oxic conditions and 2) U remobilization from U-immobilized 300 A sediments exposed to oxic Columbia River water. Initially, 300 A sediments in column reactors were fed with U(VI)-containing oxic 1) synthetic groundwater (SGW), 2) organic-amended SGW (OA-SGW), and 3) de-ionized (DI) water to investigate U immobilization processes. After that, the sediments were exposed to oxic Columbia River water for U remobilization studies. The results reveal that U was immobilized by 300 A sediments predominantly through reduction (80-85%) when the column reactor was fed with oxic OA-SGW. However, U was immobilized by 300 A sediments through adsorption (100%) when the column reactors were fed with oxic SGW or DI water. The reduced U in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW was relatively resistant to remobilization by oxic Columbia River water. Oxic Columbia River water resulted in U remobilization (∼7%) through desorption, and most of the U that remained in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW (∼93%) was in the form of uraninite nanoparticles. These results reveal that: 1) the reductive immobilization of U through OA-SGW stimulation of indigenous 300 A sediment microorganisms may be viable in the relatively oxic Hanford 300 A subsurface environments and 2) with the intrusion of Columbia River water

  6. Immobilization of U(VI) from Oxic Groundwater by Hanford 300 Area Sediments and Effects of Columbia River Water

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Cao, Bin; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-09-23

    Regions within the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300 A) site experience periodic hydrologic influences from the nearby Columbia River as a result of changing river stage, which causes changes in groundwater elevation, flow direction and water chemistry. An important question is the extent to which the mixing of Columbia River water and groundwater impacts the speciation and mobility of uranium (U). In this study, we designed experiments to mimic interactions among U, oxic groundwater or Columbia River water, and 300 A sediments in the subsurface environment of Hanford 300 A. The goals were to investigate mechanisms of: 1) U immobilization in 300 A sediments under bulk oxic conditions and 2) U remobilization from U-immobilized 300 A sediments exposed to oxic Columbia River water. Initially, 300 A sediments in column reactors were fed with U(VI)-containing oxic 1) synthetic groundwater (SGW), 2) organic-amended SGW (OA-SGW), and 3) de-ionized (DI) water to investigate U immobilization processes. After that, the sediments were exposed to oxic Columbia River water for U remobilization studies. The results reveal that U was immobilized by 300 A sediments predominantly through reduction (80-85%) when the column reactor was fed with oxic OA-SGW. However, U was immobilized by 300 A sediments through adsorption (100%) when the column reactors were fed with oxic SGW or DI water. The reduced U in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW was relatively resistant to remobilization by oxic Columbia River water. Oxic Columbia River water resulted in U remobilization (~7%) through desorption, and most of the U that remained in the 300 A sediments fed with OA-SGW (~93%) was in the form of uraninite nanoparticles. These results reveal that: 1) the reductive immobilization of U through OA-SGW stimulation of indigenous 300 A sediment microorganisms may be viable in the relatively oxic Hanford 300 A subsurface environments and 2) with the intrusion of Columbia River water

  7. Processed 1938 aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  9. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  10. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  11. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  12. National Park Service vegetation inventory program: Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hop, Kevin D.; Drake, Jim; Strassman, Andrew C.; Hoy, Erin E.; Jakusz, Joseph; Menard, Shannon; Dieck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (MISS) vegetation mapping project is an initiative of the National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Inventory Program (VIP) to classify and map vegetation types of MISS. (Note: “MISS” is also referred to as “park” throughout this report.) The goals of the project are to adequately describe and map vegetation types of the park and to provide the NPS Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program, resource managers, and biological researchers with useful baseline vegetation information.The MISS vegetation mapping project was officially started in spring 2012, with a scoping meeting wherein partners discussed project objectives, goals, and methods. Major collaborators at this meeting included staff from the NPS MISS, the NPS Great Lakes Network (GLKN), NatureServe, and the USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was also in attendance. Common to all NPS VIP projects, the three main components of the MISS vegetation mapping project are as follows: (1) vegetation classification, (2) vegetation mapping, and (3) map accuracy assessment (AA). In this report, each of these fundamental components is discussed in detail.With the completion of the MISS vegetation mapping project, all nine park units within the NPS GLKN have received vegetation classification and mapping products from the NPS and USGS vegetation programs. Voyageurs National Park and Isle Royale National Park were completed during 1996–2001 (as program pilot projects) and another six park units were completed during 2004–11, including the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, Grand Portage National Monument, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore.

  13. WRF EMS model High resolution simulations over river-urban area in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tota, J.; Lima, K.; Silva, R. D.; Kuhn, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing of population and size of cities in Brazil is more and more common ultimate, even in remote location like Amazon Rainforest region, e.g. Manaus, Belem. Predicting the weather and climate in large cities is remains a challenge because there are diverse processes and factors that determine or influence atmospheric condition at various time and space scales. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of connection between local climate (influenced by urbanization) and those due to larger scales. The weather and microclimate over Santarém city in Amazonia is poor studied and monitored. The application of meteorological models, which representing the diverse atmospheric processes at the various scales, is essential, as e.g. WRF EMS model. The addition of spatial scale data is needed for validation of these models over cities. In this paper, we describe the application of the WRF EMS model (Weather Research and Forecasting) to represent the urban-scale atmospheric conditions (1km resolution) over the Santarem city. The model was validated against observed 2 meter air temperature obtained from several points and spatial rainfall over urbanized zones of Santarém. Thermal conditions and gradients of temperature over forested and non-forested zones were clear represented by the model. The WRF model reproduces well rainfall patterns around the urban area and Tapajós river-city contacts. The main results for this model test was the Improvements in the representation of the types of land cover-Land change from the mosaics structures on the city domain, what permit all errors/bias are reduced.

  14. Characteristics of change in water quality along reclaimed water intake area of the Chaobai River in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; He, Jiangtao; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Lie; Wang, Guangcai

    2016-12-01

    To reveal the basic characteristics and controlling factors of water quality change in the project Wenyu to Chaobai reclaimed water diversion, the water quality in the study area was monitored for one year at seven monitoring sites. Inverse geochemical models of the statistical groups were developed using PHREEQC to elucidate the hydrochemistry characteristics of reclaimed water and the factors. The monitoring results indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus contents were significantly reduced along the river mainly caused by seasonal and location variation. The pH ranged from 7.44 to 9.81. Photosynthesis of algae and denitrification in anaerobic microenvironment ultimately led to a sudden pH increase after the Jian River and the Chaobai River confluence. Mg(2+) and SO4(2-) levels dropped obviously in the summer and increased in winter seasons after intersection. Na(+) and Cl(-) are relatively stable, and marked drop in the concentration only after the two rivers meet. And there is a decrease of Ca(2+) and HCO3(-) and increase in CO3(2)(-) during monitoring period. As a whole, the primary ions and nutrient components, including nitrogen and phosphorus, had high levels in winter. Algae's photosynthesis and respiration were observed to have an impact on the river water quality; there was precipitation-dissolution of minerals and denitrification from upstream to downstream. Inverse geochemical PHREEQC modeling confirmed that there was precipitation of aragonite or calcite, and gypsum or anhydrite in summer, and dissolution in winter; as well as precipitation of dolomite in winter, and cationic exchange and denitrification along the river.

  15. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

  16. Sulfate migration in a river affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mining area, South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqin; Lu, Guining; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chengfang; Wu, Jingxiong; Huang, Weilin; Yee, Nathan; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate, a major component of acid mine drainage (AMD), its migration in an AMD-affected river which located at the Dabaoshan mine area of South China was investigated to pursue the remediation strategy. The existing factors of relatively low pH values of 2.8-3.9, high concentrations of SO4(2-) (∼1940 mg L(-1)) and Fe(3+) (∼112 mg L(-1)) facilitated the precipitation of schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4·nH2O) in the upstream river. Geochemical model calculations implied the river waters were supersaturated, creating the potential for precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. These minerals evolved from schwertmannite to goethite with the increasing pH from 2.8 to 5.8 along the river. The concentration of heavy metals in river waters was great reduced as a result of precipitation effects. The large size of the exchangeable sulfate pool suggested that the sediments had a strong capacity to bind SO4(2-). The XRD results indicated that schwertmannite was the predominant form of sulfate-bearing mineral phases, which was likely to act as a major sulfate sink by incorporating water-borne sulfate into its internal structure and adsorbing it onto its surface. The small size of reduced sulfur pools and strong oxidative status in the surface sediments further showed that SO4(2-) shifting from water to sediment in form of sulfate reduction was not activated. In short, precipitation of sulfate-rich iron oxyhydroxides and subsequent SO4(2-) adsorption on these minerals as well as water dilution contributed to the attenuation of SO4(2-) along the river waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River.

    PubMed

    Sanaiotti, T M; Junqueira, T G; Palhares, V; Aguiar-Silva, F H; Henriques, L M P; Oliveira, G; Guimarães, V Y; Castro, V; Mota, D; Trombin, D F; Villar, D N A; Lara, K M; Fernandes, D; Castilho, L; Yosheno, E; Alencar, R M; Cesca, L; Dantas, S M; Laranjeiras, T O; Mathias, P C; Mendonça, C V

    2015-08-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method) were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP) be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  18. Tidal river sediments in the Washington, D.C. area. 111 Biological effects associated with sediment contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Schlekat, C.E.; McGee, B.L.; Boward, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Sediment toxicity and benthic marcroinvertebrate community structure were measured as one component of a study conceived to determine the distribution and effect of sediment contamination in tidal freshwater portions of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers in the Washington, D.C., area. Samples were collected at 15 sites. Analyses included a partial life cycle (28 d) whole sediment test using the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Talitridae) and an assessment of benthic community structure. Survival and growth (as estimated by amphipod length) were experimental endpoints for the toxicity test. Significant mortality was observed in 5 to 10 sites in the lower Anacostia River basin and at the main channel Potomac River site. Sublethal toxicity, as measured by inhibition of amphipod growth, was not observed. Toxicity test results were in general agreement with synoptically measured sediment contaminant concentrations. Porewater total ammonia (NH{sub 3} + NH{sub 4}{sup +}) appears to be responsible for the toxicity of sediments from the Potomac River, while correlation analysis and simultaneously extracted metals: acid volatile sulfide (SEM:AVA) results suggest that the toxicity associated with Anacostia River sediments was due to organic compounds. Twenty-eight macroinvertebrate taxa were identified among all sites, with richness varying from 5 to 17 taxa per site. Groups of benthic assemblages identified by group-average cluster analysis exhibited variable agreement with sediment chemical and sediment toxicity results. Integration of toxicological, chemical, and ecological components suggests that adverse environmental effects manifest in lower Anacostia River benthos result from chemical contamination of sediment. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Review of ''Draft - Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project'', January 1986. [Rolesville pluton and Elk River complex

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R.

    1986-03-13

    The Draft-Area Recommendation Report identifies portions of crystalline rock bodies as proposed potentially acceptable sites for consideration as repositories of high-level radioactive waste. The review is in three parts. Part I is a general summary of the main comments, written in semi-technical language and without detailed documentation or references. It includes summaries of comments on the two preliminary candidate areas for a nuclear-waste repository in North Carolina (Rolesville pluton and Elk River complex) and on the rest of the report. The following two parts are written in the technical language of a geological report and include both documentation and references for each of the points discussed: Part II - Rolesville pluton, Site SE-4; Part III - Elk River complex, Site SE-5.

  20. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods.

  1. Spatio-temporal distribution and environmental risk of sedimentary heavy metals in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Jiandong; Zhang, Xilin; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Jinqing

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-five surface sediments and one sediment core sample were collected from the study area. Grain size, major elements, and heavy metals were determined. The content of fine-grained sediments (silt and clay), as well as the concentrations of major elements and heavy metals, showed seaward decreasing trends, with high content in the coastal areas of the East China Sea (ECS) and south west of Jeju Island. Low enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values were found, indicating that the ecological risk of heavy metals was low. The EF values obtained from the high-resolution sedimentary records of heavy metals in the Yangtze River Estuary could be divided into Stage 1 (1950s to the late 1970s) and Stage 2 (late 1970s to the current sampling day), which coincided with economic development of the Yangtze River Basin, implementation of environmental protection, and impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

  2. Practicality of marine protected areas - Can there be solutions for the River Indus delta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwai, Samina; Fanning, Paul; Ahmed, Waqar; Tabrez, Mohsin; Zhang, Jing; Khan, Muhammad Wasim

    2016-12-01

    The River Indus delta is the most prominent feature on the Pakistan coast. Owing to its prominence, mangrove ecosystem, historical, ecological and economic significance it is also a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA). Currently there are no designated MPAs in Pakistan. This paper presents findings of the Fishery Resource Appraisal Project of Pakistan (FRAPP) a fishery stock assessment carried out for the pelagic and demersal fishery resource of Pakistan from 2009 to 2015 and the Creek Survey Program (CSP) which was part of FRAPP. And discusses how the delta suffers from physical stress. The observations from FRAPP indicates deterioration in the mangrove ecosystem, that are evident in the form of loss of biodiversity and biological productivity. The 600 observations from 10 major creeks showed that trawl catches were a mix of generally small size fish and shrimp. Catches averaged less than 1 kg per tow in all the creeks sampled. Catch weights were somewhat higher in Isaro, WadiKhuddi, Paitiani, Dabbo, Richaal Creeks all of which were near mangrove areas and open sea. The most frequently occurring species of shrimps caught in the trawls belonged to 7 major taxa. The Khobar Creek and Upper Wari Creek are notable for the high rates of occurrence of every group except the Caridea. They are also the only two creeks where the freshwater family Paleomonidae is common. The size composition of the important penaeid family of shrimps in all study areas combined suggests that the smallest shrimps (0.5-1.5 cm carapace length CL) enter the creeks in February/March and adults (5-6 cm CL) move out again 6-12 months later. Four species of Penaeus (monodon, japonicus, semisulcatus, merguiensis), two species of Metapenaeus (monoceros, affinis), Parapeneoposis stylifera and Solenosera sp. were caught, all in low abundance, less than 0.5 Kg tow-1. The shrimp catches in the area off the Sindh coast, the catches averaged 4.30 ± 13.40 kg h-1 on the inner shelf (20-50 m) and 1.7 ± 6

  3. Assessment of river water quality during snowmelt and base flow periods in two catchment areas with different land use.

    PubMed

    Woli, Krishna Prasad; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Kuramochi, Kanta; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2008-02-01

    River water quality was evaluated with respect to eutrophication and land use during spring snowmelt and summer base flow periods in Abashiri (mixed cropland-livestock farming) and Okoppe (grassland-based dairy cattle farming), eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Water from rivers and tributaries was sampled during snowmelt and summer base flow periods in 2005, and river flow was measured. Total N (TN), NO(3)-N, and Si concentrations were determined using standard methods. Total catchment and upland areas for each sampling site were determined with ArcGIS hydrology modeling software and 1:25,000-scale digital topographic maps. Specific discharge was significantly higher during snowmelt than during base flow. In both areas, TN concentrations increased, whereas Si concentrations decreased, with increased specific discharge, and were significantly higher during snowmelt. The Si:TN mole ratio decreased to below or close to the threshold value for eutrophication (2.7) in one-third of sites during snowmelt. River NO(3)-N concentrations during base flow were significantly and positively correlated with the proportion of upland fields in the catchment in both the Abashiri (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) and Okoppe (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) areas. However, the regression slope, defined as the impact factor (IF) of water quality, was much higher in Abashiri (0.025) than in Okoppe (0.0094). The correlations were also significantly positive during snowmelt in both areas, but IF was four to eight times higher during snowmelt than during base flow. Higher discharge of N from upland fields and grasslands during snowmelt and the resulting eutrophication in estuaries suggest that nutrient discharge during snowmelt should be taken into account when assessing and monitoring the annual loss of nutrients from agricultural fields.

  4. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  5. Pesticides in wells in agricultural and urban areas of the Hudson River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Ryan, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two

  6. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was

  7. Extreme value analysis in typhoon prone areas: case study of the Pearl River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerman, E.; de Graaff, R.; Rego, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme events such as tropical storms and typhoons are often the determining factor for the extreme values of wind, wave and water level conditions. The storm track, its propagation speed, the air pressure drop and the wind speed intensity of a typhoon determine the maximum occurring wave heights, water levels and currents. The stochastic behaviour of typhoons and tropical storms, however, lead to uncertainty in the extreme value analysis, because a slight variation of the typhoon track, propagation speed or wind speed intensity can have a significant impact on these local extreme hydrodynamic conditions. To determine the significance of the stochastic behaviour of typhoons a model assessment is performed comparing standard extreme value analysis values of measured water levels (e.g. values of 1/10, 1/50, and 1/100 year return periods) against model results of artificial typhoons. In the model assessment, making use of Delft3D, various artificial typhoons are modelled in which the typhoon tracks, propagation speeds and wind speed intensities are varied within realistic ranges (based on observed historical typhoons). The study focusses on the Pearl River estuary (China) where typically about 5 to 10 tropical storms or typhoons are observed every year. Once every few years an extreme typhoon hits the area. By quantifying the potential impact of artificial typhoons the uncertainty in the extreme water level values in such a typhoon prone area are better assessed. The model is validated simulating several historic typhoons. Subsequently the typhoons tracks, their propagation speeds and wind speed intensities are varied. The extreme water level values (extreme surge height + mean high water value) that follow from the artificial typhoon modelling are compared against values from a standard extreme value analysis, making use of the central limit theorem for the extreme values in a sample. A Peaks over Threshold approach is applied and the extremes are fitted and

  8. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  9. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  10. 100 Area and 300 Area Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Spring 2006 Data Compilation

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Queen; S. G. Weiss

    2006-11-20

    The purpose of this report is to describe the sampling approaches, modifications made to the 100 Area and 300 Area component of the RCBRA Sampling and Analysis Plan, summarize validation efforts, and provide sample identification numbers.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen emitted in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires to coastal waters of de la Plata River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    The Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) is the third mega-city in Latin America. Atmospheric N emitted in the area deposits to coastal waters of de la Plata River. This study describes the parameterizations included in DAUMOD-RD (v.3) model to evaluate concentrations of nitrogen compounds (nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitric acid and nitrate aerosol) and their total (dry and wet) deposition to a water surface. This model is applied to area sources and CALPUFF model to point sources of NO x in the MABA. The models are run for 3 years of hourly meteorological data, with a spatial resolution of 1 km 2. Mean annual deposition is 69, 728 kg-N year -1 over 2 339 km 2 of river. Dry deposition contributions of N-NO 2, N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- to this value are 44%, 22% and 20%, respectively. Wet deposition of N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- represents 3% and 11% of total annual value, respectively. This very low contribution results from the rare occurrence of rainy hours with wind blowing from the city to the river. Monthly dry deposition flux estimated for coastal waters of MABA varies between 7 and 13 kg-N km -2 month -1. These results are comparable to values reported for other coastal zones in the world.

  12. Analysis of urban storm-runoff data and the effects on the South Platte River, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Doerfer, J.T.; Mustard, M.H.; Blakely, S.R.; Gibbs, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Denver was selected for inclusion in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Denver Regional council of governments, contains a synopsis of previous urban runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area. The report includes a description of the monitored basins, a summary of storm runoff-to-rainfall ratios and estimates of impervious retention, and constituent loads and concentrations from seven small basins. The data from six small and five tributary basins to the South Platte River are analyzed using regression analysis, resulting in two sets of regression equations to predict storm runoff volume and selected constituent loads. The regression equations may be used to estimate storm-runoff volume and constituent loads from unmonitored basins from 15 to 16,000 acres with effective impervious areas of 15 to 90 percent. The effects of urban runoff on the South Platte River in the Denver area are described in three ways. The three methods indicated that storm runoff was a significant contributor of total suspended solids, total organic carbon, total lead, and total zinc to the South Platte River. (USGS)

  13. Tidal river sediments in the Washington, D.C. area. 1. Distribution and sources of trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Velinsky, D.J.; Wade, T.L.; Schlekat, C.E.

    1994-06-01

    Thirty-three bottom sediments were collected from the Potomac and Anacostia rivers, Tidal Basin, and Washington Ship Channel in June 1991 to define the extent of trace metal contamination and to elucidate source areas of sediment contaminants. In addition, twenty-three sediment samples were collected directly in front of and within major storm and combined sewers that discharge directly to these areas. Trace metals (e.g., Cu, Crk Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) exhibited a wide range in values in the study area. Sediment concentrations of Pb ranged from 32.0{mu}g Pb g {sup -1} to 3,630 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1}, Cd from 0.24 {mu}g Cd g{sup -1} to 4.1 {mu}g Cd g{sup -1}, and Hg from 0.13 {mu}g g{sup -1} to 9.2 {mu}g Hg g{sup -1}, with generally higher concentrations in either outfall or sewer sediments compared to river bottom-sediments. In the Anacostia River measurements indicate that numerous storm and combined sewers are major sources of trace metals. Similar results were observed in both the Tidal Basin and Washington Ship Channel. Cadmium and Pb concentrations are higher in specific sewers and outfalls, whereas the distribution of other metals suggests a more diffuse source to the rivers and basins of the area. Cadmium and Pb also exhibited the greatest enrichment throughout the study area, with peak values in the Anacostia River, near the Washington Navy Yard. Enrichment factors decrease in the order: Cd>Pb>Zn>Hg>Cu>Cr. Between 70% and 96% of sediment-bound Pb and Cd was released from a N{sub 2}-purged 1N HCI leach. On average, {le}40% of total sedimentary Cu was liberated, possibly due to the partial attack of organic components of the sediment. Sediments of the tidal freshwater portion of the Potomac estuary reflect moderate to highly contaminated area with substantial enrichments of sedimentary Pb, Cd, and Zn. The sediment phase containing these metals indicates potential mobility of the sediment-bound metals during either storm events or dredging. 39 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Water-mineral relations of Quaternary deposits in the Lower Platte River drainage area in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan; Bentall, Ray

    1968-01-01

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), the degree of saturation with respect to calcite (IAP/K calcite), the pH, and the concentrations of selected constituents in solution were determined for water from 52 wells and the Platte River. Compared to the PCO2 in the atmosphere, the average PCO2 in the ground water was many times greater and that in .the river water was about twice as great. The high PCO2 in the ground water probably results from the absorption, by infiltrating precipitation, of carbon dioxide produced in the soil by respiration of plant roots ,and microorganisms. The values for IAP/K calcite for the ground water ranged from 0.141 to 1.29 and for the river water the average was 9.6. Water from each of the 10 sampled wells on the terrace plain in southeastern Saunders County was unsaturated with respect to calcite, whereas water from seven of the 42 wells on the Platte River flood plain was nearly saturated or supersaturated. Of the ,seven, two were in the Lincoln city well field where hydrologic relations indicate that a large fraction of the water yielded by the wells is induced seepage from the .river. That more of the city wells did not yield supersaturated water is surprising in view of the high IAP/K calcite values for the river water. Supersaturation of water from five of nine sampled wells downvalley from the well field probably is due to the presence of numerous limestone fragments in the Quaternary deposits in that part of the area. also surprising was the finding that the average pH of the water from the city wells was 1 unit lower than that of the river water. The presence of both dissolved iron and dissolved oxygen in the water from several of the city wells probably reflects derivation of the water from two distinct sources : ground water naturally in the aquifer and induced seepage from the river.

  15. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace metals in River Nile up- and downstream of a densely populated area.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2017-02-01

    Cairo city is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Efforts to restore fish habitat and recreational use of the river have raised concerns about its water, sediment and biota quality. This study provides a baseline data on the levels of PCBs and trace metals in River Nile along Cairo sector and implements the formulation of monitoring activities of the river's pollution status. Water, sediment and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were collected during summer season, 2013 from two sites, up- and downstream, for detection and determination of 11 PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 44, 52, 70, 101, 105, 118, 138, 152, 180 and 192) as well as six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Fe). Evidences of long- or short-term exposures to these contaminants as well as its accumulation tendency were assessed by integrating the obtained analytical results of biotic and abiotic components of this aquatic ecosystem. All calculated lifetime cancer risk values for PCBs showed unacceptable risk of cancer for human consumers at both normal and subsistence fish consumption rates. The calculated hazard index for total PCBs indicates that fish are not safe for human consumption except in site 1 at normal consumption rate. Meanwhile, trace metals do not pose unacceptable risks at both consumption rates except for Pb in site 1 at subsistence consumption rate.

  16. Comparisons of spawning areas and times for two runs of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Wilmot, R.L.; Wangaard, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982,188 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were tagged with radio transmitters to locate spawning areas in the glacial Kenai River, southcentral Alaska. Results confirmed that an early run entered the river in May and June and spawned in tributaries, and a late run entered the river from late June through August and spawned in the main stem. Spawning peaked during August in tributaries influenced by lakes, but during July in other tributaries. Lakes may have increased fall and winter temperatures of downstream waters, enabling successful reproduction for later spawning fish within these tributaries. This hypothesis assumes that hatching and emergence can be completed in a shorter time in lake-influenced waters. The time of upstream migration and spawning (mid- to late August) of the late run is unique among chinook stocks in Cook Inlet. This behavior may have developed only because two large lakes (Kenai and Skilak) directly influence the main-stem Kenai River. If run timing is genetically controlled, and if the various components of the two runs are isolated stocks that have adapted to predictable stream temperatures, there are implications for stock transplantation programs and for any activities of man that alter stream temperatures.

  17. A thermal profile method to identify potential ground-water discharge areas and preferred salmonid habitats for long river reaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Maloy, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal regime of riverine systems is a major control on aquatic ecosystems. Ground water discharge is an important abiotic driver of the aquatic ecosystem because it provides preferred thermal structure and habitat for different types of fish at different times in their life history. In large diverse river basins with an extensive riverine system, documenting the thermal regime and ground-water discharge is difficult and problematic. A method was developed to thermally profile long (5-25 kilometers) river reaches by towing in a Lagrangian framework one or two probes that measure temperature, depth, and conductivity. One probe is towed near the streambed and, if used, a second probe is towed near the surface. The probes continuously record data at 1-3-second intervals while a Global Positioning System logs spatial coordinates. The thermal profile provides valuable information about spatial and temporal variations in habitat, and, notably, indicates ground-water discharge areas. This method was developed and tested in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, in summer 2001 during low flows in an extreme drought year. The temperature profile comprehensively documents the longitudinal distribution of a river's temperature regime that cannot be captured by fixed station data. The example profile presented exhibits intra-reach diversity that reflects the many factors controlling the temperature of a parcel of water as it moves downstream. Thermal profiles provide a new perspective on riverine system temperature regimes that represent part of the aquatic habitat template for lotic community patterns.

  18. Comparison of Solid-Water Partitions of Radiocesium in River Waters in Fukushima and Chernobyl Areas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Fan, Qiaohui; Suga, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mase, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kenji; Kanivets, Vladimir V

    2017-09-29

    Adsorption of radiocesium (RCs) on particulate matters in aquatic environment is important to understand its mobility and bioavailability. We here focused on factors controlling partition of RCs on particulate matters and sediments in Kuchibuto (Fukushima) and Pripyat (Chernobyl) Rivers, though RCs level in water was much smaller than WHO guideline. Moreover, Cs speciation and organic matter-clay mineral interaction were studied: (i) extended X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the contribution of outer-sphere complex of Cs on particulate matters is larger in Chernobyl than in Fukushima and (ii) scanning transmission X-ray microscope revealed larger association of humic substances and clay minerals in Chernobyl partly due to high [Ca(2+)] in the Pripyat River. Consequently, RCs is more soluble in the Pripyat River due to weaker interaction of RCs with clay minerals caused by the inhibition effect of the adsorbed humic substances. In contrast, particulate matters and sediments in the Kuchibuto River display high adsorption affinity with lesser inhibition effect of adsorbed humic substances. This difference is possibly governed by the geology and soil type of provenances surrounding both catchments (Fukushima: weathered granite; Chernobyl: peat wetland and carbonate platform) which leads to high concentrations of organic matter and Ca(2+) in the Pripyat River.

  19. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abno...

  20. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abno...