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  1. ASA grade and Charlson Comorbidity Index of spinal surgery patients: correlation with complications and societal costs.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Robert G; Stephen, James H; Vernick, Coleen; Campbell, Peter G; Yadla, Sanjay; Ghobrial, George M; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Ratliff, John K

    2014-01-01

    The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System (ASA grade) are useful for predicting morbidity and mortality for a variety of disease processes. To evaluate CCI and ASA grade as predictors of complications after spinal surgery and examine the correlation between these comorbidity indices and the cost of care. Prospective observational study. All patients undergoing any spine surgery at a single academic tertiary center over a 6-month period. Direct health-care costs estimated from diagnosis related group and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. Demographic data, including all patient comorbidities, procedural data, and all complications, occurring within 30 days of the index procedure were prospectively recorded. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and ASA grades determined from the operative record. Diagnosis related group and CPT codes were captured for each patient. Direct costs were estimated from a societal perspective using Medicare rates of reimbursement. A multivariable analysis was performed to assess the association of the CCI and ASA grade to the rate of complication and direct health-care costs. Two hundred twenty-six cases were analyzed. The average CCI score for the patient cohort was 0.92, and the average ASA grade was 2.65. The CCI and ASA grade were significantly correlated, with Spearman ρ of 0.458 (p<.001). Both CCI and ASA grade were associated with increasing body mass index (p<.01) and increasing patient age (p<.0001). Increasing CCI was associated with an increasing likelihood of occurrence of any complication (p=.0093) and of minor complications (p=.0032). Increasing ASA grade was significantly associated with an increasing likelihood of occurrence of a major complication (p=.0035). Increasing ASA grade showed a significant association with

  2. Influence of ASA score and Charlson Comorbidity Index on the surgical site infection rates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mansoor; Rooh-ul-Muqim; Zarin, Mohammad; Khalil, Jawad; Salman, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    To compare the frequencies of surgical site infections (SSI) in ASA class-I (American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I) with ASA class II-III and CCI-0 (Charlson Co-morbidity Index-0) with CCI 1-6 in clean (C) and clean contaminated (CC) surgeries. Analytical study. This study was conducted in a General Surgical Unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from December 2008 to April 2009. A total of 310 clean and clean contaminated general surgical interventions with pre-operative ASA score of I-III, were included in the study, excluding anal and cystoscopic procedures. On the basis of past medical record, patients were grouped into ASA-I (patients without any co-morbidity) and ASA II-III (patients with co-morbidities) on the basis of their ASA score pre-operatively. In the same way patients were divided into CCI-0 (patients without co-morbidities) and CC 1-6 (patients with co-morbidities) according to CCI score. All the patients were operated in the same environment by the same set of surgeons. Postoperatively the surgical wounds were observed for SSI by using ASEPSIS daily scoring system for one month prospectively. SSI rates in ASA-I was compared with SSI rates in ASA II-III. Similar comparison of SSI rates was performed in CCI-0 and CCI 1-6. Data was tested by using the Fisher's exact test with confidence interval of 95%. The overall SSI rate was 6.1% (n=19) with 4.23% (n=5) in clean cases (C) and 7.29% (n=14) in clean contaminated cases (CC). There were significantly higher surgical site infection rates among patients in ASA II-III than those with ASA-I in clean contaminated surgeries (p=0.003). There were also significantly higher surgical site infection rates among patients with CCI score 1-6 than those with CCI-0 in clean (p=0.024) and clean contaminated (p=0.002). American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) has strong influence on SSI rates in clean and clean contaminated cases. Patients' with co-morbidities

  3. Charlson Comorbidity Index, inappropriate medication use and cognitive impairment : Bermuda Triangle.

    PubMed

    Silay, Kamile; Yalcin, Ahmet; Akinci, Sema; Gursoy, Fatma Gul; Sener Dede, Didem

    2017-09-01

    The aim is to evaluate the association between the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), polypharmacy, inappropriate medication use and cognitive impairment in long-term care facility patients. A cross-sectional study including 105 long-term care facility residents was performed. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used. Inappropriate drug use (IDU) was defined according to the STOPP (Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions) criteria. Univariate analysis to identify variables associated with patient outcome related with cognitive impairment was investigated with χ(2), Pearson correlation, Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate. For the multivariate analysis, the possible factors identified with univariate analysis were further entered into logistic regression analysis. A significant difference was found between gender, CCI and cognitive impairment (p = 0.038, p = 0.01). While every one point increment in the CCI increases the risk of cognitive impairment 3.1 fold (95% CI = 1.8-5.4, p < 0.001), hypertension increases the risk 12 fold (95% CI = 2.5-67.8, p = 0.002). While the correlation between Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score and polypharmacy is significant (p = 0.015), the correlation between MMSE and IDU was insignificant (p = 0.739). The association of urogenital system drugs and dementia was significant (p = 0.044). Comorbidities, especially hypertension and old age, are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Polypharmacy correlates with MMSE and is considered a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Inappropriate medication use is high among long-term care facility residents. More studies on large cohorts are needed regarding optimal drug prescription and detection of specific drugs that may have an impact on cognitive performance.

  4. Predicting mortality from change-over-time in the Charlson Comorbidity Index

    PubMed Central

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Sperrin, Matthew; Peek, Niels; Mallen, Christian; Urban, Philip; Buchan, Iain E.; Mamas, Mamas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Multimorbidity is common among older people and presents a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Metrics of multimorbidity are, however, crude: focusing on measuring comorbid conditions at single time-points rather than reflecting the longitudinal and additive nature of chronic conditions. In this paper, we explore longitudinal comorbidity metrics and their value in predicting mortality. Using linked primary and secondary care data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study on adults in Salford, UK from 2005 to 2014 (n = 287,459). We measured multimorbidity with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and quantified its changes in various time windows. We used survival models to assess the relationship between CCI changes and mortality, controlling for gender, age, baseline CCI, and time-dependent CCI. Goodness-of-fit was assessed with the Akaike Information Criterion and discrimination with the c-statistic. Overall, 15.9% patients experienced a change in CCI after 10 years, with a mortality rate of 19.8%. The model that included gender and time-dependent age, CCI, and CCI change across consecutive time windows had the best fit to the data but equivalent discrimination to the other time-dependent models. The absolute CCI score gave a constant hazard ratio (HR) of around 1.3 per unit increase, while CCI change afforded greater prognostic impact, particularly when it occurred in shorter time windows (maximum HR value for the 3-month time window, with 1.63 and 95% confidence interval 1.59–1.66). Change over time in comorbidity is an important but overlooked predictor of mortality, which should be considered in research and care quality management. PMID:27787358

  5. FCG (FLIPI, Charlson comorbidity index, and histological grade) score is superior to FLIPI in advanced follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, Biljana; Jelicic, Jelena; Andjelic, Bosko; Antic, Darko; Markovic, Olivera; Petkovic, Ivan; Jovanovic, Maja Perunicic; Trajkovic, Goran; Bila, Jelena; Djurasinovic, Vladislava; Sretenovic, Aleksandra; Vukovic, Vojin; Smiljanic, Mihailo; Balint, Milena Todorovic

    2016-12-01

    The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) is widely used in the identification of risk groups among follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of FLIPI combined with the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and histological grade of lymphoma. 224 newly diagnosed FL patients (median age 56 years) treated with immunochemotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Low FLIPI had 21.0 % of patients, intermediate 28.1 % and high 46.9 %. 50.9 % of patients had no comorbidities. Only 7.1 % of patients had a high CCI score (≥2), while 25.9 % of patients were histological grade 3. Parameters that influenced overall survival were evaluated using Cox regression analysis, in which CCI, FLIPI and histological grade (p < 0.05) retained prognostic significance. By combining these parameters, we have developed the FCG score, which incorporates FLIPI, CCI, and histological grade. This score defines three risk categories (low: 41.5 %; intermediate: 37.5 %; high: 13.4 %), associated with significantly different survival (p < 0.0001); this consequently improves discriminative power by 9.1 % compared to FLIPI. FCG score represents a possible new prognostic index, highlighting the role of the patient's clinical state and the histological characteristics of disease, as indicated by comorbidity index and histological grade of lymphoma.

  6. Use of the Charlson Combined Comorbidity Index To Predict Postradiotherapy Quality of Life for Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Levitt, Seymour; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sten; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact of pretreatment comorbidity on late health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after patients have undergone combined radiotherapy for prostate cancer, including high-dose rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire survey of 158 patients 5 years or more after completion of therapy were used from consecutively accrued subjects treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution, with no signs of disease at the time of questionnaire completion. HRQoL scores were compared with the Charlson combined comorbidity index (CCI), using analysis of covariance and multivariate regression models together with pretreatment factors including tumor stage, tumor grade, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, neoadjuvant hormonal treatment, diabetes status, cardiovascular status, and age and Charlson score as separate variables or the composite CCI. Results: An inverse correlation between the two HRQoL domains, long-term global health (QL) and physical function (PF) scores, and the CCI score was observed, indicating an impact of comorbidity in these function areas. Selected pretreatment factors poorly explained the variation in functional HRQoL in the multivariate models; however, a statistically significant impact was found for the CCI (with QL and PF scores) and the presence of diabetes (with QL and emotional function). Cognitive function and social function were not statistically significantly predicted by any of the pretreatment factors. Conclusions: The CCI proved to be valid in this context, but it seems useful mainly in predicting long-term QL and PF scores. Of the other variables investigated, diabetes had more impact than cardiovascular morbidity on HRQoL outcomes in prostate cancer.

  7. Validation of a one-page patient-reported Charlson comorbidity index questionnaire for upper aerodigestive tract cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Habbous, Steven; Chu, Karen P; Harland, Luke T G; La Delfa, Anthony; Fadhel, Ehab; Sun, Bin; Xu, Wei; Wong, Amy; Howell, Doris; Ringash, Jolie; Waldron, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Goldstein, David; Huang, Shao-Hui; Liu, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Cancer patients have a wide range of comorbidities that are important confounders for biomarker and clinical studies of prognosis and outcome. Comorbidities can be captured using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) through abstraction of medical records, but patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires have also been used. The objective was to validate the PRO-CCI in a head and neck cancer (HNC) population, and to assess its level of agreement with the standard (std-CCI) method of chart review. A one-page PRO-CCI was compared with the std-CCI obtained through independent abstraction in 882 HNC patients (2007-2010). Kappa statistics and associated measures (p(pos) and p(neg)) were used to assess agreement. Discrepancy for each comorbid illness was evaluated. Proportional hazard models compared the association of std-CCI and PRO-CCI with overall survival (OS). Adjustments were made and a modified PRO-CCI was re-evaluated in a new cohort of upper aerodigestive tract cancers patient. PRO-CCI was higher than the std-CCI (p < 0.0001). After adjustment, having at least two comorbidities according to either the std-CCI [HR 1.97 (1.38-2.80)] or the PRO-CCI [HR 1.62 (1.18-2.24)] was prognostic. Of the most prevalent comorbidities, agreement was high for most of the CCI elements (kappa 0.76-0.93), but poorest agreement for connective tissue disease (kappa = 0.29, p(pos) = 43%, p(neg) = 84%) and COPD (kappa = 0.48, p(pos) = 53%, p(neg) = 95%). When the connective tissue disease question was modified, agreement of this item improved (kappa = 0.47, p(pos) = 50%). PRO-CCI can be an easy and effective tool in prognostic and outcomes research in HNC patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortality Prediction in a Vertebral Compression Fracture Population: the ASA Physical Status Score versus the Charlson Comorbidity Index.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Elizabeth A Demers; Cheney, Robert; Lavelle, William F

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality scores are useful to control for medical comorbidities in study populations where either effects of an illness or benefits of a treatment are examined. Our study examined if a direct relationship existed between the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA) score and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) in an osteoporosis population where patients had sustained a vertebral compression fracture. A retrospective chart review of patients with osteoporotic compression fractures treated by the same orthopedic surgeon between June 2000 and June 2004 was performed. The primary endpoint was death by the close of the study period (September 2006). A board certified Anesthesiologist blindly assigned all of the ASA scores as well as the Charlson Scores independently in a blinded manner. All patients were assumed to be undergoing surgery as they were assigned. A statistical relationship was examined between ASA and CCI scores through a cross table analysis with chi-squared testing as both scoring systems were considered categorical. A Pearson correlation was completed to examine the quality of a linear relationship between the categorical variable ASA compared to the continuous variable Charlson. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Ninety patients elected conservative therapy with oral analgesics and an orthosis, while 94 patients elected for kyphoplasty. The CCI by log rank testing was not significant (p= 0.2027) for the surgery population; however, the test resulted in a highly significant value (p = 0.0161) in non-operative population. The ASA Score was correlated with significance to mortality (p= 0.0150) for the surgery population, while the test was not significant (p = 0.1439) in non-operative population. Treating both ASA and CCI scores as categorical variables, a relationship between them was examined and found to be highly significant (p= 0.000001) meaning patients with low ASA scores were likely to have low CCI

  9. Accuracy of the Charlson Index Comorbidities Derived from a Hospital Electronic Database in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Adel; Alharthi, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Hospital management and researchers are increasingly using electronic databases to study utilization, effectiveness, and outcomes of healthcare provision. Although several studies have examined the accuracy of electronic databases developed for general administrative purposes, few studies have examined electronic databases created to document the care provided by individual hospitals. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of an electronic database in a major teaching hospital in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, in documenting the 17 comorbidities constituting the Charlson index as recorded in paper charts by care providers. Using the hospital electronic database, the researchers randomly selected the data for 1,019 patients admitted to the hospital and compared the data for accuracy with the corresponding paper charts. Compared with the paper charts, the hospital electronic database did not differ significantly in prevalence for 9 conditions but differed from the paper charts for 8 conditions. The kappa (K) values of agreement ranged from a high of 0.91 to a low of 0.09. Of the 17 comorbidities, the electronic database had substantial or excellent agreement for 10 comorbidities relative to paper chart data, and only one showed poor agreement. Sensitivity ranged from a high of 100.0 percent to a low of 6.0 percent. Specificity for all comorbidities was greater than 93 percent. The results suggest that the hospital electronic database reasonably agrees with patient chart data and can have a role in healthcare planning and research. The analysis conducted in this study could be performed in individual institutions to assess the accuracy of an electronic database before deciding on its utility in planning or research. PMID:23861671

  10. Correlation of ASA Grade and the Charlson Comorbidity Index With Complications in Patients After Transurethral Resection of Prostate.

    PubMed

    Guo, Runqi; Yu, Wei; Meng, Yisen; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Ben; Xiao, Yunxiang; Wu, Shiliang; Pan, Bainian

    2016-12-01

    To re-assess the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System (ASA grade) as predictive factors of complications after transurethral resection of prostate. This study retrospectively included and analyzed consecutive patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate at Peking University First Hospital between 1992 and 2013. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate the connection of the ASA and CCI grades with the incidence of complications. This paper studied 2326 cases in total. The CCI and ASA grades were significantly correlated, with a Spearman ρ of 0.245 (P <.001). No considerable differences among the patient cohorts with different CCI or ASA grades were observed in terms of day of catheter removal, surgical time, and prostate size. In addition, no considerable differences were observed in the different modified Clavien classification system scores of complications among patient cohorts with different grades of CCI. The majority of complications (86.9%) were of grades I, II, and III, whereas grade IV was less frequent (12.1%), and, after transurethral resection of the prostate, grade V was rare (1%). Males with an ASA grade ≥3 and higher CCI scores were more likely to demonstrate a higher incidence of morbidity than males with a lower grade. However, ASA grades and CCI scores were not independent predictors of complications because of the experience of the surgeon and progress in perioperative management and operative techniques. Therefore, for patients with more comorbidities and higher CCI scores or ASA grades, active surgical intervention is still suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Charlson comorbidity index derived from chart review or administrative data: agreement and prediction of mortality in intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Stavem, Knut; Hoel, Henrik; Skjaker, Stein Arve; Haagensen, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) information derived from chart review and administrative systems to assess the completeness and agreement between scores, evaluate the capacity to predict 30-day and 1-year mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and compare the predictive capacity with that of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II model. Using data from 959 patients admitted to a general ICU in a Norwegian university hospital from 2007 to 2009, we compared the CCI score derived from chart review and administrative systems. Agreement was assessed using % agreement, kappa, and weighted kappa. The capacity to predict 30-day and 1-year mortality was assessed using logistic regression, model discrimination with the c-statistic, and calibration with a goodness-of-fit statistic. The CCI was complete (n=959) when calculated from chart review, but less complete from administrative data (n=839). Agreement was good, with a weighted kappa of 0.667 (95% confidence interval: 0.596-0.714). The c-statistics for categorized CCI scores from charts and administrative data were similar in the model that included age, sex, and type of admission: 0.755 and 0.743 for 30-day mortality, respectively, and 0.783 and 0.775, respectively, for 1-year mortality. Goodness-of-fit statistics supported the model fit. The CCI scores from chart review and administrative data showed good agreement and predicted 30-day and 1-year mortality in ICU patients. CCI combined with age, sex, and type of admission predicted mortality almost as well as the physiology-based SAPS II.

  12. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  13. The predictive value of ICD-10 diagnostic coding used to assess Charlson comorbidity index conditions in the population-based Danish National Registry of Patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Charlson comorbidity index is often used to control for confounding in research based on medical databases. There are few studies of the accuracy of the codes obtained from these databases. We examined the positive predictive value (PPV) of the ICD-10 diagnostic coding in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) for the 19 Charlson conditions. Methods Among all hospitalizations in Northern Denmark between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007 with a first-listed diagnosis of a Charlson condition in the NRP, we selected 50 hospital contacts for each condition. We reviewed discharge summaries and medical records to verify the NRP diagnoses, and computed the PPV as the proportion of confirmed diagnoses. Results A total of 950 records were reviewed. The overall PPV for the 19 Charlson conditions was 98.0% (95% CI; 96.9, 98.8). The PPVs ranged from 82.0% (95% CI; 68.6%, 91.4%) for diabetes with diabetic complications to 100% (one-sided 97.5% CI; 92.9%, 100%) for congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, mild and severe liver disease, hemiplegia, renal disease, leukaemia, lymphoma, metastatic tumour, and AIDS. Conclusion The PPV of NRP coding of the Charlson conditions was consistently high. PMID:21619668

  14. An electronic application for rapidly calculating Charlson comorbidity score

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William H; Ramachandran, Ramanathan; Narayan, Samir; Jani, Ashesh B; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    Background Uncertainty regarding comorbid illness, and ability to tolerate aggressive therapy has led to minimal enrollment of elderly cancer patients into clinical trials and often substandard treatment. Increasingly, comorbid illness scales have proven useful in identifying subgroups of elderly patients who are more likely to tolerate and benefit from aggressive therapy. Unfortunately, the use of such scales has yet to be widely integrated into either clinical practice or clinical trials research. Methods This article reviews evidence for the validity of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) in oncology and provides a Microsoft Excel (MS Excel) Macro for the rapid and accurate calculation of CCI score. The interaction of comorbidity and malignant disease and the validation of the Charlson Index in oncology are discussed. Results The CCI score is based on one year mortality data from internal medicine patients admitted to an inpatient setting and is the most widely used comorbidity index in oncology. An MS Excel Macro file was constructed for calculating the CCI score using Microsoft Visual Basic. The Macro is provided for download and dissemination. The CCI has been widely used and validated throughout the oncology literature and has demonstrated utility for most major cancers. The MS Excel CCI Macro provides a rapid method for calculating CCI score with or without age adjustments. The calculator removes difficulty in score calculation as a limitation for integration of the CCI into clinical research. The simple nature of the MS Excel CCI Macro and the CCI itself makes it ideal for integration into emerging electronic medical records systems. Conclusions The increasing elderly population and concurrent increase in oncologic disease has made understanding the interaction between age and comorbid illness on life expectancy increasingly important. The MS Excel CCI Macro provides a means of increasing the use of the CCI scale in clinical research with the ultimate

  15. Age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index score as predictor of prolonged postoperative ileus in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaohua; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Guopei; Li, Yan; Liu, Hui

    2017-02-11

    Comorbidities had considerable effects on the development of postoperative ileus (POI). The primary aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) score on the risk of prolonged POI in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection. Using the electronic Hospitalization Summary Reports, we identified 11,397 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection from 2013 through 2015. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the effect of the ACCI score on the risk of prolonged POI. The ACCI score had a positive graded association with the risk of prolonged POI in both colon and rectal cancer (P for trend < 0.05). Among patients with rectal cancer, after adjusting for potential confounders, those with an ACCI score of 4-5 had a 108% higher risk of prolonged POI than those with an ACCI score of 0-1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.98), and those with an ACCI score of ≥ 6 had a 130% higher risk (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.08-4.89). Among patients with colon cancer, those with an ACCI score of ≥ 6 had a 47% greater risk of prolonged POI than those with an ACCI score of 0-1 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.02). These findings suggested that a higher ACCI score was an independent predictor of the development of prolonged POI.

  16. Predicting mortality from change-over-time in the Charlson Comorbidity Index: A retrospective cohort study in a data-intensive UK health system.

    PubMed

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Sperrin, Matthew; Peek, Niels; Mallen, Christian; Urban, Philip; Buchan, Iain E; Mamas, Mamas A

    2016-10-01

    Multimorbidity is common among older people and presents a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Metrics of multimorbidity are, however, crude: focusing on measuring comorbid conditions at single time-points rather than reflecting the longitudinal and additive nature of chronic conditions. In this paper, we explore longitudinal comorbidity metrics and their value in predicting mortality.Using linked primary and secondary care data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study on adults in Salford, UK from 2005 to 2014 (n = 287,459). We measured multimorbidity with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and quantified its changes in various time windows. We used survival models to assess the relationship between CCI changes and mortality, controlling for gender, age, baseline CCI, and time-dependent CCI. Goodness-of-fit was assessed with the Akaike Information Criterion and discrimination with the c-statistic.Overall, 15.9% patients experienced a change in CCI after 10 years, with a mortality rate of 19.8%. The model that included gender and time-dependent age, CCI, and CCI change across consecutive time windows had the best fit to the data but equivalent discrimination to the other time-dependent models. The absolute CCI score gave a constant hazard ratio (HR) of around 1.3 per unit increase, while CCI change afforded greater prognostic impact, particularly when it occurred in shorter time windows (maximum HR value for the 3-month time window, with 1.63 and 95% confidence interval 1.59-1.66).Change over time in comorbidity is an important but overlooked predictor of mortality, which should be considered in research and care quality management.

  17. A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort.

    PubMed

    Crooks, C J; West, J; Card, T R

    2015-06-05

    Hospital admission records provide snapshots of clinical histories for a subset of the population admitted to hospital. In contrast, primary care records provide continuous clinical histories for complete populations, but might lack detail about inpatient stays. Therefore, combining primary and secondary care records should improve the ability of comorbidity scores to predict survival in population-based studies, and provide better adjustment for case-mix differences when assessing mortality outcomes. Cohort study. English primary and secondary care 1 January 2005 to 1 January 2010. All patients 20 years and older registered to a primary care practice contributing to the linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink from England. The performance of the Charlson index with mortality was compared when derived from either primary or secondary care data or both. This was assessed in relation to short-term and long-term survival, age, consultation rate, and specific acute and chronic diseases. 657,264 people were followed up from 1 January 2005. Although primary care recorded more comorbidity than secondary care, the resulting C statistics for the Charlson index remained similar: 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Higher consultation rates and restricted age bands reduced the performance of the Charlson index, but the index's excellent performance persisted over longer follow-up; the C statistic was 0.87 over 1 year, and 0.85 over all 5 years of follow-up. The Charlson index derived from secondary care comorbidity had a greater effect than primary care comorbidity in reducing the association of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality. However, they had a similar effect in reducing the association of diabetes with mortality. These findings support the use of the Charlson index from linked data and show that secondary care comorbidity coding performed at least as well as that derived from primary care in predicting survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  18. Incidence of Post-Operative Sepsis and Role of Charlson Co-Morbidity Score for Predicting Postoperative Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Jalali, Mehdi; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are among mortality causes following major surgeries. The Charlson co-morbidity index consists of 19 weighted categories related to chronic health which measures the burden of co-morbidity. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative sepsis in patients underwent gynecological and gastrointestinal cancer surgeries and predictive role of Charlson index for this situation. Two hundred and twenty-two patients who underwent gynecological and gastrointestinal cancer surgeries were evaluated. Sixty-four (28.6%) patients developed SIRS postoperatively. Forty-four (19.7%) patients developed sepsis postoperatively. Mean age, duration of hospitalization and surgery, the Charlson score were significantly higher in patients who developed sepsis than other cases. Blood transfusion and Charlson score were independent predictors of sepsis occurrence. Charlson co-morbidity index is a predictive factor for developing postoperative sepsis.

  19. Discriminative ability of commonly used indices to predict adverse outcomes after poster lumbar fusion: a comparison of demographics, ASA, the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the modified Frailty Index.

    PubMed

    Ondeck, Nathaniel T; Bohl, Daniel D; Bovonratwet, Patawut; McLynn, Ryan P; Cui, Jonathan J; Shultz, Blake N; Lukasiewicz, Adam M; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2017-05-31

    As research tools, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system, the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI), and the modified Frailty Index (mFI) have been associated with complications following spine procedures. However, with respect to clinical use for various adverse outcomes, no known study has compared the predictive performance of these indices specifically following posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). This study aimed to compare the discriminative ability of ASA, mCCI, and mFI, as well as demographic factors including age, body mass index, and gender for perioperative adverse outcomes following PLF. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed. Patients undergoing elective PLF with or without interbody fusion were extracted from the 2011-2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Perioperative adverse outcome variables assessed included the occurrence of minor adverse events, severe adverse events, infectious adverse events, any adverse event, extended length of hospital stay, and discharge to higher-level care. Patient comorbidity indices and characteristics were delineated and assessed for discriminative ability in predicting perioperative adverse outcomes using an area under the curve analysis from the receiver operating characteristics curves. In total, 16,495 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. The most predictive comorbidity index was ASA and demographic factor was age. Of these two factors, age had the larger discriminative ability for three out of the six adverse outcomes and ASA was the most predictive for one out of six adverse outcomes. A combination of the most predictive demographic factor and comorbidity index resulted in improvements in discriminative ability over the individual components for five of the six outcome variables. For PLF, easily obtained patient ASA and age have overall similar or better

  20. Enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), Charlson Comorbidity Index and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors for survival of elderly patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated by immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jelicic, J; Todorovic Balint, M; Sretenovic, D Antic A; Balint, B; Perunicic Jovanovic, M; Andjelic, B; Vukovic, V; Djurasinovic, V; Bila, J; Pavlovic, M; Smiljanic, M; Mihaljevic, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) affects more commonly patients over 60 years. These patients have vast number of comorbidities which can modify survival as well as other clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic significance of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and comorbidities expressed with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A total of 182 DLBCL patients 60 years old and older were included, focusing on whole group and patients older than 70. All patients were treated with immunochemotherapy.Overall treatment response was achieved in 84.6% of patients. The NCCN-IPI was of highly prognostic value in the analyzed group (p<0.0001). Survival analysis showed that ALC>1.1x109/L, AMC≤0.59x109/L, and LMR>2.8 were associated with more favorable outcome (p=0.029, p=0.019, p=0.028, respectively). The patients with CCI≥2 had poorer outcome (p=0.008) compared to the patients with CCI 0-1. Multivariate analysis showed that among ALC, AMC, LMR, NCCN-IPI and CCI, the NCCN-IPI was the critical parameter that significantly affected survival (p<0.0001). Furthermore, comorbidities were also valuable independent factors which influenced survival (p=0.031) as well as the ALC (p=0.024). In elderly DLBCL patients, NCCN-IPI and ALC proved their prognostic validity, while poorer outcome could be expected in older patients with high CCI (≥2). Furthermore, mentioned prognostic parameters retained their prognostic value in the group of patients older than 70.

  1. Assessment of postoperative short-term and long-term mortality risk in Chinese geriatric patients for hip fracture using the Charlson comorbidity score.

    PubMed

    Lau, T W; Fang, C; Leung, F

    2016-02-01

    The clinical outcome of geriatric patients with hip fracture depends on surgical management as well as other medical factors. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between Charlson comorbidity score and in-patient, 30-day, and 1-year mortality in Chinese geriatric patients who underwent surgery for hip fracture. This was a historical cohort study conducted in a tertiary trauma referral centre in Hong Kong. From 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010, 759 operated hip fracture patients who were over 65 years were recruited. The Charlson Comorbidity Index of each patient was retrieved from their medical records. The total Charlson comorbidity score, the highest Charlson comorbidity score, and the Charlson comorbidity score were calculated. The associations between these scores and in-patient, 30-day, and 1-year mortality were examined using Mann-Whitney U test and Cox regression model. The mean in-patient, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rate was 0.8%, 2.5%, and 16.3%, respectively. The total Charlson comorbidity score was significantly associated with in-patient mortality (P=0.031). The total Charlson comorbidity score (P<0.001) and Charlson comorbidity score (P=0.010) were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. All three scores were also significantly related to 1-year mortality (P<0.001). A Cox regression model demonstrated the relationship between total Charlson comorbidity score and 30-day and 1-year mortality. This can help predict 30-day and 1-year mortality risk in geriatric patients admitted for hip fracture surgery. The Charlson comorbidity score provides a good preoperative indicator of 30-day and 1-year mortality in geriatric patients with hip fracture.

  2. Risk adjustment for older hospitalized persons: a comparison of two methods of data collection for the Charlson index.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, C; Bogardus, S T; Williams, C S; Concato, J; Towle, V R; Inouye, S K

    2001-07-01

    To compare Charlson indices based on chart data and ICD-9 data for agreement overall and on rating specific comorbid conditions, and to compare mortality risks associated with these indices. Prospective cohort study. Six general medicine wards at Yale-New Haven Hospital. 524 consecutive patients who had no clinical evidence of delirium at enrollment, admitted between November 6, 1989 and July 31, 1991, aged 70 years or older. Death within 1 year of the index hospital admission date. Scores using the chart-based data were significantly higher than those using ICD-9 data. About half of the individual conditions showed fair-to-good agreement between the two scores, whereas the other half showed poor agreement. A comparison of mortality prediction indicated that the weightings assigned to individual comorbidities differed substantially from those used in Charlson's original index. While mortality prediction of each individual index was comparable, the ICD-9 and chart indices contributed independently to mortality prediction in the presence of the other. Low agreement between Charlson scores based on the two methods of data collection and their cumulative contribution to mortality prediction suggest that these indices may include different information. Our results suggest that the original Charlson index may not provide optimal risk adjustment for elderly general medicine samples. We suggest development of an empirically-derived index of comorbid conditions and weights may be warranted for older general medical patients.

  3. Comorbidity indexes from administrative datasets: what is measured?

    PubMed

    Nadathur, Shyamala G

    2011-11-01

    It is important to factor-in the characteristics of patients that may affect treatment, outcome and resource when making clinical and administrative decisions, plans or policies. For some two and half decades there have been efforts to construct and refine instruments that endeavour to capture the concept of comorbidity. This paper focuses on such comorbidity measures that are derived from diagnoses information recorded in administrative datasets. The pros and cons of the popular weighted Charlson and Charlson-based indexes are discussed. Means to improve the comorbidity indexes are considered including the very concept and definition of comorbidity.

  4. Impact of age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity score on outcomes for patients with early-stage endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Jared R; Gayar, Omar H; Zaki, Mark; Mahan, Meredith; Buekers, Thomas; Elshaikh, Mohamed A

    2013-12-01

    To determine the impact of Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity (AAC) index score on survival outcomes for patients with early stage endometrial cancer. After IRB-approval, AAC score at time of hysterectomy was retrospectively tabulated by physician chart review for 671 patients with 2009 FIGO stage I-II endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Patients were grouped based on their AAC scores as follows: 0-1 (n=204), 2-3 (n=293) and >3 (n=174). Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test methods and univariate and multivariate modeling with Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant predictors of each survival endpoint. After a median follow-up of 85 months, 225 deaths were recorded (34 from EC and 191 from other causes) with a 7-year Overall (OS) and Disease-specific survival (DSS) of 77.6% and 94.0%, respectively. Based on AAC grouping, the 7-year OS, DSS, and Recurrence-free survival (RFS) were: 92.9%, 96.8%, and 94.9% for AAC 0-1; 81.7%, 95.3%, and 89.8% for AAC 2-3: and 56%, 88.2%, and 84.9% for AAC>3 (p<0.0001, p=0.005 and p=0.013, respectively). On multivariate analyses, higher AAC score, tumor grade, lower uterine segment involvement, and lymphovascular space invasion were significantly independent predictors for shorter OS, while for DSS and RFS, higher tumor grade and lymphovascular space invasion were significant predictors of worse outcome, but higher AAC score was not. Comorbidity score is as important as pathological features for predicting overall survival outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Higher AAC scores accurately predicted for worse OS. Comorbidity score should be considered in prospective clinical trials of endometrial carcinoma. © 2013.

  5. Co-morbidity index in rheumatoid arthritis: time to think.

    PubMed

    El Miedany, Yasser

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients are clinically complex, and the interplay of their disease activity together with the other associated conditions may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The recent advances in the disease management attracted the attention to its associated co-morbidities and highlighted the need for a tool to provide clinicians and potential payers with a clinically powerful measure of the disease burden and prognosis. Predicting outcome or co-morbidity probability has been previously implemented successfully for calculating 10-year fracture probability (FRAX) as well as for predicting 1-year patient mortality using co-morbidity data obtained (Charlson index). Developing a specific rheumatoid arthritis-independent tool able to predict morbidity, mortality, cost and hospitalization would be a step forward on the way to achieve full disease remission. The co-morbidity index should be used both at baseline as well as a continuous variable in analyses. It should be implemented regularly in the clinical assessment as a confounder of outcomes. This article will review the redefined health outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis and the concept of co-morbidity index for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It will also present a proposed co-morbidity index for rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  6. Impact of comorbidity indexes on non-relapse mortality.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, A; Porcher, R; Chien, J W; de Latour, R P; Robin, M; Ribaud, P; Rocha, V; Devergie, A; Ferry, C; Martin, P J; Socié, G

    2008-11-01

    Comorbidity indexes (CI) have been reported to predict non-relapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), hematopoietic cell transplantation CI (HCT-CI) and the pre-transplantation assessment of mortality (PAM) score). Which of these indexes best predict survival is unknown yet. We retrospectively studied 286 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. HCT-CI and PAM scores required grading according to pre-transplant pulmonary function tests (PFTs), which were lacking for some patients. We thus designed a reduced HCT-CI and an adjusted PAM, without results of PFTs. Using CCI, 25% of patients had indexes of 1 or more; median reduced HCT-CI score was 1; median adjusted PAM score was 24. The discriminative properties of the three CIs were rather low in our population. Comparison of patients and transplant characteristics between our and Seattle group's cohorts, however, revealed significant differences in more children, in more cord blood HSCT and in HSCT for Fanconi anemia in St Louis. Finally, multivariate analysis of scoring items revealed that age, matched unrelated or mismatched donor and hepatic disease were associated with NRM in our cohort. Translating use for patient's counseling or decision to proceed to transplant of these CIs will need prospective studies in a large independent cohort.

  7. A concise revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index as a valid prognostic instrument in a large cohort of 801 multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Domm, Anne-Saskia; Dold, Sandra Maria; Ihorst, Gabriele; Reinhardt, Heike; Zober, Alexander; Hieke, Stefanie; Baayen, Corine; Müller, Stefan Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Sonneveld, Pieter; Landgren, Ola; Schumacher, Martin; Wäsch, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    With growing numbers of elderly multiple myeloma patients, reliable tools to assess their vulnerability are required. The objective of the analysis herein was to develop and validate an easy to use myeloma risk score (revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index) that allows for risk prediction of overall survival and progression-free survival differences in a large patient cohort. We conducted a comprehensive comorbidity, frailty and disability evaluation in 801 consecutive myeloma patients, including comorbidity risks obtained at diagnosis. The cohort was examined within a training and validation set. Multivariate analysis determined renal, lung and Karnofsky Performance Status impairment, frailty and age as significant risks for overall survival. These were combined in a weighted revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index, allowing for the identification of fit (revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index ≤3 [n=247, 30.8%]), intermediate-fit (revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index 4–6 [n=446, 55.7%]) and frail patients (revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index >6 [n=108, 13.5%]): these subgroups, confirmed via validation analysis, showed median overall survival rates of 10.1, 4.4 and 1.2 years, respectively. The revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index was compared to other commonly used comorbidity indices (Charlson Comorbidity Index, Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index, Kaplan-Feinstein Index): if each were divided in risk groups based on 25% and 75% quartiles, highest hazard ratios, best prediction and Brier scores were achieved with the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index. The advantages of the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index include its accurate assessment of patients’ physical conditions and simple clinical applicability. We propose the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index to be tested with the “reference” International Myeloma Working Group frailty score in multicenter analyses and future clinical trials. The study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register

  8. Examining the Association Between Comorbidity Indexes and Functional Status in Hospitalized Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Resnik, Linda; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Deutsch, Anne; Tan, Alai; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicare data from acute hospitals do not contain information on functional status. This lack of information limits the ability to conduct rehabilitation-related health services research. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between 5 comorbidity indexes derived from acute care claims data and functional status assessed at admission to an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF). Comorbidity indexes included tier comorbidity, Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI), Charlson Comorbidity Index, Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, and Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Design This was a retrospective cohort study. Methods Medicare beneficiaries with stroke, lower extremity joint replacement, and lower extremity fracture discharged to an IRF in 2011 were studied (N=105,441). Data from the beneficiary summary file, Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MedPAR) file, and Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility–Patient Assessment Instrument (IRF-PAI) file were linked. Inpatient rehabilitation facility admission functional status was used as a proxy for acute hospital discharge functional status. Separate linear regression models for each impairment group were developed to assess the relationships between the comorbidity indexes and functional status. Base models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, disability, dual eligibility, and length of stay. Subsequent models included individual comorbidity indexes. Values of variance explained (R2) with each comorbidity index were compared. Results Base models explained 7.7% of the variance in motor function ratings for stroke, 3.8% for joint replacement, and 7.3% for fracture. The R2 increased marginally when comorbidity indexes were added to base models for stroke, joint replacement, and fracture: Charlson Comorbidity Index (0.4%, 0.5%, 0.3%), tier comorbidity (0.2%, 0.6%, 0.5%), FCI (0.4%, 1.2%, 1.6%), Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (1.2%, 1.9%, 3.5%), and HCC (2.2%, 2.1%, 2.8%). Limitation Patients

  9. Validation of an obstetric comorbidity index in an external population.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, A; Lix, L M; Johnson, J-A; Currie, G; Lyon, A W; Bernier, F; Tough, S C

    2015-12-01

    An obstetric comorbidity index has been developed recently with superior performance characteristics relative to general comorbidity measures in an obstetric population. This study aimed to externally validate this index and to examine the impact of including hospitalisation/delivery records only when estimating comorbidity prevalence and discriminative performance of the obstetric comorbidity index. Validation study. Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women who delivered a live or stillborn infant in hospital (n = 5995). Administrative databases were linked to create a population-based cohort. Comorbid conditions were identified from diagnoses for the delivery hospitalisation, all hospitalisations and all healthcare contacts (i.e. hospitalisations, emergency room visits and physician visits) that occurred during pregnancy and 3 months pre-conception. Logistic regression was used to test the discriminative performance of the comorbidity index. Maternal end-organ damage and extended length of stay for delivery. Although prevalence estimates for comorbid conditions were consistently lower in delivery records and hospitalisation data than in data for all healthcare contacts, the discriminative performance of the comorbidity index was constant for maternal end-organ damage [all healthcare contacts area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.70; hospitalisation data AUC = 0.67; delivery data AUC = 0.65] and extended length of stay for delivery (all healthcare contacts AUC = 0.60; hospitalisation data AUC = 0.58; delivery data AUC = 0.58). The obstetric comorbidity index shows similar performance characteristics in an external population and is a valid measure of comorbidity in an obstetric population. Furthermore, the discriminative performance of the comorbidity index was similar for comorbidities ascertained at the time of delivery, in hospitalisation data or through all healthcare contacts. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics

  10. Impact of the AYA HOPE Comorbidity Index on Assessing Health Care Service Needs and Health Status among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Prasad, Pinki K; Landry, Ian; Harlan, Linda C; Parsons, Helen M; Lynch, Charles F; Smith, Ashley W; Hamilton, Ann S; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2015-12-01

    Existing comorbidity indices were not developed for adolescent and young adults (AYA) 15 to 39 years of age. The aim of this study was to assess impact of comorbidities on health care service needs and health status among AYA cancer survivors using the newly developed AYA HOPE comorbidity index in comparison with the existing indices. Data on comorbid conditions were obtained from medical records and service needs and health status were from a survey of AYA cancer survivors. Prevalence of comorbidities was based on the AYA HOPE index. Charlson and NCI indices were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used. Of the 485 patients, 14.6% had ≥2 comorbidities based on the AYA HOPE Index. Prevalence of mental illness and obesity/overweight, which were not included in existing indices, were 8.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and neurologic conditions were higher with the AYA HOPE Index than the other two indices. Forty percent of AYA patients reported service needs, particularly for mental health services (25.2%) and support groups (17.7%). Having ≥2 comorbidities on the AYA index was associated with higher mental health service needs [OR, 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-3.82] adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Comorbidities were associated with fair/poor self-reported health status. The AYA HOPE Index is a more comprehensive comorbidity index for AYA cancer patients than existing indices, and the number of comorbidities is associated with service needs and health status. The AYA HOPE index could identify patients' additional service needs early in therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Health Impact Index. Development and Validation of a Method for Classifying Comorbid Disease Measured against Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of classifying comorbid conditions that accounts for both the severity and joint effects of the diseases. The Tromsø Study is a cohort study with a longitudinal design utilizing a survey approach with physical examinations in the Tromsø municipality from 1974 to 2008, where in total 40051 subjects participated. We used Tromsø 4 as reference population and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI) panel as validation population. Ordinal regression was used to assess the effect of comorbid disease on Self-Reported Health (SRH). The model is controlled for interaction between diseases, mental health, age, and gender. The health impact index estimated levels of SRH. The comparison of predicted and observed SRH showed no significant differences. Spearman’s correlation showed that increasing levels of comorbidity were related to lower levels of SRH (RS = -0.36, p <.001). The Charlson Comorbidity Index(CCI) was also associated with SRH (r = -.25, p <.001). When focusing on only individuals with a comorbid disease, the relation between SRH and the Health Impact Index (HII) was strengthened (r = -.42, p <.001), while the association between SRH and CCI was attenuated (r = -.14, p <.001). CCI was designed to control for comorbid conditions when survival/mortality is the outcome of interest but is inaccurate when the outcome is SRH. We conclude that HII should be used when SRH is not available, and well-being or quality of survival/life is the outcome of interest. PMID:26849044

  12. Assessment of comorbidities in surgical oncology outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Parul; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2014-10-01

    The impact of comorbidities on treatment, postoperative complications, survival, prognosis, and quality of life, makes comorbidities' assessment essential in surgically managed cancer patients. Multiple indices exist to measure the presence and severity of comorbidities, of which the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 are the most widely employed. Incorporation of comorbidity data in cancer registries facilitates surgical oncology research conduct with an objective to improve cancer care through better-informed patient counseling and treatment planning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Geriatric assessment in multiple myeloma patients: validation of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) score and comparison with other common comorbidity scores

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Dold, Sandra Maria; Ihorst, Gabriele; Zober, Alexander; Möller, Mandy; Reinhardt, Heike; Hieke, Stefanie; Schumacher, Martin; Wäsch, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This first validation of the International Myeloma Working Group geriatric assessment in 125 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was performed using the International Myeloma Working Group score based on age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and cognitive and physical conditions (Activities of Daily Living / Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) to classify patients as fit, intermediate-fit or frail. We verified the International Myeloma Working Group score’s impact on outcome, and whether additional tools complement it. Since our prior analyses determined renal, lung and Karnofsky performance impairment as multivariate risks, and the inclusion of frailty, age and cytogenetics complements this, we included the revised myeloma comorbidity index, the Charlson Comorbidity Index, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index and the Kaplan-Feinstein Index in this assessment. Multivariate analysis confirmed cytogenetics, Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Charlson Comorbidity Index as risks: 3-year overall survival for fit, intermediate-fit and frail patients was 91%, 77% and 47%, respectively. Using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index, the Kaplan-Feinstein Index and the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index allowed us to define fit and frail patients with distinct progression-free and overall survival rates, with the most pronounced differences evidenced via the International Myeloma Working Group score, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index. Since the Charlson Comorbidity Index is included in the International Myeloma Working Group score, we propose the latter and the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index for future frailty measurements. Both are useful instruments for identifying myeloma patients with a geriatric risk profile and have a strong prognostic value for functional decline and overall survival. The study was registered

  14. Development of a Comorbidity Index for Use in Obstetric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Brian T.; Mhyre, Jill M.; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Huybrechts, Krista F.; Fischer, Michael A.; Creanga, Andreea A.; Callaghan, William M.; Gagne, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a maternal comorbidity index to predict severe maternal morbidity, defined as the occurrence of acute maternal end-organ injury, or mortality. Methods Data were derived from the Medicaid Analytic eXtract for the years 2000 to 2007. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of maternal end-organ injury or death during the delivery hospitalization through 30 days postpartum. The dataset was randomly divided into a 2/3 development cohort and a 1/3 validation cohort. Using the development cohort, a logistic regression model predicting the primary outcome was created using a stepwise selection algorithm that included 24-candidate comorbid conditions and maternal age. Each of the conditions included in the final model was assigned a weight based on its beta coefficient, and these were used to calculate a maternal comorbidity index. Results The cohort included 854,823 completed pregnancies of which 9,901 (1.2%) were complicated by the primary study outcome. The derived score included 20 maternal conditions and maternal age. For each point increase in the score, the odds ratio for the primary outcome was 1.37, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.39. The c-statistic for this model was 0.657, 95% CI 0.647 – 0.666. The derived score performed significantly better than available comorbidity indexes in predicting maternal morbidity and mortality. Conclusion This new maternal morbidity index provides a simple measure for summarizing the burden of maternal illness for use in the conduct of epidemiologic, health services, and comparative effectiveness research. PMID:24104771

  15. Comparison of Elixhauser and Charlson Methods for Predicting Oral Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Heng-Jui; Chen, Po-Chun; Yang, Ching-Chieh; Su, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cancer survival correlates not only with the features of primary malignancy but also with the degree of underlying comorbidities. Of the multiple methods used for evaluating the impact of comorbidities on survival, the Charlson and Elixhauser methods are most common. This study compared these 2 comorbidity measures for predicting survival in oral cancer patients. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data (2008–2011), we acquired data regarding patients’ characteristics, comorbidities, and survival from 3583 oral cancer patients. Comorbidity was classified according to both the Charlson comorbidity and Elixhauser comorbidity based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. The Elixhauser comorbidity score and Charlson comorbidity score were also calculated. The prediction of survival was determined using measures of discrimination, including the Akaike information criterion and Harrell C (C-statistic). The mean age of the study cohort was 52 ± 10 years, and 94.9% of the patients were male. The median follow-up time was 30.1 months, and the 3-year overall survival was 61.6%. Elixhauser comorbidity method added higher discrimination, compared with the Charlson comorbidity method (Harrell C, 0.677 vs 0.651). Furthermore, the Elixhauser comorbidity score outperformed the Charlson comorbidity score in continuous variable (Harrell C, 0.654 vs 0.646) and category (Harrell C, 0.658 vs 0.645). The Elixhauser method is a superior comorbidity risk-adjustment model for oral cancer survival prediction. Utilization of the Elixhauser comorbidity method may be encouraged for risk adjustment in oral cancer study. PMID:26886653

  16. Comorbidity-dependent adherence to guidelines and survival in breast cancer-Is there a role for guideline adherence in comorbid breast cancer patients? A retrospective cohort study with 2137 patients.

    PubMed

    Wollschläger, Daniel; Meng, Xiaoyu; Wöckel, Achim; Janni, Wolfgang; Kreienberg, Rolf; Blettner, Maria; Schwentner, Lukas

    2017-07-07

    In the treatment of breast cancer, decisions on adjuvant treatment reflect individual patient characteristics like age and comorbidity. This study assessed the association between adherence to guidelines for adjuvant treatment and survival while taking into account age at diagnosis and comorbidities. We collected the Charlson comorbidity index at baseline for 2179 women treated for primary breast cancer from 1992 to 2008 who participated in a German retrospective multicenter cohort study. We assessed subsequent adjuvant therapy guideline adherence and survival in relation to baseline comorbidities. Guidelines for adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were more often violated in patients with higher Charlson score. Patients with higher Charlson scores received chemotherapy and radiotherapy less often and had higher rates of mastectomy. Irrespective of comorbidity (Charlson score 0, 1-2, ≥3), patients with 100% guideline-adherent adjuvant treatment showed better overall and disease-free survival (DFS) compared to patients with guideline violations (GVs). Controlling for age, comorbidity and tumor characteristics, the hazard ratio for at least one GV was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-2.07) for overall survival and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22) for DFS. Guideline-adherent treatment was significantly less frequent in comorbid patients, although guideline adherence was strongly associated with improved survival, irrespective of severity, and number of comorbid diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Body Mass Index and Comorbidities in Adult Severe Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andreina; Pace, Elisabetta; Cibella, Fabio; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Both severe asthma and obesity are growing health problems. Severe asthma leads to a poor quality of life. The relationship among BMI, comorbidities, and severe asthma control in adults is still unclear. The aim of the study is to better understand the effect of the comorbidities as atopy, type II diabetes, OSAS, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, infections, and psychological factors with BMI on asthma control in a cohort of adult severe asthmatics. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study assessing asthma control, treatments, pulmonary function, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Patients were divided into 3 classes according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. We found that the optimal state of asthma control is lower. whereas the score of Asthma Control Questionnaire, the number of asthma exacerbations during last year, the oral corticosteroids requirement during the previous year, and the LABA treatments are higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight severe asthmatics. The number of subjects with type II diabetes and OSAS are higher among obese and overweight patients than in normal weight asthmatics. In conclusion, BMI represents per se a factor for the deterioration in disease control in severe asthma. PMID:24987694

  18. Development and validation of a structured query language implementation of the Elixhauser comorbidity index.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin

    2017-07-01

    Comorbidity adjustment is often performed during outcomes and health care resource utilization research. Our goal was to develop an efficient algorithm in structured query language (SQL) to determine the Elixhauser comorbidity index. We wrote an SQL algorithm to calculate the Elixhauser comorbidities from Diagnosis Related Group and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Validation was by comparison to expected comorbidities from combinations of these codes and to the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). The SQL algorithm matched perfectly with expected comorbidities for all combinations of ICD-9 or ICD-10, and Diagnosis Related Groups. Of 13 585 859 evaluable NRD records, the algorithm matched 100% of the listed comorbidities. Processing time was ∼0.05 ms/record. The SQL Elixhauser code was efficient and computationally identical to the SAS algorithm used for the NRD. This algorithm may be useful where preprocessing of large datasets in a relational database environment and comorbidity determination is desired before statistical analysis. A validated SQL procedure to calculate Elixhauser comorbidities and the van Walraven index from ICD-9 or ICD-10 discharge diagnosis codes has been published.

  19. New Morbidity and Comorbidity Scores based on the Structure of the ICD-10

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Hagn, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Measures of morbidity and comorbidity are frequently used for the control of confounding, particularly in health services research. Several proposals for those measures are defined with ICD-coded diagnoses available in hospital routine data. However, a measure that makes use of the ICD structure is missing. Objective of this work was to elaborate the power of the ICD structure for defining morbidity and comorbidity measures. Routine data from three German hospitals with inpatients discharged 2008 were used for model development; routine data from 36 German hospitals with inpatients admitted and discharged 2010 were used for model evaluation. Two different risk models were developed, one based on ICD-10 chapters, the other based on ICD-10 groups. The models were transformed into sum scores using whole-number weights. Models and scores were compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities using the receiver operating characteristic. Dependent variable was hospital death. Logistic regression was used to derive the new models. Charlson Index and Elixhauser Comorbidities were mapped to the German ICD-10. According to the receiver operating characteristic, the quality of the measures based on the structure of the ICD-10 was superior compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities. The best result was achieved with the measure based on ICD-10-groups with an area under curve of 0.910 (95% confidence interval = 0.907–0.913). The sum scores showed a comparable performance. The developed new measures may be used to control for confounding. PMID:26656501

  20. New Morbidity and Comorbidity Scores based on the Structure of the ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Hagn, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Measures of morbidity and comorbidity are frequently used for the control of confounding, particularly in health services research. Several proposals for those measures are defined with ICD-coded diagnoses available in hospital routine data. However, a measure that makes use of the ICD structure is missing. Objective of this work was to elaborate the power of the ICD structure for defining morbidity and comorbidity measures. Routine data from three German hospitals with inpatients discharged 2008 were used for model development; routine data from 36 German hospitals with inpatients admitted and discharged 2010 were used for model evaluation. Two different risk models were developed, one based on ICD-10 chapters, the other based on ICD-10 groups. The models were transformed into sum scores using whole-number weights. Models and scores were compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities using the receiver operating characteristic. Dependent variable was hospital death. Logistic regression was used to derive the new models. Charlson Index and Elixhauser Comorbidities were mapped to the German ICD-10. According to the receiver operating characteristic, the quality of the measures based on the structure of the ICD-10 was superior compared with the Charlson Index and the Elixhauser Comorbidities. The best result was achieved with the measure based on ICD-10-groups with an area under curve of 0.910 (95% confidence interval = 0.907-0.913). The sum scores showed a comparable performance. The developed new measures may be used to control for confounding.

  1. Reduced body mass index in Parkinson's disease: contribution of comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Kroemer, Nils B; Schneider, Christine; Ebersbach, Georg; Jost, Wolfgang H; Fuchs, Gerd; Odin, Per; Reifschneider, Gerd; Bauer, Michael; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Courses of Parkinson's disease (PD) that are complicated by weight loss result in poorer overall treatment outcome and lower quality of life. To determine the contribution of depression, which has not yet been specified in the etiology of weight loss in PD, symptomatology and anamnesis from 215 outpatients diagnosed with PD were assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychiatric scales. A percentage of 31 comorbid depressed patients and a comparison with a control population allowed an accurate characterization of effect sizes, sex differences, and patterns of the contribution of comorbid depression to weight loss. Our study showed that comorbid depression had a clinically relevant effect concerning reduced body mass index in male (0.3; Hedges' g) but not in female PD patients. Although some possible confounders are not controlled here, our results support the need of monitoring depressive symptoms in the courses of PD, particularly in male patients.

  2. Comorbidity-Age Index: A Clinical Measure of Biologic Age Before Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sorror, Mohamed L.; Storb, Rainer F.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Maziarz, Richard T.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Maris, Michael B.; Bhatia, Smita; Ostronoff, Fabiana; Deeg, H. Joachim; Syrjala, Karen L.; Estey, Elihu; Maloney, David G.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Martin, Paul J.; Storer, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Age has long been used as a major factor for assessing suitability for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was developed as a measure of health status to predict mortality risk after HCT. Whether age, comorbidities, or both should guide decision making for HCT is unknown. Patients and Methods Data from 3,033 consecutive recipients of HLA-matched grafts from five institutions contributed to this analysis. Patients were randomly divided into a training set to develop weights for age intervals and a validation set to assess the performance of prognostic models. Results In the training set, patients age 20 to 39 years, 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, and ≥ 60 years had hazard ratios for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 1.21 (P = .29), 1.48 (P = .04), 1.75 (P = .004), and 1.84 (P = .005), respectively, compared with those age younger than 20 years. Consequently, age ≥ 40 years was assigned a weight of 1 to be added to the HCT-CI to constitute a composite comorbidity/age index. In the validation set, the composite comorbidity/age score had statistically significantly higher c-statistic estimates for prediction of NRM (0.664 v 0.556; P < .001) and survival (0.682 v 0.560; P < .001) compared with age, respectively. Patients with comorbidity/age scores of 0 to 2 had comparable mortality risks regardless of conditioning regimens. Patients with scores of 3 to 4 and ≥ 5 had statistically significant higher mortality risks after high-dose versus nonmyeloablative regimens. Conclusion Age is a poor prognostic factor. The proposed composite measure allows integration of both comorbidities and age into clinical decision making and comparative-effectiveness research of HCT. PMID:25154831

  3. Comorbidity index was successfully validated among men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Rius, Cristina; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernàndez, Esteve

    2008-08-01

    To validate the prognostic accuracy of a previously proposed comorbidity index using information of a different and separate population-based cohort. We assessed the predictive accuracy of a comorbidity index to predict mortality by looking at calibration and discrimination in the development cohort as well as in a new cohort for validation. Calibration of the model was assessed by comparing predicted and current mortality in the new cohort by means of Hosmer-Lemeshow test (HL). Discrimination of the models was analyzed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). In the development cohort, we have not detected differences between the predicted and the observed mortality in both, men (HL=7.7, P=0.46) and women (HL=11.7, P=0.16). The discrimination of the model accounted 81% in men and 79% in women. In the validation cohort, we obtained a good calibration among men (HL=10.1, P=0.43) but not in women (HL=21.4, P=0.01). The discrimination was quite similar to the development cohort in both sexes (ROC area=80% in men, ROC area=78% in women). The comorbidity index has good calibration and discrimination and was successfully validated in a different population-based cohort among men but not among women.

  4. Weighted index explained more variance in physical function than an additively scored functional comorbidity scale

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Linda; Gozalo, Pedro; Hart, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1) examine association between the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI) and discharge functional status (FS); 2) examine impact of FCI on FS when added to comprehensive models, and 3) compare additive FCI to Weighted FCI and list of condition variables (list). Study Design and Setting Patients drawn from Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc. (FOTO) database (1/1/06-12/31/07). FS collected using computer adaptive tests. Linear regression examined association between FCI and FS. Three methods of including functional comorbidities (FC) were compared. Results Relationship between FCI and FS varied by group (range .02 0.9). Models with weighted index or list had similar R2. Weighted FCI or list increased R2 of crude models by < .01 for cervical, shoulder, and lumbar; .01 wrist/hand, knee and foot/ankle; by.02 hip; 03 elbow; and .08 neurological. Addition of FCI to comprehensive models added <.01 to R2 (all groups). Weighted FCI increased R2 by <.01 for cervical, lumbar and shoulder,.01 wrist/hand, hip, knee, foot/ankle, .02 elbow, and .04 neurological; whereas list increased R2 by < .01 cervical, shoulder and lumbar, .01 knee and foot/ankle, .02 elbow, wrist/hand and hip and .05 neurological. Conclusion List of comorbidities or weighted FCI is preferable to using additive FCI. PMID:20719472

  5. [Study of the comorbidities in hospitalized patients due to decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attended in the Internal Medicine Services. ECCO Study].

    PubMed

    Almagro, P; López García, F; Cabrera, F J; Montero, L; Morchón, D; Díez, J; de la Iglesia, F; Roca, F B; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Castiella, J; Zubillaga, E; Recio, J; Soriano, J B

    2010-03-01

    Evaluate comorbidity in patients hospitalized due to COPD in the Internal Medicine services. An observational, prospective and multicenter study. The Charlson index and a specific questionnaire were used. A total of 398 patients, 353 men (89%), with mean age of 73.7 years (8.9) and mean FEV(1) of 43.2% (12.5), were included. The most frequent comorbidities were: arterial hypertension (55%), arrhythmias (27%) and diabetes mellitus (26%). A total of 27% suffered heart failure, 17% coronary disease and 9% previous myocardial infarction. The number of associated chronic diseases was 3.6 (1,8). Score on Charlson index was 2.72 (2). The patients hospitalized due to decompensated COPD had an elevated comorbidity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  7. A combined comorbidity score predicted mortality in elderly patients better than existing scores

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Robert J.; Avorn, Jerry; Levin, Raisa; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a single numeric comorbidity score for predicting short-and long-term mortality, by combining conditions in the Charlson and Elixhauser measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING In a cohort of 120,679 Pennsylvania Medicare enrollees with drug coverage through a pharmacy assistance program, we developed a single numeric comorbidity score for predicting 1-year mortality, by combining the conditions in the Charlson and Elixhauser measures. We externally validated the combined score in a cohort of New Jersey Medicare enrollees, by comparing its performance to that of both component scores in predicting 1-year mortality, as well as 180-, 90-, and 30-day mortality. RESULTS C-statistics from logistic regression models including the combined score were higher than corresponding c-statistics from models including either the Romano implementation of the Charlson Index or the single numeric version of the Elixhauser system; c-statistics were 0.860 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.854, 0.866), 0.839 (95% CI: 0.836, 0.849), and 0.836 (95% CI: 0.834, 0.847), respectively, for the 30-day mortality outcome. The combined comorbidity score also yielded positive values for two recently proposed measures of reclassification. CONCLUSION In similar populations and data settings, the combined score may offer improvements in comorbidity summarization over existing scores. PMID:21208778

  8. Influence of Comorbid Conditions on One-Year Outcomes in Non–ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio; Bodí, Vicente; Núñez, Eduardo; García-Alvarez, Ana; Bonanad, Clara; Regueiro, Ander; Bosch, Xavier; Heras, Magda; Sala, Joan; Bielsa, Oscar; Llácer, Angel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate comorbid conditions with prognostic influence in non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of a derivation cohort of 1017 patients (admitted from October 1, 2002, through October 1, 2008) and an external validation cohort of 652 patients (admitted from February 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009). Comorbid conditions, including risk factors and components of the Charlson comorbidity index (ChCI) and coronary artery disease–specific index, were recorded. The main outcome was one-year mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up, 103 patients died. After adjusting for variables associated with NSTEACS characteristics (base model), 5 comorbid conditions predicted mortality: severe or mild renal failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.9 and HR, 1.6, respectively), dementia (HR, 3.1), peripheral artery disease (HR, 2.0), previous heart failure (HR, 2.6), and previous myocardial infarction (HR, 1.4). A simple comorbidity index (SCI) was developed using these variables, (per point: HR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-1.8; P=.0001). Adding the SCI, Charlson comorbidity index, or coronary artery disease–specific index to the base model resulted in a gain of 6.58%, 5.00%, and 4.04%, respectively, in discriminative ability (P=.001), without significant differences among the 3 indices. In patients with comorbid conditions, the highest risk period was in the first weeks after NSTEACS. The strength of the association between SCI and mortality rate was similar in the external validation cohort (HR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.6; P=.001). CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction, dementia, peripheral artery disease, previous heart failure, and previous myocardial infarction are the comorbid conditions that predict mortality in NSTEACS. A simple index using these variables proved to be as accurate as the more complex comorbidity indices for risk stratification. In-hospital management of patients with

  9. Prospective Validation of the Predictive Power of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index: A CIBMTR® Study

    PubMed Central

    Sorror, Mohamed L.; Logan, Brent R.; Zhu, Xiaochun; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Cooke, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Philip L; Ho, Vincent T.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective validation of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) using contemporary patients treated with HCT across the Unites States is necessary to confirm its widespread applicability. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (8115 recipients of allogeneic and 11,652 recipients of autologous HCT) who underwent first HCT that was reported to the CIBMTR between 2007 and 2009. In proportional hazards models, increased HCT-CI scores were independently associated with increases in hazard ratios for NRM (p<0.0001) and overall mortality (p<0.0001) among recipients of allogeneic HCT. HCT-CI Scores of ≥3 were uniformly associated with higher risks for outcomes in both allogeneic and autologous HCT, and all subgroups regardless of diagnoses, age, and conditioning intensity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT with scores of 1–2 who were aged <18 or were treated with lower intensity conditioning regimens had similar outcomes compared to those with score 0. Higher risks for overall mortality, but not for NRM, were observed among recipients of autologous HCT with scores of 1–2 versus 0. Our results confirm the validity the HCT-CI in both allogeneic and autologous HCT. The index should be used as a valid standard-of-care health measure in counseling patients for HCT, in clinical trial design, and in adjusting outcome analyses. PMID:25862591

  10. Identifying Increased Risk of Readmission and In-hospital Mortality Using Hospital Administrative Data: The AHRQ Elixhauser Comorbidity Index.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian J; White, Susan; Washington, Raynard; Coenen, Natalia; Elixhauser, Anne

    2017-07-01

    We extend the literature on comorbidity measurement by developing 2 indices, based on the Elixhauser Comorbidity measures, designed to predict 2 frequently reported health outcomes: in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission in administrative data. The Elixhauser measures are commonly used in research as an adjustment factor to control for severity of illness. We used a large analysis file built from all-payer hospital administrative data in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases from 18 states in 2011 and 2012. The final models were derived with bootstrapped replications of backward stepwise logistic regressions on each outcome. Odds ratios and index weights were generated for each Elixhauser comorbidity to create a single index score per record for mortality and readmissions. Model validation was conducted with c-statistics. Our index scores performed as well as using all 29 Elixhauser comorbidity variables separately. The c-statistic for our index scores without inclusion of other covariates was 0.777 (95% confidence interval, 0.776-0.778) for the mortality index and 0.634 (95% confidence interval, 0.633-0.634) for the readmissions index. The indices were stable across multiple subsamples defined by demographic characteristics or clinical condition. The addition of other commonly used covariates (age, sex, expected payer) improved discrimination modestly. These indices are effective methods to incorporate the influence of comorbid conditions in models designed to assess the risk of in-hospital mortality and readmission using administrative data with limited clinical information, especially when small samples sizes are an issue.

  11. Barrier Buster: Kim Charlson--Perkins School for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Kim Charlson believes everyone should live life to the fullest no matter what their handicaps. Blind since early childhood, she chose librarianship because, as a braille reader and avid user of talking books, she wanted to be "in a decision-making capacity in the library field and influence the direction of library services for people with…

  12. Barrier Buster: Kim Charlson--Perkins School for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Kim Charlson believes everyone should live life to the fullest no matter what their handicaps. Blind since early childhood, she chose librarianship because, as a braille reader and avid user of talking books, she wanted to be "in a decision-making capacity in the library field and influence the direction of library services for people with…

  13. Performance of comorbidity indices in measuring outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in Australian indigenous and non-indigenous patients.

    PubMed

    Condon, J R; You, J; McDonnell, J

    2012-07-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher prevalence of chronic diseases and worse acute care outcomes than other Australians. The extent to which higher chronic disease comorbidity levels are responsible for their worse outcomes is not clear, and the performance of comorbidity indices has not been assessed for this population with very high comorbidity levels. Using hospital separations data, the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity indices were used to measure chronic disease prevalence in 2035 indigenous and non-indigenous patients hospitalised after their first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Northern Territory of Australia between 1992 and 2004, and to adjust for comorbidity in multivariate analysis of mortality outcomes (in-hospital and long-term deaths from coronary heart disease and all causes). Index performance was assessed by the difference between C statistic, Akaike information criterion statistic and estimate of excess indigenous mortality in models with and without comorbidity adjustment. Comorbidity index scores were higher for indigenous than non-indigenous patients and increased considerably over time, at least partly because of information bias. Indigenous patients' higher risk of in-hospital all-cause death was almost fully explained by their higher comorbidity levels. Their higher risk of long-term coronary heart disease and all-cause death was partially explained by higher comorbidity levels. Charlson and Elixhauser indices performed satisfactorily and similarly in this population. Comorbidity indices performed well in a population with very high chronic disease prevalence. After adjusting for comorbidity, short-term outcomes were similar for indigenous and non-indigenous AMI patients, but comorbidity at the time of the acute episode only partly explained the worse long-term outcomes for indigenous patients. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Comorbidity measurement in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mario A F; Dedivitis, Rogério A; Ribeiro, Karina C B

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of a cancer patient can be affected by many factors. Cancer patients often have other diseases or medical conditions in addition to their cancer. These conditions are referred to as comorbidities. They can influence the treatment option, the rate of complications, the outcome, and can confound the survival analysis. It was the aim of this study to measure comorbidities in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Ninety adult patients treated for newly diagnosed laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were studied. We measured comorbid illness applying the following validated scales: the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), the Kaplan-Feinstein Classification (KFC), the Charlson index, the Index of Coexistent Disease (ICED), the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27), the Alcohol-Tobacco-Related Comorbidities Index (ATC), and the Washington University Head and Neck Comorbidity Index (WUHNCI). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method (with the log-rank test value being used to compare groups). The Cox proportional hazards model was chosen to identify independent prognostic factors. The mean age was 62.3 years. The majority of patients (36.7%) had early tumors. Forty patients were treated by surgery only, while the remaining 49 patients also received postoperative radiation therapy. Only 5 patients (5.6%) were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up time was 42.5 months. The 4-year overall survival was 63%. There was a statistically significant difference between survival rates according to clinical stage (CS I 87.3%, CS II 48.9%, CS III 74.7%, CS IV 23.9%; p < 0.001). Patients treated by surgery only presented a better survival rate (79.6%) than those receiving postoperative radiation therapy (48.9%; p = 0.001). A statistically significant difference in survival rates was also noted when patients were analyzed according to the type of surgical procedure. In a univariate analysis, comorbidity had impact on prognosis, no matter

  15. Comorbidities in patients with gout prior to and following diagnosis: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Mallen, Christian; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the burden of comorbidities in patients with gout at diagnosis and the risk of developing new comorbidities post diagnosis. Methods There were 39 111 patients with incident gout and 39 111 matched controls identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Data-link. The risk of comorbidity before (ORs) and after the diagnosis of gout (HRs) were estimated, adjusted for age, sex, diagnosis year, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results Gout was associated with adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 1.39 (1.34 to 1.45), 1.89 (1.76 to 2.03) and 2.51 (2.19 to 2.86) for the Charlson index of 1–2, 3–4 and ≥5, respectively. Cardiovascular and genitourinary diseases, in addition to hyperlipidaemia, hypothyroidism, anaemia, psoriasis, chronic pulmonary diseases, osteoarthritis and depression, were associated with a higher risk for gout. Gout was also associated with an adjusted HR (95% CI) of 1.41 (1.34 to 1.48) for having a Charlson index ≥1. Median time to first comorbidity was 43 months in cases and 111 months in controls. Risks for incident comorbidity were higher in cardiovascular, genitourinary, metabolic/endocrine and musculoskeletal diseases, in addition to liver diseases, hemiplegia, depression, anaemia and psoriasis in patients with gout. After additionally adjusting for all comorbidities at diagnosis, gout was associated with a HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality of 1.13 (1.08 to 1.18; p<0.001). Conclusions The majority of patients with gout have worse pre-existing health status at diagnosis and the risk of incident comorbidity continues to rise following diagnosis. The range of associated comorbidities is broader than previously recognised and merits further evaluation. PMID:25398375

  16. [Impact of comorbidities on in-hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction, 2003-2009].

    PubMed

    Gili, Miguel; Sala, José; López, Julio; Carrión, Ana; Béjar, Luís; Moreno, Julio; Rosales, Angela; Sánchez, Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of acute myocardial infarction has changed notably in recent years. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in in-hospital mortality during the period 2003-2009 and to examine how changes in comorbidity indices affected mortality prediction models for acute myocardial infarction using the minimum basic data set. During the study period, 5275 cases of acute myocardial infarction were admitted. Mortality rates were calculated by age and sex and Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity index scores were obtained on admission for every patient. Trends were analyzed and their validity studied. Multivariate models predictive of mortality were derived and compared. Mean age and comorbidities increased in all patients over the period 2003-2009. In spite of these trends, acute myocardial infarction mortality decreased. Comorbidity indices remained valid when the criterion "present on admission" was applied. Multivariate predictive models included age, sex, medical treatment, coronary revascularization and a comorbidity index or specific comorbidities. The model with specific comorbidities showed the best predictive ability. All models found that age and comorbidities increased the risk of death, and that coronary revascularization and treatment with anticoagulants, fibrinolytics, and platelet antiaggregants were protective factors. Despite the fact that the mean age and number of comorbidities in acute myocardial infarction patients has increased year over year, acute myocardial infarction mortality has decreased, probably because of more frequent reperfusion and revascularization therapy and better medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Comorbidity in Adult Bone Sarcoma Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Keller, Johnny; Baerentzen, Steen; Safwat, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Comorbidity is an important prognostic factor for survival in different cancers; however, neither the prevalence nor the impact of comorbidity has been investigated in bone sarcoma. Methods. All adult bone sarcoma patients from western Denmark treated at the Aarhus Sarcoma Centre in the period from 1979 to 2008 were identified through a validated population-based database. Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were computed, using discharge diagnoses from the Danish National Patient Registry. Survival was assessed as overall and disease-specific mortality. The impact of comorbidity was examined as rates according to the level of comorbidity as well as uni- and multivariately using proportional hazard models. Results. A total of 453 patients were identified. The overall prevalence of comorbidity was 19%. The prevalence increased with age and over the study period. In patients with Ewing/osteosarcoma, comorbidity was not associated with an increased overall or disease-specific mortality. However, patients with bone sarcomas other than Ewing/osteosarcoma had increased overall mortality. Independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival were age, tumor size, stage at diagnosis, soft tissue involvement, grade, and surgery. Conclusion. The prevalence of comorbidity in bone sarcoma patients is low. Comorbidity impaired survival in patients with non-Ewing/nonosteosarcoma, histology. This emphasizes the importance of not only treating the sarcoma but also comorbidity. PMID:24723789

  18. Determinants of Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes during an Episode of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Effects of Comorbidities and Causes of Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Valentini, Ilaria; Carbonara, Paolo; Marchetti, Antonio; Nava, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status. PMID:24563868

  19. Assessing the Influence of Different Comorbidities Indexes on the Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Gustavo Machado; Bittencourt, Henrique; Rezende, Suely Meireles

    2015-01-01

    Although the application of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) has enabled better prediction of transplant-related mortality (TRM) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (AHSCT), data from developing countries are scarce. This study prospectively evaluated the HCT-CI and the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE-27), in its original and in a modified version, as predictors of post-transplant complications in adults undergoing a first related or unrelated AHSCT in Brazil. Both bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) as graft sources were included. We analyzed the cumulative incidence of granulocyte and platelet recovery, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse and transplant-related mortality, and rates of event-free survival and overall survival. Ninety-nine patients were assessed. Median age was 38 years (18–65 years); HCT-CI ≥ 3 accounted for only 8% of cases; hematologic malignancies comprised 75.8% of the indications for AHSCT. There was no association between the HCT-CI or the original or modified ACE-27 with TRM or any other studied outcomes after AHSCT. These results show that, in the population studied, none of the comorbidity indexes seem to be associated with AHSCT outcomes. A significantly low frequency of high-risk (HCT-CI ≥ 3) in this Brazilian population might justify these results. PMID:26394228

  20. Are healthcare costs from obesity associated with body mass index, comorbidity or depression? Cohort study using electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, C; Charlton, J; Booth, H P; Gulliford, M C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and healthcare costs in relation to obesity-related comorbidity and depression. A population-based cohort study was undertaken in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). A stratified random sample was taken of participants registered with general practices in England in 2008 and 2013. Person time was classified by BMI category and morbidity status using first diagnosis of diabetes (T2DM), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke or malignant neoplasms. Participants were classified annually as depressed or not depressed. Costs of healthcare utilization were calculated from primary care records with linked hospital episode statistics. A two-part model estimated predicted mean annual costs by age, gender and morbidity status. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of BMI category, comorbidity and depression on healthcare costs. The analysis included 873 809 person-years (62% female) from 250 046 participants. Annual healthcare costs increased with BMI, to a mean of £456 (95% CI 344-568) higher for BMI ≥40 kg m(-2) than for normal weight based on a general linear model. After adjusting for BMI, the additional cost of comorbidity was £1366 (£1269-£1463) and depression £1044 (£973-£1115). There was evidence of interaction so that as the BMI category increased, additional costs of comorbidity (£199, £74-£325) or depression (£116, £16-£216) were greater. High healthcare costs in obesity may be driven by the presence of comorbidity and depression. Prioritizing primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the obese population may contribute to reducing obesity-related healthcare costs. © 2016 World Obesity.

  1. Comorbidities and short-term prognosis in patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of COPD: the EPOC en Servicios de medicina interna (ESMI) study.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Pedro; Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Diez, Jesus; Boixeda, Ramon; Alonso Ortiz, M Belen; Murio, Cristina; Soriano, Joan B

    2012-11-01

    Comorbidities are frequent in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation, but little is known about their relation with short-term mortality and hospital readmissions. Our hypothesis is that the frequency and type of comorbidities impair the prognosis within 12 weeks after discharge. A longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation with spirometric confirmation was performed. Comorbidity information was collected using the Charlson index and a questionnaire that included other common conditions not included in this index. Dyspnea, functional status, and previous hospitalization for COPD or other reasons among other variables were investigated. Information on mortality and readmissions for COPD or other causes was collected up to 3 months after discharge. We studied 606 patients, 594 men (89.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 72.6 (9.9) years and a postbronchodilator FEV1 of 43.2% (21.2). The mean Charlson index score was 3.1 (2.0). On admission, 63.4% of patients had arterial hypertension, 35.8% diabetes mellitus, 32.8% chronic heart failure, 20.8% ischemic heart disease, 19.3% anemia, and 34% dyslipemia. Twenty-seven patients (4.5%) died within 3 months. The Charlson index was an independent predictor of mortality (P < .003; OR,1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.40), even after adjustment for age, FEV1, and functional status measured with the Katz index. Comorbidity was also related with the need for hospitalization from the ED, length of stay, and hospital readmissions for COPD or other causes. Comorbidities are common in patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation, and they are related to short-term prognosis.

  2. Impairments and comorbidities of polyneuropathy revealed by population-based analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Staff, Nathan P.; Robb, Jared M.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Dyck, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To quantify polyneuropathy impairments and comorbidities utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project (2010 census = 148,201). Methods: ICD-9-CM coding identified polyneuropathy cases (2006–2010) and their 5:1 age- and sex-matched controls. Mortality and impairments were evaluated while identifying and adjusting for Charlson Index comorbidities. Results: Overall prevalence of polyneuropathy was 1.66%, and markedly rose to 6.6% in persons older than 60 years. Cases (n = 2,892) had more comorbidities than controls (n = 14,435) with higher median Charlson Index (6 vs 3, p < 0.001). Diabetes with end-organ disease represented the largest increased comorbidity in cases compared with controls (46.8% vs 6.5%). Diabetic polyneuropathy was the most common specific subtype (38.2%). Miscoded idiopathic cases and false-negative controls also commonly had diabetic polyneuropathy. Median modified Rankin Scale score was considerably higher for cases than controls (4 vs 1, p < 0.001). Multiple comorbidities were found associated with polyneuropathy after adjusting for diabetes co-occurrence, including pulmonary disease, dementia, and others. Polyneuropathy was an independent contributor to multiple functional impairments including difficulty walking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9), climbing stairs (OR = 2.0), using an assistive device (OR = 2.0), fall tendency (OR = 2.4), work disability (OR = 4.2), lower limb amputations (OR = 3.9), and opioid use (OR = 2.7). Prevalent cases had a younger median age at death than controls (80 vs 86 years, p < 0.001), and incident cases had a 6-month shorter survival. Conclusions: Polyneuropathies have notable neurologic impairments beyond their identified multiple comorbidities. Life expectancy is shortened. Diabetic polyneuropathy is underidentified. The quantified extent of the disease burden and refined comorbidity associations emphasize that greater research efforts and health care initiatives are needed. PMID:25832668

  3. Effect of comorbidities and medications on frequency of primary care visits among older patients

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tina; Dattani, Neil D.; Cox, Kelly Anne; Au, Bonnie; Xu, Leo; Melady, Don; Jaakkimainen, Liisa; Jain, Rahul; Charles, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if comorbidities and high-risk medications affect the frequency of family physician visits among older patients. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic family health team at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ont. Participants Among patients aged 65 years and older who were registered patients of the family health team between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, the 5% who visited their family physicians most frequently and the 5% who visited their family physicians least frequently were selected for the study (N = 265). Main outcome measures Predictors of frequent visits to family physicians. Results The significant predictors of being a high-frequency user were female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, P = .03), age older than 85 years (OR = 5.35, P = .001), and higher total number of medications (OR = 1.49, P < .001). Age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score, number of Beers criteria medications, and Anticholinergic Risk Scale score were not significant predictors (P > .05). Conclusion Female sex, age older than 85, and higher total number of medications were independent significant predictors of higher frequency of family physician visits among older patients. Validated tools, such as the Charlson comorbidity index, Beers criteria, and Anticholinergic Risk Scale, did not independently predict the frequency of visits, indicating that predicting frequency of visits is likely complex. PMID:28115442

  4. Effect of comorbidities and medications on frequency of primary care visits among older patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tina; Dattani, Neil D; Cox, Kelly Anne; Au, Bonnie; Xu, Leo; Melady, Don; Jaakkimainen, Liisa; Jain, Rahul; Charles, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    To determine if comorbidities and high-risk medications affect the frequency of family physician visits among older patients. Retrospective chart review. Academic family health team at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ont. Among patients aged 65 years and older who were registered patients of the family health team between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, the 5% who visited their family physicians most frequently and the 5% who visited their family physicians least frequently were selected for the study (N = 265). Predictors of frequent visits to family physicians. The significant predictors of being a high-frequency user were female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, P = .03), age older than 85 years (OR = 5.35, P = .001), and higher total number of medications (OR = 1.49, P < .001). Age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score, number of Beers criteria medications, and Anticholinergic Risk Scale score were not significant predictors (P > .05). Female sex, age older than 85, and higher total number of medications were independent significant predictors of higher frequency of family physician visits among older patients. Validated tools, such as the Charlson comorbidity index, Beers criteria, and Anticholinergic Risk Scale, did not independently predict the frequency of visits, indicating that predicting frequency of visits is likely complex. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  5. [Medical comorbidity in elderly patients with dementia. Differences according age and gender].

    PubMed

    Formiga, F; Fort, I; Robles, M J; Barranco, E; Espinosa, M C; Riu, S

    2007-11-01

    Prevalence of dementia in elderly patients is high. The goal of the study was to assess some aspects of comorbidity in the patients with dementia. We also analyzed comorbidity differences according to age and gender. A total of 311 patients older than 64 years old with dementia were prospectively evaluated. Data were collected on sociodemographic endpoints, type of dementia, Barthel Index (BI), Lawton Index (LO), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Charlson Index, total number of drugs, history of high blood pressure (HT), diabetes (DM), dyslipidemia (DL), heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer. The sample consisted of 222 women (71.4%) and 89 men. Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 80.6 (6) years. Patients were taking an average of 5.8 (2.6) drugs. The mean of Charlson Index was of 2.1 (1.3). Fifty-one percent had HT, 24% DM, 24% DL, 13% HF, 11% COPD and 8% cancer. We found better scores in the MMSE, higher comorbidity and percentage of married people and prevalence of vascular dementia in men with respect to women, who had higher percentage of Alzheimer disease, and widowers. When differences were analyzed according to age, we found a higher percentage of widowers and HF diagnosis, a lower LI values and DL percentage in the patients older than 84 years with respect to younger subjects. Our results showed the presence of high comorbidity and chronic drugs prescription in elderly people with dementia. There are some differences in comorbidity according to age and gender that must be taken into account.

  6. The burden of comorbidity is associated with symptomatic polymicrobial urinary tract infection among institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Laudisio, Alice; Marinosci, Felice; Fontana, Davide; Gemma, Antonella; Zizzo, Alessandro; Coppola, Anna; Rodano, Leonardo; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele

    2015-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), often sustained by polymicrobial flora (p-UTIs), are a common finding among nursing home patients, and associated with adverse outcomes and increased healthcare costs. P-UTIs have been extensively studied with regard to microbiological aspects. However, little is known about the characteristics of the host. The aim of this study is to verify to which extent comorbidity characterizes elderly nursing home patients with p-UTIs. We enrolled 299 patients with culture-positive UTI consecutively admitted to the nursing home of the "Fondazione San Raffaele Cittadella della Carità", Taranto, Italy. P-UTI was diagnosed when two uropathogens were simultaneously isolated. The burden of comorbidity was quantified using the Charlson comorbidity score index. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted association of the variables of interest with the presence of p-UTI. P-UTIs were detected in 118/299 (39%) patients. According to logistic regression, the presence of p-UTIs was independently associated with the Charlson index (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.06-2.72; P = .026). This association remained also after excluding participants without urinary catheter (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.13-3.11; P = .015). The presence of P-UTIs is associated with the burden of comorbidity, but not with individual diseases. Older nursing home patients with comorbidity should be screened for the presence of p-UTIs; further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of early detection and treatment of p-UTIs on the development of comorbidity.

  7. The hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index is a predictor of early death and survival in adult acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Savic, Aleksandar; Kvrgic, Vanja; Rajic, Nebojsa; Urosevic, Ivana; Kovacevic, Dragan; Percic, Ivanka; Popovic, Stevan

    2012-04-01

    The hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is predictive of early death and survival in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic role of the HCT-CI for early death and survival in adult AML patients. In the single-center retrospective study, we analyzed the outcome of 233 adult AML patients. The results indicated that the HCT-CI score is an independent predictor of early death in entire cohort of adult patients with AML. In subgroup analysis, HCT-CI is an independent predictor for early death in elderly patients but not in patients younger than 60 years. A high HCT-CI score predicts shorter survival in adult patients with AML. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comorbidity and Chronic Conditions in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Ashwin; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J.; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The goals of this paper were: (a) to promote research using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) Wave 2 data by providing relevant background information for a broad range of chronic conditions and (b) to provide a framework for combining these chronic conditions into informative comorbidity indices. Method. The chronic conditions measured in NSHAP Wave 2 were grouped across several health domains: cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic, cancer, lung, inflammatory and bone, neurological, and sensorimotor. Prevalences for each condition were reported as percentages and were also estimated separately by age group and gender. Additionally, 2 comorbidity indices were created: a Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) that included conditions associated with mortality risk and the NSHAP Comorbidity Index (NCI) that included conditions from the Modified CCI as well as additional conditions related to overall health and function. Results. Hypertension, incontinence, arthritis, heart conditions, cancer, and diabetes were the most prevalent conditions. In general, prevalences of most chronic conditions increased with age. Additionally, there were several notable gender differences in chronic condition prevalence. Due to the inclusion of highly prevalent conditions, such as hypertension and incontinence, the mean comorbidity index score of the NCI was higher than that of the Modified CCI. Discussion. Wave 2 of NSHAP included a variety of measures assessing the chronic conditions that are the most prevalent in older adults. These data are a valuable resource for the study of the impact of chronic conditions on overall health and aging. PMID:25360017

  9. Comorbidity-adjusted life expectancy: a new tool to inform recommendations for optimal screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunsoon; Klabunde, Carrie N; Yabroff, K Robin; Wang, Zhuoqiao; Meekins, Angela; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Mariotto, Angela B

    2013-11-19

    Many guidelines recommend considering health status and life expectancy when making cancer screening decisions for elderly persons. To estimate life expectancy for elderly persons without a history of cancer, taking into account comorbid conditions. Population-based cohort study. A 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries in selected geographic areas, including their claims and vital status information. Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older between 1992 and 2005 without a history of cancer (n = 407 749). Medicare claims were used to identify comorbid conditions included in the Charlson index. Survival probabilities were estimated by comorbidity group (no, low/medium, and high) and for the 3 most prevalent conditions (diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and congestive heart failure) by using the Cox proportional hazards model. Comorbidity-adjusted life expectancy was calculated based on comparisons of survival models with U.S. life tables. Survival probabilities from the U.S. life tables providing the most similar survival experience to the cohort of interest were used. Persons with higher levels of comorbidity had shorter life expectancies, whereas those with no comorbid conditions, including very elderly persons, had favorable life expectancies relative to an average person of the same chronological age. The estimated life expectancy at age 75 years was approximately 3 years longer for persons with no comorbid conditions and approximately 3 years shorter for those with high comorbidity relative to the average U.S. population. The cohort was limited to Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 66 years or older living in selected geographic areas. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry and Medicare claims lack information on functional status and severity of comorbidity, which might influence life expectancy in elderly persons. Life expectancy varies considerably by comorbidity status in elderly persons

  10. Comorbidity in heart failure. Results of the Spanish RICA Registry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Laiglesia, F-J; Sánchez-Marteles, M; Pérez-Calvo, J-I; Formiga, F; Bartolomé-Satué, J A; Armengou-Arxé, A; López-Quirós, R; Pérez-Silvestre, J; Serrado-Iglesias, A; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M

    2014-12-01

    We sought to identify the comorbidities associated with heart failure (HF) in a non-selected cohort of patients, and its influence on mortality and rehospitalization. Data were obtained from the 'Registro de Insuficiencia Cardiaca' (RICA) of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine. The registry includes patients prospectively admitted in Internal Medicine units for acute HF. Variables included in Charlson Index (ChI) were collected and analysed according to age, gender, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and Barthel Index. The primary end point of study was the likelihood of rehospitalization and death for any cause during the year after discharge. We included 2051 patients, mean age 78 and 53% females. LVEF was ⩾ 50% in 59.1% of the cohort. There was a high degree of dependency as measured by Barthel Index (14.8 % had an index ≤ 60). Mean ChI was 2.91 (SD ± 2.4). The most frequent comorbidities included in ChI were diabetes mellitus (44.3%), chronic renal impairment (30.8%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (27.4%). Age, myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, dementia, COPD, chronic renal impairment and diabetes with target-organ damage were all identified as independent prognostic factors for the combined end point of rehospitalization and death at 1 year. However, if multivariate analysis was done including ChI, only this remained as an independent prognostic factor for the combined end point (P < 0.001). HF is a comorbid condition. ChI is a simple and feasible tool for estimating the burden of comorbidities in such population. We believe that a holistic approach to HF would improve prognosis and the relief the pressure exerted on public health services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of comorbidities on overall survival in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: results of the randomized CML Study IV

    PubMed Central

    Krauß, Marie-Paloma; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Lauseker, Michael; Proetel, Ulrike; Kalmanti, Lida; Hanfstein, Benjamin; Fabarius, Alice; Kraemer, Doris; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Bentz, Martin; Staib, Peter; de Wit, Maike; Wernli, Martin; Zettl, Florian; Hebart, Holger F.; Hahn, Markus; Heymanns, Jochen; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo; Schmitz, Norbert; Eckart, Michael J.; Gassmann, Winfried; Bartholomäus, Andrea; Pezzutto, Antonio; Leibundgut, Elisabeth Oppliger; Heim, Dominik; Krause, Stefan W.; Burchert, Andreas; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Hasford, Joerg; Hochhaus, Andreas; Pfirrmann, Markus; Müller, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the influence of comorbidities on remission rate and overall survival (OS) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Participants of the CML Study IV, a randomized 5-arm trial designed to optimize imatinib therapy, were analyzed for comorbidities at diagnosis using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); 511 indexed comorbidities were reported in 1519 CML patients. Age was an additional risk factor in 863 patients. Resulting CCI scores were as follows: CCI 2, n = 589; CCI 3 or 4, n = 599; CCI 5 or 6, n = 229; and CCI ≥ 7, n = 102. No differences in cumulative incidences of accelerated phase, blast crisis, or remission rates were observed between patients in the different CCI groups. Higher CCI was significantly associated with lower OS probabilities. The 8-year OS probabilities were 93.6%, 89.4%, 77.6%, and 46.4% for patients with CCI 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, and ≥7, respectively. In multivariate analysis, CCI was the most powerful predictor of OS, which was still valid after removal of its age-related components. Comorbidities have no impact on treatment success but do have a negative effect on OS, indicating that survival of patients with CML is determined more by comorbidities than by CML itself. OS may therefore be inappropriate as an outcome measure for specific CML treatments. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00055874. PMID:25918346

  12. Predictive Accuracy of 29-Comorbidity Index for In-Hospital Deaths in US Adult Hospitalizations with a Diagnosis of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, James; Abe, Karon; Boulet, Sheree L.; Beckman, Michele G.; Hooper, W. Craig; Grant, Althea M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a significant source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. By analyzing data of the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), we evaluated the predictive accuracy of the AHRQ’s 29-comorbidity index with in-hospital death among US adult hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE. Methods We assessed the case-fatality and prevalence of comorbidities among a sample of 153,518 adult hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE that comprised 87,605 DVTs and 65,913 PEs (with and without DVT). We estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with multivariable logistic regression models by using comorbidities as predictors and status of in-hospital death as an outcome variable. We assessed the c-statistics for the predictive accuracy of the logistic regression models. Results In 2010, approximately 41,944 in-hospital deaths (20,212 with DVT and 21,732 with PE) occurred among 770,137 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE. When compared separately to hospitalizations with VTE, DVT, or PE that had no corresponding comorbidities, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, coagulopathy, liver disease, lymphoma, fluid and electrolyte disorders, metastatic cancer, other neurological disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, renal failure, solid tumor without metastasis, and weight loss were positively and independently associated with 10%−125% increased likelihoods of in-hospital death. The c-statistic values ranged from 0.776 to 0.802. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that comorbidity was associated independently with risk of death among hospitalizations with VTE and among hospitalizations with DVT or PE. The AHRQ 29-comorbidity index provides acceptable to excellent predictive accuracy for in-hospital deaths among adult hospitalizations with VTE

  13. Comorbidities against Quality Control of VKA Therapy in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A French National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouaud, Agnes; Hanon, Olivier; Boureau, Anne-Sophie; Chapelet, Guillaume Gilles; de Decker, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population, thromboembolic prevention by means of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is one of the most frequent daily concerns of practitioners. The effectiveness and safety of treatment with VKA correlates directly with maximizing the time in therapeutic range, with an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The older population concentrates many of factors known to influence INR rate, particularly concomitant medications and concurrent medical conditions, also defined as comorbidities. Objective Determine whether a high burden on comorbidities, defined by a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, is associated a lower quality of INR control. Study-Design Cross-sectional study. Settings French geriatric care units nationwide. Participants 2164 patients aged 80 and over and treated with vitamin K antagonists. Measurements Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The recorded data included age, sex, falls, kidney failure, hemorrhagic event, VKA treatment duration, and the number and type of concomitant medications. Quality of INR control, defined as time in therapeutic range (TTR), was assessed using the Rosendaal method. Results 487 patients were identified the low-quality control of INR group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low-quality control of INR was independently associated with a CCI ≥3 (OR = 1.487; 95% CI [1.15; 1.91]). The other variables associated with low-quality control of INR were: hemorrhagic event (OR = 3.151; 95% CI [1.64; 6.07]), hospitalization (OR = 1.614, 95% CI [1.21; 2.14]). Conclusion An elevated CCI score (≥3) was associated with low-quality control of INR in elderly patients treated with VKA. Further research is needed to corroborate this finding. PMID:25789771

  14. Do Comorbidities Play a Role in Hand Osteoarthritis Disease Burden? Data from the Hand Osteoarthritis in Secondary Care Cohort.

    PubMed

    Damman, Wendy; Liu, Rani; Kroon, Féline P B; Reijnierse, Monique; Huizinga, Tom W J; Rosendaal, Frits R; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2017-09-15

    Because the association and its clinical relevance between comorbidities and primary hand osteoarthritis (OA) disease burden is unclear, we studied this in patients with hand OA from our Hand OSTeoArthritis in Secondary care (HOSTAS) cohort. Cross-sectional data from the HOSTAS study were used, including consecutive patients with primary hand OA. Nineteen comorbidities were assessed: 18 self-reported (modified Charlson index and osteoporosis) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Mean differences were estimated between patients with versus without comorbidities, adjusted for age and sex: for general disease burden [health-related quality of life (HRQOL), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 physical component scale (0-100)] and disease-specific burden [self-reported hand function (0-36), pain (0-20; Australian/Canadian Hand OA Index), and tender joint count (TJC, 0-30)]. Differences above a minimal clinically important improvement/difference were considered clinically relevant. The study included 538 patients (mean age 61 yrs, 86% women, 88% fulfilled American College of Rheumatology classification criteria). Mean (SD) HRQOL, function, pain, and TJC were 44.7 (8), 15.6 (9), 9.3 (4), and 4.8 (5), respectively. Any comorbidity was present in 54% (287/531) of patients and this was unfavorable [adjusted mean difference presence/absence any comorbidity (95% CI): HRQOL -4.4 (-5.8 to -3.0), function 1.9 (0.4-3.3), pain 1.4 (0.6-2.1), TJC 1.3 (0.4-2.2)]. Number of comorbidities and both musculoskeletal (e.g., connective tissue disease) and nonmusculoskeletal comorbidities (e.g., pulmonary and cardiovascular disease) were associated with disease burden. Associations with HRQOL and function were clinically relevant. Comorbidities showed clinically relevant associations with disease burden. Therefore, the role of comorbidities in hand OA should be considered when interpreting disease outcomes and in patient management.

  15. Comorbidity as prognostic variable in MDS: comparative evaluation of the HCT-CI and CCI in a core dataset of 419 patients of the Austrian MDS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Sperr, W R; Wimazal, F; Kundi, M; Baumgartner, C; Nösslinger, T; Makrai, A; Stauder, R; Krieger, O; Pfeilstöcker, M; Valent, P

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of comorbidity is of increasing importance in patients with hematologic disorders. In the present study, the influence of comorbidity on survival and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) evolution was analyzed retrospectively in 419 patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (observation period: 1985-2007). The median age was 71 years (range 24-91 years). Two different scoring systems, the hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were applied. The HCT-CI was found to be a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (OS, P < 0.05) as well as event-free survival (EFS, P < 0.05) in our patients, whereas the CCI was of prognostic significance for OS (P < 0.05), but not for EFS. For AML-free survival, neither the HCT-CI nor the CCI were of predictive value. A multivariate analysis including age, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, karyotype, number of cytopenias, French-American-British groups, and comorbidity was applied. Comorbidity was found to be an independent prognostic factor in patients with low- or int-1-risk MDS (P < 0.05) regarding OS and EFS. Together, our data show that comorbidity is an important risk factor for OS and EFS in patients with MDS.

  16. Frailty and comorbidity are independent predictors of outcome in patients referred for pre-dialysis education

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Julia; Aggett, Justine; Goodland, Annwen; Prichard, Alison; Thomas, Nerys; Donovan, Kieron; Roberts, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future, with the fastest growth seen among adults ≥75 years of age. Elderly patients with advanced CKD are likely to have a higher burden of comorbidity and frailty, both of which may influence their disease outcome. For these patients, treatment decisions can be complex, with the current lack of robust prognostic tools hindering the shared decision-making process. The current study aims to assess the impact of comorbidity and frailty on the outcomes of patients referred for pre-dialysis education. Methods We performed a single-centre study of patients (n = 283) referred for pre-dialysis education between 2010 and 2012. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) were used to assess comorbid disease burden and frailty, respectively. Follow-up data were collected until February 2015. Results The CCI and CFS scores at the time of referral to the pre-dialysis service were independent predictors of mortality. Within the study follow-up period, 76% of patients with a high CFS score at the time of pre-dialysis education had died, with 63% of these patients not commencing dialysis before death. Conclusion A relatively simple frailty scale and comorbidity score could be used to predict survival and better inform the shared decision-making process for patients with advanced kidney disease. PMID:26985387

  17. Prognostic Value of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index for Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Salit, Rachel B; Oliver, David C; Delaney, Colleen; Sorror, Mohamed L; Milano, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    The Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) has been validated as a tool for evaluating the risk of treatment-related mortality (TRM) in HLA-matched sibling and matched unrelated donor bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation patients. However, the role of the HCT-CI after cord blood transplantation (CBT) has not been fully investigated. In this analysis, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of the HCT-CI in patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) CBT. Between 2006 and 2013, HCT-CI scores were prospectively tabulated for patients with hematologic malignancies sequentially enrolled on multicenter RIC CBT studies coordinated by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: 151 patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 101), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 3), acute lymphocytic leukemia (n = 24), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 8), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 3), and other hematologic malignancies (n = 12) underwent RIC CBT and were included. Two patients received a single CBT and the remaining 149 received a double CBT. All patients received cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Median HCT-CI for the whole group was 3 (range, 0 to 8). Using the HCT-CI categories of low (0), intermediate (1 or 2), and high risk (>3), there was no significant difference in TRM between the 3 groups. However, when the patients were divided into 2 groups, HCT-CI ≤ 3 or > 3, the incidence of TRM at 3 years after transplantation was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17 to 36) in the HCT-CI ≤ 3 group versus 50% (95% CI, 30 to 67) in the HCT-CI > 3 group (P = .01). Overall survival for patients with HCT-CI ≤ 3 was 40% (95% CI, 27 to 51) versus 29% in patients with HCT-CI >3 (95% CI, 12 to 48) (P = .08). Our study demonstrates that HCT-CI score > 3 is associated with an increased risk of TRM at 3 years after

  18. Comorbidity negatively influences prognosis in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Guerra-Vales, Juan-Manuel; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome and prognostic factors in a series of patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and determine the impact of comorbidity on survival. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 68 patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (perihilar, n = 37; distal, n = 31) seen at a single tertiary-care institution during the period 1999-2003 was performed. Data on presentation, management, and outcome were assessed by chart review. Pathologic confirmation was obtained in 37 cases (54.4%). Comorbidity was evaluated by using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 73.4 ± 11.5 years. Jaundice was the most common symptom presented (86.8%). Median CCI score was 1 (range, 0 to 4). Nineteen patients (27.9%) underwent tumor resection. Palliative biliary drainage was performed in 39 patients (57.4%), and 6 patients (8.8%) received only best supportive care. Tumor-free margin status (R0) was achieved in 15 cases (78.9% of resection group). Baseline serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level was revealed to be an independent predictor of surgical treatment (P = 0.026). Overall median survival was 3.1 ± 0.9 mo, with 1- and 2-year survival rates of 21% and 7%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, tumor resection, CCI score, and serum CA 19-9 levels correlated significantly with outcome. In the multivariate analysis, only resection (HR 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.51, P = 0.005) and a CCI score ≥ 2 (HR 3.36; 95% CI, 1.0-10.9, P = 0.045) were found to independently predict survival. CONCLUSION: Tumor resection and comorbidity emerged as significant prognostic variables in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Comorbidity evaluation instruments should be applied in the clinical management of such patients. PMID:19908335

  19. Do comorbidity influences acute toxicity and outcome in elderly patients with endometrial cancer treated by adjuvant radiotherapy plus brachytherapy?

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, A; Chiumento, C; Fusco, V

    2013-08-01

    To correlate comorbidity and acute radiation toxicity in elderly patients treated with adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus brachytherapy-high dose rate (HDR-BRT) for endometrial cancer (EC). Endometrial cancer patients over 65 were treated and evaluated for comorbidity assessment with ACE-27 and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). EBRT total dose was 45-50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/day). The vault vagina boost of dose was performed by HDR-BRT with 2/3 fractions with a total dose of 10-15 Gy. From 2008 to 2011, 35 patients were analyzed. Eighteen patients (51.43 %) had not ACE-27 comorbidity; while 27 patients (77.14 %) had CCI lower than three. During treatment, acute toxicity was mild and not influenced by the comorbidity score. Two-year Progression Free and Overall Survival were 69 and 80 %. ACE-27 and CCI did not affect progression-free survival (p = 0.51, p = 0.3) and OS (p = 0.26, p = 0.5). External beam radiotherapy plus BRT-HDR are well tolerated in EC elderly with good performance status and low comorbidity profile.

  20. Utility of comorbidity assessment in predicting transplantation-related toxicity following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Laura; Iqbal, Tariq; Zaidi, Mukarram A; McDiarmid, Sheryl A; Huebsch, Lothar B; Tay, Jason; Atkins, Harold; Allan, David S

    2008-09-01

    Patients with coexisting medical problems may suffer increased toxicity and reduced quality of life after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The benefit of high-dose therapy for some patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is debatable. Decision tools that aid in identifying those patients with MM most suited for autologous HSCT may avoid the risk of excess toxicity. An objective assessment of comorbidities was performed in 126 patients with MM undergoing autologous HSCT using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI), and a modified pretransplantation assessment of mortality (mPAM) to determine the strength of association with increased transplantation-related toxicity and increased length of hospital stay (LOS). Any comorbidity scored using the CCI or HCT-CI (score > 0) was associated with an increased number of organ systems with serious toxicity (at least grade 2 toxicity using the Seattle criteria), an increased total sum of toxicity grades for all organs, and prolonged LOS. An mPAM score > or = 24 was associated with increased LOS. When considering autologous HSCT for a patient with MM, assessment of comorbidities using the CCI or HCT-CI may assist in predicting the risk of transplantation-related toxicity as an adjunct to physician judgment and patient preference.

  1. Comorbidity, age and mortality among adults treated intensively for acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Bernard; Pardee, Timothy; Isom, Scott; Sliesoraitis, Sarunas; Winter, Allison; Lawrence, Julia; Powell, Bayard L.; Klepin, Heidi D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to characterize comorbidities among adults receiving intensive therapy for AML, and investigate their association with outcomes. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 277 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed AML treated intensively at the Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University from 2002–2009. Pretreatment comorbidities were identified by ICD-9 codes and chart review. Comorbidity burden (modified Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) and specific conditions were analyzed individually. Outcomes were overall survival (OS), remission, and 30-day mortality. Covariates included age, gender, cytogenetic characteristics, hemoglobin, white cell count, lactate dehydrogenase, body mass index, and insurance type. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate OS; logistic regression was used for remission and 30-day mortality. Results In this series, 144 patients were ≥60 years old (median age 70 years, median survival 8.7 months) and 133 were <60 years (median age 47 years, median survival 23.1 months). Older patients had a higher comorbidity burden (CCI≥1 58% versus 26%, p<0.001). Prevalent comorbid conditions differed by age (diabetes 19.2% versus 7.5%; cardiovascular disease 12.5% versus 4.5%, for older versus younger patients, respectively). The CCI was not independently associated with OS or 30-day mortality in either age group. Among older patients, diabetes was associated with higher 30-day mortality (33.3% vs. 12.0% in diabetic vs. non diabetic patients, p =0.006). Controlling for age, cytogenetic characteristics and other comorbidities, the presence of diabetes increased the odds of 30-day mortality by 4.9 (CI 1.6–15.2) times. Discussion Diabetes is adversely associated with 30-day survival in older AML patients receiving intensive therapy. PMID:26527394

  2. Reproducibility, reliability and validity of population-based administrative health data for the assessment of cancer non-related comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with comorbidities do not receive optimal treatment for their cancer, leading to lower cancer survival. Information on individual comorbidities is not straightforward to derive from population-based administrative health datasets. We described the development of a reproducible algorithm to extract the individual Charlson index comorbidities from such data. We illustrated the algorithm with 1,789 laryngeal cancer patients diagnosed in England in 2013. We aimed to clearly set out and advocate the time-related assumptions specified in the algorithm by providing empirical evidence for them. Methods Comorbidities were assessed from hospital records in the ten years preceding cancer diagnosis and internal reliability of the hospital records was checked. Data were right-truncated 6 or 12 months prior to cancer diagnosis to avoid inclusion of potentially cancer-related comorbidities. We tested for collider bias using Cox regression. Results Our administrative data showed weak to moderate internal reliability to identify comorbidities (ICC ranging between 0.1 and 0.6) but a notably high external validity (86.3%). We showed a reverse protective effect of non-cancer related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) when the effect is split into cancer and non-cancer related COPD (Age-adjusted HR: 0.95, 95% CI:0.7–1.28 for non-cancer related comorbidities). Furthermore, we showed that a window of 6 years before diagnosis is an optimal period for the assessment of comorbidities. Conclusion To formulate a robust approach for assessing common comorbidities, it is important that assumptions made are explicitly stated and empirically proven. We provide a transparent and consistent approach useful to researchers looking to assess comorbidities for cancer patients using administrative health data. PMID:28263996

  3. Relation of comorbidities and patient navigation with the time to diagnostic resolution after abnormal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Elizabeth M; Raich, Peter C; Dudley, Donald J; Freund, Karen M; Paskett, Electra D; Patierno, Steven R; Simon, Melissa; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Snyder, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    Whether patient navigation improves outcomes for patients with comorbidities is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of comorbidities on the time to diagnostic resolution after an abnormal cancer screening test and to examine whether patient navigation improves the timeliness and likelihood of diagnostic resolution for patients with comorbidities in comparison with no navigation. A secondary analysis of comorbidity data collected by Patient Navigation Research Program sites using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was conducted. The participants were 6,349 patients with abnormal breast, cervical, colon, or prostate cancer screening tests between 2007 and 2011. The intervention was patient navigation or usual care. The CCI data were highly skewed across projects and cancer sites, and the CCI scores were categorized as 0 (CCI score of 0 or no comorbidities identified; 76% of cases); 1 (CCI score of 1; 16% of cases), or 2 (CCI score ≥ 2; 8% of cases). Separate adjusted hazard ratios for each site and cancer type were obtained, and then they were pooled with a meta-analysis random effects methodology. Patients with a CCI score ≥ 2 had delayed diagnostic resolution after an abnormal cancer screening test in comparison with those with no comorbidities. Patient navigation reduced delays in diagnostic resolution, with the greatest benefits seen for those with a CCI score ≥ 2. Persons with a CCI score ≥ 2 experienced significant delays in timely diagnostic care in comparison with patients without comorbidities. Patient navigation was effective in reducing delays in diagnostic resolution among those with CCI scores > 1. Cancer 2017;123:312-318. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. [Comorbidity and cardiovascular risk in subjects with initial diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Párraga Martínez, Ignacio; Campo Del Campo, José María Del; Muñoz Sánchez-Villacañas, Rafael; Villena Ferrer, Alejandro; Morena Rayo, Susana; González Felipe, Natividad; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    For a proper approach to the subjects, in which the presence of hypercholesterolemia is identified for the first time, is important to consider simultaneously both cardiovascular risk factors and the presence of other diseases. The purpose of our study was to describe the lipid profile of patients in which the presence of hypercholesterolemia is detected for the frist time and to determine their cardiovascular risk and comorbidity. Observational cross-sectional study in a Primary Care setting. In 274 subjects with a plasma cholesterol level higher or equal to 200 mg / dL ("limit" hypercholesterolemia), selected by consecutive sampling, we assessed: lipid profile, cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular risk (SCORE and Castelli's atherogenic index), comorbidity (Charlson's Index) and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean cholesterol level was 232.9 mg/dl. Hypercholesterolaemia was reported "definite" (>= 250 mg / dl) in 21.1% (95% CI: 16.2 to 26.1). A 9.5% showed a cardiovascular risk >= 5%. Lipoprotein ratio of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was higher in men than in women (4.4 vs. 3.8, p <0.001) in subjects with Charlson's Comorbidity Index > = 1 (4.1 vs. 3.9, p = 0.04), in smokers (4.3 vs. 3.9, p = 0.04) and in hypertensive subjects (4.2 vs. 3.9, p = 0.03), obese (4.2 vs 3 , 7, p <0.05) or with the metabolic syndrome (4.4 vs 3.9, p = 0.02). We observed a higher proportion of subjects with moderate cardiovascular risk / high or cardiovascular disease in those with comorbidity (87.3% vs 42.3%, p <0.01). More than a third of the subjects in which "limit" cholesterol was identifiyed for the first time presents comorbidity, being "defined" hypercholesterolemia in 21.1% of the cases. Takeing in consideration the Score function assessment, one outif 10 subjects presents high cardiovascular mortality risk after 10 years. Both lipoprotein ratio and cardiovascular risk are markedly higher in subjects with comorbidity.

  5. Antibiotic consumption in relation to socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and accessibility of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Ternhag, Anders; Grünewald, Maria; Nauclér, Pontus; Wisell, Karin Tegmark

    2014-12-01

    Differences in antibiotic consumption between individuals are not only due to differences in primary infection morbidity, other non-medical factors are important. Our objective was to investigate how socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and access to primary care affect antibiotic prescribing. The study population included all 2 078 481 persons in Sweden who received at least one antibiotic prescription during 2010, and an unmatched control population of 788 580 individuals. We used record linkage to obtain data on co-morbidity, various socio-demographic variables, and waiting times for doctor appointments in primary care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for antibiotic prescription. The results showed that over 20% of the population were prescribed antibiotics during 2010. Children aged 0-5 years, persons ≥ 75 years of age, those living in urban areas, and women compared with men, received many prescriptions. Co-morbidity was a strong factor that determined the number of antibiotic prescriptions: those with Charlson's index ≥ 3 had an OR of 3.03 (95% CI: 3.00-3.07) to obtain antibiotics in the adjusted analysis, compared with individuals without co-morbidity (Charlson's index 0). Short waiting times for a doctor's visit in primary care were associated with a higher number of antibiotic prescriptions. Individuals born in Sweden were prescribed more antibiotics compared with those born in another country. Specifically, persons born in any of the 27 EU countries (excluding Scandinavia) had an OR of antibiotic prescription of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.77-0.78) compared with native-born individuals. We conclude that non-medical factors strongly influence antibiotic prescriptions.

  6. Co-morbidities in persons infected with HIV: increased burden with older age and negative effects on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Penney, Alan T; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Riggs, Patricia K; Doyle, Katie; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott L; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on medical co-morbidity burden, along with its clinical correlates and impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across the lifespan in HIV. Participants included 262 individuals across four groups stratified by age (≤40 and ≥50 years) and HIV serostatus. Medical co-morbidity burden was assessed using a modified version of the Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI). Multiple regression accounting for potentially confounding demographic, psychiatric, and medical factors revealed an interaction between age and HIV infection on the CCI, with the highest medical co-morbidity burden in the older HIV+cohort. Nearly half of the older HIV+group had at least one major medical co-morbidity, with the most prevalent being diabetes (17.8%), syndromic neurocognitive impairment (15.4%), and malignancy (12.2%). Affective distress and detectable plasma viral load were significantly associated with the CCI in the younger and older HIV-infected groups, respectively. Greater co-morbidity burden was uniquely associated with lower physical HRQoL across the lifespan. These findings highlight the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbidities in older HIV-infected adults and underscore the importance of early detection and treatment efforts that might enhance HIV disease outcomes.

  7. Comparison of different comorbidity measures for oral cancer patients with surgical intervention: A longitudinal study from a single cancer center.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Po-Chun; Yu, Chia-Hui; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2016-06-01

    Several comorbid measures have been developed and demonstrated the predictive ability for cancer mortality. We conducted a retrospective study on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients to compare the Charlson comorbidity index score (CCIS) to the Elixhauser comorbidity index score (ECIS). Newly diagnosed OSCC patients (n=232) post major surgery with or without adjuvant therapy were identified from the cancer registry database between 2006 and 2011. Comorbidities present prior to the cancer diagnosis were obtained and adapted to the CCIS and ECIS. The prevalence of comorbid conditions and the influence on disease-specific survival (DSS) rate were calculated and analyzed by Cox regression model. The discriminatory ability of these two comorbid measures was evaluated by using the adjusted hazard ratio and Akaike information criterion (AIC) in a multivariate regression model. The prediction accuracy was assessed using Harrell's c-statistic. Most of the patients (93.5%) were male with a mean age of 54 ± 11 years and 77 of them (33.1%) had at least one comorbid condition. The ECIS was associated DSS, with an additional 10% increased risk observed for mortality for each increased score (HR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.18) after adjusting with pathological risk features. However, the CCIS was not an independent prognostic factor for these patients. The ECIS increased discriminatory ability but the CCIS did not improve discrimination. Comorbid conditions significantly influenced the clinical outcomes of patient with OSCC post major surgery. A higher ECIS was associated with worse disease specific survival indicative of a valuable prognostic indicator. The ECIS may be considered in further clinical trials for a variety of cancers, including head and neck cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stroke Severity and Comorbidity Index for Prediction of Mortality after Ischemic Stroke from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Acute Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Phan, Thanh G; Clissold, Benjamin; Ly, John; Ma, Henry; Moran, Chris; Srikanth, Velandai

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of administrative data (incorporating comorbidity index) and stroke severity score to predict ischemic stroke mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal timing for the collection of stroke severity data and the minimum clinical dataset to be included in models of stroke mortality. To address these issues, we chose the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA), which contains National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and at 24 hours, as well as outcome at 90 days. VISTA was searched for patients who had baseline and 24-hour NIHSS. Improvement in regression models was performed by the net reclassification improvement (NRI) method. The clinical data among 5206 patients were mean age, 69 ± 13; comorbidity index, 3.3 ± .9; median NIHSS at baseline, 12 (interquartile range [IQR] 8-17); NIHSS at 24 hours, 9 (IQR 8-15); and death at 90 days in 15%. The baseline model consists of age, gender, and comorbidity index. Adding the baseline NIHSS to model 1 improved the NRI by 0.671 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.595-0.747) [or 67.1% correct reclassification between model 1 and model 2]. Adding the 24 hour NIHSS term to model 1 (model 3) improved the NRI by 0.929 (95% CI 0.857-1.000) for model 3 versus model 1. Adding the variable thrombolysis to model 3 (model 4) improve NRI by 0.1 (95% CI 0.023-0.178) [model 4 versus model 3]. The optimal model for the prediction of mortality was achieved by adding the 24-hour NIHSS and thrombolysis to the baseline model. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Comorbidities in patients hospitalized due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A comparative analysis of the ECCO and ESMI studies].

    PubMed

    Almagro, P; López, F; Cabrera, F J; Portillo, J; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Zubillaga, E; Díez, J; Román, P; Murcia-Zaragoza, J; Boixeda, R; Murio, C; Soriano, J B

    2012-06-01

    The presence of associated diseases is very frequent in patients hospitalized due to exacerbation of COPD. We have studied the comorbidities of patients admitted due to the disease in the Spanish Internal Medicine Services and we have evaluated the variations in regards to a previous study (ECCO study) performed two years earlier. A cross-sectional, multicenter and cohort study was performed. Patients hospitalized due to exacerbation of COPD in Spanish Internal Medicine Services were enrolled. All the patients were studied for the presence of comorbidity using the Charlson index and a questionnaire with relevant conditions not included in this index. Furthermore, spirometric data were collected on the duration of the disease or home treatment, among other variables. A total of 1004 patients (398 in the ECCO study and 606 in the ESMI study) were studied. Of these, 89.4% were males, with mean age of 73 years (SD: 9.5 years). The patients of the ESMI study obtain higher scores on the Charlson index (3.04 vs. 2.71; P<0.01), and had a greater prevalence of ischemic heart disease (17 vs. 22.0%; P<0.05), heart failure (26.9 vs. 35.5%; P<.002), peripheral vascular disease (12.6 vs. 17.4%; P<.02), arterial hypertension (54.8 vs. 65.6%; P<.001), diabetes mellitus (29.4 vs. 37%; P<.02) and renal failure (6.5 vs. 16.8%; P<.0001). This study confirms the elevated prevalence of associated diseases in patients with COPD who are admitted to the Spanish Internal Medicine Services and the increase of comorbidities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of comorbidities on stroke rehabilitation outcomes: does the method matter?

    PubMed

    Berlowitz, Dan R; Hoenig, Helen; Cowper, Diane C; Duncan, Pamela W; Vogel, W Bruce

    2008-10-01

    To examine the impact of comorbidities in predicting stroke rehabilitation outcomes and to examine differences among 3 commonly used comorbidity measures--the Charlson Index, adjusted clinical groups (ACGs), and diagnosis cost groups (DCGs)--in how well they predict these outcomes. Inception cohort of patients followed for 6 months. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals. A total of 2402 patients beginning stroke rehabilitation at a VA facility in 2001 and included in the Integrated Stroke Outcomes Database. Not applicable. Three outcomes were evaluated: 6-month mortality, 6-month rehospitalization, and change in FIM score. During 6 months of follow-up, 27.6% of patients were rehospitalized and 8.6% died. The mean FIM score increased an average of 20 points during rehabilitation. Addition of comorbidities to the age and sex models improved their performance in predicting these outcomes based on changes in c statistics for logistic and R(2) values for linear regression models. While ACG and DCG models performed similarly, the best models, based on DCGs, had a c statistic of .74 for 6-month mortality and .63 for 6-month rehospitalization, and an R(2) of .111 for change in FIM score. Comorbidities are important predictors of stroke rehabilitation outcomes. How they are classified has important implications for models that may be used in assessing quality of care.

  11. Validation of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index in a retrospective cohort of children and adolescents who received an allogeneic transplantation in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Figueroa Turienzo, Carlos M; Cernadas, Carolina; Roizen, Mariana; Pizzi, Silvia; Staciuk, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantationis a therapy with a risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM), which may vary depending on prior comorbidities. The Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) is an instrument developed to measure this risk. There are very few reports on its use in pediatrics. The objective of this study was to validate the HCT-CI in a pediatric cohort of allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation recipients in Argentina. Retrospective cohort made up of 140 transplant patients a, Hospital J. P. Garrahan between 2008 and 2012. Medical records were reviewed to identify patient history and course. The HCT-CI was estimated for each patient, who was classified as having a low (score: 0), intermediate (score: 1-2) or high (score: >3) risk. Survival was estimated for each group using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. For malignancies, relapse was considered an event consistent with TRM. A p value 〈 0.05 was considered significant. The median score in the HCT-CI was 1 (r: 0-6). A score of 0 was observed in 45.7% of patients, 1-2 in 40.7%, and >3 in 13.6%. The most common comorbidities included obesity, infection, pulmonary and liver involvement. TRM was 14.1% among patients with a score of 0; 43.7% with a score of 1-2, and 52.6% with a score >3. Differences were observed among the survival curves of the three groups (p = 0.01). The HCT-CI demonstrated to be an effective tool to predict the risk of TRM in our setting. comorbidity, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, non-relapse mortality, pediatrics. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. Comparison of measures of comorbidity for predicting disability 12-months post-injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that impact on disability is necessary to inform trauma care and enable adequate risk adjustment for benchmarking and monitoring. A key consideration is how to adjust for pre-existing conditions when assessing injury outcomes, and whether the inclusion of comorbidity is needed in addition to adjustment for age. This study compared different approaches to modelling the impact of comorbidity, collected as part of the routine hospital episode data, on disability outcomes following orthopaedic injury. Methods 12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended (GOS-E) outcomes for 13,519 survivors to discharge were drawn from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry, a prospective cohort study of admitted orthopaedic injury patients. ICD-10-AM comorbidity codes were mapped to four comorbidity indices. Cases with a GOS-E score of 7–8 were considered “recovered”. A split dataset approach was used with cases randomly assigned to development or test datasets. Logistic regression models were fitted with “recovery” as the outcome and the performance of the models based on each comorbidity index (adjusted for injury and age) measured using calibration (Hosmer-Lemshow (H-L) statistics and calibration curves) and discrimination (Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC)) statistics. Results All comorbidity indices improved model fit over models with age and injuries sustained alone. None of the models demonstrated acceptable model calibration (H-L statistic p < 0.05 for all models). There was little difference between the discrimination of the indices for predicting recovery: Charlson Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71); number of ICD-10 chapters represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.72); number of six frequent chronic conditions represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.71); and the Functional Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71). Conclusions The presence of ICD-10 recorded comorbid

  13. Comorbidity and chronic conditions in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), Wave 2.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Kotwal, Ashwin; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Waite, Linda J; McClintock, Martha K; Dale, William

    2014-11-01

    The goals of this paper were: (a) to promote research using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) Wave 2 data by providing relevant background information for a broad range of chronic conditions and (b) to provide a framework for combining these chronic conditions into informative comorbidity indices. The chronic conditions measured in NSHAP Wave 2 were grouped across several health domains: cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic, cancer, lung, inflammatory and bone, neurological, and sensorimotor. Prevalences for each condition were reported as percentages and were also estimated separately by age group and gender. Additionally, 2 comorbidity indices were created: a Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) that included conditions associated with mortality risk and the NSHAP Comorbidity Index (NCI) that included conditions from the Modified CCI as well as additional conditions related to overall health and function. Hypertension, incontinence, arthritis, heart conditions, cancer, and diabetes were the most prevalent conditions. In general, prevalences of most chronic conditions increased with age. Additionally, there were several notable gender differences in chronic condition prevalence. Due to the inclusion of highly prevalent conditions, such as hypertension and incontinence, the mean comorbidity index score of the NCI was higher than that of the Modified CCI. Wave 2 of NSHAP included a variety of measures assessing the chronic conditions that are the most prevalent in older adults. These data are a valuable resource for the study of the impact of chronic conditions on overall health and aging. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Measured Effect Magnitude of Co-Morbidities on Burn injury Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Knowlin, Laquanda; Stanford, Lindsay; Moore, Danier; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ability to better prognosticate burn injury outcome is challenging and historically, most center use the Baux or revised Baux score to help prognosticate burn outcome, however, the weighted contribution of comorbidity on burn mortality has traditionally not been accounted for nor adequately studied. We therefore sought to determine the effect of comorbidities, using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) on burn mortality. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of comorbidities on burn injury mortality as determined by the LA50 (lethal TBSA burn at which 50% of the cohort will succumb from the burn injury) in a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002–2012. Independent variables analyzed included basic demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, TBSA (total body surface area), length of hospital stay, and pre-existing comorbidities. Bivariate analysis was performed and logistic regression modeling using significant variables was utilized to estimate odds of death. Results 7640 patients were included in this study. Overall survival rate was 96%. 40% of our burn cohort had at least one comorbidity. There was a linear increase in the likelihood of death with an increase in CCI. The logistic regression model for mortality outcomes identified four statistically significant variables: age, TBSA, inhalational injury and the presence of comorbidities (OR = 1.59 for each 1 point increase in CCI; 95% CI 1.44–1.77). The unadjusted LA50 was 53% for the entire cohort. Partial adjustment multivariate regression controlling for burn mechanism and inhalation injury only, produced a slight reduction in LA50 for the 0–18 and 19–64 age categories to 76% and 48%, respectively, but a significant decrease occurred in the ≥ 65 years age group with a reduced LA50 to 20% (p<0.001). After full adjustment for all significant covariates, including comorbidities, the independent magnitude of

  15. Lung transplantation in the elderly: Influence of age, comorbidities, underlying disease, and extended criteria donor lungs.

    PubMed

    Ehrsam, Jonas P; Benden, Christian; Seifert, Burkhardt; Opitz, Isabelle; Schneiter, Didier; Weder, Walter; Inci, Ilhan

    2017-07-29

    As large registries show an increased risk for lung transplant recipients aged 60 years or more, few single centers report favorable outcomes for carefully selected older recipients without providing essential details. The purpose of our study was to determine variables that influence survival in the elderly. All adult bilateral first lung transplants between January 2000 and December 2014 were divided in 2 groups: those aged less than 60 years (N = 223) and those aged 60 years or more (N = 83). The Charlson-Deyo Index determined recipient comorbidities. The Oto Donor Score assessed donor lung quality. Recipients aged 60 years or more had a significant lower median survival compared with their younger counterparts (48 vs 112 months, respectively, P < .001). Recipient age was as an exponentially increasing univariate risk factor for mortality. By adjusting for variables in multivariate analysis, this trend was nonsignificant. The displacing variables were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.2), Charlson-Deyo Index 2 or greater (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), systemic hypertension (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), gastroesophageal reflux (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1), diverticulosis (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7), and an Oto Donor Score 8 or greater (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0). All of these risk factors were significantly more likely to occur in recipients aged 60 years or more, except for a tendency for high Charlson-Deyo Index. The comorbidity profile, underlying disease, and donor lung quality appear to be more important than age in reducing long-term survival. Older age serves as a marker for a complex constellation of factors that might be considered the relative or absolute contraindication to lung transplantation rather than age, per se. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in health-related quality of life and health service use associated with body mass index and comorbid major depression in South Australia, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, Evan; Goldney, Robert D; Eckert, Kerena A; Taylor, Anne W

    2012-12-01

    To investigate 10-year trends in health-related quality of life and health service use associated with body mass index (BMI) and comorbid major depression in South Australia. Data were obtained from 9,059 people aged ≥ 15 years who participated in representative surveys of the South Australian population in 1998, 2004, and 2008. Major depression was determined using the mood module of the PRIME-MD. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 and 15-item AQoL instruments. Mean health-related quality-of-life scores were 8-55% lower (worse), and health service use was 58-85% higher in all unhealthy BMI groups (underweight, overweight, and obesity) with major depression than in the healthy weight group independent of all covariates (socio-demographic and chronic medical conditions), consistently over the 10-year period. In contrast, only some unhealthy BMI groups without major depression had worse SF-36 physical component scores (overweight/obesity), AQoL scores (underweight/obesity), and health service use outcomes (overweight/obesity), and by only 2-6%. Comorbid major depression explained most of the excess health-related quality of life and health service use in people with unhealthy BMI, consistently from 1998 to 2008. Interventions and policies that can mitigate the persistent excess population health and economic burden of major depression are needed.

  17. Large Clothing Size in Children Is Associated with High Body Mass Index and Clustering of Medical Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Nafiu, Olubukola O.; Burke, Constance

    2013-01-01

    Background. Since most people are aware of their clothing size (CS), this prospective study explored the potential utility of CS as a proxy for body size and as a predictor of incident obesity-related health conditions in children. Methods. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 725 children aged 6–18 yr. We collected clinical, anthropometric, and sartorial data on all study subjects. Parents reported their children's usual CS. This was compared with US clothing chart for children. Based on this we determined whether a child's CS was appropriate or large for age. Results. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 31.4%. Among the study subjects, 36% usually wore large CS. Children who wore large CS were more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those in the normal CS group (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.0–8.0, P < 0.001). Similarly, large CS was associated with higher rates of incident asthma (P = 0.003), obstructive sleep apnea (P = 0.01), habitual snoring (P = 0.02), and elevated preoperative blood pressure (P = 0.03). Conclusion. CS in children is associated with higher indices of adiposity and increased rates of obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:24555149

  18. Three-year mortality in previously hospitalized older patients from rural areas - the importance of co-morbidity and self-reported poor health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk factors for mortality after hospitalization in older persons are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the three-year (1,096 days) mortality in previously hospitalized older patients from rural areas, and to explore how objectively and self-reported health indicators at baseline were associated with mortality. Methods The study included 484 (241 men) medical inpatients with age range 65–101 (mean 80.7, SD 7.4) years. Baseline information included the following health measures: the Charlson Index, the Mini-Mental-State Examination, Lawton and Brody’s scales for physical self-maintenance and the instrumental activities of daily living, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, self-reported health (one item), and perceived social functioning (one item) and assistance in living at discharge. Results In all, 172 (35.5%) of those patients included had died within the three years of the follow-up period. Three-year mortality was associated with a high score at baseline on the Charlson Index (HR 1.73, 95%CI 1.09-2.74) and poor self-reported health (HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.03-2.25) in a Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, other objectively measured health indicators, and perceived impaired social functioning. Conclusion In a study of older adults admitted to a general hospital for a wide variety of disorders, we found co-morbidity (as measured with the Charlson Index) and poor self-reported health associated with three-year mortality in analysis adjusting for age, gender, and other health-related indicators. The results suggest that self-reported health is a measure that should be included in future studies. PMID:23419167

  19. Demented versus non-demented very old inpatients: the same comorbidities but poorer functional and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Zekry, Dina; Herrmann, François R; Grandjean, Raphael; Meynet, Marie-Pierre; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Gold, Gabriel; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    demented patients have been reported to be healthier than other old people of the same age. to assess comorbid conditions, functional and nutritional status in medically ill hospitalised patients with normal cognition or affected by dementia of various causes and severities, or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). a prospective study was carried out, between January and December 2004, in the Rehabilitation and Geriatric Hospital (HOGER). activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) scores were assessed as a function of the status of the patient two weeks before admission to hospital. On admission, cognitive status was assessed by a systematic battery of neuropsychological tests, comorbid conditions were assessed with the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and body mass index (BMI) and functional independence measure (FIM) were determined. BMI and FIM were also determined on discharge. we studied 349 patients (mean age 85.2 +/- 6.7; 76% women): 161 (46.1%) cognitively normal, 37 (10.6%) with MCI and 151 (43.3%) demented (61 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 62 mixed dementia (MD) and 17 vascular dementia (VaD)). ADL, IADL, FIM and MNA scores on admission decreased with cognitive status, regardless of the type of dementia. Functionality at discharge remained significantly lower in demented patients than in other patients. CCI was high and similar in all three groups (mean 4.6 +/- 2.7). Patients with VaD had poorer health than other demented patients, with a higher average comorbidity score, more frequent hypertension, stroke and hyperlipidaemia. Comorbidity did not increase with severity levels of dementia. in this cohort of very old inpatients, demented patients, non-demented patients and patients with MCI had similar levels of comorbidity, but demented patients had a poorer functional and nutritional status.

  20. Effect of Comorbidity on Postoperative Survival Outcomes in Patients with Solid Cancers: A 6-Year Multicenter Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Chang, Pei-Hung; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Liu, Keng-Hao; Hung, Yu-Shin; Hung, Chia-Yen; Liu, Chien-Ting; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with comorbidities are more likely to experience treatment-related toxicities and death. Our aim was to examine the effect of comorbidity on postoperative survival outcomes in patients with solid cancers. Methods: In total, 37,288 patients who underwent potentially curative operations for solid cancers at four affiliated hospitals of the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, between 2007 and 2012, were stratified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) for postoperative survival analysis. Multivariate Cox regression was used to adjust hazard ratios of survival outcomes among different CCI subgroups. Results: A significantly greater proportion of patients with comorbidities presented with poorer clinicopathological characteristics compared to those without. After cancer surgery, 26% of patients died after a median follow-up duration of 38.9 months. Overall mortality rates of patients with CCI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5-8 were 22.9%, 29.5%, 38.2%, 43.2%, 50.2%, and 56.4%, respectively. After adjusting for other clinicopathological factors, patients with increasing CCI scores were associated with significantly reduced overall and noncancer-specific survival rates, while only patients with CCI scores of >2 were associated with higher cancer-specific mortality rates. Conclusions: Patients with increasing numbers of comorbidities were associated with reduced postoperative survival outcomes. Patients with multiple comorbidities were most vulnerable to both cancer- and noncancer-specific deaths in the first 6 months after cancer surgery. Our results suggest that for both the patient and clinician, it should be taken into consideration about cancer surgery when dealing with multiple comorbidities. PMID:27162545

  1. Design and Validation of an Augmented Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index Comprising Pre-transplant Ferritin, Albumin and Platelet Count for Prediction of Outcomes after Allogeneic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Jennifer E.; Storer, Barry; Armand, Philippe; Raimondi, Roberto; Gibson, Christopher; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Oneto, Rosi; Bruno, Benedetto; Martin, Paul J.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pre-transplant values of serum ferritin, albumin and peripheral blood counts were previously suggested to provide prognostic information about hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. Whether these “biomarkers” have prognostic value independent of each other and the HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is unknown. Patients and Methods We analyzed data from 3917 allogeneic HCT recipients at multiple sites in the US and Italy using multivariate models including each biomarker and the HCT-CI. Data from all sites were then randomly divided into a training set (n=2352) to develop weights for the relevant biomarkers to be added to the HCT-CI scores and a validation set (n=1407) to validate an augmented HCT-CI compared to the original index. Results Multivariate analysis with data from one site showed that ferritin, albumin and platelets-- not neutrophils or hemoglobin--were independently associated with increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) and decreased overall survival. Findings were validated in data from the other sites. Subsequently, in a training set from all sites, ferritin >2500 mg/dL (HR:1.69); albumin 3–3.5 g/dL (HR:1.61) and <3.0 g/dL (HR:2.27); and platelets 50–<100,000 (HR:1.28), 20–<50,000 (HR:1.29) and <20,000 (HR:1.55) were statistically significantly associated with NRM. Weights were assigned to these laboratory values following the same equation used to design the original index. In the validation set, The addition of the biomarkers to the original index to develop an augmented HCT-CI resulted in a statistically significant increase in higher c-statistic estimate for prediction of NRM. (p=0.0007). Conclusion Ferritin, albumin, and platelet counts are important prognostic markers that further refine the discriminative power of the HCT-CI for transplant outcomes. PMID:25862589

  2. Design and Validation of an Augmented Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index Comprising Pretransplant Ferritin, Albumin, and Platelet Count for Prediction of Outcomes after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Storer, Barry E; Armand, Philippe; Raimondi, Roberto; Gibson, Christopher; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Oneto, Rosi; Bruno, Benedetto; Martin, Paul J; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2015-08-01

    Pretransplant values of serum ferritin, albumin, and peripheral blood counts were previously suggested to provide prognostic information about hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. Whether these "biomarkers" have prognostic value independent of each other and the HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is unknown. We analyzed data from 3917 allogeneic HCT recipients at multiple sites in the United States and Italy using multivariate models including each biomarker and the HCT-CI. Data from all sites were then randomly divided into a training set (n = 2352) to develop weights for the relevant biomarkers to be added to the HCT-CI scores and a validation set (n = 1407) to validate an augmented HCT-CI compared with the original index. Multivariate analysis with data from one site showed that ferritin, albumin, and platelets-not neutrophils or hemoglobin-were independently associated with increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and decreased overall survival. Findings were validated in data from the other sites. Subsequently, in a training set from all sites, ferritin >2500 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR], 1.69); albumin 3 to 3.5 g/dL (HR, 1.61) and <3.0 g/dL (HR, 2.27); and platelets 50 to <100,000 (HR, 1.28), 20 to <50,000 (HR, 1.29), and <20,000 (HR, 1.55) were statistically significantly associated with NRM. Weights were assigned to these laboratory values following the same equation used to design the original index. In the validation set, the addition of the biomarkers to the original index to develop an augmented HCT-CI resulted in a statistically significant increase in a higher c-statistic estimate for prediction of NRM (P = .0007). Ferritin, albumin, and platelet counts are important prognostic markers that further refine the discriminative power of the HCT-CI for transplant outcomes.

  3. A comparison of two comorbidity instruments in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, S E; Crowson, C S; O'Fallon, W M

    1999-12-01

    Comorbidity (CM) is a powerful predictor of health outcome and cost, as well as an important confounder in many epidemiologic studies. However, choosing the most appropriate CM measurement instrument is difficult because comparative data on how the available instruments perform in various disease settings are limited. We collected CM data (from the complete medical records) for two population-based prevalence cohorts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and a comparison cohort without arthritis (NA), using two different CM instruments: the Charlson CM index (Charl), which is based on 17 diagnoses each weighted by mortality risk, and the Index of Coexistent Diseases (ICED), which estimates the severity and frequency of 14 comorbid conditions and provides an assessment of the impairment or disability caused by each. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess the impact of the two types of comorbidity scores (Charl and ICED) on survival after prevalence (index) date, adjusting for the age, sex, and disease status. There were 450, 441, and 889 individuals in the RA, OA, and NA groups, respectively, with a mean follow-up period of 10.6 years. During the follow-up, 293, 307, and 546 deaths occurred in the RA, OA, and NA groups, respectively. The mean age and percent females were: 63.3 years, 74%; 70.7 years, 74%; and 67.5 years, 75% for the RA, OA, and NA groups, respectively. Comorbidity was highest in RA, intermediate in OA, and lowest in NA by both Charl and ICED. Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that both Charl and ICED were highly statistically significant predictors of mortality (P<0.0001) after adjusting for age, sex, and disease state (RA, OA, or NA) and that ICED remained highly significant as a predictor of mortality, even after adjusting for Charl. We conclude that estimating CM from medical records using ICED, an instrument that incorporates an assessment of impairment and disability, is feasible and that such as

  4. Changes in cardiovascular risk associated with phentermine and topiramate extended-release in participants with comorbidities and a body mass index ≥27 kg/m(2).

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Tonstad, Serena; Oparil, Suzanne; Schwiers, Michael; Day, Wesley W; Bowden, Charles H

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this analysis was to evaluate changes in cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension receiving phentermine (PHEN) and topiramate extended-release (TPM ER). In the 56-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter CONQUER trial, PHEN/TPM ER demonstrated significant weight loss compared with placebo in overweight or obese participants with ≥2 weight-related co-morbidities. Participants with body mass indexes of 27 to 45 kg/m(2) were randomized to placebo, PHEN 7.5 mg/TPM ER 46 mg, or PHEN 15 mg/TPM ER 92 mg; participants also received lifestyle modification counseling. Primary end points were percentage weight loss and the proportion of participants achieving ≥5% weight loss. Additional end points were changes in lipid variables in the dyslipidemia population and blood pressure in the hypertensive population, stratified by treatment and magnitude of weight loss. PHEN/TPM ER produced significantly greater dose-related mean percentage weight loss compared with placebo in the subgroups of participants with dyslipidemia and those with hypertension. Regardless of treatment group assignment, participants with dyslipidemia who lost ≥5% of their baseline weight experienced significantly greater reductions in triglycerides (-14.5% to -39.8%), and in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.4% to -14.8%) than those losing <5% of their weight (p <0.05). Similarly, participants with hypertension at baseline showed reduced systolic blood pressure by -7.5 to -11.8 mm Hg (p <0.001 vs those with <5% weight loss). In conclusion, the dose-related weight loss induced by PHEN/TPM ER treatment was accompanied by significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors in participants who had dyslipidemia or hypertension at baseline, suggesting that facilitating weight loss by augmenting lifestyle changes with pharmacotherapies may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease in obese and overweight

  5. Factors Associated With Successful Resuscitation After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Temporal Trends in Survival and Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Søholm, Helle; Hassager, Christian; Lippert, Freddy; Winther-Jensen, Matilde; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Friberg, Hans; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Køber, Lars; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2015-05-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has an overall poor prognosis. We sought to identify what temporal trends and influencing factors existed for this condition in one region. We studied consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients from 2007 to 2011 with attempted resuscitation in Copenhagen. From an Utstein database, we assessed survival to admission and comorbidity with the Charlson comorbidity index from the National Patient Registry and employment status from the Danish Rational Economic Agents Model database. We used logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with outcome. Of a total of 2,527 attempted resuscitations in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, 40% (n=1,015) were successfully resuscitated and admitted to the hospital. The strongest independent factors associated with successful resuscitation were shockable primary rhythm (multivariate odds ratio [OR]=3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1 to 5.0), witnessed arrest (multivariate OR=3.5; 95% CI 2.7 to 4.6), and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a public area (multivariate OR=2.1; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.8), whereas no comorbidity (multivariate OR=1.1; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.45), sex (multivariate OR=1.14; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.44), and employment status (multivariate OR=1.17; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.56) were not independently associated with outcome. The number of patients with a high comorbidity burden (Charlson comorbidity index ≥3) increased during the study period (P trend <.001), from 18% to 31% (P trend <.001), whereas the percentage of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with successful resuscitation to hospital admission increased by 3% per year during the study period, from 37% in 2007 to 43% in 2011 (P trend <.001). Our observations confirm the importance of key features that influence out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival to hospital admission but are not highly influenced by public health actions. Despite increased illness burden, this short term outcome from cardiac arrest improved as

  6. Comorbid conditions associated with Parkinson's disease: A longitudinal and comparative study with Alzheimer disease and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Santos García, D; Suárez Castro, E; Expósito, I; de Deus, T; Tuñas, C; Aneiros, A; López Fernández, M; Núñez Arias, D; Bermúdez Torres, M

    2017-02-15

    To study what comorbid conditions were present at baseline and 3years later in a cohort of Spanish Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, to compare comorbidity with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control groups and to analyze the role of comorbidity as predictor of mortality. One hundred and forty-seven non-demented PD patients (57.1% males; 70.9±8.6years old) were included in this 36months follow-up (2012-2015), monocenter, evaluation study. The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), Charlson Index (CI), Comorbidity-Polypharmacy Score (CPS) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Measure (ECM) were used to assess comorbidity at baseline and at 3years. Forty-four AD patients and 44 control subjects were included as comparator groups. Total number of comorbidities (ICD-10) and polypharmacy at baseline were higher in PD and AD patients than controls (4.4±2.3 vs 5.2±2.4 vs 3.4±1.9 [p=0.001] and 81.6% vs 75% vs 56.8% [p=0.003], respectively). Diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10/chapter-IX) and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (ICD-10/chapter-IV) were the most frequent in all groups. There was a significant increase in comorbidity (mean, +1.6±2.8) in all groups (p<0.0001) without differences between them. Seventeen patients died and 8 cases were did not follow-up. Comorbidity was a predictor of death in PD patients after adjust for other covariates (including age, sex, disease duration, disease stage, motor status and non-motor symptoms): ICD-10 (total number of comorbidities), hazard ratio 1.285 (95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.577; p=0.017); CI, hazard ratio 1.462 (95% confidence interval, 1.045-2.047; p=0.027). Comorbidity is frequent in PD patients, increases significantly over time and predicts mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Are Preexisting Retinal and Central Nervous System-Related Comorbidities Risk Factors for Complications Following Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David; Cusano, Antonio; Haddock, Peter; Staff, Ilene; Wagner, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess whether retinal and central nervous system (CNS) comorbidities are risk factors for complications following robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of our RALP database identified 1868 patients who underwent RALP by a single surgeon between December 10, 2003-March 14, 2014. We hypothesized that patients with preexisting retinal or CNS comorbidities were at a greater risk of suffering retinal and CNS complications following RALP. Perioperative complications and risk of recurrence were graded using the Clavien and D'Amico systems, respectively. Results: 40 (2.1%) patients had retinal or CNS-related comorbidities, of which 15 had a history of retinal surgery and 24 had a history of cerebrovascular accident, aneurysm and/or neurosurgery. One additional patient had a history of both retinal and CNS events. Patients with retinal or CNS comorbidities were significantly older, had elevated PSA levels and CCI (Charlson Comorbidity Index) scores than the control group. Blood loss, length of stay, surgical duration, BMI, diagnostic Gleason score and T-stage were not statistically different between groups. No retinal or CNS complications occurred in either group. The distribution of patients between D'Amico risk categories was not statistically different between the groups. There was also no difference in the incidence of total complications between the groups. Conclusions: RALP-associated retinal and CNS complications are rare. While our RALP database is large, the cohort of patients with retinal or CNS-related comorbidities was relatively small. Our dataset suggests retinal and CNS pathology presents no greater risk of suffering from perioperative complications following RALP. PMID:26401857

  8. Validating a Patient-Reported Comorbidity Measure with Respect to Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Robinski, Maxi; Strich, Franz; Mau, Wilfried; Girndt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Medical record-derived comorbidity measures such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) do not predict functional limitations or quality of life (QoL) in the chronically ill. Although these shortcomings are known since the 1980s, they have been largely ignored by the international literature. Recently, QoL has received growing interest as an end-point of interventional trials in Nephrology. The aim of this study is to compare a patient-reported comorbidity measure and the CCI with respect to its validity regarding QoL. The German Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (SCQ-G) was completed by 780 adult end-stage renal disease-patients recruited from 55 dialysis units throughout Germany. Acceptance was evaluated via response rates. Content validity was examined by comparing the typical comorbidity pattern in dialysis patients and the pattern retrieved from our data. Convergent validity was assessed via kappa statistics. Data was compared to the CCI. Linear associations with QoL were examined (criterion validity). The SCQ-G was very well accepted by dialysis patients of all ages (response rate: 99%). Content validity can be interpreted as high (corresponding comorbidity items: 73.7%). Convergent validity was rather weak (.27≤ρ≤.29) but increased when comparing only concordant items (.39≤ρ≤.43). With respect to criterion validity, the SCQ-G performed better than the CCI regarding the correlation with QoL (e.g., SF-12-physical: SCQ-G total score: ρ = -.49 vs. CCI: ρ = -.36). The patient-reported measure proved to be more valid than the external assessment when aiming at insights on QoL. Due to the inclusion of subjective limitations, the SCQ-G is more substantial with respect to patient-centered outcomes and might be used as additional measure in clinical trials.

  9. Duration of first remission, hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index and patient age predict survival of patients with AML transplanted in second CR.

    PubMed

    Michelis, F V; Atenafu, E G; Gupta, V; Kim, D D; Kuruvilla, J; Lambie, A; Lipton, J H; Loach, D; Messner, H A

    2013-11-01

    Allo-SCT is potentially curative for patients with AML. Patients transplanted in CR2 tend to experience inferior survival compared with those in CR1. We retrospectively investigated the impact of pretransplant variables on the outcome of patients transplanted with AML in CR2. Ninety-four patients with AML in CR2 received a transplant between 1999 and 2011 with myeloablative (MA, n=65) or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens (RIC, n=29). Variables investigated included cytogenetic risk at diagnosis (SWOG), hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI), CMV status, duration of CR1 and age. Median age of all patients was 47 years (range 18-70). Multivariable analysis for OS identified three prognostically significant categories: a favorable risk group included patients with duration of CR1 ≥6 months, age <55 years and HCT-CI score 0-3, an intermediate risk group with duration of CR1 ≥6 months, age <55 years and HCT-CI score 4-5 and a high-risk group with duration of CR1 <6 months or age ≥55 years (P=0.0001) with 5-year survivals of 53%, 31% and 6%, respectively. Acute and chronic GVHD did not influence this risk stratification. The stated risk factors discriminate patients with different OS and may assist in decision making for allo-SCT.

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Garcia, Michael P.; Corley, Douglas A.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P.; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level income The study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings. Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. PMID:28296752

  11. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Garcia, Michael P; Corley, Douglas A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Haas, Jennifer S; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-03-01

    Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems.We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level incomeThe study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings.Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

  12. Antithrombotic drugs and non-variceal bleeding outcomes and risk scoring systems: comparison of Glasgow Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ali S; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J

    2016-10-01

    Antithrombotic drugs (ATDs) cause non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Risk scoring systems have not been validated in ATD users. We compared Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores in predicting outcomes of NVUGIB in ATD users and controls. A total of 2071 patients with NVUGIB were grouped into ATD users (n=851) and controls (n=1220) in a single-centre retrospective analysis. Outcomes included duration of hospital admission, the need for blood transfusion, rebleeding requiring surgery and 30-day mortality. Duration of admission correlated with all scores in controls, but correlations were significantly weaker in ATD users. Rank correlation coefficients in control versus ATD: 0.45 vs 0.20 for Blatchford; 0.48 vs 0.32 for Rockall and 0.42 vs 0.26 for Charlson (all p<0.001). The need for transfusion was best predicted by Blatchford (p<0.001 vs Rockall and Charlson in both ATD users and controls), but all scores performed less well in ATD users. Area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) in control versus ATD: 0.90 vs 0.85 for Blatchford; 0.77 vs 0.61 for Rockall and 0.69 vs 0.56 for Charlson (all p<0.005). In predicting surgery, Rockall performed best; while mortality was best predicted by Charlson with lower AUCs in ATD patients than controls (p<0.05). Stratification showed the scores' performance to be age-dependent. Blatchford score was the strongest predictor of transfusion, Rockall's had the strongest correlation with duration of admission and with rebleeding requiring surgery and Charlson was best in predicting 30-day mortality. Modifications of these systems should be explored to improve their efficiency in ATD users.

  13. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab women

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Costellia H.; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely screening can significantly reduce breast and cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant populations have lower screening rates and delays in follow-up after abnormal tests. Purpose In this study, we examined the relationship between age, comorbidity, breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N=371) from Detroit, Michigan. Methods Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity has on breast and cervical cancer literacy; Breast Cancer Literacy Assessment Tool was used to assess breast cancer literacy; Cervical Cancer Literacy Assessment Tool was used to assess cervical cancer literacy. ANOVA was used to assess the relationship between ACC, breast and cervical cancer screening and group differences. Results There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy (Breast-CLAT total scores) scores (F(2,367)= 17.31, p= < 0.01). ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African American F(2,214) =11, p = <0.01. PMID:26333609

  14. Delirium Detection and Impact of Comorbid Health Conditions in a Post-Acute Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Stelmokas, Julija; Gabel, Nicolette; Flaherty, Jennifer M.; Rayson, Katherine; Tran, Kathileen; Anderson, Jason R.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis and under-detection of delirium may occur in many medical settings. This is important to address as delirium clearly increases risk of morbidity and mortality in such settings. This study assessed whether Veterans who screened positive on a delirium severity measure (Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale; MDAS) differed from those with and without corresponding medical documentation of delirium in terms of cognitive functioning, psychiatric/medical history, and medication use. A medical record review of 266 inpatients at a VA post-acute rehabilitation unit found that 10.9% were identified as delirious according to the MDAS and/or medical records. Of the Veterans who screened positive on the MDAS (N = 19), 68.4% went undetected by medical screening. Undetected cases had a higher number of comorbid medical conditions as measured by the Age-Adjusted Charlson Index (AACI) scores (median = 9, SD = 3.15; U = 5.5, p = .003) than medically documented cases. For Veterans with a score of 7 or greater on the AACI, the general relative risk for delirium was 4.46. Delirium is frequently under-detected in a post-acute rehabilitation unit, particularly for Veterans with high comorbid illness. The relative risk of delirium is up to 4.46 for those with high medical burden, suggesting the need for more comprehensive delirium screening in these patients. PMID:27902744

  15. Prevalence of high ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general population of Southern Italy, risk factor profiles and systemic cardiovascular co-morbidity: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Fiore, Valerio; Catanzaro, Stefano; Simili, Massimo; Torrisi, Benedetto; Anzaldi, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out to assess the prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of peripheral artery disease (PAD). By contrast, to date there is a lack of data on patients with high-ABI. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of increased ABI (ABI>1.4) and to evaluate the involvement of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the atherosclerotic burden (peripheral and carotid arteries) of these patients in a population of Southern Italy. We invited 9647 subjects, age ranging from 30 to 80, by letters to undergo an ABI measurement. Consequently, in patients with ABI>1.4, an ultrasound evaluation of the peripheral and carotid arteries was performed. An ABI>1.4 was found in 260 of 3412 subjects (7.6%). Statistically significant differences were reported in age, diabetes and hypertension, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). No differences in sex distribution, dyslipidemia and smoke prevalence were observed. Moreover, 67.9% of ABI>1.4 patients showed a peripheral intima-media thickness (IMT)>0.9 mm; at linear regression it was correlated with ABI values; 25% of patients showed peripheral plaques. A carotid IMT>0.9 mm was reported in 78.6% of high-ABI patients and 32.1% were affected by atherosclerotic plaques. The observed increased-ABI prevalence of 7.6% was higher than previously reported. This was more prevalent in an older population with diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Moreover, these patients are characterized by an extended atherosclerotic involvement. Further studies are needed to clarify this evidence, a longitudinal observation of this clinical outcome, as we are performing, could provide a number of interesting elements. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Comorbidities, not age, are predictive of survival after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients older than 50 years.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Jorge, A S; Pereira, A; Moreno, M; Núñez, J; Gayoso, J; Gonzalez-Medina, J; Revilla, N; Sampol, A; Domingo-Domenech, E; de la Cruz, F; Morales, A; Rodriguez-Salazar, M J; Valiente, S; Pérez-Ceballos, E; de Oteyza, J Pérez; García-Sanz, R

    2017-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is the standard of care for young patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). However, there is limited experience of its efficacy and feasibility in older patients. The characteristics and outcomes of 121 patients aged ≥50 years (42 of them are ≥60 years old) with R/R HL who underwent AHCT were reviewed. After a median follow-up of 3.1 years, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years were 64 and 55 %, respectively, with no differences between 50-59-year-old and ≥60-year-old patients. Hematological and extra-hematological toxicities after AHCT were comparable between the two groups of age. In univariate analysis, poorer OS and PFS were associated with disease status other than complete remission, hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) scores >1, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores >1. HCT-CI scores >1 were also associated with a higher risk of grade 3-4 extrahematologic toxicity. In multivariate analysis, HCT-CI and CCI remained significantly associated with OS and PFS after adjustment for disease status. Our data show that AHCT can be performed in selected patients with R/R HL ≥50 years with acceptable outcome and toxicity. Comorbidities appear to impact AHCT outcome more than age.

  17. Patient comorbidity predicts hospital length of stay after robot-assisted prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Potretzke, Aaron M; Kim, Eric H; Knight, Brent A; Anderson, Barrett G; Park, Alyssa M; Sherburne Figenshau, R; Bhayani, Sam B

    2016-06-01

    We sought to examine the impact of baseline patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes on postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), following the robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients receiving RARP at our institution by two surgeons between January 2012 and March 2014 (n = 274). Baseline patient characteristics were collected, including Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Discharge criteria were identical for all patients and included: return of bowel function, pain controlled with oral medications, and ambulation without assistance. LOS was calculated as the number of midnights spent in the hospital following surgery. Postoperative hospital LOS was equal to 1 day for 225 patients and >1 day for 49 patients. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics, including age, race, body-mass index (BMI), pathologic stage, and Gleason score, were not significantly different. Mean operative time was shorter for patients with LOS > 1 day (155 vs. 173 min, p < 0.01) on univariate analysis. Patients with LOS > 1 day were more likely to have had a complication: 8/49 (17 %) vs. 14/225 (6 %), p < 0.01. However, multivariate logistic regression found baseline CCI > 2 as the only independent predictor of LOS > 1 day (OR = 3.2, p = 0.03), controlling for age, race, BMI, Gleason score, tumor stage, blood loss, operative time, and occurrence of complication. In our experience, baseline patient comorbidity, quantified by CCI, was the only independent predictor of hospital LOS greater than 1 day following RARP. Preoperative assessment of patient comorbidity should be used to better counsel patients on their anticipated postoperative course.

  18. Impact of comorbidities on TNF inhibitor persistence in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an analysis of Korean National Health Insurance claims data.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor persistence and the impact of comorbidity on treatment persistence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In a Korean National Health Insurance claims database, patients with a diagnosis code of RA (M05 or M06) who started TNF inhibitor therapy between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008 were enrolled. The study cohort was followed until December 31, 2009. Persistence was examined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were developed to examine the potential impact of comorbidities on drug persistence. A total of 388 patients were enrolled in the study cohort. The mean persistence rate in the overall population was 61% at 18 months. Drug survival rates for adalimumab and etanercept at 6 months were 82 and 85%, respectively, and 73 and 78%, respectively, at 12 months. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores and comorbidities such as diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, mild liver disease, and depression at initiation were not related with drug persistence, while peptic ulcer disease (PUD) lowered the risk of discontinuation of TNF inhibitors (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97). Old age (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.09-2.33) and prescription of inhibitors by an internist (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02-2.48) were associated with discontinuation of TNF inhibitors. The persistence of TNF inhibitors was 61% at 18 months. CCI score and other comorbidities were not related with early discontinuation of TNF inhibitors, while PUD was an independent contributing factor to TNF inhibitor persistence.

  19. COPD comorbidities network.

    PubMed

    Divo, Miguel J; Casanova, Ciro; Marin, Jose M; Pinto-Plata, Victor M; de-Torres, Juan P; Zulueta, Javier J; Cabrera, Carlos; Zagaceta, Jorge; Sanchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Berto, Juan; Davila, Rebeca Baz; Alcaide, Ana B; Cote, Claudia; Celli, Bartolome R

    2015-09-01

    Multimorbidity frequently affects the ageing population and their co-existence may not occur at random. Understanding their interactions and that with clinical variables could be important for disease screening and management.In a cohort of 1969 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 316 non-COPD controls, we applied a network-based analysis to explore the associations between multiple comorbidities. Clinical characteristics (age, degree of obstruction, walking, dyspnoea, body mass index) and 79 comorbidities were identified and their interrelationships quantified. Using network visualisation software, we represented each clinical variable and comorbidity as a node with linkages representing statistically significant associations.The resulting COPD comorbidity network had 428, 357 or 265 linkages depending on the statistical threshold used (p≤0.01, p≤0.001 or p≤0.0001). There were more nodes and links in COPD compared with controls after adjusting for age, sex and number of subjects. In COPD, a subset of nodes had a larger number of linkages representing hubs. Four sub-networks or modules were identified using an inter-linkage affinity algorithm and their display provided meaningful interactions not discernible by univariate analysis.COPD patients are affected by larger number of multiple interlinked morbidities which clustering pattern may suggest common pathobiological processes or be utilised for screening and/or therapeutic interventions.

  20. Comorbidity as a contributor to frequent severe acute exacerbation in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Lee, Hyun; Carriere, KC; Shin, Sun Hye; Moon, Seong Mi; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Comorbidities have a serious impact on the frequent severe acute exacerbations (AEs) in patients with COPD. Previous studies have used the Charlson comorbidity index to represent a conglomerate of comorbidities; however, the respective contribution of each coexisting disease to the frequent severe AEs remains unclear. Methods A retrospective, observational study was performed in 77 COPD patients who experienced severe AE between January 2012 and December 2014 and had at least 1-year follow-up period from the date of admission for severe AE. We explored the incidence of frequent severe AEs (≥2 severe AEs during 1-year period) in these patients and investigated COPD-related factors and comorbidities as potential risk factors of these exacerbations. Results Out of 77 patients, 61 patients (79.2%) had at least one comorbidity. During a 1-year follow-up period, 29 patients (37.7%) experienced frequent severe AEs, approximately two-thirds (n=19) of which occurred within the first 90 days after admission. Compared with patients not experiencing frequent severe AEs, these patients were more likely to have poor lung function and receive home oxygen therapy and long-term oral steroids. In multiple logistic regression analysis, coexisting asthma (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =4.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30–12.46, P=0.016), home oxygen therapy (adjusted OR =9.39, 95% CI =1.60–55.30, P=0.013), and C-reactive protein (adjusted OR =1.09, 95% CI =1.01–1.19, P=0.036) were associated with frequent severe AEs. In addition, poor lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (adjusted OR =0.16, 95% CI =0.04–0.70, P=0.015), was inversely associated with early (ie, within 90 days of admission) frequent severe AEs. Conclusion Based on our study, among COPD-related comorbidities, coexisting asthma has a significant impact on the frequent severe AEs in COPD patients. PMID:27536097

  1. 25 year trends in first time hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction, subsequent short and long term mortality, and the prognostic impact of sex and comorbidity: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Jacobsen, Jacob Bonde; Lash, Timothy L; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-25

    To examine 25 year trends in first time hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction in Denmark, subsequent short and long term mortality, and the prognostic impact of sex and comorbidity. Nationwide population based cohort study using medical registries. All hospitals in Denmark. 234,331 patients with a first time hospitalisation for myocardial infarction from 1984 through 2008. Standardised incidence rate of myocardial infarction and 30 day and 31-365 day mortality by sex. Comorbidity categories were defined as normal, moderate, severe, and very severe according to the Charlson comorbidity index, and were compared by means of mortality rate ratios based on Cox regression. The standardised incidence rate per 100,000 people decreased in the 25 year period by 37% for women (from 209 to 131) and by 48% for men (from 410 to 213). The 30 day, 31-365 day, and one year mortality declined from 31.4%, 15.6%, and 42.1% in 1984-8 to 14.8%, 11.1%, and 24.2% in 2004-8, respectively. After adjustment for age at time of myocardial infarction, men and women had the same one year risk of dying. The mortality reduction was independent of comorbidity category. Comparing patients with very severe versus normal comorbidity during 2004-8, the mortality rate ratio, adjusted for age and sex, was 1.96 (95% CI 1.83 to 2.11) within 30 days and 3.89 (3.58 to 4.24) within 31-365 days. The rate of first time hospitalisation for myocardial infarction and subsequent short term mortality both declined by nearly half between 1984 and 2008. The reduction in mortality occurred for all patients, independent of sex and comorbidity. However, comorbidity burden was a strong prognostic factor for short and long term mortality, while sex was not.

  2. Reproductive History and Later-Life Comorbidity Trajectories: A Medicare Linked Cohort Study From the Utah Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Heidi A.; Smith, Ken R.; Zimmer, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive lives of men and women may provide significant insight into later-life morbidity and mortality. Sociological, biological, and evolutionary theories predict a relationship between reproductive history and later-life health; however, current research is lacking consensus on the direction of the relationship. Parity, early age at first birth and last birth, birth weight of offspring, having a child die as an infant, and having a preterm birth may have long-term effects on health for both men and women. In this study, the relationship between these measures of reproductive history and later-life health is examined using the Utah Population Database (a rich source of longitudinal data), and Medicare claims data from 1992–2009. Later-life health is measured using annual Charlson comorbidity index scores, a construct that summarizes most serious illnesses afflicting older individuals. Group-based trajectory modeling that accounts for nonrandom attrition due to death is used to identify the number and types of morbidity trajectories by sex and age for 52,924 individuals aged 65–84 in 1992. For females, early age at first birth, high parity, and having a preterm or high-birth-weight baby are associated with increased risks of comorbidity; later age at last birth is associated with a decreased risk of comorbidity. For males, early age at first birth and having a child with an abnormal birth weight leads to increased risk of comorbidity. The results suggest that both biological and social factors play important roles in the relationships between fertility and morbidity profiles at older ages. PMID:26527471

  3. Mortality risk from comorbidities independent of triple-negative breast cancer status: NCI-SEER-based cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Swede, Helen; Sarwar, Amna; Magge, Anil; Braithwaite, Dejana; Cook, Linda S; Gregorio, David I; Jones, Beth A; R Hoag, Jessica; Gonsalves, Lou; L Salner, Andrew; Zarfos, Kristen; Andemariam, Biree; Stevens, Richard G; G Dugan, Alicia; Pensa, Mellisa; A Brockmeyer, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    A comparatively high prevalence of comorbidities among African-American/Blacks (AA/B) has been implicated in disparate survival in breast cancer. There is a scarcity of data, however, if this effect persists when accounting for the adverse triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype which occurs at threefold the rate in AA/B compared to white breast cancer patients. We reviewed charts of 214 white and 202 AA/B breast cancer patients in the NCI-SEER Connecticut Tumor Registry who were diagnosed in 2000-2007. We employed the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index (CCI), a weighted 17-item tool to predict risk of death in cancer populations. Cox survival analyses estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality in relation to TNBC and CCI adjusting for clinicopathological factors. Among patients with SEER local stage, TNBC increased the risk of death (HR 2.18, 95 % CI 1.14-4.16), which was attenuated when the CCI score was added to the model (Adj. HR 1.50, 95 % CI 0.74-3.01). Conversely, the adverse impact of the CCI score persisted when controlling for TNBC (Adj. HR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.29-1.71; per one point increase). Similar patterns were observed in SEER regional stage, but estimated HRs were lower. AA/B patients with a CCI score of ≥3 had a significantly higher risk of death compared to AA/B patients without comorbidities (Adj. HR 5.65, 95 % CI 2.90-11.02). A lower and nonsignificant effect was observed for whites with a CCI of ≥3 (Adj. HR 1.90, 95 % CI 0.68-5.29). comorbidities at diagnosis increase risk of death independent of TNBC, and AA/B patients may be disproportionately at risk.

  4. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions: Performance of the LACE Index Compared with a Regression Model among General Medicine Patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng; Wang, Sijia; Tan, Shu Yun; Thumboo, Julian; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, CCI, and number of emergency department visits in preceding 6 months) derived in Canada is simple and may have clinical utility in Singapore to predict readmission risk. We compared the performance of the LACE index with a derived model in identifying 30-day readmissions from a population of general medicine patients in Singapore. Additional variables include patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission, and prior healthcare utilization in the preceding year. 5,862 patients were analysed and 572 patients (9.8%) were readmitted in the 30 days following discharge. Age, CCI, count of surgical procedures during index admission, white cell count, serum albumin, and number of emergency department visits in previous 6 months were significantly associated with 30-day readmission risk. The final logistic regression model had fair discriminative ability c-statistic of 0.650 while the LACE index achieved c-statistic of 0.628 in predicting 30-day readmissions. Our derived model has the advantage of being available early in the admission to identify patients at high risk of readmission for interventions. Additional factors predicting readmission risk and machine learning techniques should be considered to improve model performance. PMID:26682212

  5. Comparison of two comorbidity scoring systems for older adults with traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Meredith; Garver, Matt; Albrecht, Lily; Arbabi, Saman; Pham, Tam N

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality predictive value of two different comorbidity scores, Comorbidity-Polypharmacy Score (CPS) and Charlson scoring system, in a large sample of older trauma patients. At an urban tertiary care Level I trauma center, trauma patients aged 55 years and older who were initially admitted to critical care were included. This retrospective chart review was conducted at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, WA. Older trauma patients admitted from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2010 were screened for inclusion. One-year mortality data were obtained from the Washington State Department of Health. Covariates included age, presence of hypotension, traumatic brain injury, and Injury Severity Score. Records for 667 older trauma patients were reviewed. In multivariate analyses, CPS was an independent predictor of fatal outcomes. Higher CPS was associated with greater mortality, however, it was not superior to Charlson methodology in predicting 1-year mortality in this patient cohort. The addition of a comorbidity score improves multivariate models predicting long-term mortality in older trauma patients. There was no advantage to using CPS instead of Charlson score, and each was an independent predictor of fatal outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships of comorbidities and old age with postoperative complications of head and neck free flaps: A review.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jin Pyo; Yoo, Si Yoon; Kim, Hun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between free flap complications and old age or comorbidities. In a PubMed and Scopus search, the search terms (1) free flap OR microvascular anastomosis AND (2) elderly OR old age AND (3) complications OR comorbidity OR co-morbidity were used. Among the 62 full-text articles from 241 abstracts, 31 papers without sufficient content were excluded and 10 mined papers were added. Subsequently, 41 papers were reviewed. Overall complication rates of free flap increased significantly with age (p < 0.001; y = 0.457x + 13.464; 40.9% at 60 years, 45.5% at 70 years, and 50.0% at 80 years). Flap survival rates increased significantly (p < 0.001; y = 0.025x + 93.876). Donor site complication rates also increased significantly with age (p < 0.001; y = 1.238x - 63.700; 10.9% at 60 years, 23.0% at 70 years, and 35.3% at 80 years). The Kaplan-Feinstein index (KFI, OR = 7.944, 9.563), the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27, OR = 5.854), the American Society of Anesthesiologists score (ASA, OR = 4.397), and the Index of Coexistent Diseases score (ICED, OR = 3.584) had statistically significant impacts on flap survival (p < 0.05). Diabetes (OR = 4.562) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 2.300) had statistically significant negative impacts on the flap survival rate (p < 0.05). Elderly patients had significantly higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and ASA scores (p < 0.001). Similarly, elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of dementia (p < 0.001) and use of aspirin at the time of surgery (p < 0.001). On the basis of these results, we suggest that the incidence of complications is directly related to the preoperative medical condition of an individual patient rather than to age. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-morbidities Rather than Age Impact Outcomes in Patients Receiving Preoperative Therapy for Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Charalampakis, Nikolaos; Xiao, Lianchun; Lin, Quan; Elimova, Elena; Shimodaira, Yusuke; Harada, Kazuto; Rogers, Jane E; Mares, Jeannette; Amlashi, Fatemeh G; Minsky, Bruce D; Das, Prajnan; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Matamoros, Aurelio; Sagebiel, Tara L; Blum-Murphy, Mariela A; Lee, Jeffrey H; Weston, Brian; Bhutani, Manoop S; Mansfield, Paul F; Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Badgwell, Brian D; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2017-08-01

    Older patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma (LGAC) have substantial postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, postoperative outcomes of the patients who receive preoperative chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation have not been reported. We examined the impact of age at baseline on potential predictors of postoperative outcomes. Patients with LGAC who were treated with chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation followed by surgery (n = 203) formed two groups: (1) ≥65 years old (n = 70) and (2) <65 years old (n = 133). We assessed postoperative morbidity and mortality as well as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Potential predictors of 90-day postoperative outcomes were identified i) by age groups and ii) other clinical covariates. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were utilized. 90-day postoperative morbidity was similar in older and younger patients (61 % vs 58 %; P = 0.655). 90-day mortality was similar (3 % vs 0 %; P = 0.118). Major Clavien grade III/IV complications were similar (17 % vs 12 %; P = 0.392). OS and PFS were also similar for both groups (P = 0.863 and P = 0.558, respectively). Other factors, such as Charlson comorbidity index (P < 0.001) and median operative time (P = 0.002) were strongly associated with postoperative complications. Our data show that older patients with LGAC generally have similar outcomes as do younger patients after preoperative therapy but comorbidity indices have significant impact on complications and the long-term outcomes rather than age.

  8. Depressive symptoms and decision-making preferences in patients with comorbid illnesses.

    PubMed

    Moise, Nathalie; Ye, Siqin; Alcántara, Carmela; Davidson, Karina W; Kronish, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is increasingly promoted in the primary care setting, but depressive symptoms, which are associated with cognitive changes, may influence decision-making preferences. We sought to assess whether elevated depressive symptoms are associated with decision-making preference in patients with comorbid chronic illness. We enrolled 195 patients ≥18years old with uncontrolled hypertension from two urban, academic primary care clinics. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Clinician-directed decision-making preference was assessed according to the Control Preference Scale. The impact of depressive symptoms on decision-making preference was assessed using generalized linear mixed models adjusted for age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, Medicaid status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, partner status, and clustering within clinicians. The mean age was 64.2years; 72% were women, 77% Hispanic, 38% Black, and 33% had elevated depressive symptoms. Overall, 35% of patients preferred clinician-directed decision-making, 19% mostly clinician-directed, 39% shared, and 7% some or little clinician-input. Patients with (vs. without) elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to prefer clinician-directed decision-making (46% versus 29%; p=0.02; AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.30-4.85, p=0.005). Remitted depressive symptoms (vs. never depressed) were not associated with preference. Elevated depressive symptoms are associated with preference for clinician-directed decision-making. We suggest that clinicians should be aware of this effect when incorporating preference into their communication styles and take an active role in eliciting patient values and exchanging information about treatment choice, all important components of shared decision-making, particularly when patients are depressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescriptions identified by Beers and STOPP criteria in co-morbid older patients at hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Hudhra, Klejda; García-Caballos, Marta; Casado-Fernandez, Eloisa; Jucja, Besnik; Shabani, Driton; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIP) and the association with polypharmacy (more than six drugs prescribed) in co-morbid older patients in a critical moment of care transition such as hospital discharge by means of two explicit criteria (Beers 2012 and STOPP 2008). Cross-sectional study carried out in an older patients' population (≥65 years old) discharged from a university hospital in Spain. We recorded patients' information regarding demographics, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and associated pathological conditions and calculated the Charlson co-morbidity index. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of hospital discharge. Beers (2012) and STOPP criteria (2008) were applied for PIP detection. The strength of association between polypharmacy and the presence of PIP was assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. From 1004 patients of a 15% random sample, just 624 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The number of prescribed drugs was a risk factor for PIP according to both criteria, even after adjusting for confounding variables. PIP frequency was higher in patients who received more than 12 medications (Beers: 34.8%, STOPP: 54.4%). Each additional medication increased the risk of PIP by 14 or 15% (Beers or STOPP). Our results suggest that the strategies used for PIP reduction in co-morbid older patients should focus on the management of polypharmacy. Medication review at hospital discharge is highly recommended for patients taking more than six drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development of an international comorbidity education framework.

    PubMed

    Lawson, C; Pati, S; Green, J; Messina, G; Strömberg, A; Nante, N; Golinelli, D; Verzuri, A; White, S; Jaarsma, T; Walsh, P; Lonsdale, P; Kadam, U T

    2017-08-01

    The increasing number of people living with multiple chronic conditions in addition to an index condition has become an international healthcare priority. Health education curricula have been developed alongside single condition frameworks in health service policy and practice and need redesigning to incorporate optimal management of multiple conditions. Our aims were to evaluate current teaching and learning about comorbidity care amongst the global population of healthcare students from different disciplines and to develop an International Comorbidity Education Framework (ICEF) for incorporating comorbidity concepts into health education. We surveyed nursing, medical and pharmacy students from England, India, Italy and Sweden to evaluate their understanding of comorbidity care. A list of core comorbidity content was constructed by an international group of higher education academics and clinicians from the same disciplines, by searching current curricula and analysing clinical frameworks and the student survey data. This list was used to develop the International Comorbidity Education Framework. The survey sample consisted of 917 students from England (42%), India (48%), Italy (8%) and Sweden (2%). The majority of students across all disciplines said that they lacked knowledge, training and confidence in comorbidity care and were unable to identify specific teaching on comorbidities. All student groups wanted further comorbidity training. The health education institution representatives found no specific references to comorbidity in current health education curricula. Current clinical frameworks were used to develop an agreed list of core comorbidity content and hence an International Comorbidity Education Framework. Based on consultation with academics and clinicians and on student feedback we developed an International Comorbidity Education Framework to promote the integration of comorbidity concepts into current healthcare curricula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  11. Regression coefficient-based scoring system should be used to assign weights to the risk index.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Mehta, Vinay; Girman, Cynthia J; Adhikari, Deepak; Johnson, Michael L

    2016-11-01

    Some previously developed risk scores contained a mathematical error in their construction: risk ratios were added to derive weights to construct a summary risk score. This study demonstrates the mathematical error and derived different versions of the Charlson comorbidity score (CCS) using regression coefficient-based and risk ratio-based scoring systems to further demonstrate the effects of incorrect weighting on performance in predicting mortality. This retrospective cohort study included elderly people from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed for time to 1-year mortality. Weights were assigned to 17 comorbidities using regression coefficient-based and risk ratio-based scoring systems. Different versions of CCS were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC), McFadden's adjusted R(2), and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Regression coefficient-based models (Beta, Beta10/integer, Beta/Schneeweiss, Beta/Sullivan) had lower AIC and higher R(2) compared to risk ratio-based models (HR/Charlson, HR/Johnson). Regression coefficient-based CCS reclassified more number of people into the correct strata (NRI range, 9.02-10.04) compared to risk ratio-based CCS (NRI range, 8.14-8.22). Previously developed risk scores contained an error in their construction adding ratios instead of multiplying them. Furthermore, as demonstrated here, adding ratios fail to even work adequately from a practical standpoint. CCS derived using regression coefficients performed slightly better than in fitting the data compared to risk ratio-based scoring systems. Researchers should use a regression coefficient-based scoring system to develop a risk index, which is theoretically correct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and comorbidities of chronic hepatitis C: a nationwide population-based register study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Büsch, Katharina; Waldenström, Jesper; Lagging, Martin; Aleman, Soo; Weiland, Ola; Kövamees, Jan; Duberg, Ann-Sofi; Söderholm, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of physician-diagnosed and registered chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and to estimate the reported frequencies of Charlson comorbidities compared with matched comparators from the general population. Patients were identified according to ICD codes for CHC in the Swedish National Patient Register (1997-2013). Prevalence was estimated according to different patient identification algorithms and for different subgroups. Charlson comorbidities were ascertained from the same register and compared with age/sex/county of residence matched general population comparators. A total of 34,633 individuals with physician-diagnosed CHC were alive in Sweden in 2013 (mean age, 49 years; 64% men), corresponding to a physician-diagnosed prevalence of 0.36%. The prevalence varied by case definition (0.22%-0.36%). The estimate dropped to 0.14% for monitored CHC disease (defined as ≥1 CHC-related visit in 2013). Overall, 41.3% of the CHC patients had ≥1 physician-registered Charlson comorbidity; the most common was liver diseases (22.1%). Compared with matched comparators from the general population (n = 171,338), patients with CHC had more physician-diagnosed and registered diseases such as chronic pulmonary disease (10.2% vs. 4.0%), diabetes (10.6% vs. 5.5%) and liver-related cancer (1.3% vs. 0.2%; all p < .01). No information on behavioural factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption or on-going illicit drug use, was available. The physician-diagnosed prevalence of CHC was slightly lower than previously reported estimates, and varied by case definition. The additional comorbidities observed in the CHC group should be taken into consideration, as these comorbidities add to the disease burden.

  13. Short- and medium-term prognosis in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation: the CODEX index.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Pedro; Soriano, Joan B; Cabrera, Francisco J; Boixeda, Ramon; Alonso-Ortiz, M Belen; Barreiro, Bienvenido; Diez-Manglano, Jesus; Murio, Cristina; Heredia, Josep L

    2014-05-01

    No valid tools exist for evaluating the prognosis in the short and medium term after hospital discharge of patients with COPD. Our hypothesis was that a new index based on the CODEX (comorbidity, obstruction, dyspnea, and previous severe exacerbations) index can accurately predict mortality, hospital readmission, and their combination for the period from 3 months to 1 year after discharge in patients hospitalized for COPD. A multicenter study of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations was used to develop the CODEX index, and a different patient cohort was used for validation. Comorbidity was measured using the age-adjusted Charlson index, whereas dyspnea, obstruction, and severe exacerbations were calculated according to BODEX (BMI, airfl ow obstruction, dyspnea, and previous severe exacerbations) thresholds. Information about mortality and readmissions for COPD or other causes was collected at 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Two sets of 606 and 377 patients were included in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The CODEX index was associated with mortality at 3 months ( P < .0001; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8) and 1 year ( P < .0001; HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5 ), hospital readmissions in the same periods, and their combination (all P < .0001). All CODEX C statistics were superior to those of the BODEX, DOSE (dyspnea, airfl ow obstruction, smoking status, and exacerbation frequency), and updated ADO (age, dyspnea, and airfl ow obstruction) indexes. The CODEX index was a useful predictor of survival and readmission at both 3 months and 1 year after hospital discharge for a COPD exacerbation, with a prognostic capacity superior to other previously published indexes.

  14. Feasibility of Robot - assisted Segmental Ureterectomy and Ureteroureterostomy in Patient with High Medical Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Ali Abdel; Alatawi, Atalla; Kim, Dae Keun; Sheikh, Abulhasan; Rha, Koon Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard treatment option for upper tract tumors. However, segmental ureterectomy may be another option in patients with single kidney, borderline renal function or high medical comorbidities. The aim of this video is to assess the feasibility of robotic surgery as a minimally invasive technique in treatment of a high comorbid patient with ureteric tumor. Eighty-year old male patient, with a medical history of chronic hypertensive and uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus, was referred to our department for treatment of ureteric tumor. Patient underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy 5 years ago. Patient's Charlson comorbidity index score was 9. Computed tomography showed a 2.5cm right ureteral luminal filling enhancing lesion at lower part of upper 1/3 ureter. We performed diagnostic flexible cystoscopy under local anesthesia to exclude associated lower urinary tract carcinoma, and bladder wash was negative for malignancy. Under general anesthesia patient underwent diagnostic flexible ureteroscopy to confirm mass location, and a retrograde pyelography to rule out additional tumors on the right collecting system. Then, the patient was placed in the full lateral flank position without Table flexion. Ports placement were inserted as follow: a "12mm" optical trocar at pararectal line superior and lateral to umbilicus, two "8mm" robotic trocars cranial and caudal to optical trocar (8cm distance), a "8mm" robotic trocar towards anterior superior ischial spine, and a "12mm" assistant trocar was inserted between umbilicus and pubic bone. The surgical steps are shown in the video. The procedure was performed easily. The total operative time and consol time were 100 and 60 minutes, respectively. Blood loss was 50ml. No reported intraoperative or postoperative complications. Notably, we took full precautions in case of intraoperative failure to complete the procedure successfully, nephroureterectomy was our second option. Postoperative

  15. The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England

    PubMed Central

    Card, Tim R.; West, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background We have assessed whether the linkage between routine primary and secondary care records provided an opportunity to develop an improved population based co-morbidity score with the combined information on co-morbidities from both health care settings. Methods We extracted all people older than 20 years at the start of 2005 within the linkage between the Hospital Episodes Statistics, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and Office for National Statistics death register in England. A random 50% sample was used to identify relevant diagnostic codes using a Bayesian hierarchy to share information between similar Read and ICD 10 code groupings. Internal validation of the score was performed in the remaining 50% and discrimination was assessed using Harrell’s C statistic. Comparisons were made over time, age, and consultation rate with the Charlson and Elixhauser indexes. Results 657,264 people were followed up from the 1st January 2005. 98 groupings of codes were derived from the Bayesian hierarchy, and 37 had an adjusted weighting of greater than zero in the Cox proportional hazards model. 11 of these groupings had a different weighting dependent on whether they were coded from hospital or primary care. The C statistic reduced from 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.88–0.88) in the first year of follow up, to 0.85 (0.85–0.85) including all 5 years. When we stratified the linked score by consultation rate the association with mortality remained consistent, but there was a significant interaction with age, with improved discrimination and fit in those under 50 years old (C = 0.85, 0.83–0.87) compared to the Charlson (C = 0.79, 0.77–0.82) or Elixhauser index (C = 0.81, 0.79–0.83). Conclusions The use of linked population based primary and secondary care data developed a co-morbidity score that had improved discrimination, particularly in younger age groups, and had a greater effect when adjusting for co-morbidity than existing scores. PMID:27788230

  16. The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Colin J; Card, Tim R; West, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We have assessed whether the linkage between routine primary and secondary care records provided an opportunity to develop an improved population based co-morbidity score with the combined information on co-morbidities from both health care settings. We extracted all people older than 20 years at the start of 2005 within the linkage between the Hospital Episodes Statistics, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and Office for National Statistics death register in England. A random 50% sample was used to identify relevant diagnostic codes using a Bayesian hierarchy to share information between similar Read and ICD 10 code groupings. Internal validation of the score was performed in the remaining 50% and discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C statistic. Comparisons were made over time, age, and consultation rate with the Charlson and Elixhauser indexes. 657,264 people were followed up from the 1st January 2005. 98 groupings of codes were derived from the Bayesian hierarchy, and 37 had an adjusted weighting of greater than zero in the Cox proportional hazards model. 11 of these groupings had a different weighting dependent on whether they were coded from hospital or primary care. The C statistic reduced from 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.88) in the first year of follow up, to 0.85 (0.85-0.85) including all 5 years. When we stratified the linked score by consultation rate the association with mortality remained consistent, but there was a significant interaction with age, with improved discrimination and fit in those under 50 years old (C = 0.85, 0.83-0.87) compared to the Charlson (C = 0.79, 0.77-0.82) or Elixhauser index (C = 0.81, 0.79-0.83). The use of linked population based primary and secondary care data developed a co-morbidity score that had improved discrimination, particularly in younger age groups, and had a greater effect when adjusting for co-morbidity than existing scores.

  17. Diagnostic Thresholds for Quantitative REM Sleep Phasic Burst Duration, Phasic and Tonic Muscle Activity, and REM Atonia Index in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder with and without Comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    McCarter, Stuart J.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Timm, Paul C.; Sandness, David J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Silber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. Design: We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, “any,” and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. Setting: N/A. Participants: Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle activity (phasic, “any”) cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle activity cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. Citation: McCarter SJ, St. Louis EK, Duwell EJ, Timm PC

  18. Performance of the LACE index to identify elderly patients at high risk for hospital readmission in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Low, Lian Leng; Liu, Nan; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Ng, Eileen Yining; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Thumboo, Julian; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2017-05-01

    Unplanned readmissions may be avoided by accurate risk prediction and appropriate resources could be allocated to high risk patients. The Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, Emergency department visits in past six months (LACE) index was developed to predict hospital readmissions in Canada. In this study, we assessed the performance of the LACE index in a Singaporean cohort by identifying elderly patients at high risk of 30-day readmissions. We further investigated the use of additional risk factors in improving readmission prediction performance.Data were extracted from the hospital's electronic health records (EHR) for all elderly patients ≥ 65 years, with alive-discharge episodes from Singapore General Hospital in 2014. In addition to LACE, we also collected patients' data during the index admission, including demographics, medical history, laboratory results, and previous medical utilization.Among the 17,006 patients analyzed, 2051 or 12.1% of them were observed 30-day readmissions. The final predictive model was better than the LACE index in terms of discriminative ability; c-statistic of LACE index and final logistic regression model was 0.595 and 0.628, respectively.The LACE index had poor discriminative ability in identifying elderly patients at high risk of 30-day readmission, even if it was augmented with additional risk factors. Further studies should be conducted to discover additional factors that may enable more accurate and timely identification of patients at elevated risk of readmissions, so that necessary preventive actions can be taken.

  19. Variability between Clarke's angle and Chippaux-Smirak index for the diagnosis of flat feet

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Lopez-Calviño, Beatriz; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Gil-Guillen, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The measurements used in diagnosing biomechanical pathologies vary greatly. The aim of this study was to determine the concordance between Clarke's angle and Chippaux-Smirak index, and to determine the validity of Clarke's angle using the Chippaux-Smirak index as a reference. Methods: Observational study in a random population sample (n= 1,002) in A Coruña (Spain). After informed patient consent and ethical review approval, a study was conducted of anthropometric variables, Charlson comorbidity score, and podiatric examination (Clarke's angle and Chippaux-Smirak index). Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Results: The prevalence of flat feet, using a podoscope, was 19.0% for the left foot and 18.9% for the right foot, increasing with age. The prevalence of flat feet according to the Chippaux-Smirak index or Clarke's angle increases significantly, reaching 62.0% and 29.7% respectively. The concordance (kappa I) between the indices according to age groups varied between 0.25-0.33 (left foot) and 0.21-0.30 (right foot). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the Chippaux-Smirak index and Clarke's angle was -0.445 (left foot) and -0.424 (right foot). After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity score and gender, the only variable with an independent effect to predict discordance was the BMI (OR= 0.969; 95% CI: 0.940-0.998). Conclusion: There is little concordance between the indices studied for the purpose of diagnosing foot arch pathologies. In turn, Clarke's angle has a limited sensitivity in diagnosing flat feet, using the Chippaux-Smirak index as a reference. This discordance decreases with higher BMI values. PMID:28559643

  20. The impact of patient comorbidity on cancer stage at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Jason; Sarfati, Diana; Stanley, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that cancer stage is affected by comorbidity, but the evidence regarding the magnitude and even direction of this effect is highly inconsistent and poorly understood. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of comorbidity on cancer stage at diagnosis, using both specific individual comorbid conditions and a global measure of comorbidity; and to assess whether this impact varied by cancer site, level of comorbidity burden and individual comorbidity type. Methods: We examined comorbidity among 14 096 patients with breast, colon, rectal, liver, stomach, ovarian, uterine, bladder or kidney cancer. Patients were identified from cancer registry data, and then linked to hospitalisation data to determine the presence of comorbidity in the 5 years preceding cancer diagnosis. Individual comorbid conditions were identified using ICD-10 codes, and overall burden of comorbidity attributed using a cancer-specific measure of comorbidity (C3 Index). Results: We observed that the presence of patient comorbidity (a) increases the odds of being diagnosed with distant metastases, (b) does not lead to earlier diagnosis and (c) increases the likelihood of a patient receiving no stage of disease at diagnosis. Conclusions: Patient comorbidity has a substantial impact on cancer stage at diagnosis; however, this impact varies considerably by cancer type, individual comorbid condition and overall comorbidity burden. PMID:26461060

  1. Comorbidities Among Persons With Incident Psychiatric Condition

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: I sought to determine how medical comorbidities co-exist with incident psychiatric condition. Method: I used data from all 11 available waves (1992-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). I identified 4,358 index participants with self-reported incident psychiatric condition. I collected comorbidity data from participants preceding, including, and succeeding that incident wave. Comorbidities assessed included high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes mellitus, cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis. Modified Poisson regression combined with log-linked binomial regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of reporting a comorbidity preceding and following the incident wave. Multiple comparison testing dictated significance of RRs with p < .007. Results: For the waves preceding the index wave, the RRs of reporting all comorbidities except HBP and cancer were significantly (p < .007) increased. For the waves following incident psychiatric condition, the risks of reporting heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease were significantly (p < .007) increased. These results were adjusted for participant age, race, gender, other comorbidities listed, and the wave in which a comorbidity was reported. Conclusion: The bidirectional association between a psychiatric condition and medical illnesses could only be statistically confirmed for lung disease, diabetes, and heart disease. It is of interest to determine how reporting a psychiatric condition may affect the sequelae of health care use and treatment outcomes for patients with either of these comorbidities or a combination of them. PMID:28008416

  2. Exploring the Impact of Human Papillomavirus Status, Comorbidity, Polypharmacy, and Treatment Intensity on Outcome of Elderly Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Caparrotti, Francesca; O'Sullivan, Brian; Bratman, Scott V; Ringash, Jolie; Lu, Lin; Bayley, Andrew; Cho, John; Giuliani, Meredith; Hope, Andrew; Kim, John; Waldron, John; Hansen, Aaron; Goldstein, David; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan; Tong, Li; Song, Yuyao; Xu, Wei; Huang, Shao Hui

    2017-07-15

    To explore the impact of tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status, comorbidity, polypharmacy, and treatment intensity on overall survival (OS) of elderly oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients. All elderly (>70 years) OPC patients receiving definitive (chemo-) radiation therapy in 2000 to 2013 were reviewed. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI, comorbidity alone) and the comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS, comorbidity and medication) were calculated. Overall survival was compared between HPV-positive (HPV+) and HPV-negative (HPV-) cohorts. Multivariable analyses (MVA) incorporating either the CCI (MVA-CCI) or the CPS (MVA-CPS) identified survival predictors. Among 231 of 287 patients (80%) with p16 staining, 117 were HPV+ and 114 HPV-. Systemic treatments were administered in 48 patients (21%) (chemotherapy 17; epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor 31). The distribution of CCI (P=.59), CPS (P=.23), and age (P=.50) were similar between HPV+ versus HPV- cohorts. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. The HPV+ patients had better 5-year OS (57% vs 32%, P<.001) versus HPV- patients. Multivariable analysis adjusted for T-/N-category confirmed that HPV+ status (MVA-CCI: hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, P=.01; MVA-CPS: HR 0.60, P=.02), Zubrod scale score (0-1) (MVA-CCI: HR 0.44, P<.001; MVA-CPS: HR 0.43, P<.001), and higher radiation therapy dose (MVA-CCI: HR 0.97, P=.001; MVA-CPS: HR 0.96, P<.001) were correlated with higher OS. A marginal inverse correlation between CPS and OS was observed in the entire cohort (HR 1.05, P=.05) and was stronger for the HPV+ cohort (HR 1.11, P=.02). Nonsignificant higher OS was also found with ≤20 pack-years of smoking (MVA-CCI: P=.10; MVA-CPS: P=.15) and with systemic treatments (MVA-CCI: P=.13; MVA-CPS: P=.19). No association with OS was found for CCI (P=.46). Elderly HPV+ OPC patients have longer survival than their HPV- counterparts. Lower Zubrod scale score and higher radiation therapy dose are associated with longer OS, whereas fewer smoking

  3. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  4. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up.

  5. Validation of the prognostic burn index: a nationwide retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    The burn index (BI=full thickness total burn surface area [TBSA]+1/2 partial thickness TBSA) and prognostic burn index (PBI=BI+age) are clinically used particularly in Japan. However, few studies evaluated the validation of PBI with large sample size. We retrospectively investigated the relationships between PBI and mortality among burn patients using data from a nationwide database. Data of all burn patients with burn index ≥1 were extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) inpatient database from 1 July 2010 to 31 March 2013 (17,185 patients in 1044 hospitals). The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Overall in-hospital mortality was 5.9% (1011/17,185). Mortality increased significantly as the PBI increased (Mantel-Haenszel trend test, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PBI was 0.90 (95%CI, 0.90-0.91), and a PBI above a threshold of 85 showed the highest association with in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed that PBI≥85 (odds ratio (OR), 14.6; 95%CI, 12.1-17.6), inhalation injury with mechanical ventilation (OR, 13.0; 95%CI, 10.8-15.7), Charlson Comorbidity Index≥2 (OR, 1.8; 95%CI, 1.5-2.3), and male gender (OR, 1.5; 95%CI, 1.3-1.8) were significant independent risk factors for death. Our study suggested that a PBI above a threshold of 85 was significantly associated with mortality. The PBI and mechanical ventilation were the most significant factors predicting in-hospital mortality, after adjustment for inhalation injury, comorbidity, and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle activity (phasic, "any") cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle activity cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim; Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin; Feng, Felix Y.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (≥75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ≥2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ≥3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ≥2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ≥3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ≥3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ≥2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ≥3 (P=.015) but not grade ≥2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  8. Interaction effects in comorbid psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Jared W; Chmielewski, Michael S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity in psychopathology is the norm. Despite some initial evidence, few studies have examined if the presence of comorbid conditions changes the expression of the pathology, either through increased severity of the syndrome(s) or by expanding to symptoms beyond the syndrome(s) (i.e., symptom overextension). The following report provides an illustration of interactive effects and overextension in comorbid pathology. A large pool of patients from a university hospital were assessed using SCID-I/P interviews. Of these, 230 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, social phobia, or both were included in the study. Symptoms not belonging to either index condition (major depressive disorder or social phobia) reliably overextended in comorbid cases (odds ratios between 2.82 and 15.75). Current research methodologies (e.g., structured interviews) do not allow for the examination of overextended symptoms. The authors make a call for future psychopathological research to search systematically for interactive effects by adopting more inclusive or flexible assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy of ICD-10 Coding System for Identifying Comorbidities and Infectious Conditions Using Data from a Thai University Hospital Administrative Database.

    PubMed

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Wongkamhla, Thanyarak; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2016-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding system in identifying comorbidities and infectious conditions using data from a Thai university hospital administrative database. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients hospitalized in six general medicine wards at Siriraj Hospital. ICD-10 code data was identified and retrieved directly from the hospital administrative database. Patient comorbidities were captured using the ICD-10 coding algorithm for the Charlson comorbidity index. Infectious conditions were captured using the groups of ICD-10 diagnostic codes that were carefully prepared by two independent infectious disease specialists. Accuracy of ICD-10 codes combined with microbiological dataf or diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) and bloodstream infection (BSI) was evaluated. Clinical data gathered from chart review was considered the gold standard in this study. Between February 1 and May 31, 2013, a chart review of 546 hospitalization records was conducted. The mean age of hospitalized patients was 62.8 ± 17.8 years and 65.9% of patients were female. Median length of stay [range] was 10.0 [1.0-353.0] days and hospital mortality was 21.8%. Conditions with ICD-10 codes that had good sensitivity (90% or higher) were diabetes mellitus and HIV infection. Conditions with ICD-10 codes that had good specificity (90% or higher) were cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer HIV infection, and all infectious conditions. By combining ICD-10 codes with microbiological results, sensitivity increased from 49.5 to 66%for UTI and from 78.3 to 92.8%for BS. The ICD-10 coding algorithm is reliable only in some selected conditions, including underlying diabetes mellitus and HIV infection. Combining microbiological results with ICD-10 codes increased sensitivity of ICD-10 codes for identifying BSI. Future research is

  10. Presence of comorbidity affects both treatment strategies and outcomes in disease activity, physical function, and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ayako; Inoue, Eisuke; Shimizu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Shidara, Kumi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Seto, Yohei; Tanaka, Eiichi; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Momohara, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the impact of comorbidities on treatment strategies and outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a large observational RA cohort, the presence of comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Changes in medication, disease activity by Disease Activity Score-28 joint count (DAS28) over 6 months, disability assessed by the Japanese version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ), and quality of life by EuroQOL-5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) over 1 year in patients with high disease activity (DAS28 > 5.1) at baseline were assessed according to age-adjusted CCI (CCI(A)) and categorized into four groups (CCI(A) 0, 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5). Among 5,317 patients, 975 patients (18.3%) had at least one comorbidity listed by CCI. DAS28, J-HAQ, and EQ-5D increased in severity with increased CCI(A) levels. Among patients with high disease activity (n = 267), treatment with methotrexate and/or biologics and improved DAS28 scores, shown by attenuated intensity, were associated with increased CCI(A) levels. J-HAQ improved from 1.29 ± 0.31 to 0.87 ± 0.37 in 1 year in the CCI(A) 0 group. The adjusted difference (standard error) in J-HAQ at 1 year in CCI(A) 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 groups was worse than J-HAQ in the CCI(A) 0 group by 0.32 (0.09, p < 0.001), 0.45 (0.10, p < 0.001), and 0.45 (0.15, p < 0.01), respectively. The magnitude of improvement of EQ-5D was significantly attenuated with increasing CCI(A) levels. Thus, patients with comorbidities may not experience the same degree of benefit from recent RA treatments compared with patients without comorbidities in daily practice.

  11. Age influences initial dose and compliance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia elderly patients but concomitant comorbidities appear to influence overall and event-free survival.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Luciano, Luigiana; Latagliata, Roberto; Castagnetti, Fausto; Ferrero, Dario; Cavazzini, Francesco; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monica; Annunziata, Mario; Stagno, Fabio; Tiribelli, Mario; Binotto, Gianni; Crisà, Elena; Musto, Pellegrino; Gozzini, Antonella; Cavalli, Laura; Montefusco, Enrico; Iurlo, Alessandra; Russo, Sabina; Cedrone, Michele; Rossi, Antonella Russo; Pregno, Patrizia; Endri, Mauro; Spadea, Antonio; Molica, Matteo; Giglio, Gianfranco; Celesti, Francesca; Sorà, Federica; Storti, Sergio; D'Addosio, Ada; Cambrin, Giovanna Rege; Isidori, Alessandro; Sica, Simona; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Speccha, Giorgina; Rosti, Gianantonio; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-10-01

    We applied Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) stratification on a large cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) very elderly patients (>75 years) treated with imatinib, in order to observe the impact of concomitant diseases on both compliance and outcome. One hundred and eighty-one patients were recruited by 21 Italian centers. There were 95 males and 86 females, median age 78.6 years (range 75-93.6). According to Sokal score, 106 patients were classified as intermediate risk and 55 as high risk (not available in 20 patients). According to CCI stratification, 71 patients had score 0 and 110 a score ≥ 1. Imatinib standard dose was reduced at start of therapy (200-300 mg/day) in 68 patients independently from the evaluation of baseline comorbidities, but based only on physician judgement: 43.6% of these patients had score 0 compared to 34% of patients who had score ≥ 1. Significant differences were found in terms of subsequent dose reduction (39% of patients with score 0 compared to 53% of patients with score ≥ 1) and in terms of drug discontinuation due to toxicity (35% of patients with score 0 vs 65% of patients with score ≥ 1). We did not find significant differences as regards occurrence of hematologic side effects, probably as a consequence of the initial dose reduction: 39% of patients with score 0 experienced grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity (most commonly anemia) compared to 42% of patients with score ≥ 1. Independently from the initial dose, comorbidities again did not have an impact on development of grade 3/4 non-hematologic side effects (most commonly skin rash, muscle cramps and fluid retention): 62% of patients with score 0 compared to 52.5% of patients with score ≥ 1. Notwithstanding the reduced dose and the weight of comorbidities we did not find significant differences but only a trend in terms of efficacy: 66% of patients with score 0 achieved a CCyR compared to 54% of patients with score ≥ 1. Comorbidities appeared to have an impact on

  12. Comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis and mortality in persons infected and uninfected with HIV: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Nielsen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV. This cohort study compared 2 different cohorts. The prospective population-based nationwide observational Danish HIV Cohort Study was used to compare all adults diagnosed with HIV in Denmark from 1997 with a matched general population cohort. Comorbidity history was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Registry and vital statistics obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cox regression was used to estimate the impact of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and hepatitis C virus coinfection on mortality, and population attributable risk was used to assess the proportional impact of comorbidity on mortality. CCI comorbidity was present before HIV diagnosis in 11.3% of 1638 persons with HIV, and in 8.0% of 156,506 persons in the general population. The risk for death in patients with HIV with at least 1 CCI point was 1.84 times higher than in those with no CCI points (adjusted mortality rate ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.32 to 2.57). The annual risk of dying for patients with HIV vs general population with 0, 1, 2, and 3+ CCI points was 1.70% (1.44 to 2.00) vs 0.27% (0.26 to 0.28), 4.37% (3.01 to 6.32) vs 1.36% (1.26 to 1.47), 8.06% (4.94 to 13.16) vs 2.44% (2.22 to 2.68), and 10.15% (5.08 to 20.30) vs 5.84% (5.19 to 6.58), respectively. Comorbidity acquired before HIV, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and background mortality accounted for 45% of total mortality in the population infected with HIV. Almost half of deaths in persons diagnosed with HIV in a health care setting with free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy stemmed from factors unrelated to HIV disease.

  13. Surgically and Conservatively Treated Obese Patients Differ in Psychological Factors, Regardless of Body Mass Index or Obesity-Related Co-Morbidities: A Comparison between Groups and an Analysis of Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Ahnis, Anne; Figura, Andrea; Hofmann, Tobias; Stengel, Andreas; Elbelt, Ulf; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For the treatment of obesity, both conservative and surgical procedures are available. Psychological factors are likely to influence the choice of treatment; however, to date, systematic studies that investigate these factors are few in number. The aim of our study was to analyze whether patients who undergo a surgical treatment differ from those who require a conservative treatment in regard to psychological factors, regardless of their somatic conditions. Furthermore, predictors of treatment choice will be examined. Methods A total of 244 patients (189 women), with a mean body mass index of 45.1 kg/m2, underwent a weight reduction treatment, with 126 patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 118 patients participating in a conservative, multimodal outpatient weight reduction program. Differences in the results of the psychological questionnaires between conservatively and surgically treated patients were evaluated through the use of t-tests, χ2-tests and an ANCOVA. For the analysis of the predictors, logistic regression models were calculated. Results Surgically and conservatively treated obese patients differ in psychological, somatic, and socio-demographic factors. The psychological differences between the groups are independent of obesity-related co-morbidities, such as body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary heart disease. The following psychological and somatic factors equally predict the choice of bariatric surgery: apathy, delegated active coping, a sense of coherence, complaints, type 2 diabetes mellitus, BMI, and age. Conclusion Longitudinal studies are required to assess the predictive value of the psychological factors in regard to the postsurgical weight course to improve the pre-surgical screening and treatment selection process. The pre-surgical identification of psychological predictors should result in a more personalized medicine course and may ensure long term outcomes. PMID:25679521

  14. Alcohol and psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Bukstein, Oscar; Salloum, Ihsan; Clark, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Comorbid psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUDs) are common among alcoholics (Regier, Farmer, Rae, Locke, Keith, Judd, & Goodwin, 1990; Kessler, McGonagle, Zhao, Nelson, Hughes, Eshleman, Wittchen, & Kendler, 1994). These comorbid disorders often predict a shorter time to relapse of alcoholism (Greenfield, Weiss, Muenz, Vagge, Kelly, Bello, & Michael, 1998). However, despite the prevalence and the adverse effects of this comorbidity, few controlled treatment studies have been conducted involving this dual diagnosis population (Litten & Allen, 1999). To date, most of these few studies of alcoholics with comorbid disorders have been restricted to studies of alcoholics with either comorbid major depression or comorbid anxiety disorders (Litten & Allen, 1995). The results of these trials suggest efficacy for SSRI antidepressants and tricyclic antidepressants for treating alcoholics with comorbid major depression and suggest efficacy for buspirone for treating alcoholics with comorbid anxiety disorders (Mason, Kocsis, Ritvo, & Cutler, 1996; Cornelius, Salloum, Ehler, Jarrett, Cornelius, Perel, Thase, & Black, 1997; Kranzler, Burleson, Del Boca, Babor, Korner, Brown, & Bohn, 1994). However, controlled treatment studies involving alcoholics with other comorbid disorders are almost totally lacking. Consequently, to date, no empirically proven treatment exists for most of these comorbid disorders.

  15. Complexity, comorbidity, and health care costs associated with chronic widespread pain in primary care.

    PubMed

    Morales-Espinoza, Enma Marianela; Kostov, Belchin; Salami, Daniel Cararach; Perez, Zoe Herreras; Rosalen, Anna Pereira; Molina, Jacinto Ortiz; Gonzalez-de Paz, Luis; Momblona, Josep Miquel Sotoca; Àreu, Jaume Benavent; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) and compare the quality-of-life (QoL), cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, complexity, and health costs with the reference population. A multicenter case-control study was conducted at 3 primary care centers in Barcelona between January and December 2012: 3048 randomized patients were evaluated for CWP according to the American College of Rheumatology definition. Questionnaires on pain, QoL, disability, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality were administered. Cardiovascular risk and the Charlson index were calculated. We compared the complexity of cases and controls using Clinical Risk Groups, severity and annual direct and indirect health care costs. CWP criteria were found in 168 patients (92.3% women, prevalence 5.51% [95% confidence interval: 4.75%-6.38%]). Patients with CWP had worse QoL (34.2 vs 44.1, P < 0.001), and greater disability (1.04 vs 0.35; P < 0.001), anxiety (43.9% vs 13.3%; P < 0.001), depression (27% vs 5.8%; P < 0.001), sleep disturbances, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and number of cardiovascular events (13.1% vs 4.8%; P = 0.028) and higher rates of complexity, severity, hospitalization, and mortality. Costs were &OV0556;3751 per year in patients with CWP vs &OV0556;1397 in controls (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the average patient with CWP has a worse QoL and a greater burden of mental health disorders and cardiovascular risk. The average annual cost associated with CWP is nearly 3 times higher than that of patients without CWP, controlling for other clinical factors. These findings have implications for disease management and budgetary considerations.

  16. Managing comorbidities in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hillas, Georgios; Perlikos, Fotis; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Age and smoking are common risk factors for COPD and other illnesses, often leading COPD patients to demonstrate multiple coexisting comorbidities. COPD exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. Clinical trials investigating the treatment of COPD routinely exclude patients with multiple comorbidities or advanced age. Clinical practice guidelines for a specific disease do not usually address comorbidities in their recommendations. However, the management and the medical intervention in COPD patients with comorbidities need a holistic approach that is not clearly established worldwide. This holistic approach should include the specific burden of each comorbidity in the COPD severity classification scale. Further, the pharmacological and nonpharmacological management should also include optimal interventions and risk factor modifications simultaneously for all diseases. All health care specialists in COPD management need to work together with professionals specialized in the management of the other major chronic diseases in order to provide a multidisciplinary approach to COPD patients with multiple diseases. In this review, we focus on the major comorbidities that affect COPD patients. We present an overview of the problems faced, the reasons and risk factors for the most commonly encountered comorbidities, and the burden on health care costs. We also provide a rationale for approaching the therapeutic options of the COPD patient afflicted by comorbidity. PMID:25609943

  17. Managing comorbidities in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hillas, Georgios; Perlikos, Fotis; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Age and smoking are common risk factors for COPD and other illnesses, often leading COPD patients to demonstrate multiple coexisting comorbidities. COPD exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. Clinical trials investigating the treatment of COPD routinely exclude patients with multiple comorbidities or advanced age. Clinical practice guidelines for a specific disease do not usually address comorbidities in their recommendations. However, the management and the medical intervention in COPD patients with comorbidities need a holistic approach that is not clearly established worldwide. This holistic approach should include the specific burden of each comorbidity in the COPD severity classification scale. Further, the pharmacological and nonpharmacological management should also include optimal interventions and risk factor modifications simultaneously for all diseases. All health care specialists in COPD management need to work together with professionals specialized in the management of the other major chronic diseases in order to provide a multidisciplinary approach to COPD patients with multiple diseases. In this review, we focus on the major comorbidities that affect COPD patients. We present an overview of the problems faced, the reasons and risk factors for the most commonly encountered comorbidities, and the burden on health care costs. We also provide a rationale for approaching the therapeutic options of the COPD patient afflicted by comorbidity.

  18. Patient Related Outcomes-BODE (PRO-BODE): A composite index incorporating health utilization resources predicts mortality and economic cost of COPD in real life.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, R W; Celli, B R

    2017-10-01

    Multidimensional scores were proposed for defining COPD outcomes, but without any incorporation of the economic COPD cost to clinical indices. using mortality as an outcome, the hypothesis that adding total health care cost to the BODE index would better predict mortality in COPD was investigated. 275 COPD patients were surveyed. Anthropometrics, lung function, the BODE and the Charlson Comorbidity Index were determined. History of exacerbations, ER visits, hospitalizations and mortality were also determined over the next three years, being their rates graded and added to the BODE index according to a simple algorithm. The novel PRO-BODE index ranged 0-10 points; its relationship to annual total COPD cost and survival was assessed by linear regression analysis. total COD cost showed the highest relationship with survival (r = -0.58), even higher than that of age and of BODE index (r = -0.28 and r = -0.21, respectively). The integrated Pro-BODE score proved proportional to the cost of care and inversely proportional to the length of survival. Pro-BODE is a novel composite index which helps in predicting in real life the impact of COPD over three years, both in terms of patients' survival and of COPD economic burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low co-morbidity, low levels of malnutrition, and low risk of falls in a community-dwelling sample of 85-year-olds are associated with successful aging: the Octabaix study.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Megido, Maria Jesus; Chivite, David; Badia, Teresa; Pujol, Ramón

    2011-06-01

    The population is aging throughout the world. Preserving physical and cognitive functions is crucial to successful aging. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects aging successfully, applying a quantitative approach, and assessing the association of successful aging with sociodemographic data, global geriatric assessment, and co-morbidity. This was a community-based survey of inhabitants aged 85 years, with 328 out of 487 subjects born in 1924 assigned to seven primary health-care teams, representing a participation rate of 67.5%. Sociodemographic variables, Barthel index (BI), the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Charlson Index, Gait Rating Scale, social risk, quality of life (QoL), and prevalent chronic diseases were assessed. Subjects scoring higher than 90 on the BI and higher than 24 on the MEC were compared with the rest. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Using these criteria, successful aging status was defined in 162 (49.3%) subjects. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, successful agers had significantly lower co-morbidity scores (p < 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 0.791, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.657-0.952), higher scores on the Gait Rating Scale identifying lower risk of falls (p < 0.0001, OR = 1.753, 95% CI 1.501-2.046), and higher scores on the MNA, indicating lower risk of malnutrition (p < 0.0001, OR = 1.190, 95% CI 1.090-01.299). Regarding QoL, successful agers had significantly higher values than their unsuccessful aging counterparts (p > 0.0001). Almost half of the individuals presented successful aging. Successful agers had less co-morbidity and a lower risk of falls or malnutrition, and they had higher scores on the QoL scale.

  20. Improved accuracy of co-morbidity coding over time after the introduction of ICD-10 administrative data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-morbidity information derived from administrative data needs to be validated to allow its regular use. We assessed evolution in the accuracy of coding for Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities at three time points over a 5-year period, following the introduction of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), coding of hospital discharges. Methods Cross-sectional time trend evaluation study of coding accuracy using hospital chart data of 3'499 randomly selected patients who were discharged in 1999, 2001 and 2003, from two teaching and one non-teaching hospital in Switzerland. We measured sensitivity, positive predictive and Kappa values for agreement between administrative data coded with ICD-10 and chart data as the 'reference standard' for recording 36 co-morbidities. Results For the 17 the Charlson co-morbidities, the sensitivity - median (min-max) - was 36.5% (17.4-64.1) in 1999, 42.5% (22.2-64.6) in 2001 and 42.8% (8.4-75.6) in 2003. For the 29 Elixhauser co-morbidities, the sensitivity was 34.2% (1.9-64.1) in 1999, 38.6% (10.5-66.5) in 2001 and 41.6% (5.1-76.5) in 2003. Between 1999 and 2003, sensitivity estimates increased for 30 co-morbidities and decreased for 6 co-morbidities. The increase in sensitivities was statistically significant for six conditions and the decrease significant for one. Kappa values were increased for 29 co-morbidities and decreased for seven. Conclusions Accuracy of administrative data in recording clinical conditions improved slightly between 1999 and 2003. These findings are of relevance to all jurisdictions introducing new coding systems, because they demonstrate a phenomenon of improved administrative data accuracy that may relate to a coding 'learning curve' with the new coding system. PMID:21849089

  1. Psychiatric Comorbidities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F.; Miller, Brian J.; Lehrer, Douglas S.; Castle, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with schizophrenia. Substance abuse comorbidity predominates. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are also very common throughout the course of illness, with an estimated prevalence of 15% for panic disorder, 29% for posttraumatic stress disorder, and 23% for obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is estimated that comorbid depression occurs in 50% of patients, and perhaps (conservatively) 47% of patients also have a lifetime diagnosis of comorbid substance abuse. This article chronicles these associations, examining whether these comorbidities are “more than chance” and might represent (distinct) phenotypes of schizophrenia. Among the anxiety disorders, the evidence at present is most abundant for an association with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additional studies in newly diagnosed antipsychotic-naive patients and their first-degree relatives and searches for genetic and environmental risk factors are needed to replicate preliminary findings and further investigate these associations. PMID:19011234

  2. Is comorbid status the best predictor of one-year mortality in patients with severe sepsis and sepsis with shock?

    PubMed

    Huddle, N; Arendts, G; Macdonald, S P J; Fatovich, D M; Brown, S G A

    2013-07-01

    Understanding longer term outcomes in critically ill patients will assist treatment decisions, allocation of scarce resources and clinical research in that population. The aim of this study was to compare a well-validated means of determining comorbidity, the Charlson Comorbidity Score, to other verified risk stratification models in predicting one-year mortality and other outcomes in emergency department patients with severe sepsis and sepsis with shock. We conducted a planned subgroup analysis of a prospective observational study, the Critical Illness and Shock Study, in adult patients with sepsis meeting study criteria for critical illness. From emergency department arrival, patients were prospectively enrolled with data collected for a minimum of one year post-enrolment. Scoring systems were derived from this data and compared using receiver-operating characteristic curves. One hundred and four patients were enrolled. The 28-day mortality was 18% and one-year mortality 40%. For predicting one-year mortality, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for age-weighted Charlson Comorbidity Score (0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.81) was at least as good or superior to other scoring systems analysed. The intensive care unit admission rate was 45% and the median hospital length-of-stay was eight days. We conclude that in patients who present to the emergency department with severe sepsis or sepsis with shock, age-weighted Charlson Comorbidity Score is a predictor of one-year mortality that is simple to calculate and at least as accurate as other validated scoring systems.

  3. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  4. Characterizing Health Care Utilization, Direct Costs, and Comorbidities Associated with Interstitial Cystitis: A Retrospective Claims Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tung, Amy; Hepp, Zsolt; Bansal, Aasthaa; Devine, Emily Beth

    2017-04-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a debilitating condition that affects up to 5% of the U.S. This condition is characterized by bladder pain, urinary urgency and frequency, nocturia, and, in some patients, bladder lesions called Hunner's lesions (HL). IC patients who have HL experience a clinical course that is distinct from those without HL and, as a result, respond differently to existing treatments. Without effective and lasting therapeutic options, IC patients are expected to experience a reduced quality of life and be a significant economic burden. Previous research describing the burden of IC is not only outdated but lacks stratification by HL. To (a) characterize health care utilization, direct costs, and comorbidities associated with IC and (b) elucidate differences between patients with and without HL. A retrospective analysis was conducted using health care claims from the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases. Adults with an incident IC diagnosis between 2009 and 2014 were identified and matched 1:4 to non-IC patients on age, gender, and geographic region. Health care utilization, direct costs, and comorbidities during the first 12 months after diagnosis were compared between the 2 groups, as well as between IC subgroups with and without HL. Associations were evaluated after adjustment for potential confounders using regression models. A total of 24,836 IC patients were identified and matched to 99,344 non-IC patients. Patients were predominantly female (92%), with a mean age of 49.0 (SD = 15.3) years. IC patients used significantly more health care resources across all categories compared with non-IC patients. On average, having IC was associated with $7,223 higher total health care costs than not having IC (95% CI = $6,650-$7,796), with outpatient costs contributing to 71% of the difference, after adjusting for baseline age, gender, region, insurance type, plan type, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. The odds of developing select

  5. Epilepsy and neuropsychological comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Rudzinski, Leslie A; Meador, Kimford J

    2013-06-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with several associated comorbidities requiring timely recognition and treatment. This article discusses aspects of cognitive impairment; psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, and psychosis; and health-related quality-of-life issues pertaining to patients with epilepsy. Cognitive problems in epilepsy may be present early in the disease course. Advances in imaging techniques are allowing correlation of structure and function as they relate to cognitive impairment in epilepsy. The relationship between epilepsy, depression, and anxiety is increasingly recognized, and these psychiatric comorbidities may affect suicide risk, patient-reported adverse antiepileptic drug effects, and quality of life. Psychiatric disorders are underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Physicians who treat patients with epilepsy should be aware of the major impact that cognitive impairment and psychiatric comorbidities have on these patients. Identifying and treating these comorbidities in epilepsy patients is just as important as seizure treatment.

  6. Comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Turesson, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition, which is associated with an increased risk of comorbidity from other diseases. RA disease severity is a major predictor of development of cardiovascular disease, serious infections and malignant lymphoma. This reflects the role of chronic inflammation in the underlying pathology. Recent surveys indicate that although clinical outcomes have improved in patients with RA, mainly owing to access to more efficient pharmacotherapy, comorbidity remains a major issue in many patients. Register-based observational studies are useful sources of information on the impact of comorbidity and the efficacy and safety of antirheumatic treatment in patients with coexisting diseases. As a part of strategies to improve further the management of patients with RA, multidisciplinary collaboration for prevention and early detection of comorbidities is of major importance.

  7. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis: a nationwide study from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique personal identification numbers. To assess the presence of vascular comorbidities before and after MS onset, cases and controls were followed from January 1977 to the index date, and from the index date through December 2012. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Before the index date, MS cases had a decreased probability for cerebrovascular comorbidity [OR 0.69 (95 % CI 0.48-0.99, p = 0.043)], and a numerically but not statistically significant decreased probability for cardiovascular comorbidity [OR 0.87 (95 % CI 0.71-1.07, p = 0.188)]. After the index date, MS cases had an increased risk for cerebrovascular comorbidity [HR 1.84 (95 % CI 1.69-2.00, p < 0.0005)], and for cardiovascular comorbidity [HR 1.08 (95 % CI 1.02-1.15, p = 0.013)]. The lower occurrence of cerebrovascular comorbidities in cases prior to MS onset could be due to protective immune mechanisms, while the higher occurrence of vascular comorbidities in cases after MS onset could be because of converging causal pathways of the coexisting diseases. These findings deserve to be studied closer in a broader spectrum of comorbidities in MS.

  8. Exercise and comorbidity: the i3-S strategy for developing comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Joost; de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. We previously developed comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in osteoarthritis. We now broaden this approach into a general strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. The i3-S strategy consists of four steps. The first three steps involve creating an inventory of comorbid disease, an inventory of contraindications and restrictions on exercise therapy, and an inventory of potential adaptations to exercise therapy. In the fourth step, this information is synthesized into guidance on comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in the index disease. The adaptations concern physiological, behavioural and environmental factors. In view of the general effectiveness of exercise therapy and the high prevalence of comorbidity in older people, there is a great need for comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy. We recommend to use and evaluate the i3-S strategy in future research. Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. Researchers and clinicians can use this strategy to develop guidance on the adaptation of exercise therapy to comorbidity.

  9. Patient's experience with comorbidity management in primary care: a qualitative study of comorbid pain and obesity.

    PubMed

    Janke, E Amy; Ramirez, Michelle L; Haltzman, Brittany; Fritz, Megan; Kozak, Andrea T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine perceptions of those with comorbid chronic pain and obesity regarding their experience of comorbidity management in primary care settings. Chronic pain and obesity are common comorbidities frequently managed in primary care settings. Evidence suggests individuals with this comorbidity may be at risk for suboptimal clinical interactions; however, treatment experiences and preferences of those with comorbid chronic pain and obesity have received little attention. Semi-structured interviews conducted with 30 primary care patients with mean body mass index=36.8 and comorbid persistent pain. The constant comparative method was used to analyze data. Participants discussed frustration with a perceived lack of information tailored to their needs and a desire for a personalized treatment experience. Participants found available medical approaches unsatisfying and sought a more holistic approach to management. Discussions also focused around the need for providers to initiate efforts at education and motivation enhancement and to show concern for and understanding of the unique difficulties associated with comorbidity. Findings suggest providers should engage in integrated communication regarding weight and pain, targeting this multimorbidity using methods aligned with priorities discussed by patients.

  10. [Heart failure and comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure is a frequent disease in the elderly. Its clinical presentation is less typical and the prognosis more severe than in younger subjects because heart failure occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities. A comprehensive geriatric assessment should therefore be performed to detect the vulnerabilities and manage the comorbidities. The main diseases associated with heart failure are dementia, depression, malnutrition, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, orthostatic hypotension, renal failure, anemia and iron deficiency. Comorbidities worsen heart failure and makes its treatment more difficult. The identification and treatment of comorbidities improve the prognosis in terms of mortality but especially in terms of quality of life. Caution with drugs is necessary because of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic changes related to aging and the comorbidities. In this context, clinical and laboratory monitoring should be increased, mostly during an acute event (acute heart failure, infection, dehydration, fall, new therapy…). Therefore, the follow-up of elderly patients with heart failure requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves close cooperation between cardiologists, geriatricians, general practitioners, nurses, and pharmacists.

  11. Comorbid anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Mark H

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders often occur as comorbid illnesses and share many common symptoms. Risk factors for these disorders most likely include interactions of environmental and genetic factors. The presence of comorbid anxiety and depression adversely affects clinical and treatment outcomes. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually considered first-line treatment for patients with these disorders, although alternative antidepressants or additional therapies are often necessary. Studies suggest that benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and atypical antipsychotics may be effective as augmentation therapy to optimize outcome, with buspirone and beta-blockers useful in some patients as well. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is also an effective therapeutic alternative for affected patients.

  12. Comorbidities of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Porter, Martina L; Kimball, Alexa B

    2017-06-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disorder with many associated comorbidities, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, smoking, depression, arthritis, autoinflammatory syndromes, inflammatory bowel disease, and genetic syndromes. In addition, HS patients can suffer from a variety of diseases related to the chronic inflammatory nature of their HS such as cardiovascular disease and anemia. An understanding of these comorbidities and associations is essential for the management of HS, and routine screening for these entities should be considered in all HS patients. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  13. Development of a 5 year life expectancy index in older adults using predictive mining of electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Jason Scott; Agrawal, Ankit; Feinglass, Joe; Cooper, Andrew J; Baker, David William; Choudhary, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Objective Incorporating accurate life expectancy predictions into clinical decision making could improve quality and decrease costs, but few providers do this. We sought to use predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics of electronic health record (EHR) data to develop a highly accurate and clinically actionable 5 year life expectancy index. Materials and methods We developed the index using EHR data for 7463 patients ≥50 years old with ≥1 visit(s) in 2003 to a large, academic, multispecialty group practice. We extracted 980 attributes from the EHRs of the practices and affiliated hospitals. Correlation feature selection with greedy stepwise search was used to find the attribute subset with best average merit. Rotation forest ensembling with alternating decision tree as underlying classifier was used to predict 5 year mortality. Model performance was compared with the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Walter life expectancy method. Results Within 5 years of the last visit in 2003, 838 (11%) patients had died. The final model included 24 attributes: two demographic (age, sex), 10 comorbidity (eg, cardiovascular disease), one vital sign (mean diastolic blood pressure), two medications (loop diuretic use, digoxin use), six laboratory (eg, mean albumin), and three healthcare utilization (eg, the number of hospitalizations 1 year prior to the last visit in 2003). The index showed very good discrimination (c-statistic 0.86) and outperformed comparators. Conclusions The EHR based index successfully distinguished adults ≥50 years old with life expectancy >5 years from those with life expectancy ≤5 years. This information could be used clinically to optimize preventive service use (eg, cancer screening in the elderly). PMID:23538722

  14. Psoriasis: new comorbidities*

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Pinto, Jackson; Diniz, Michelle dos Santos; Bavoso, Nádia Couto

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with several comorbidities. A few decades ago, it was considered an exclusive skin disease but today it is considered a multisystem disease. It is believed that 73% of psoriasis patients have at least one comorbidity. Studies have demonstrated the association of psoriasis with inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, psychiatric disorders, metabolic syndrome and its components and cardiovascular diseases. The systemic inflammatory state seems to be the common denominator for all these comorbidities. This work aims at presenting a review of the current literature on some new comorbidities that are associated with psoriasis as osteoporosis, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. While there is still controversy, many studies already point to a possible bone involvement in patients with psoriasis, especially in the male group, generally less affected by osteoporosis. Psoriasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease present some risk factors in common as obesity, smoking and physical inactivity. Besides, both diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome. These factors could be potential confounders in the association of the two diseases. Further prospective studies with control of those potential confounders should be developed in an attempt to establish causality. Existing data in the literature suggest that there is an association between obstructive sleep apnea and psoriasis, but studies performed until now have involved few patients and had a short follow-up period. It is, therefore, premature to assert that there is indeed a correlation between these two diseases. PMID:26982772

  15. [Comorbidity in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Gerdes, S; Mrowietz, U; Boehncke, W-H

    2016-06-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease associated with comorbidity. Many epidemiological studies have shown that psoriasis is associated with psoriatic arthritis as well as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, obesity and psychological diseases such as depression and anxiety disorders are linked with psoriasis and play a central role in its management. The association of psoriasis and its comorbidity can be partly explained by genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms. Approximately 40 psoriasis susceptibility loci have been described with the majority linked to the innate and adaptive immune system. In some associated diseases, such as psoriatic arthritis, an overlap of their genetic susceptibility exists. Pathophysiologically the "psoriatic march" is a model that describes the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of underlying systemic inflammation. Dermatologists are the gatekeepers to treatment for patients with psoriasis. The early detection and the management of comorbidity is part of their responsibility. Concepts for the management of psoriasis and tools to screen for psoriatic comorbidity have been developed in order to support dermatologists in daily practice.

  16. Comorbidities in Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S T; Nieman, L K; Feelders, R A

    2015-04-01

    Cushing's disease is a rare disorder characterized by overproduction of ACTH from a pituitary adenoma leading to hypercortisolemia that in turn leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Here we review the comorbidities associated with Cushing's disease and their impact on quality of life and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that correction of hypercortisolemia may not lead to complete resolution of comorbidities associated with this condition. In particular, increased cardiovascular risk may persist despite long-term remission of hypercortisolemia. This may be related to persistence of visceral adiposity, adverse adipokine profile, glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and a procoagulant phenotype. Prior prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids also may have irreversible effects on the central nervous system, leading to persistent cognitive and mood alterations. Osteoporosis and fractures, especially vertebral fractures, can further add to morbidity and a poor quality of life. Normalization of cortisol levels leads to significant improvement in comorbidities but long-term data regarding complete resolution are lacking and need further study. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypercortisolemia, aggressive management of comorbidities along with long-term follow-up is crucial for the optimal recovery of these patients.

  17. What Can ADHD without Comorbidity Teach Us about Comorbidity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J.; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age,…

  18. What Can ADHD without Comorbidity Teach Us about Comorbidity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J.; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age,…

  19. Comorbidity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gagan; Wilens, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis A growing literature shows the pervasiveness and importance of comorbidity in youth with bipolar disorder (BPD). For instance, up to 90% of youth with BPD have been described to manifest comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior disorders are the other most commonly reported comorbidities with BPD. Moreover, important recent data highlights the importance of obsessive compulsive and pervasive developmental illness in the context of BPD. Data suggests that not only special developmental relationships are operant in context to comorbidity, but also that the presence of comorbid disorders with BPD results in a more severe clinical condition. Moreover, the presence of comorbidity has therapeutic implications for the treatment response for both BPD and the associated comorbid disorder. Future longitudinal studies to address the relationship and the impact of comorbid disorders on course and therapeutic response over time are required in youth with BPD. PMID:19264265

  20. Role of comorbidity on outcome of head and neck cancer: a population-based study in Thuringia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göllnitz, Irene; Inhestern, Johanna; Wendt, Thomas G; Buentzel, Jens; Esser, Dirk; Böger, Daniel; Mueller, Andreas H; Piesold, Jörn-Uwe; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Eigendorff, Ekkehard; Schlattmann, Peter; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2016-11-01

    To examine the impact of comorbidity on overall survival (OS) in a population-based study of patients with head and neck cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2011. Data of 1094 patients with primary head and neck carcinomas without distant metastasis from the Thuringian cancer registries were evaluated concerning the influence of patient's characteristics and comorbidity on OS. Data on comorbidity prior to head and neck cancer diagnosis was adapted to the Charlson Comorbidity (CCI), age-adjusted CCI (ACCI), head and neck CCI (HNCCI), simplified comorbidity score (SCS), and to the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27). Most patients were male (80%; median age: 60 years; 50% stage IV tumors). Smoking, alcohol abuse, and anemia were registered for 38%, 33%, and 23% of the patients, respectively. Predominant therapy was surgery + radiochemotherapy (30%), surgery (29%), and surgery + radiotherapy (21%). Mean CCI, ACCI, HNCCI, SCS and ACE-27 were 1.0 ± 1.5, 2.6 ± 2.1, 0.6 ± 0.8, 4.4 ± 4.2, and 0.9 ± 0.9, respectively. Median follow-up was 25.7 months. Multivariable analyses showed that higher age, higher UICC stage, no therapy, including surgery or radiotherapy, alcohol abuse, and anemia, higher comorbidity were independent risk factors for worse OS (all P < 0.05). According to the discriminatory power analysis none of the five comorbidity scores was superior to the other scores to prognosticate OS. This population-based study showed that comorbidity is frequent in German patients with head and neck cancer and is an important risk factor for poor OS. Comorbidity should be routinely assessed and taken into account in prospective clinical trials.

  1. Comorbidity of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    BIÇAKCI, Şebnem

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder and can be severely disabling during attacks. The highest prevalence occurs between the ages of 25 and 55 years. Prior studies have found that migraine occurs together with other illnesses at a greater coincidental rate than is seen in the general population. These occurrences are called “comorbidities”. To delineate the comorbidities of migraine is important, because it can help improve treatment strategies and the understanding of the possible pathophysiology of migraine.

  2. How I assess comorbidities before hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sorror, Mohamed L.

    2013-01-01

    The hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is a comorbidity tool suited for recipients of HCT. The index has been shown to sensitively capture the prevalence and magnitude of severity of various organ impairments before HCT and to provide valuable prognostic information after HCT. Many investigators have validated the discriminative power of the HCT-CI, but others have not. One concern is the consistency in comorbidity coding across different evaluators, particularly in view of the relatively recent addition of the HCT-CI to the transplant evaluation process. In this article, comorbidity scoring was tested across different evaluators, and only a fair interobserver agreement rate could be detected. To address these issues, a brief training program is proposed here, consisting of systematic methodology for data acquisition and consistent guidelines for comorbidity coding that were summarized in a Web-based calculator. In a validation patient cohort, this training program was shown to improve the interevaluator agreement on HCT-CI scores to an excellent rate with weighted κ values in the range of 0.89 to 0.97. This proposed training program will facilitate reliable assessment of comorbidities in the clinic and for research studies leading to standardization of the use of comorbidities in prediction of HCT outcomes. PMID:23355537

  3. A Simplified Score to Quantify Comorbidity in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Putcha, Nirupama; Puhan, Milo A.; Drummond, M. Bradley; Han, MeiLan K.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Martinez, Carlos H.; Foreman, Marilyn; Bhatt, Surya P.; Make, Barry; Ramsdell, Joe; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Barr, R. Graham; Rennard, Stephen I.; Martinez, Fernando; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James; Wise, Robert A.; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Comorbidities are common in COPD, but quantifying their burden is difficult. Currently there is a COPD-specific comorbidity index to predict mortality and another to predict general quality of life. We sought to develop and validate a COPD-specific comorbidity score that reflects comorbidity burden on patient-centered outcomes. Materials and Methods Using the COPDGene study (GOLD II-IV COPD), we developed comorbidity scores to describe patient-centered outcomes employing three techniques: 1) simple count, 2) weighted score, and 3) weighted score based upon statistical selection procedure. We tested associations, area under the Curve (AUC) and calibration statistics to validate scores internally with outcomes of respiratory disease-specific quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), six minute walk distance (6MWD), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score and exacerbation risk, ultimately choosing one score for external validation in SPIROMICS. Results Associations between comorbidities and all outcomes were comparable across the three scores. All scores added predictive ability to models including age, gender, race, current smoking status, pack-years smoked and FEV1 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Area under the curve (AUC) was similar between all three scores across outcomes: SGRQ (range 0·7624–0·7676), MMRC (0·7590–0·7644), 6MWD (0·7531–0·7560) and exacerbation risk (0·6831–0·6919). Because of similar performance, the comorbidity count was used for external validation. In the SPIROMICS cohort, the comorbidity count performed well to predict SGRQ (AUC 0·7891), MMRC (AUC 0·7611), 6MWD (AUC 0·7086), and exacerbation risk (AUC 0·7341). Conclusions Quantifying comorbidity provides a more thorough understanding of the risk for patient-centered outcomes in COPD. A comorbidity count performs well to quantify comorbidity in a diverse population with COPD. PMID:25514500

  4. A simplified score to quantify comorbidity in COPD.

    PubMed

    Putcha, Nirupama; Puhan, Milo A; Drummond, M Bradley; Han, MeiLan K; Regan, Elizabeth A; Hanania, Nicola A; Martinez, Carlos H; Foreman, Marilyn; Bhatt, Surya P; Make, Barry; Ramsdell, Joe; DeMeo, Dawn L; Barr, R Graham; Rennard, Stephen I; Martinez, Fernando; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Wise, Robert A; Hansel, Nadia N

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidities are common in COPD, but quantifying their burden is difficult. Currently there is a COPD-specific comorbidity index to predict mortality and another to predict general quality of life. We sought to develop and validate a COPD-specific comorbidity score that reflects comorbidity burden on patient-centered outcomes. Using the COPDGene study (GOLD II-IV COPD), we developed comorbidity scores to describe patient-centered outcomes employing three techniques: 1) simple count, 2) weighted score, and 3) weighted score based upon statistical selection procedure. We tested associations, area under the Curve (AUC) and calibration statistics to validate scores internally with outcomes of respiratory disease-specific quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), six minute walk distance (6MWD), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score and exacerbation risk, ultimately choosing one score for external validation in SPIROMICS. Associations between comorbidities and all outcomes were comparable across the three scores. All scores added predictive ability to models including age, gender, race, current smoking status, pack-years smoked and FEV1 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Area under the curve (AUC) was similar between all three scores across outcomes: SGRQ (range 0·7624-0·7676), MMRC (0·7590-0·7644), 6MWD (0·7531-0·7560) and exacerbation risk (0·6831-0·6919). Because of similar performance, the comorbidity count was used for external validation. In the SPIROMICS cohort, the comorbidity count performed well to predict SGRQ (AUC 0·7891), MMRC (AUC 0·7611), 6MWD (AUC 0·7086), and exacerbation risk (AUC 0·7341). Quantifying comorbidity provides a more thorough understanding of the risk for patient-centered outcomes in COPD. A comorbidity count performs well to quantify comorbidity in a diverse population with COPD.

  5. Medical Comorbidities in Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Howard; Singhi, Samata; Gladstein, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Comorbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Comorbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this article is to review these comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis and underdiagnosis of comorbidities in psoriasis patients - need for a multidisciplinary approach*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Gleison Vieira; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima S. P.; Follador, Ivonise; Silva, Thadeu Santo; de Carvalho Filho, Edgar Marcelino

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease that manifests predominantly in the skin, although systemic involvement may also occur. Although associated comorbidities have long been recognized and despite several studies indicating psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, little has been done in general medical practice regardind screening. In the United States, less than 50% of clinicians are aware of these recommendations. OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of these comorbidities in 296 patients followed up at a university dermatology clinic. METHODS Systematically investigated comorbidity frequencies were compared with general practitioners' registry frequencies. Clinical features correlated with comorbidities were also investigated. RESULTS High prevalences of systematically investigated comorbidities such as hypertension (30%) and dyslipidemia (26.5%) were documented. Conversely, data from general practitioners' records showed that 33% of dyslipidemia cases were undiagnosed and indicated possible underdiagnosis of some comorbidities. Furthermore, an association was found between: the number of comorbidities and psoriasis duration, age and high body mass index an association was found between the number of comorbidities and psoriasis duration, age, high body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Disease duration, age and high body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio are possible criteria for choosing which patients should be screened for comorbidities. Underdiagnosis of comorbidities by general practitioners highlights the need for a multidisciplinary approach in psoriasis management. PMID:28099594

  7. Medical comorbidity in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Wadland, William C; Ferenchick, Gary S

    2004-12-01

    Greater risks exist for medical comorbidities in persons with addictive disorders. Clinicians should screen for early comorbidities such as hepatitis C and HIV. During acute intoxications and overdoses, patients are at greater risk for major respiratory and cardiac events. Long-term management of persons with addictions and medical disorders requires integrative care programs involving comprehensive primary and psychiatric care.

  8. Economic and Comorbidity Burden Among Moderate‐to‐Severe Psoriasis Patients with Comorbid Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Steven R.; Shi, Lizheng; Tran, Mary Helen; Lu, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of comorbidities, health care utilization, and costs between moderate‐to‐severe psoriasis (PsO) patients with comorbid psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and matched controls. Methods Adults ages 18–64 years with concomitant diagnoses of PsO and PsA (PsO+PsA) were identified in the OptumHealth Reporting and Insights claims database between January 2007 and March 2012. Moderate‐to‐severe PsO was defined based on the use of at least one systemic or phototherapy during the 12‐month study period after the index date (randomly selected date after the first PsO diagnosis). Control patients without PsO and PsA were demographically matched 1:1 with PsO+PsA patients. Multivariate regressions were employed to examine PsO/PsA‐related comorbidities, medications, health care utilization, and costs between PsO+PsA patients and controls, adjusting for demographics, index year, insurance type, and non–PsO/PsA‐related comorbidities. Results Among 1,230 matched pairs of PsO+PsA patients and controls, PsO+PsA patients had significantly more PsO/PsA‐related comorbidities, with the top 3 most common in both groups being hypertension (35.8% versus 23.5%), hyperlipidemia (34.6% versus 28.5%), and diabetes mellitus (15.9% versus 10.0%). Compared with controls, PsO+PsA patients had a higher number of distinct prescriptions filled (incidence rate ratio 2.3, P < 0.05); were more likely to have inpatient admissions (odds ratio [OR] 1.6), emergency room visits (OR 1.3), and outpatient visits (OR 62.7) (all P < 0.05); and incurred significantly higher total, pharmacy, and medical costs (adjusted annual cost differences per patient $23,160, $17,696, and $5,077, respectively; all P < 0.01). Conclusion Compared with matched PsO‐ and PsA‐free controls, moderate‐to‐severe PsO patients with comorbid PsA had higher comorbidity and health care utilization and costs. PMID:25303478

  9. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood.

  10. Body mass index-mortality relationship in severe hypoglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Lee, Chien-Hung; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Kung, Chia-Te; Chen, Fu-Cheng; Shen, Feng-Chih; Lee, Chao-Jui; Chen, Yi-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Hypoglycemia is associated with a higher risk of death. This study analyzed various body mass index (BMI) categories and mortalities of severe hypoglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a hospital emergency department. The study included 566 adults with type 2 diabetes who were admitted to 1 medical center in Taiwan between 2008 and 2009 with a diagnosis of severe hypoglycemia. Mortality data, demographics, clinical characteristics and the Charlson's Comorbidity Index were obtained from the electronic medical records. Patients were stratified into 4 study groups as determined by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and World Health Organization classification for BMI, and the demographics were compared using the analysis of variance and χ² test. Kaplan-Meier's analysis and the Cox proportional-hazards regression model were used for mortality, and adjusted hazard ratios were adjusted for each BMI category among participants. After controlling for other possible confounding variables, BMI <18.5 kg/m² was independently associated with low survival rates in the Cox regression analysis of the entire cohort of type 2 DM patients who encountered a hypoglycemic event. Compared to patients with normal BMI, the mortality risk was higher (adjusted hazard ratios = 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4-9.9) in underweight patients. Infection-related causes of death were observed in 101 cases (69.2%) and were the leading cause of death. An independent association was observed between BMI less than 18.5 kg/m² and mortality among type 2 DM patient with severe hypoglycemic episode. Deaths were predominantly infection related.

  11. Investigating asthma comorbidities: a systematic scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    El Ferkh, Karim; Nwaru, Bright; Griffiths, Chris; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is a common long-term disorder with a number of related comorbid conditions, which may affect asthma outcomes. There is a need for greater appreciation for understanding how these comorbidities interact with asthma in order to improve asthma outcomes. Objectives To systematically identify and map out key asthma comorbidities. Methods We will systematically search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Additional literature will be identified by searching the reference list of identified eligible studies and by searching the repositories of international conference proceedings, including ISI Conference Proceeding Citation Index, and ZETOC (British Library). Dissemination The findings from this systematic scoping review will be reported at scientific meetings and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27558899

  12. The challenging interplay between rheumatoid arthritis, ageing and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    van Onna, Marloes; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-04-26

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to increase over the next 10 years in the European Union because of the increasing proportion of elderly people. As both RA and ageing are associated with emerging comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, malignancies and osteoporosis, these factors will have a profound effect on the management of RA. In addition, both increasing age and comorbidities may independently alter commonly used RA-specific outcome measures. Age-related decline in immune cell functions (immunosenescence), such as a decrease in T-cell function, may contribute to the development of RA, as well as comorbidity. The chronic immune stimulation that occurs in RA may also lead to premature ageing and comorbidity. The interplay between RA, ageing and (emerging) comorbidities is interesting but complex. Cardiovascular disease, lung disease, malignancies, bone and muscle wasting and neuropsychiatric disease all occur more frequently in RA patients as compared to the general population. It is unclear how RA should be managed in 'today's world of multiple comorbidities'. Evidence that treatment of RA improves comorbidities is currently lacking, although some promising indirect observations are available. On the other hand, there is limited evidence that medication regularly prescribed for comorbidities, such as statins, might improve RA disease activity. Both ageing and comorbidity have an independent effect on commonly used outcome measures in the RA field, such as the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the clinical disease activity index (CDAI). Prospective studies, that also account for the presence of comorbidity in (elderly) RA patients are therefore urgently needed. To address gaps in knowledge, future research should focus on the complex interdependencies between RA, ageing and comorbidity. In addition, these findings should be integrated into daily clinical practice by developing and testing integrated and coordinated health

  13. Comorbidity, systemic inflammation and outcomes in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joy; Edwards, Lisa D; Agustí, Alvar; Bakke, Per; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome; Coxson, Harvey O; Crim, Courtney; Lomas, David A; Miller, Bruce E; Rennard, Steve; Silverman, Edwin K; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wouters, Emiel; Yates, Julie C; Macnee, William

    2013-09-01

    Comorbidities, are common in COPD, have been associated with poor outcomes and are thought to relate to systemic inflammation. To investigate comorbidities in relation to systemic inflammation and outcomes we recorded comorbidities in a well characterized cohort (ECLIPSE study) for 2164 clinically stable COPD subjects, 337 smokers and 245 non-smokers with normal lung function. COPD patients had a higher prevalence of osteoporosis, anxiety/panic attacks, heart trouble, heart attack, and heart failure, than smokers or nonsmokers. Heart failure (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.3-2.9), ischemic heart disease (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), heart disease (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), and diabetes (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) had increased odds of mortality when coexistent with COPD. Multiple comorbidities had accumulative effect on mortality. COPD and cardiovascular disease was associated with poorer quality of life, higher MRC dyspnea scores, reduced 6MWD, higher BODE index scores. Osteoporosis, hypertension and diabetes were associated with higher MRC dyspnea scores and reduced 6MWD. Higher blood concentrations of fibrinogen, IL-6 and IL-8 levels occurred in those with heart disease. Comorbidity is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD. The comorbidities of heart disease, hypertension and diabetes are associated with increased systemic inflammation.

  14. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  16. Migraine and its psychiatric comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Minen, Mia Tova; Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley; Powers, Scott; Schwedt, Todd J; Lipton, Richard; Silbersweig, David

    2016-07-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the link between migraine and several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We present data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification. We discuss the evidence, theories and methods, such as brain functional imaging, to explain the pathophysiological links between migraine and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide an overview of the treatment considerations for treating migraine with psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, a review of the literature demonstrates the wide variety of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine. However, more research is needed to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and the comorbid psychiatric conditions and to determine the most effective treatment for migraine with psychiatric comorbidity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for severe Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: importance of co-morbidity and serum C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Christian; Berns, Thomas; Treder, Wolfgang; Dumoulin, Franz-Ludwig

    2008-07-21

    To investigate risk factors for severe clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in hospitalised patients. We analysed risk factors for severe CDAD (associated with systemic signs of hypovolemia) in 124 hospitalised patients by retrospective chart review. Severe CDAD was present in 27 patients (22%). Statistical analysis showed a significant association with a higher 30-d mortality (33% vs 4%, P < 0.001) and a higher proportion of longer hospital stay exceeding 14 d (74% vs 52%, P = 0.048). Charlson co-morbidity score (OR 1.29 for 1 point increment, P < 0.05) and serum C-reactive protein at diagnosis (OR 1.15 for 10 mg/L increment, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of severe CDAD. Patients with a severe level of co-morbidity and high serum C-reactive protein levels at the time of diagnosis should receive particular attention.

  18. Comorbidity Cohort (2C) study: Cardiovascular disease severity and comorbid osteoarthritis in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two of the commonest chronic diseases experienced by older people in the general population are cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. These conditions also commonly co-occur, which is only partly explained by age. Yet, there have been few studies investigating specific a priori hypotheses in testing the comorbid interaction between two chronic diseases and related health and healthcare outcomes. It is also unknown whether the stage or severity of the chronic disease influences the comorbidity impact. The overall plan is to investigate the interaction between cardiovascular severity groups (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and heart failure) and osteoarthritis comorbidity, and their longitudinal impact on health and healthcare outcomes relative to either condition alone. Methods From ten general practices participating in a research network, adults aged 40 years and over were sampled to construct eight exclusive cohort groups (n = 9,676). Baseline groups were defined on the basis of computer clinical diagnostic data in a 3-year time-period (between 2006 and 2009) as: (i) without cardiovascular disease or osteoarthritis (reference group), (ii) index cardiovascular disease groups (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and heart failure) without osteoarthritis, (iii) index osteoarthritis group without cardiovascular disease, and (vi) index cardiovascular disease groups comorbid with osteoarthritis. There were three main phases to longitudinal follow-up. The first (survey population) was to invite cohorts to complete a baseline postal health questionnaire, with 10 monthly brief interval health questionnaires, and a final 12-month follow-up questionnaire. The second phase (linkage population) was to link the collected survey data to patient clinical records with consent for the 3-year time-period before baseline, during the 12-month survey period and the 12 months after final questionnaire (total 5 years). The third phase (denominator

  19. Usefulness of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) in predicting outcomes for adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Wood, William; Deal, Allison; Whitley, Julia; Sharf, Andrew; Serody, Jonathan; Gabriel, Donald; Shea, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The HCT-CI helps to predict non-relapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. The usefulness of this index in a younger, adolescent and young adult (AYA) population is unclear. We tested the validity of the HCT-CI as a predictor of mortality in a retrospective cohort of 56 AYA recipients between the ages of 16 and 39, using chart abstraction followed by univariable and multivariate analysis. Only pulmonary dysfunction (46%), hepatic dysfunction (27%), infection (20%), and psychiatric disturbance (11%) had frequencies greater than 5% in this population. HCT-CI scores of 0-2 were present in 54%, and scores of >3 in 46%. The cumulative incidence of NRM at 2 years was 32%, with an OS of 46%; the NRM and OS for patients with an HCT-CI of 0-2 were 24% and 62%, whereas the NRM and OS for patients with an HCT-CI >3 were 38% and 28%. Patients with pulmonary dysfunction prior to transplant had a 29% OS at 2 years, compared to a 61% OS among patients without (P = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference for patients and a worse NRM (P = 0.08). In multivariable analysis, both an HCT-CI score of >3 and any pulmonary dysfunction remained associated with OS (P = 0.01, P = 0.03), but neither with NRM. The HCT-CI appears useful in predicting OS in AYAs, though higher scores may reflect prior treatment, with pulmonary dysfunction particularly prevalent. Prospective studies to further validate and explain these findings are warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The association between co-morbidities and physical performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Lok Sze Katrina; Caughey, Gillian E; Johnston, Kylie N

    2014-02-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between co-morbidity and physical performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to end-February 2013, using keywords 'COPD', 'exercise', 'physical activity', 'rehabilitation', 'co-morbidity' and individual co-morbid conditions. Studies reporting associations of co-morbidities in COPD with at least one objective measure of physical performance were included. Study quality was appraised using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Nine studies met inclusion criteria. Mean (standard deviation (SD)) STROBE score was 16 (3) (maximum score = 21). Four studies examined anxiety as a co-morbid condition; three examined depression; two examined obesity and two examined a range of conditions. Reduced physical performance was associated with higher Charlson score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.54-0.98), metabolic disease (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.49-0.67), anxiety (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.23-0.59) and osteoporosis (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.11-0.70). Depression had minimal association with physical performance but was associated with higher dropout rates from pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Obesity was negatively associated with baseline physical performance but not with change from an exercise intervention. The presence of co-morbid conditions in people with COPD may negatively affect physical performance and should be identified and accounted for analysis of interventions.

  1. Genetic comorbidities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nalls, Mike A; Saad, Mohamad; Noyce, Alastair J; Keller, Margaux F; Schrag, Anette; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Traynor, Bryan J; Gibbs, J Raphael; Hernandez, Dena G; Cookson, Mark R; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nick; Hardy, John; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B

    2014-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a number of known genetic risk factors. Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested the existence of intermediate factors that may be associated with additional risk of PD. We construct genetic risk profiles for additional epidemiological and clinical factors using known genome-wide association studies (GWAS) loci related to these specific phenotypes to estimate genetic comorbidity in a systematic review. We identify genetic risk profiles based on GWAS variants associated with schizophrenia and Crohn's disease as significantly associated with risk of PD. Conditional analyses adjusting for SNPs near loci associated with PD and schizophrenia or PD and Crohn's disease suggest that spatially overlapping loci associated with schizophrenia and PD account for most of the shared comorbidity, while variation outside of known proximal loci shared by PD and Crohn's disease accounts for their shared genetic comorbidity. We examine brain methylation and expression signatures proximal to schizophrenia and Crohn's disease loci to infer functional changes in the brain associated with the variants contributing to genetic comorbidity. We compare our results with a systematic review of epidemiological literature, while the findings are dissimilar to a degree; marginal genetic associations corroborate the directionality of associations across genetic and epidemiological data. We show a strong genetically defined level of comorbidity between PD and Crohn's disease as well as between PD and schizophrenia, with likely functional consequences of associated variants occurring in brain.

  2. Genetic comorbidities in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Mike A.; Saad, Mohamad; Noyce, Alastair J.; Keller, Margaux F.; Schrag, Anette; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nick; Hardy, John; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a number of known genetic risk factors. Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested the existence of intermediate factors that may be associated with additional risk of PD. We construct genetic risk profiles for additional epidemiological and clinical factors using known genome-wide association studies (GWAS) loci related to these specific phenotypes to estimate genetic comorbidity in a systematic review. We identify genetic risk profiles based on GWAS variants associated with schizophrenia and Crohn's disease as significantly associated with risk of PD. Conditional analyses adjusting for SNPs near loci associated with PD and schizophrenia or PD and Crohn's disease suggest that spatially overlapping loci associated with schizophrenia and PD account for most of the shared comorbidity, while variation outside of known proximal loci shared by PD and Crohn's disease accounts for their shared genetic comorbidity. We examine brain methylation and expression signatures proximal to schizophrenia and Crohn's disease loci to infer functional changes in the brain associated with the variants contributing to genetic comorbidity. We compare our results with a systematic review of epidemiological literature, while the findings are dissimilar to a degree; marginal genetic associations corroborate the directionality of associations across genetic and epidemiological data. We show a strong genetically defined level of comorbidity between PD and Crohn's disease as well as between PD and schizophrenia, with likely functional consequences of associated variants occurring in brain. PMID:24057672

  3. Comorbidity as a predictor of overall survival in prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy combined with HDR brachytherapy boosts.

    PubMed

    Hjälm-Eriksson, Marie; Ullén, Anders; Johansson, Hemming; Levitt, Seymoure; Nilsson, Sten; Kälkner, Karl-Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The risk stratification currently applied prior to curative treatment for localized prostate cancer (PC) does not take into account comorbidity or age. Therefore, we investigated the impact of comorbidity on overall survival (OS) in PC patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. At a single center, 611 consecutive patients diagnosed with localized PC from 1998 to 2004 underwent definitive EBRT (50 Gy) and HDR brachytherapy boosts (2 × 10 Gy) combined with neoadjuvant total androgen blockade. Comorbidity was assessed with the Charlson comorbidity score. The impact of risk factors on OS and disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated using Cox proportional hazard ratios. Risk groups were defined as follows: low-risk PC: PSA <10, WHO grade 1 and T stage 1; high-risk PC: PSA >20 and/or WHO grade 3 and/or T stage 3a; intermediate-risk PC representing patients who did not fit either the low- or high-risk PC group. Mean age in the study cohort was 66.4 years, and 51% of the patients reported some degree of comorbidity. Divided into risk groups 8.2% were categorized as low-risk, 64% as intermediate-risk and 27.8% as high-risk PC. Overall 10-year survival was 72.2%, and 89% of the patients were relapse-free. In the univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard ratios, age, comorbidity and T stage were statistically significant predictors of OS: hazard ratios 1.56, 1.44 and 1.2 (p-values .002, .04 and .05), respectively. WHO grade, PSA at diagnosis, T stage and comorbidity were also significant predictors of DFS (p-values .0001, .0001, .009 and .003, respectively). Comorbidity assessed with the Charlson score predicts OS in patients with localized PC treated with curative intent using combined EBRT and HDR brachytherapy boost, and should be considered when making decisions before radical treatment.

  4. External Validation of the COmorbidity Test.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Nicholas; Davidson, Ross; Ghori, Uzair K; Abdou, Yara; Abukhalaf, Jawad; Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez

    2017-10-01

    The COmorbidity TEst (COTE) is a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)-specific co-morbidity score created to predict mortality. Before its wide application at the University of New Mexico we intended to validate it. The study was conducted at the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) in Albuquerque, NM, USA, a tertiary academic hospital. Consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of COPD were identified using the hospital's medical records system and included if they were older than 40 years, had smoked at least 20 pack-years and their post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was <0.7 without an alternative diagnosis. The data collected included demographics, co-morbidities as described in the COTE, COPD-specific therapies, spirometry results and mortality. Of 317 patients 51.4% were male, average age was 65.6 ± 9.6 years and the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted (FEV1%) was 52.9 ± 16.9%. 31 (9.8%) patients were on triple long-acting bronchodilator inhaler therapy, 88 (27.8%) on two long-acting bronchodilators and 163 (51.4%) on at least one long-acting bronchodilator. The median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR = 1.9-6.9). Fifty four patients died by the end of the follow-up period and their median COTE of 4 (IQR = 1-8) was significantly higher than for the survivors with COTE = 1 (IQR = 0-6; p = 0.002). In univariable analyses COTE was positively associated while FEV1%, body mass index (BMI) and gender were negatively associated with all-cause mortality. In multivariable analysis BMI, FEV1% and COTE remained independent predictors for mortality. The COTE is an independent predictor of mortality for COPD patients at UNMH.

  5. Comorbidity in the Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Romdhane, L; Messaoud, O; Bouyacoub, Y; Kerkeni, E; Naouali, C; Cherif Ben Abdallah, L; Tiar, A; Charfeddine, C; Monastiri, K; Chabchoub, I; Hachicha, M; Tadmouri, G O; Romeo, G; Abdelhak, S

    2016-03-01

    Genetic diseases in the Tunisian population represent a real problem of public health as their spectrum encompasses more than 400 disorders. Their frequency and distribution in the country have been influenced by demographic, economic and social features especially consanguinity. In this article, we report on genetic disease association referred to as comorbidity and discuss factors influencing their expressivity. Seventy-five disease associations have been reported among Tunisian families. This comorbidity could be individual or familial. In 39 comorbid associations, consanguinity was noted. Twenty-one founder and 11 private mutations are the cause of 34 primary diseases and 13 of associated diseases. As the information dealing with this phenomenon is fragmented, we proposed to centralize it in this report in order to draw both clinicians' and researcher's attention on the occurrence of such disease associations in inbred populations as it makes genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis challenging even when mutations are known.

  6. Psoriasis and comorbid diseases: Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Junko; Grewal, Sungat; Langan, Sinéad M; Mehta, Nehal N; Ogdie, Alexis; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Gelfand, Joel M

    2017-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that is increasingly being recognized as a systemic inflammatory disorder. Psoriatic arthritis is a well-known comorbidity of psoriasis. A rapidly expanding body of literature in various populations and settings supports additional associations between psoriasis and cardiometabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, kidney disease, malignancy, infection, and mood disorders. The pathogenesis of comorbid disease in patients with psoriasis remains unknown; however, shared inflammatory pathways, cellular mediators, genetic susceptibility, and common risk factors are hypothesized to be contributing elements. As additional psoriasis comorbidities continue to emerge, education of health care providers is essential to ensuring comprehensive medical care for patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychiatric comorbidities in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Puga, Adán; Villafuerte, Gabriel; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2017-07-06

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common in movement disorders. This review provides a practical approach to help clinicians to recognize psychiatric disorders in the most frequent movement disorders. However, the extent of neurodegeneration, as well as the impact of medications with considerable CNS effects, influences the diverse psychiatric presentations that, in turn, are influenced by the stress of living with a movement disorder. Depression, anxiety, and psychosis are the most common psychiatric comorbidities in movement disorders and of the medications used to treat the motor disturbances. These psychiatric problems impair patients' functioning throughout the course of the chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the direct connection between brain dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms, there is hope that understanding the psychiatric comorbidities in movement disorders will lead to a better quality-of-life.

  8. Usefulness of open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients with undiagnosed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates: influence of comorbidities and organ dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Yong; Suh, Gee Young; Choi, Jae Chol; Koh, Won Jung; Lim, Si Young; Han, Joungho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of open lung biopsy (OLB) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates of unknown etiology. Methods This was a 10-year retrospective study in a 10-bed medical intensive care unit. The medical records of 36 ventilator-dependent patients who underwent OLB for the diagnosis of unknown pulmonary infiltrates from 1994 to 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Data analyzed included demographic data, Charlson age–comorbidity score, number of organ dysfunctions, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, ventilation variables, and radiological patterns. Diagnostic yield, effect on subsequent treatment changes, and complications of OLB were also assessed. Results A specific clinico-pathologic diagnosis was obtained for 31 patients (86%). The most common diagnoses were interstitial pneumonia (n = 17, including 8 acute interstitial pneumonia) and viral pneumonia (n = 4). Therapeutic modifications were made in 64% of patients. Patients who received OLB less than 1 week after initiation of mechanical ventilation were more likely to survive (63% versus 11%; P = 0.018). There were no major complications associated with the procedure. Factors independently associated with survival were the Charlson age-comorbidity score, number of organ dysfunction and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day of the OLB. Conclusion OLB can provide a specific diagnosis in many ventilator-dependent patients with undiagnosed pulmonary infiltrate. Early OLB seems to be useful in critically ill patients with isolated respiratory failure. PMID:17725820

  9. How do COPD comorbidities affect ICU outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Karakurt, Zuhal; Salturk, Cuneyt; Takir, Huriye Berk; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Kargin, Feyza; Ekinci, Gulbanu H; Mocin, Ozlem; Gungor, Gokay; Adiguzel, Nalan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) frequently require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for application of mechanical ventilation (MV). We aimed to determine whether comorbidities and clinical variables present at ICU admission are predictive of ICU mortality. Methods A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed in a tertiary teaching hospital’s respiratory ICU using data collected between January 2008 and December 2012. Previously diagnosed COPD patients who were admitted to the ICU with ARF were included. Patients’ demographics, comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), ICU admission data, application of noninvasive and invasive MV (NIV and IMV, respectively), cause of ARF, length of ICU and hospital stay, and mortality were recorded from their files. Patients were grouped according to mortality (survival versus non-survival), and all the variables were compared between the two groups. Results During the study period, a total of 1,013 COPD patients (749 male) with a mean age (standard deviation) of 70±10 years met the inclusion criteria. Comorbidities of the non-survival group (female/male, 40/131) were significantly higher compared with the survival group (female/male, 224/618): arrhythmia (24% vs 11%), hypertension (42% vs 34%), coronary artery disease (28% vs 11%), and depression (7% vs 3%) (P<0.001, P<0.035, P<0.001, and P<0.007, respectively). Logistic regression revealed the following mortality risk factors: need of IMV, BMI <20 kg/m2, pneumonia, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, chronic hypoxia, and higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. The respective odds ratios, confidence intervals, and P-values for each of these were as follows: 27.7, 15.7–49.0, P<0.001; 6.6, 3.5–412.7, P<0.001; 5.1, 2.9–8.8, P<0.001; 2.9, 1.5–5.6, P<0.001; 2.7, 1.4–5.2, P<0.003; 2.6, 1.5–4.4, P<0.001; 2.2, 1.2–3.9, P<0

  10. Neuropsychopathological comorbidities in learning disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning Disorders (LD) are complex diseases that affect about 2-10% of the school-age population. We performed neuropsychological and psychopathological evaluation, in order to investigate comorbidity in children with LD. Methods Our sample consisted of 448 patients from 7 to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of LD, divided in two subgroups: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), including reading, writing, mathematics disorders, and Learning Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (LD NOS). Results Comorbidity with neuropsychopathologies was found in 62.2% of the total sample. In the LSD subgroup, ADHD was present in 33%, Anxiety Disorder in 28.8%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 17.8%, Language Disorder in 11% and Mood Disorder in 9.4% of patients. In LD NOS subgroup, Language Disorder was present in 28.6%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 27.5%, ADHD in 25.4%, Anxiety Disorder in 16.4%, Mood Disorder in 2.1% of patients. A statistically significant presence was respectively found for Language and Developmental Coordination Disorder comorbidity in LD NOS and for ADHD, mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity in SLD subgroup. Conclusions The different findings emerging in this study suggested to promote further investigations to better define the difference between SLD and LD NOS, in order to improve specific interventions to reduce the long range consequences. PMID:24330722

  11. Chronic Venous Disease and Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Matic, P; Jolic, S; Tanaskovic, S; Soldatovic, I; Katsiki, N; Isenovic, E; Radak, Dj

    2015-07-01

    We report the relations between comorbidities and chronic venous disease. In this cross-sectional study, information was gathered from 1679 Serbian patients. The majority (65.0%) of patients were women. Mild forms of chronic venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic [CEAP] classification; C0s-C1) were more frequent in women (11.6%), while severe forms (CEAP C4-C6) were more commonly encountered in men (42.1%). The most frequent comorbidity was emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in both groups (74.3% in males and 70.6% in females). For females, diabetes mellitus (P < .005), arterial hypertension (P < .000), and skeletal/joint diseases (P < .042) were more commonly found in the C4 to C6 category. Both males and females, with severe form of chronic venous disease, may benefit from additional screening for comorbidities. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of association among comorbidities and chronic venous disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The Psychiatric Comorbidity Hypothesis Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.; Bauman, Stephanie San Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The authors of an earlier article, which argued that the social skills deficits typically found in children with learning disabilities (LD) are largely due to the comorbidity of LD with psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder, respond to a critique that did not find this relationship…

  13. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  14. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  15. Using heat maps to assess the multidimensional association of comorbidities with survival in older cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Jin; Kim, Jongphil; Sehovic, Marina; Chen, Lu; Extermann, Martine

    2017-09-01

    To date, most comorbidity studies have analyzed either a subgroup of frequent diseases, or used summary instruments such as the Charlson score or the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric (CIRS-G). Yet, comorbidity is a multidimensional construct and impacts function, treatment tolerance, and survival. We assessed how heat maps can unveil specific patterns of comorbidities associated with overall survival (OS) in older cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. We reviewed four trials that prospectively evaluated comorbidities using CIRS-G. Eligible patients were 65years or older and had solid tumors with 30 or more patients per tumor site. Heat maps were constructed based on CIRS-G scores and correlated with OS. Among 818 patients accrued, 399 were eligible: Median follow-up was 53.4months and median OS was 19.6months (95% CI: 16.5-24.2). In the univariate model for OS, patients with a severe CIRS-G score in 6 organ categories (3-4 in heart, hematopoietic, respiratory, and musculoskeletal-integument and 2-4 in upper GI and liver) had statistically worse OS than those with lower scores. According to a total risk score (TRS) based on hazard ratios for OS, OS of the low risk group (N=309, TRS<2) was significantly higher (24.3m vs. 10.8m, HR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.58-2.66). TRS was a predictor for OS independently from stage, primary site, prior chemotherapy, ECOG performance status, and IADL (HR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.47-2.57). High TRS was a predictor of poor survival. Comorbidity heat maps appear promising to identify diseases most affecting the OS of older cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Excess Costs of Comorbidities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manuel B.; Wacker, Margarethe E.; Vogelmeier, Claus F.; Leidl, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Comorbidities are often reported in patients with COPD and may influence the cost of care. Yet, the extent by which comorbidities affect costs remains to be determined. Objectives To review, quantify and evaluate excess costs of comorbidities in COPD. Methods Using a systematic review approach, Pubmed and Embase were searched for studies analyzing excess costs of comorbidities in COPD. Resulting studies were evaluated according to study characteristics, comorbidity measurement and cost indicators. Mark-up factors were calculated for respective excess costs. Furthermore, a checklist of quality criteria was applied. Results Twelve studies were included. Nine evaluated comorbidity specific costs; three examined index-based results. Pneumonia, cardiovascular disease and diabetes were associated with the highest excess costs. The mark-up factors for respective excess costs ranged between 1.5 and 2.5 in the majority of cases. On average the factors constituted a doubling of respective costs in the comorbid case. The main cost driver, among all studies, was inpatient cost. Indirect costs were not accounted for by the majority of studies. Study heterogeneity was high. Conclusions The reviewed studies clearly show that comorbidities are associated with significant excess costs in COPD. The inclusion of comorbid costs and effects in future health economic evaluations of preventive or therapeutic COPD interventions seems highly advisable. PMID:25875204

  17. Comorbidity and progression of late onset Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Haaksma, Miriam L; Vilela, Lara R; Marengoni, Alessandra; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Melis, René J F

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by multiple dimensions including cognitive decline, decreased daily functioning and psychiatric symptoms. This systematic review aims to investigate the relation between somatic comorbidity burden and progression in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We searched four databases for observational studies that examined cross-sectional or longitudinal associations of cognitive or functional or neuropsychiatric outcomes with comorbidity in individuals with LOAD. From the 7966 articles identified originally, 11 studies were included in this review. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment was used. The large variation in progression measures, comorbidity indexes and study designs hampered the ability to perform a meta-analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO under DIO: 10.15124/CRD42015027046. Nine studies indicated that comorbidity burden was associated with deterioration in at least one of the three dimensions of LOAD examined. Seven out of ten studies investigating cognition found comorbidities to be related to decreased cognitive performance. Five out of the seven studies investigating daily functioning showed an association between comorbidity burden and decreased daily functioning. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) increased with increasing comorbidity burden in two out of three studies investigating NPS. Associations were predominantly found in studies analyzing the association cross-sectionally, in a time-varying manner or across short follow-up (≤2 years). Rarely baseline comorbidity burden appeared to be associated with outcomes in studies analyzing progression over longer follow-up periods (>2 years). This review provides evidence of an association between somatic comorbidities and multifaceted LOAD progression. Given that time-varying comorbidity burden, but much less so baseline comorbidity burden, was associated with the three dimensions prospectively, this relationship cannot be

  18. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  19. Developing a summary hospital mortality index: retrospective analysis in English hospitals over five years.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael J; Jacques, Richard M; Fotheringham, James; Maheswaran, Ravi; Nicholl, Jon

    2012-03-01

    To develop a transparent and reproducible measure for hospitals that can indicate when deaths in hospital or within 30 days of discharge are high relative to other hospitals, given the characteristics of the patients in that hospital, and to investigate those factors that have the greatest effect in changing the rank of a hospital, whether interactions exist between those factors, and the stability of the measure over time. Retrospective cross sectional study of admissions to English hospitals. Hospital episode statistics for England from 1 April 2005 to 30 September 2010, with linked mortality data from the Office for National Statistics. 36.5 million completed hospital admissions in 146 general and 72 specialist trusts. Deaths within hospital or within 30 days of discharge from hospital. The predictors that were used in the final model comprised admission diagnosis, age, sex, type of admission, and comorbidity. The percentage of people admitted who died in hospital or within 30 days of discharge was 4.2% for males and 4.5% for females. Emergency admissions comprised 75% of all admissions and 5.5% died, in contrast to 0.8% who died after an elective admission. The percentage who died with a Charlson comorbidity score of 0 was 2% in contrast with 15% who died with a score greater than 5. Given these variables, the relative standardised mortality rates of the hospitals were not noticeably changed by adjusting for the area level deprivation and number of previous emergency visits to hospital. There was little evidence that including interaction terms changed the relative values by any great amount. Using these predictors the summary hospital mortality index (SHMI) was derived. For 2007/8 the model had a C statistic of 0.911 and accounted for 81% of the variability of between hospital mortality. A random effects funnel plot was used to identify outlying hospitals. The outliers from the SHMI over the period 2005-10 have previously been identified using other mortality

  20. Comorbidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ADHD ( August 2016 ) Varenicline Helps People With Mental Illness Maintain Abstinence From Smoking ( November 2014 ) Self-Control ... Cocaine Addiction and ADHD Varenicline Helps People With Mental Illness Maintain Abstinence From Smoking Nora's Blog Tobacco-Related ...

  1. Examining the effects of comorbidities on disease-modifying therapy use in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Tremlett, Helen; Leung, Stella; Zhu, Feng; Kingwell, Elaine; Fisk, John D.; Bhan, Virender; Campbell, Trudy L.; Stadnyk, Karen; Yu, B. Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and adversely affect health outcomes. However, the effect of comorbidity on treatment decisions in MS remains unknown. We aimed to examine the effects of comorbidity on initiation of injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and on the choice of the initial DMT in MS. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational analysis using population-based health administrative and linked clinical databases in 3 Canadian provinces. MS cases were defined as any individual with ≥3 diagnostic codes for MS. Cohort entry (index date) was the first recorded demyelinating disease-related claim. The outcomes included choice of initial first-line DMTs and time to initiating a DMT. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to examine the association between comorbidity status and study outcomes, adjusting for sex, age, year of index date, and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis was used to estimate overall effects across the 3 provinces. Results: We identified 10,698 persons with incident MS, half of whom had ≥1 comorbidities. As the total number of comorbidities increased, the likelihood of initiating a DMT decreased. Comorbid anxiety and ischemic heart disease were associated with reduced initiation of a DMT. However, patients with depression were 13% more likely to initiate a DMT compared to those without depression at the index date (adjusted hazard ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.27). Conclusions: Comorbidities are associated with treatment decisions regarding DMTs in MS. A better understanding of the effects of comorbidity on effectiveness and safety of DMTs is needed. PMID:26944268

  2. Which risk-adjustment index performs better in predicting 30-day mortality? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mo; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Bali, Vishal; Gupta, Parul; Wang, Xin; Johnson, Michael L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2015-04-01

    Individual comparisons of the performance of risk-adjustment indices have been widely conducted. Few reviews have been conducted to summarize the performance of different risk-adjustment indices. A 30-day mortality rate is widely used to evaluate the quality of care in hospitals by federal agencies like the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This study examined relative performance of risk-adjustment indices that predict 30-day mortality. Databases including Medline, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for studies that compared risk-adjustment indices. The search protocol included comparative studies in which the performance of risk-adjustment indices were compared across any defined cohort to compare 30-day mortality, including mortality within 30 days and intensive care unit mortality, which lasts less than 30 days. Data were extracted using a structured form and abstract data included author and publication year, population studied (including location, sample size, study time period), comparison indices, outcome studied, results and conclusions from the results. A meta-analytical approach was used to summarize all the studies. Scaled ranking score was used to estimate the relative superiority of any given risk-adjustment indices. A hypergeometric test was carried out to evaluate the performance of risk-adjustment measures. Out of 2805 studies identified, 23 studies met the eligibility criteria. Main risk-adjustment indices used for comparison included Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Charlson co-morbidity index, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Based on scaled ranking score, SAPS performed best (score 0.510) among all the risk-adjustment indices. However, based on hypergeometric test, the five measures performed equally well. Although all the selected risk-adjustment indices perform equally well, SAPS seems better than other indices for short

  3. Association between body mass index and cause-specific mortality as well as hospitalization in frail Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tuen-Ching; Luk, James Ka Hay; Chu, Leung-Wing; Chan, Felix Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality has been reported, but there are few studies examining the association between BMI and cause-specific mortality and hospitalization. We carried out a longitudinal study to examine these associations in Chinese older adults with multiple comorbidities, which could provide a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. From 2004 to 2013, a retrospective cohort of Chinese older adults was selected from a geriatric day hospital in Hong Kong. They were divided into groups according to their BMI: BMI <16; BMI 16-18; BMI 18.1-20; BMI 20.1-22; BMI 22.1-24; BMI 24.1-26; BMI 26.1-28; BMI 28.1-30 and BMI >30. Other assessments included medical, functional, cognitive, social and nutritional assessment. A total of 1747 older adults (mean age 80.8 ± 7.1 years, 44.1% male, 46.1% living in nursing homes, Charlson Comorbidity Index 2.0 ± 1.6) with a median follow up of 3.5 years were included. Older adults with BMI 24-28 had the lowest all-cause, infection-related and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between BMI and hazard ratio for all-cause and infection-related mortality in both nursing home and community-dwelling older adults. The rate of all-cause hospitalization was lower in older adults with BMI 22-28 (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between the odds ratio of recurrent hospitalization and BMI. Chinese older adults with BMI 24-28 had lower all-cause mortality, infection-related mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality and all-cause hospitalization. This study provides a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Examining the joint effect of disability, health behaviors, and comorbidity on mortality in MS.

    PubMed

    Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Wang, Guoqiao; Fox, Robert J; Cutter, Gary; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2016-10-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), comorbidities have been associated with disability progression and an increased risk of mortality. We investigated the association between comorbidities and mortality in MS after accounting for disability and health behaviors. We followed North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry participants who completed the Fall 2006 survey on comorbidities until death (reported or matched in the National Death Index) or date of last follow-up in 2014. We used proportional hazards regression to investigate the association between comorbidities and mortality, controlling for demographic, clinical, health behavior, and disability factors. Of 9,496 participants meeting the inclusion criteria, 502 (5.3%) were deceased. Most participants reported having ≤3 comorbid conditions (70.9% survivors, 76.9% decedents). In individual regression models, vascular, visual, and mental comorbidities were associated with increased mortality risk after adjustment for factors associated with survival. When combined into a single model, vascular (hazard ratio 1.269; 1.041-1.547), visual (1.490; 1.199-1.852), and mental comorbidities (excluding anxiety, 1.239; 1.024-1.499) remained independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. Presence of comorbidities was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality as compared to absence of comorbidities after adjusting for factors associated with survival. Specifically, vascular, visual, and mental comorbidities increased the risk of mortality. This highlights the need for clinicians to attend to these comorbidities, which can be modified by treatments or other interventions, and potentially reduce the risk of mortality in persons with MS who have these conditions.

  5. Association of comorbidity burden with abnormal cardiac mechanics: findings from the HyperGEN study.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Aguilar, Frank G; Martinez, Eva E; Beussink, Lauren; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Peng, Jie; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Sha, Jin; Irvin, Marguerite R; Gu, C Charles; Lewis, Cora E; Hunt, Steven C; Arnett, Donna K; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2014-04-29

    Comorbidities are common in heart failure (HF), and the number of comorbidities has been associated with poor outcomes in HF patients. However, little is known about the effect of multiple comorbidities on cardiac mechanics, which could impact the pathogenesis of HF. We sought to determine the relationship between comorbidity burden and adverse cardiac mechanics. We performed speckle-tracking analysis on echocardiograms from the HyperGEN study (n=2150). Global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain, and early diastolic (e') tissue velocities were measured. We evaluated the association between comorbidity number and cardiac mechanics using linear mixed effects models to account for relatedness among subjects. The mean age was 51 ± 14 years, 58% were female, and 47% were African American. Dyslipidemia and hypertension were the most common comorbidities (61% and 58%, respectively). After adjusting for left ventricular (LV) mass index, ejection fraction, and several potential confounders, the number of comorbidities remained associated with all indices of cardiac mechanics except global circumferential strain (eg, β=-0.32 [95% CI -0.44, -0.20] per 1-unit increase in number of comorbidities for global longitudinal strain; β=-0.16 [95% CI -0.20, -0.11] for e' velocity; P ≤ 0.0001 for both comparisons). Results were similar after excluding participants with abnormal LV geometry (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Higher comorbidity burden is associated with worse cardiac mechanics, even in the presence of normal LV geometry. The deleterious effect of multiple comorbidities on cardiac mechanics may explain both the high comorbidity burden and adverse outcomes in patients who ultimately develop HF.

  6. Impact of Undetected Comorbidity on Treatment and Outcomes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robert I.; Gleeson, Michelle L.; Valderas, José M.; Danese, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Preexisting comorbidity adversely impacts breast cancer treatment and outcomes. We examined the incremental impact of comorbidity undetected until cancer. We followed breast cancer patients in SEER-Medicare from 12 months before to 84 months after diagnosis. Two comorbidity indices were constructed: the National Cancer Institute index, using 12 months of claims before cancer, and a second index for previously undetected conditions, using three months after cancer. Conditions present in the first were excluded from the second. Overall, 6,184 (10.1%) had ≥1 undetected comorbidity. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (38%) was the most common undetected condition. In multivariable analyses that adjusted for comorbidity detected before cancer, older age, later stage, higher grade, and poor performance status all were associated with higher odds of ≥1 undetected comorbidity. In stage I–III cancer, undetected comorbidity was associated with lower adjusted odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.73–0.90, P < 0.0001; OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.30–0.49, P < 0.0001; index score 1 or ≥2, respectively), and with increased mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% CI 1.38–1.53, P < 0.0001; HR = 2.38, 95% CI 2.18–2.60, P < 0.0001; index score 1 or ≥2). Undetected comorbidity is associated with less aggressive treatment and higher mortality in breast cancer. PMID:24688795

  7. Comorbidity of dementia: a cross-sectional study of primary care older patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiologic study of comorbidities of an index health problem represents a methodological challenge. This study cross-sectionally describes and analyzes the comorbidities associated with dementia in older patients and reviews the existing similarities and differences between identified comorbid diseases using the statistical methods most frequently applied in current research. Methods Cross-sectional study of 72,815 patients over 64 seen in 19 Spanish primary care centers during 2008. Chronic diseases were extracted from electronic health records and grouped into Expanded Diagnostic Clusters®. Three different statistical methods were applied (i.e., analysis of prevalence data, multiple regression and factor analysis), stratifying by sex. Results The two most frequent comorbidities both for men and women with dementia were hypertension and diabetes. Yet, logistic regression and factor analysis demonstrated that the comorbidities significantly associated with dementia were Parkinson’s disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, anemia, cardiac arrhythmia, chronic skin ulcers, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, retinal disorders, prostatic hypertrophy, insomnia and anxiety and neurosis. Conclusions The analysis of the comorbidities associated with an index disease (e.g., dementia) must not be exclusively based on prevalence rates, but rather on methodologies that allow the discovery of non-random associations between diseases. A deep and reliable knowledge about how different diseases are grouped and associated around an index disease such as dementia may orient future longitudinal studies aimed at unraveling causal associations. PMID:24645776

  8. Comorbid depression, but not comorbid anxiety disorders, predicts poor outcome in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    van Balkom, Anton J L M; van Boeijen, Christine A; Boeke, A Joan P; van Oppen, Patricia; Kempe, Pieter T; van Dyck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Influence of type of comorbidity was studied over the course of 1 year in a sample of 141 outpatients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder, who were receiving different forms of cognitive behavior therapy. Influence of type of comorbidity was determined on the basis of change scores (linear regression analysis) and remission data (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). Three categories, as assessed at baseline, were compared: no comorbidity, comorbidity among anxiety disorders, and comorbidity with mood disorders. Primary outcome variable: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State subscale measured at four assessments (0, 12, 24, and 52 weeks). Analyses of change and remission indicated that comorbidity with mood disorders led to (i) less improvement and (ii) a lower remission rate than comorbidity among anxiety disorders and no comorbidity. Because comorbidity has a critical influence on prognosis, it seems to be important to make a reliable diagnosis of the disorders present. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Risk assessment of comorbidities on 30-day avoidable hospital readmissions among internal medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Heba H; Alyahya, Mohammad S; Hammouri, Hanan M; Alshraideh, Hussam A

    2017-04-01

    Reducing the rate of hospital readmissions, particularly avoidable ones, has significant implications on patient outcomes, cost containment, and quality of care. Given that the reason of readmission may differ from the patient's main diagnosis in the index admission, this study aims to assess the influence of index comorbidities on the primary readmission diagnoses and explore the risk of deemed avoidable readmission because of prior comorbidities. A retrospective review of 3962 discharges was conducted at a 527-bed teaching hospital in Jordan, utilizing data related to 2025 internal medicine patients. Among all discharges, 29% were followed by a 30-day readmission, of which 13% were identified as potentially avoidable. Of all readmissions, 36% of patients were readmitted because of one of the comorbidities that had been identified at index admission. In addition, 47% of the potentially avoidable readmissions had a main diagnosis that was one of the index comorbidities. The results also showed an association between readmission for one of the index stay's comorbidities and being avoidable, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.65-2.72). Overall, the presence of certain diseases, being identified as one of the preceding comorbidities, was found to have a substantial influence on the risk of potentially avoidable readmission. These diseases included digestive, circulatory, respiratory, genitourinary systems, and infectious and parasitic diseases (adjusted relative risks = 1.57, 1.49, 1.36, 1.30, and 2.30, respectively). To help reduce the rates of readmission, potential gains seem available if hospitals adopt clinical practices that support the patient's care during the post-discharge transition. This implies that health care providers need to pay more attention to the comorbidities of high-risk patients to be closely monitored after discharge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Excess Mortality in Hyperthyroidism: The Influence of Preexisting Comorbidity and Genetic Confounding: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study of Twins and Singletons

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2012-01-01

    Context: Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality and, if so, whether the association is influenced by comorbidity and/or genetic confounding. Methods: This was an observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. We identified 4850 singletons and 926 twins from same-sex pairs diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Each case was matched with four controls for age and gender. The Charlson score was calculated from discharge diagnoses on an individual level to measure comorbidity. Cases and controls were followed up for a mean of 10 yr (range 0–31 yr), and the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Results: In singletons there was a significantly higher mortality in individuals diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than in controls [HR 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.46]. This persisted after adjustment for preexisting comorbidity (HR 1,28; 95% CI 1.21–1.36). In twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism (625 pairs), the twin with hyperthyroidism had an increased mortality compared with the corresponding cotwin (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.88). However, this was found only in dizygotic pairs (HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27–2.55) but not in monozygotic pairs (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.60–1.50). Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality independent of preexisting comorbidity. The study of twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism suggests that genetic confounding influences the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality. PMID:22930783

  11. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  12. Extended lymphadenectomy in elderly and/or highly co-morbid gastric cancer patients: A retrospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Rausei, S; Ruspi, L; Rosa, F; Morgagni, P; Marrelli, D; Cossu, A; Cananzi, F C M; Lomonaco, R; Coniglio, A; Biondi, A; Cipollari, C; Graziosi, L; Fumagalli, U; Casella, F; Bertoli, P; di Leo, A; Alfieri, S; Vittimberga, G; Roviello, F; Orsenigo, E; Quagliuolo, V; Montemurro, S; Baiocchi, G; Persiani, R; Bencivenga, M; Donini, A; Rosati, R; Sansonetti, A; Ansaloni, L; Zanoni, A; Galli, F; Dionigi, G

    2016-12-01

    Gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy is considered the gold standard treatment for advanced gastric cancer, with no age- or comorbidity-related limitations. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of curative gastrectomy with extended nodal dissection, verifying survival in elderly and highly co-morbid patients. In a retrospective multicenter study, we examined 1322 non-metastatic gastric-cancer patients that underwent curative gastrectomy with D2 versus D1 lymphadenectomy from January 2000 to December 2009. Postoperative complications, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) according to age and the Charlson Comorbidity Score were analyzed in relation to the extent of lymphadenectomy. Postoperative morbidity was 30.4%. Complications were more frequent in highly co-morbid elderly patients, and, although general morbidity rates after D2 and D1 lymphadenectomy were similar (29.9% and 33.2%, respectively), they increased following D2 in highly co-morbid elderly patients (39.6%). D2-lymphadenectomy significantly improved 5-year OS and DSS (48.0% vs. 37.6% in D1, p < 0.001 and 72.6% vs. 58.1% in D1, p < 0.001, respectively) in all patients. In elderly patients, this benefit was present only in 5-year DSS. D2 nodal dissection induced better 5-year OS and DSS rates in elderly patients with positive nodes (29.7% vs. 21.2% in D1, p = 0.008 and 47.5% vs. 30.6% in D1, p = 0.001, respectively), although it was present only in DSS when highly co-morbid elderly patients were considered. Extended lymphadenectomy confirmed better survival rates in gastric cancer patients. Due to high postoperative complication rate and no significant improvement of the OS, D1 lymphadenectomy should be considered in elderly and/or highly co-morbid gastric cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Binge Eating Disorder and Medical Comorbidities in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce; Flum, David R.; Spaniolas, Konstatinos; Bessler, Mark; Devlin, Michael; Marcus, Marsha D.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Engel, Scott; Khandelwal, Saurobh; Yanovski, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether binge eating disorder (BED) status is associated with medical comorbidities in obese adults scheduled for bariatric surgery. Method The study utilized Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 data obtained from 6 clinical centers around the United States. This is a well-phenotyped cohort of individuals who were evaluated within 30 days prior to their scheduled surgery using standardized protocols. In the cohort, 350 participants were classified as having BED and 1875 as not having BED (non-BED). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether BED status was independently related to medical comorbidities. As an exploratory analysis, significance was based on nominal P-values (p<.05). Holm-adjusted P-values were also reported. Results After adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index, BED status was independently associated with 4 of 15 comorbidities (i.e., impaired glucose levels (odds ratio [OR]=1.45 (95%CI: 1.12–1.87), high triglycerides (OR=1.28 (95%CI: 1.002–1.63) and urinary incontinence (OR=1.30 (95%CI: 1.02,1.66) all being more common among the BED sample, and severe walking limitations being less common in the BED sample (OR=0.53 (95%CI: 0.29–0.96)). With further adjustment for psychiatric/emotional health indicators, BED status was independently associated with 3 comorbidities (impaired glucose levels (OR=1.36 (95%CI: 1.04–1.79), cardiovascular disease (OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.30–0.86) and severe walking limitations (OR=0.38 (95%CI: 0.19–0.77)). However, Holm’s adjusted P-values for all variables were greater than .05. Discussion The results suggest the possibility of a contribution of BED to risk of specific medical comorbidities in severely obese adults. PMID:25778499

  14. Effect of Comorbidities on Outcomes of Neurorehabilitation Interventions in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fakolade, Afolasade; Bisson, Etienne J.; Pétrin, Julie; Lamarre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in comorbidities has increased in the past few years, but the effect of comorbidities on outcomes of multiple sclerosis (MS) neurorehabilitation interventions is unclear. The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of comorbidities on outcomes of neurorehabilitation interventions targeting people with MS. Methods: Five databases (Embase, MEDLINE through Ovid, PubMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science) were searched using index terms and keywords relating to MS and a wide range of rehabilitation interventions. Studies screened were limited to English-language randomized controlled trials. Information related to included and excluded comorbidities and how they were reported and described was extracted from the included studies. Results: Fifty-four neurorehabilitation randomized controlled trials were included and were grouped into categories: robotics/technology-enhanced (n = 7), task-oriented training/neurorehabilitation principles (n = 7), electrical stimulation (n = 12), temperature regulation (n = 6), magnetic field therapy (n = 5), vibration (n = 9), and miscellaneous (n = 8). Although the issue of comorbidity was considered in 40 studies, it was limited to excluding individuals from participating in the trials. Only two studies reported on comorbidity, but neither examined the possible mediating or moderating effect of comorbidities on intervention outcomes. Conclusions: This review documents important knowledge gaps about the effect of comorbidity on neurorehabilitation outcomes and identifies a critical need for future studies to address this issue. Without this information, we limit our understanding of the mechanisms of comorbidity and its effects on relevant clinical and research outcomes specific to neurorehabilitation. PMID:27999522

  15. Comorbid Conditions and Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Roger, Veronique L.; Lennon, Ryan J.; Spertus, John; Jahangir, Arshad; Holmes, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether adding comorbid conditions to a risk model can help predict in-hospital outcome and long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Design Retrospective chart review Setting Academic medical center. Patients 7,659 patients who had 9,032 PCIs. Interventions PCI performed at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2004. Main Outcome Measures The Mayo Clinic Risk Score (MCRS) and the coronary artery disease (CAD)-specific index for determination of comorbid conditions in all patients. Results The mean MCRS score was 6.5±2.9. The CAD-specific index was 0 or 1 in 46%, 2 or 3 in 30%, and 4 or higher in 23%. The rate of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) increased with higher MCRS and CAD-specific index (Cochran-Armitage test, P<.001 for both models). The c-statistic for the MCRS for in-hospital MACE was 0.78; adding the CAD-specific index did not improve its discriminatory ability for in-hospital MACE (c-statistic=0.78; likelihood ratio test, P=.29). A total of 707 postdismissal deaths occurred after 7,253 successful procedures. The c-statistic for all-cause mortality was 0.69 for the MCRS model alone and 0.75 for the MCRS and CAD-specific indices together (likelihood ratio test, P<.001), indicating significant improvement in the discriminatory ability. Conclusions Addition of comorbid conditions to the MCRS adds significant prognostic information for postdismissal mortality but adds little prognostic information about in-hospital complications after PCI. Such health-status measures should be included in future risk stratification models that predict long-term mortality after PCI. PMID:17923464

  16. Comorbidity of paraphilia and depression in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Haasen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The comorbidity of paraphilia-related disorders and other psychiatric disorders is high, but the paraphilia-related disorder often remains untreated until patients seek help for the comorbid disorder. A case of a patient in Mexico with comorbid paraphilia and depressive disorder, who was effectively treated with antidepressive medication and psychotherapy, is reported. The effect of stigmatization of homosexuality on the access to care of persons with sexual disorders is discussed. PMID:25478091

  17. Comorbidity of paraphilia and depression in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Haasen, Christian

    2010-01-25

    The comorbidity of paraphilia-related disorders and other psychiatric disorders is high, but the paraphilia-related disorder often remains untreated until patients seek help for the comorbid disorder. A case of a patient in Mexico with comorbid paraphilia and depressive disorder, who was effectively treated with antidepressive medication and psychotherapy, is reported. The effect of stigmatization of homosexuality on the access to care of persons with sexual disorders is discussed.

  18. Comorbidities in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Amir; Zisman, Devy

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are often affected by numerous comorbidities that carry significant morbidity and mortality. Reported comorbidities include diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune eye disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, depression, and fibromyalgia. All health care providers for patients with PsA should recognize and monitor those comorbidities, as well as understand their effect on patient management to ensure an optimal clinical outcome. PMID:28178440

  19. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Caregivers' distress: youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disorders assessed via telemental health.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Carol; Violette, Heather; Vander Stoep, Ann; Grover, Sarah; Myers, Kathleen

    2013-08-01

    This article evaluates the additive effects of children's comorbid conditions with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to caregivers' distress, in a clinical trial conducted through telemental health (TMH). The Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS) is examining the effectiveness of treatment delivered via TMH for children with ADHD who are living in underserved communities. The CATTS trial recruited 223 children (μ=9.53±2.06 years) and their caregivers. Diagnoses of ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) were established with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. We took advantage of rich baseline data from the CATTS trial to investigate associations between caregivers' distress and children's comorbid mental health conditions. Caregivers' distress was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Parenting Stress Index, and Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. ANOVAs were used to compare children with ADHD alone with children having one comorbid condition (ODD or ADs) and children having two comorbid conditions (ODD and ADs). Three quarters (75.3%) of participants met criteria for ODD and/or AD comorbid with ADHD: 24.7% had neither comorbidity; 47.5% had ODD or AD; and 27.8% had both ODD and AD comorbidities. The parents of children with multiple comorbid conditions experienced the highest levels of depression, stress, and burden of care. The CATTS sample that was recruited from underserved communities provided evidence of additive effects of child psychiatric comorbidities with caregivers' distress, echoing earlier findings from the Multi-modal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study that was conducted with a metropolitan sample of youth. Results indicate that caregivers' distress should be addressed in developing treatment models for children with ADHD. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00830700 .

  1. Comorbid insomnia and cognitive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Chand, Suma P

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia most commonly presents comorbidly in association with medical and psychiatric disorders. Comorbid insomnia, however, remains under treated in the majority of patients. Concerns about drug interactions, adverse events, and dependence as well as the assumption that treating the insomnia as a secondary presentation that will resolve when the primary condition improves are all factors that contribute to the under treatment of comorbid insomnia. This article presents the growing research evidence that highlights the benefits and importance of targeting the insomnia that presents comorbidly with medical and psychiatric conditions utilizing the nonpharmacological and effective treatment of cognitive behavior therapy.

  2. [Comorbidity of tics and stuttering].

    PubMed

    Surushkina, S Yu; Chutko, L S; Aitbekov, K A; Nikishena, I S; Bondarchuk, Yu I

    2014-01-01

    To determine the clinical presentations of stuttering in children with tics treated with noofen. Authors examined 181 children with tics, aged 7-13. Stuttering was identified in 23.2% of cases. Thirty children with tics and comorbid stuttering received noofen. RESULTS AND СONCLUSION: The prevalence of stuttering in children with tics was significantly higher than in the population. Stuttering was significantly more frequent in children with transient tics than chronic tics. Neurotic stuttering was recorded more frequently. The high efficacy of noofen was shown; the decrease in ticks was obtained in 80% of cases, the reduction of stuttering in 66.7% of cases. The data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies, confirming the improvement of patients after treatment, are presented.

  3. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George

    2015-01-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than nonalcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls.

  5. The Effects of Comorbidity on the Benefits and Harms of Treatment for Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Terri R.; O’Leary, John; Towle, Virginia; Goldstein, Mary K.; Trentelange, Mark; Martin, Deanna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are concerns about the potential for unintentional harms when clinical practice guidelines are applied to patients with multimorbidity. The objective was to summarize the evidence regarding the effect(s) of comorbidity on the outcomes of medication for an index chronic condition. Methods A systematic review was conducted of studies published in MEDLINE and Cochrane Trials before May 2012. The search strategy was constructed to identify articles indexed with “comorbidity” or a related term or by a given condition and one or more additional specified comorbid conditions. The search yielded 3252 articles, of which 37 passed the title/abstract screening process, and 22 were included after full-text review. An additional 23 articles were identified by screening the reference lists for included articles. Information was extracted on study design; population; therapy; comparison groups; outcome(s); main findings. Findings Indexing of articles was inconsistent, with no term for “multimorbidity,” and rare use of “comorbidity”. Only one article examined the effects of comorbidity per se, finding no benefit of tight control of DM among persons with high comorbidity, defined using a comorbidity index. The remainder examined pairs of conditions, the majority of which were post-hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials and which found no difference in outcomes according to whether a comorbid condition was present. Several demonstrated no difference or an increased risk of adverse outcome among persons with DM and tight control of HTN as compared to usual control. Several demonstrated lack of benefit of statins among persons with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions There is limited evidence regarding the effects of multiple comorbidities on treatment outcomes. The majority of studies demonstrated no effect of a single comorbid condition on outcomes. Additional studies examining a broad range of comorbidity are required, along with clear and

  6. Impact of body mass index on robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Nariman; Clifford, Thomas G; Miranda, Gus; Cai, Jie; Aron, Monish; Desai, Mihir M; Gill, Inderbir S

    2017-05-22

    To determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on peri-operative and oncological outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal urinary diversion. A total of 216 patients undergoing RARC, extended lymphadenectomy and intracorporeal urinary diversion, between July 2010 and December 2015, were categorized into four BMI groups according to the 2004 World Health Organization obesity classification groups: <25 kg/m(2) (normal); 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (pre-obese); 30-34.9 kg/m(2) (obese class I); and ≥35 kg/m(2) (obese class II). Pre-, intra- and postoperative characteristics, oncological outcomes, and 90-day complications were compared using sas statistical software. All 216 patients underwent intracorporeal urinary diversion, with 68 (32%) undergoing orthotopic neobladder construction. Demographics were similar among the BMI groups with regard to median (range) age (71.8 [35- 95] years), gender (80.6% men), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score (66.2% with CCI score 0-1), pathological stage (carcinoma in situ to T2: 55.1%, T3-T4/N0: 18.5%, Tx/N+: 26.4%), median (interquartile range) node count [41 (28, 53)] and positive soft tissue margin rate (4.2%). Obese patients had greater blood loss and longer operating time (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). There were no significant differences in length of hospital stay, transfusion rates, readmission or 90-day overall and high-grade complication rates (P = 0.16, P = 0.96, P = 0.89, P = 0.22 and P = 0.51, respectively). At a median (range) follow-up of 13 months (15 days to 4.8 years), recurrence-free survival (P = 0.92) and overall survival (P = 0.68) were similar among the groups. The results of the present study show that RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion is safe and feasible in obese patients with bladder cancer. BMI was not associated with significant differences in peri-operative, pathological or early oncological outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU

  7. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comorbidity spectrum in Japan differs from that in western countries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Saeko; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-11-01

    Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) frequently suffer from various comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, depression, malnutrition, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and lung cancer. These comorbidities have a significant impact on disease severity and survival. In fact, guidelines from both the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and the Japanese Respiratory Society recommend that physicians take comorbidities into account when they evaluate COPD severity. These guidelines also emphasize the importance of managing comorbidities alongside airway obstruction in COPD. The mechanisms by which the many COPD-related comorbidities develop are still unclear. Aging and smoking are well-established as major factors. However, systemic inflammation may also contribute to the disease process. Having developed from the classical theory to differentiate COPD patients into "pink puffers" and "blue bloaters", COPD is now generally considered as a heterogeneous condition. On this point, we have noticed that the characteristics of Japanese COPD patients tend to differ from those of Westerners. Specifically, Japanese patients tend to be older, to have lower body mass index, to suffer from emphysema-dominant lung disease, and to experience exacerbations less frequently. The comorbidity spectrum of Japanese COPD patients also seems to differ from that of Westerners. For instance, in Japanese patients, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome are less prevalent, whereas osteoporosis and malnutrition are more frequent. In order to treat Japanese COPD patients optimally, we must pay particular attention to their unique demographics and comorbidity spectrum, which contrast with those of Western COPD patients.

  8. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  9. Assessing comorbidity using claims data: an overview.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Warren, Joan L; Legler, Julie M

    2002-08-01

    Comorbidity, additional disease beyond the condition under study that increases a patient's total burden of illness, is one dimension of health status. For investigators working with observational data obtained from administrative databases, comorbidity assessment may be a useful and important means of accounting for differences in patients' underlying health status. There are multiple ways of measuring comorbidity. This paper provides an overview of current approaches to and issues in assessing comorbidity using claims data, with a particular focus on established indices and the SEER-Medicare database. In addition, efforts to improve measurement of comorbidity using claims data are described, including augmentation of claims data with medical record, patient self-report, or health services utilization data; incorporation of claims data from sources other than inpatient claims; and exploration of alternative conditions, indices, or ways of grouping conditions. Finally, caveats about claims data and areas for future research in claims-based comorbidity assessment are discussed. Although the use of claims databases such as SEER-Medicare for health services and outcomes research has become increasingly common, investigators must be cognizant of the limitations of comorbidity measures derived from these data sources in capturing and controlling for differences in patient health status. The assessment of comorbidity using claims data is a complex and evolving area of investigation.

  10. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality.

  11. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  12. The ADOPT-LC score: a novel predictive index of in-hospital mortality of cirrhotic patients following surgical procedures, based on a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hiroki; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to develop a model for predicting in-hospital mortality of cirrhotic patients following major surgical procedures using a large sample of patients derived from a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We enrolled 2197 cirrhotic patients who underwent elective (n = 1973) or emergency (n = 224) surgery. We analyzed the risk factors for postoperative mortality and established a scoring system for predicting postoperative mortality in cirrhotic patients using a split-sample method. In-hospital mortality rates following elective or emergency surgery were 4.7% and 20.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patient age, Child-Pugh (CP) class, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and duration of anesthesia in elective surgery were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. In emergency surgery, CP class and duration of anesthesia were significant factors. Based on multivariate analysis in the training set (n = 987), the Adequate Operative Treatment for Liver Cirrhosis (ADOPT-LC) score that used patient age, CP class, CCI, and duration of anesthesia to predict in-hospital mortality following elective surgery was developed. This scoring system was validated in the testing set (n = 986) and produced an area under the curve of 0.881. We also developed iOS/Android apps to calculate ADOPT-LC scores to allow easy access to the current evidence in daily clinical practice. Patient age, CP class, CCI, and duration of anesthesia were identified as important risk factors for predicting postoperative mortality in cirrhotic patients. The ADOPT-LC score effectively predicts in-hospital mortality following elective surgery and may assist decisions regarding surgical procedures in cirrhotic patients based on a quantitative risk assessment. © 2016 The Authors Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  13. Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Chatila, Wissam M; Thomashow, Byron M; Minai, Omar A; Criner, Gerard J; Make, Barry J

    2008-05-01

    Comorbidities such as cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders are commonly reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but with great variability in reported prevalence. Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for many of these comorbidities as well as for COPD, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the relationship between COPD and these comorbidities. However, recent large epidemiologic studies have confirmed the independent detrimental effects of these comorbidities on patients with COPD. On the other hand, many of these comorbidities are now considered to be part of the commonly prevalent nonpulmonary sequelae of COPD that are relevant not only to the understanding of the real burden of COPD but also to the development of effective management strategies.

  14. Comorbidities and health status in individuals with and without COPD in five Latin American cities: the PLATINO study.

    PubMed

    López Varela, Maria Victorina; Montes de Oca, María; Halbert, Ronald; Muiño, Adriana; Tálamo, Carlos; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Jardim, José Roberto B; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuzé, Julio; Menezes, Ana María B

    2013-11-01

    Comorbidities are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and have a significant impact on health status and prognosis. The PLATINO study provides data on self-reported comorbidities and perceived health status in COPD subjects. PLATINO is a population-based study on COPD prevalence in five Latin American cities. COPD diagnosis was defined by GOLD criteria (FEV1/FVC<.70 post-bronchodilator). Information was collected on the following comorbidities: heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, peptic ulcer and asthma. Health status was evaluated using the SF-12 questionnaire, derived from the question: «In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?». A simple comorbidity score was calculated by adding the total number of comorbid conditions. Of a total population of 5314individuals, 759 had COPD. Reported comorbidities by decreasing frequency were: any cardiovascular disease, hypertension, peptic ulcer, heart disease, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, asthma and lung cancer. COPD patients had a higher comorbidity score and prevalence of lung cancer (P<.0001) and asthma (P<.0001), as well as a higher tendency to have hypertension (P=.0652) and cerebrovascular disease (P=.0750). Factors associated with comorbidities were age, body mass index (BMI) and female gender. The number of comorbidities increased as the health status deteriorated. In the PLATINO population-based study, COPD individuals had an increased number of comorbidities. Age, female gender and higher BMI were the factors associated with comorbidity in these patients. Comorbid conditions were associated with impaired health status, independently of the COPD status. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibromyalgia comorbidity in primary headaches.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Sardaro, M; Serpino, C; Costantini, F; Vecchio, E; Prudenzano, M Pia; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2009-04-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology characterized by diffuse pain and tenderness at tender points. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and clinical features of FMS in the different forms of primary headaches, in a tertiary headache centre. Primary headache patients (n = 217) were selected and submitted to the Total Tenderness Score, anxiety and depression scales, Migraine Disability Assessment, allodynia questionnaire, Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale. In patients with FMS, the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, the Pain Visual Analog Scale, the Manual Tender Point Survey and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were employed. FMS was present in 36.4% of patients and prevailed significantly in tension-type headache and in patients with higher headache frequency. Headache frequency, pericranial muscle tenderness, anxiety and sleep inadequacy were especially associated with FMS comorbidity. In the FMS patients, fatigue and pain at tender points were significantly correlated with headache frequency. FMS seems increasingly prevalent with increased headache frequency, for the facilitation of central sensitization phenomena favoured by anxiety and sleep disturbances.

  16. A Pharmacist Telephone Intervention to Identify Adherence Barriers and Improve Adherence Among Nonadherent Patients with Comorbid Hypertension and Diabetes in a Medicare Advantage Plan.

    PubMed

    Abughosh, Susan M; Wang, Xin; Serna, Omar; Henges, Chris; Masilamani, Santhi; Essien, Ekere James; Chung, Nancy; Fleming, Marc

    2016-01-01

    to assess the intervention effect on adherence during the 6 months post-intervention using the first outcome of post-intervention PDC, adjusting for baseline PDC and other covariates. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between medication discontinuation and other baseline characteristics using the second outcome of discontinuation. Other control variables in the models included demographics (age, sex, language), physician specialty (primary care vs. specialist), health plan (low-income subsidy vs. other), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid risk score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and number of distinct medications. In total, 186 hypertensive diabetic patients, nonadherent to ACEIs/ARBs (PDC < 0.8), were included in the study. Of the 186 patients, 87 received the pharmacist phone call intervention. Among these patients, forgetfulness (25.29%) and doctor issues, such as having difficulty scheduling appointments (16.79%), were the most commonly reported barriers. After excluding those who switched from ACEIs/ARBs to another medication, 157 patients were included in the logistic regression model. Of those, 131 had continued using ACEIs/ARBs and were included in the linear regression model. The mean (±SD) post-intervention PDC for the intervention group was 0.58 (±0.26) and for the control group 0.29 (±0.17). Intervention was a significant predictor of better adherence in the linear regression model after adjusting all the other baseline covariates (β = 0.3182, 95% CI = 0.19-0.38, P < 0.001). Other covariates were not significantly associated with better adherence. In the logistic regression model (discontinuation: 26 [yes]/131 [no]) for predicting medication discontinuation, patients who received intervention were more likely to continue using ACEIs/ARBs (OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.06-11.86), and those with a higher comorbidity index were less likely to continue using them (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53-0.99). The brief pharmacist telephone intervention

  17. Co-Morbid Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mol Debes, Nanette M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is often accompanied by other symptoms and syndromes. The two best-known co-morbidities are Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), but also other conditions like rage-attacks, depression, and sleeping disturbances are frequent in persons with TS. Both in clinical cohorts and in population-based cohorts the prevalence of co-morbidities is high. The presence of co-morbid ADHD and/or OCD has an impact on psychosocial, educational, and neuropsychological consequences of TS and it is associated with higher rates of other co-morbid disorders, like rage, anxiety, and conduct disorders. The symptoms of a co-morbid disorder might appear prior to the time that tics reach clinical attention. The TS phenotype probably changes during the course of the disease. The exact aetiology of the co-occurrence of co-morbid disorders and TS is not known, but they probably all are neurotransmitter disorders. European guidelines recommend first-choice pharmacological treatment, but randomised double-blinded trials are needed. Professionals need to be aware of the close relationship between TS and co-morbidities in order to give the patients the right treatment and support. PMID:23187139

  18. Comorbidity in Emetophobia (Specific Phobia of Vomiting).

    PubMed

    Sykes, Mark; Boschen, Mark J; Conlon, Elizabeth G

    2016-07-01

    Emetophobia (fear of vomiting) is an anxiety disorder in which individuals report clinical levels of fear that they may vomit or be exposed to the vomit of others. The prevalence of comorbidity of emetophobia with other conditions has previously only been investigated using self-report instruments. Sixty-four adults with emetophobia participated in an online structured clinical diagnostic interview assessing the presence of emetophobia and other conditions. Higher comorbidity for depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were found in participants compared with general population norms. Emetophobia is commonly comorbid with other anxiety and depressive disorders. Comorbidity rates, when assessed using a structured clinical interview, were lower than previously reported using self-report alone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Emetophobia (specific phobia of vomiting) is a clinical fear of vomiting. Individuals with emetophobia show high comorbidity with other anxiety and mood disorders. The most common comorbid conditions were generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinicians should ensure that they assess for the presence of comorbid conditions when treating emetophobia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Internet treatment for social phobia reduces comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Titov, Nickolai; Gibson, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; McEvoy, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Social phobia can be treated by brief Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Most people with social phobia, however, meet criteria for another mental disorder; this comorbidity is associated with significant disability, and cases of comorbidity may be more difficult to treat. The present study examined the impact of the Shyness programme, an Internet-based treatment programme for social phobia, on comorbid symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Data from three randomized controlled trials using the Shyness programme to treat social phobia were reanalysed. The 211 subjects, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for social phobia, were divided into four groups: (i) social phobia only; (ii) social phobia with elevated symptoms of depression; (iii) social phobia with elevated symptoms of generalized anxiety; and (iv) social phobia with elevated symptoms of both generalized anxiety and depression. The improvement in social phobia, depression and anxiety following Internet-based treatment for social phobia was measured. Improvement in social phobia was seen in all groups, whether comorbid or not. Significant improvements in comorbid symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety occurred even though the treatment was focused on the social phobia. Brief Internet-based CBT can reduce both the target disorder as well as comorbid symptoms. These findings are consistent with evidence that unified or transdiagnostic programmes may reduce the severity of comorbid disorders and symptoms, indicating an important direction for future research.

  20. Simplifying profiles of comorbidity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Lori R; Johnson, Sheri L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Pearlstein, Jennifer G

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid psychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) predict poorer course of illness and treatment outcome. The sheer number of comorbid symptoms has thwarted developing treatments to address these comorbid concerns. The goal of this study was to develop a more parsimonious approach to understanding clusters of comorbid symptoms within BD. Data were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 43,093 participants using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Analyses were conducted on lifetime symptom counts for the most common 14 comorbid disorders among the 1411 persons who met lifetime criteria for bipolar I disorder. An exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation as well as confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor solution of Externalizing, Anxiety, and Mood syndromes, with a higher order Internalizing factor comprised of the Mood and Anxiety factors. Further research is needed in a clinical sample. Comorbid symptoms in BD tend to cohere into Internalizing and Externalizing disorders, which could simplify research and treatment on comorbidity in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances.

  2. Cardiometabolic comorbidities, readmission, and costs in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a real-world analysis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Christoph U; Ng-Mak, Daisy S; Stafkey-Mailey, Dana; Farrelly, Eileen; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Loebel, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Serious mental illnesses are associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic comorbidities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidity and its association with hospitalization outcomes and costs among inpatients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. This retrospective database analysis reviewed patients with an inpatient diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Premier Perspective® Database (4/1/2010-6/30/2012). Patients were categorized into 4 cohorts based on the number of ICD-9-CM cardiometabolic comorbidities (i.e., 0, 1, 2, or 3+). Outcomes included length of stay, mortality during the index hospitalization, healthcare costs, and 30-day all-cause readmission rates. Of 57,506 patients with schizophrenia, 66.1% had at least one cardiometabolic comorbidity; 39.3% had two or more comorbidities. Of 124,803 patients with bipolar disorder, 60.5% had at least one cardiometabolic comorbidity; 33.4% had two or more. Average length of stay was 8.5 (for patients with schizophrenia) and 5.2 (for patients with bipolar disorder) days. Each additional cardiometabolic comorbidity was associated with an increase in length of stay for patients with bipolar disorder (p < .001) but not for patients with schizophrenia. Mortality rates during the index hospitalization were 1.2% (schizophrenia) and .7% (bipolar disorder). Each additional cardiometabolic comorbidity was associated with a significant increase in mortality for patients with bipolar disorder (OR 1.218, p < .001), and a numerical increase in mortality for patients with schizophrenia (OR 1.014, p = .727). Patients with more cardiometabolic comorbidities were more likely to have a 30-day readmission (schizophrenia = 9-13%; bipolar disorder = 7-12%), and to incur higher costs (schizophrenia = $10,606-15,355; bipolar disorder = $7126-13,523) (all p < .01). Over 60% of inpatients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder had cardiometabolic

  3. Psoriasis and comorbid diseases: Implications for management.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Junko; Grewal, Sungat; Langan, Sinéad M; Mehta, Nehal N; Ogdie, Alexis; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Gelfand, Joel M

    2017-03-01

    As summarized in the first article in this continuing medical education series, the currently available epidemiologic data suggest that psoriasis may be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Emerging data also suggest associations between psoriasis and other comorbidities beyond psoriatic arthritis, including chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic disease, certain malignancies, infections, and mood disorders. Recognizing the comorbid disease burden of psoriasis is essential for ensuring comprehensive care of patients with psoriasis. The clinical implications of the comorbid diseases that are associated with psoriasis and recommendations for clinical management are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comorbid personality disorders in major depressive disorder: a comparative study in 160 Tunisian female inpatients].

    PubMed

    El Kissi, Yousri; Ben Nasr, Selma; Ayachi, Mouna; Jedidi, Nader; Ghnaya, Habib; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2009-11-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with personality disorders which are known to change its clinical aspects and worsen its outcome. This study aimed to compare clinical and outcome aspects of a female depressed inpatients group according to the existence or not of a comorbid personality disorder. The study was carried in the psychiatry female inpatient unit of Farhat Hached hospital of Sousse. All entrances to the unit from January 1999 to August 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. 160, corresponding to MDD, were selected. Assessment was based on demographic characteristics, medical history, axis I comorbid disorders, clinical aspects of the index episode and outcome characteristics. 77 patients (48.1%) had personality disorder. Compared to those without comorbid personality disorder, these patients were younger (p < 10-4), with higher educational level (p = 0.005) and better vocational functioning (p = 0.018). They also had an earlier age at onset of their depression (p < 10-4), more previous suicide attempts (p = 0.012) and more axis I comorbid disorders (p < 10-4). Comorbid personality disorders were correlated to an impaired outcome, with higher rate of relapses (p = 0.021), more recurrences (p = 0.026), more persistent symptoms (p < 10-4) and more suicide attempts (p = 0.031).

  5. Impact of patient comorbidities on head and neck microvascular reconstruction. A report on 423 cases.

    PubMed

    Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Nao, Eric Edi Martial; Pierre, Cédric Sandy; Leyssale, Axel; Peyrade, Frédéric; Falewee, Marie Noelle; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Demard, François; Santini, José; Bozec, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the different subtypes of patient comorbidities on the outcomes of head and neck microvascular reconstruction. A total of 423 patients who underwent head and neck free flap reconstruction in our institution between 2000 and 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The impact of the different subtypes of patient comorbidities (as defined by the Kaplan-Feinstein Index) and other global health status-related factors on free flap success, local and general complications, postoperative mortality and length of stay was assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. We found no correlation between patient comorbidities and free flap failure. In multivariate analysis, we demonstrated a significant correlation between tobacco consumption (p = 0.04) and local complications. Gastro-intestinal comorbidity (p = 0.005) and malnutrition (p = 0.02) were associated with a higher risk of fistula formation. Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003), gastro-intestinal (p = 0.02), systemic (p = 0.02) and cardiac comorbidities (p = 0.03) were significant predictors of medical complications. We concluded that the different subtypes of patient comorbidities were relevant predictors of complications in head and neck microvascular reconstruction.

  6. Implications of Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Combat Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    disorder (PTSD) and depression ,’"^ In contrast, relatively little attention has been given to comorbidities in military populations, such as co...occurring PTSD and depression . Considering the potential size and seriousness of the issue, it is critical to initiate research on psychiatric comorbidity...disorders, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and "other" mental disorders (including, but not limited to, eating and sleep

  7. The incorporation of comorbidities in the prognostication of patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Falantes, Jose F; Márquez-Malaver, Francisco J; Knight, Teresa; Calderón-Cabrera, Cristina; Martino, María L; González, Jose; Montero, Isabel; Espigado, Ildefonso; Pérez-Simón, Jose A

    2017-08-01

    Chronic medical diseases, evaluated by several comorbidities indexes have been reported to influence on overall survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, these studies included patients with lower and higher-risk disease by IPSS. This study retrospectively evaluates the role of comorbidities (evaluated by the MDS comorbidity index; MDS-CI) together with clinical parameters in a series of 232 patients with LR-MDS (defined as either an IPSS score of low/intermediate-1 and favorable cytogenetic categories by IPSS-R). In multivariate analysis, together with age >75 years, diabetes requiring therapy and hemoglobin <10 g/dL; the incorporation of comorbidities by the MDS-CI (HR = 2.5; p< 0.0001) were independently associated to the probability of nonleukemic death (NLD). The combination of these variables allowed development of a model, which categorizes patients in three different groups with significantly different probability of NLD overtime (p< 0.001). This integrated score confirms the importance of comorbidities at diagnosis of patients with LR-MDS.

  8. Psychiatric comorbidities of episodic and chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Buse, Dawn C; Silberstein, Stephen D; Manack, Aubrey N; Papapetropoulos, Spyros; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    Migraine is a prevalent disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Population- and clinic-based studies suggest that psychiatric comorbidities, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, are more common among persons with chronic migraine than among those with episodic migraine. Additional studies suggest that psychiatric comorbidities may be a risk factor for migraine chronification (i.e., progression from episodic to chronic migraine). It is important to identify and appropriately treat comorbid psychiatric conditions in persons with migraine, as these conditions may contribute to increased migraine-related disability and impact, diminished health-related quality of life, and poor treatment outcomes. Here, we review the current literature on the rates of several psychiatric comorbidities, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, among persons with migraine in clinic- and population-based studies. We also review the link between physical, emotional, and substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, and migraine. Finally, we review the data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification and explore theories and evidence underlying the comorbidity between migraine and these psychiatric disorders.

  9. Binge‐eating disorder in the Swedish national registers: Somatic comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Laura M.; Watson, Hunna J.; Jangmo, Andreas; Welch, Elisabeth; Wiklund, Camilla; von Hausswolff‐Juhlin, Yvonne; Norring, Claes; Herman, Barry K.; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate associations between binge‐eating disorder (BED) and somatic illnesses and determine whether medical comorbidities are more common in individuals who present with BED and comorbid obesity. Method Cases (n = 850) were individuals with a BED diagnosis in the Swedish eating disorders quality registers. Ten community controls were matched to each case on sex, and year, month, and county of birth. Associations of BED status with neurologic, immune, respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, musculoskeletal, genitourinary, circulatory, and endocrine system diseases were evaluated using conditional logistic regression models. We further examined these associations by adjusting for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Amongst individuals with BED, we explored whether comorbid obesity was associated with risk of somatic disorders. Results BED was associated with most classes of diseases evaluated; strongest associations were with diabetes [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 5.7 (3.8; 8.7)] and circulatory systems [1.9 (1.3; 2.7)], likely indexing components of metabolic syndrome. Amongst individuals with BED, those with comorbid obesity were more likely to have a lifetime history of respiratory [1.5 (1.1; 2.1)] and gastrointestinal [2.6 (1.7; 4.1)] diseases than those without comorbid obesity. Increased risk of some somatic disease classes in individuals with BED was not simply due to obesity or other lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Discussion The association of BED with many somatic illnesses highlights the morbidity experienced by individuals with BED. Clinicians treating patients with BED should be vigilant for medical comorbidities. Nonpsychiatric providers may be the first clinical contact for those with BED underscoring the importance of screening in primary care. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:58–65) PMID:27642179

  10. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety and Depressive Disorders on Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Lynda; Harvey, Allison G.; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Hein, Kerrie; Lamy, Manon; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders on treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia, behavior therapy (BT), or cognitive therapy (CT). Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years) with chronic insomnia, including 45 also presenting a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder. They were randomized to BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Outcome measures were the proportion of treatment responders (decrease of ≥ 8 points on the Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) and remissions (ISI score < 8) and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Proportion of treatment responders and remitters in the CBT condition was not significantly different between the subgroups with and without comorbidity. However, the proportion of responders was lower in the comorbidity subgroup compared to those without comorbidity in both the BT (34.4% vs 81.6%; p=0.007) and CT (23.6% vs 57.6%; p=0.02) alone conditions, although remission rates and pre-post ISI change scores were not. Pre to post change scores on the depression (−10.6 vs −3.9; p<0.001) and anxiety measures (−9.2 vs −2.5; p=.01) were significantly greater in the comorbidity subgroup relative to the subgroup without comorbidity but only for those treated with the full CBT; no difference was found for those treated with either BT or CT alone. Conclusions The presence of a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder did not reduce the efficacy of CBT for insomnia, but it did for its single BT and CT components when used alone. PMID:26963600

  11. Binge-eating disorder in the Swedish national registers: Somatic comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Laura M; Watson, Hunna J; Jangmo, Andreas; Welch, Elisabeth; Wiklund, Camilla; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne; Norring, Claes; Herman, Barry K; Larsson, Henrik; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate associations between binge-eating disorder (BED) and somatic illnesses and determine whether medical comorbidities are more common in individuals who present with BED and comorbid obesity. Cases (n = 850) were individuals with a BED diagnosis in the Swedish eating disorders quality registers. Ten community controls were matched to each case on sex, and year, month, and county of birth. Associations of BED status with neurologic, immune, respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, musculoskeletal, genitourinary, circulatory, and endocrine system diseases were evaluated using conditional logistic regression models. We further examined these associations by adjusting for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Amongst individuals with BED, we explored whether comorbid obesity was associated with risk of somatic disorders. BED was associated with most classes of diseases evaluated; strongest associations were with diabetes [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 5.7 (3.8; 8.7)] and circulatory systems [1.9 (1.3; 2.7)], likely indexing components of metabolic syndrome. Amongst individuals with BED, those with comorbid obesity were more likely to have a lifetime history of respiratory [1.5 (1.1; 2.1)] and gastrointestinal [2.6 (1.7; 4.1)] diseases than those without comorbid obesity. Increased risk of some somatic disease classes in individuals with BED was not simply due to obesity or other lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. The association of BED with many somatic illnesses highlights the morbidity experienced by individuals with BED. Clinicians treating patients with BED should be vigilant for medical comorbidities. Nonpsychiatric providers may be the first clinical contact for those with BED underscoring the importance of screening in primary care. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:58-65). © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley

  12. Comparing comorbidity scales: Attending physician score versus the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Lene; Jordhøy, Marit; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Rostoft, Siri; Selbæk, Geir; Jensen Hjermstad, Marianne; Grønberg, Bjørn H

    2016-03-01

    Assessing comorbidity using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and its comprehensive manual is time consuming. We investigated if similar information could be obtained by a simpler assessment based on the original CIRS. Data from a randomized chemotherapy trial (RCT) on advanced NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) were analyzed. Baseline comorbidity was assessed by 1) trained oncologists using hospital records and the CIRS-G manual (CIRS-G), 2) by patients' oncologists/pulmonologists (local investigators=LI-score) using a brief set of instructions. By both methods, the severity of comorbidity in 14 organ systems was graded 0 (no problem) to 4 (extremely severe). The agreement between methods was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and weighted kappa statistics. The impact of comorbidity on survival was analyzed by Cox regression. Complete data were available for 375/446 (84%) patients enrolled in the RCT. Median age was 65years (25-85). Overall, more comorbidities and higher severity were registered by the CIRS-G compared to the LI-score. Severe comorbidity was registered for 184 (49%) and 94 (25%) patients according to the CIRS-G and LI-scores, respectively. Mean total score was 7.0 (0-17) (CIRS-G) versus 4.2 (0-16) (LI-score), and mean severity index (total score/number of categories with score >0) was 1.73 (SD 0.46) versus 1.43 (SD 0.78). Neither the CIRS-G scores nor the LI-scores were prognostic for survival. The CIRS-G scores and LI-scores had poor agreement, indicating that assessment method affects the registration of comorbidity. Thorough descriptions of comorbidity registrations in trials are paramount due to lack of a standardized assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  14. Clinical Phenotypes and Comorbidity in European Sleep Apnoea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saaresranta, Tarja; Hedner, Jan; Bonsignore, Maria R.; Riha, Renata L.; McNicholas, Walter T.; Penzel, Thomas; Anttalainen, Ulla; Kvamme, John Arthur; Pretl, Martin; Sliwinski, Pawel; Verbraecken, Johan; Grote, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical presentation phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and their association with comorbidity as well as impact on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment have not been established. Methods A prospective follow-up cohort of adult patients with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥5/h) from 17 European countries and Israel (n = 6,555) was divided into four clinical presentation phenotypes based on daytime symptoms labelled as excessive daytime sleepiness (“EDS”) and nocturnal sleep problems other than OSA (labelled as “insomnia”): 1) EDS (daytime+/nighttime-), 2) EDS/insomnia (daytime+/nighttime+), 3) non-EDS/non-insomnia (daytime-/nighttime-), 4) and insomnia (daytime-/nighttime+) phenotype. Results The EDS phenotype comprised 20.7%, the non-EDS/non-insomnia type 25.8%, the EDS/insomnia type 23.7%, and the insomnia phenotype 29.8% of the entire cohort. Thus, clinical presentation phenotypes with insomnia symptoms were dominant with 53.5%, but only 5.6% had physician diagnosed insomnia. Cardiovascular comorbidity was less prevalent in the EDS and most common in the insomnia phenotype (48.9% vs. 56.8%, p<0.001) despite more severe OSA in the EDS group (AHI 35.0±25.5/h vs. 27.9±22.5/h, p<0.001, respectively). Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with insomnia like OSA phenotypes independent of age, gender and body mass index (HR 1.5 (1.188–1.905), p<0.001). The EDS phenotype tended to associate with higher CPAP usage (22.7 min/d, p = 0.069) when controlled for age, gender, BMI and sleep apnoea severity. Conclusions Phenotypes with insomnia symptoms comprised more than half of OSA patients and were more frequently linked with comorbidity than those with EDS, despite less severe OSA. CPAP usage was slightly higher in phenotypes with EDS. PMID:27701416

  15. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacotherapy treatment of PTSD and comorbid disorders.

    PubMed

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2009-09-01

    Comorbity is very high in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. PTSD is very often complicated with depressive disorder, substance abuse, other anxiety disorders, personality disorders, psychotic features, etc. There have been few pharmacotherapy studies in this complicated field. In the past few years the literature on pharmacotherapy treatment for PTSD and comorbidity has arisen. From empirical evidence (level A) exist three sertraline studies in PTSD comorbid with: 1) anxiety, 2) depression, and 3) anxiety and depression, and one risperidone study in PTSD comorbid with psychotic symptoms. From empirical evidence (level B) exist two disulfiram, naltrexone, and their combination studies in patients with PTSD comorbid with alcohol dependence and one paroxetine or bupropion versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus community mental health referral study in PTSD women outpatients with major depressive disorder. The results from our label trials in the Croatian war veterans with chronic PTSD comorbid with psychotic features treated with novel antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine) are promising. In the future more rigorously designed, comparative studies are needed to determine the usefulness, efficacy, tolerability, and safety of particular psychopharmaceutical drugs in the treatment of this therapeutically and functionally challenging disorder, especially the trials from level A.

  17. Neuroinflammation and Comorbidity of Pain and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kavelaars, A.; Heijnen, C. J.; Dantzer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid depression and chronic pain are highly prevalent in individuals suffering from physical illness. Here, we critically examine the possibility that inflammation is the common mediator of this comorbidity, and we explore the implications of this hypothesis. Inflammation signals the brain to induce sickness responses that include increased pain and negative affect. This is a typical and adaptive response to acute inflammation. However, chronic inflammation induces a transition from these typical sickness behaviors into depression and chronic pain. Several mechanisms can account for the high comorbidity of pain and depression that stem from the precipitating inflammation in physically ill patients. These mechanisms include direct effects of cytokines on the neuronal environment or indirect effects via downregulation of G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2, activation of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase that generates neurotropic kynurenine metabolites, increased brain extracellular glutamate, and the switch of GABAergic neurotransmission from inhibition to excitation. Despite the existence of many neuroimmune candidate mechanisms for the co-occurrence of depression and chronic pain, little work has been devoted so far to critically assess their mediating role in these comorbid symptoms. Understanding neuroimmune mechanisms that underlie depression and pain comorbidity may yield effective pharmaceutical targets that can treat both conditions simultaneously beyond traditional antidepressants and analgesics. PMID:24335193

  18. Fearful imagery in social phobia: Generalization, comorbidity, and physiological reactivity

    PubMed Central

    McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Cuthbert, Bruce N.; Strauss, Cyd C.; Bradley, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social phobia has been characterized as a disorder of exaggerated fear of social threat and heightened sensitivity to imagery of social failure. Methods To assess the physiological basis of this description, social phobia patients (n=75) and demographically-matched controls (n=75) imagined neutral and fearful events while acoustic startle probes were occasionally presented and eye-blink responses (orbicularis occuli) recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also indexed. In addition to comparing controls and social phobia patients, the influences of diagnostic subtype (circumscribed, generalized), comorbid depression, and chronicity were assessed. Results Patients exceeded controls in startle reflex and autonomic responding during imagery of social threat whereas the groups evinced commensurate reactivity to contents depicting commonly shared fears (survival threat). Individuals with circumscribed performance phobia were similar to controls, with the exception of more robust reactions to idiographic, performance fear imagery. In contrast, generalized phobic patients were characterized by longer disorder chronicity and demonstrated heightened sensitivity to a broader range of fear contents. Those with generalized phobia plus comorbid depression showed attenuation of fear-potentiated startle and reported the most protracted social anxiety. Conclusions Subtypes of social phobia can be objectively distinguished in patterns of physiological reactivity. Furthermore, subtypes vary systematically in chronicity and defensive engagement with the shortest disorder duration (circumscribed phobia) associated with the most robust and focal physiological reactivity, followed by broader defensive sensitivity in more chronic generalized phobia, and finally attenuation of the formerly exaggerated fear potentiation in the comorbidly depressed—the most chronic form. PMID:18996510

  19. Fearful imagery in social phobia: generalization, comorbidity, and physiological reactivity.

    PubMed

    McTeague, Lisa M; Lang, Peter J; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Cuthbert, Bruce N; Strauss, Cyd C; Bradley, Margaret M

    2009-03-01

    Social phobia has been characterized as a disorder of exaggerated fear of social threat and heightened sensitivity to imagery of social failure. To assess the physiological basis of this description, social phobia patients (n=75) and demographically matched control participants (n=75) imagined neutral and fearful events while acoustic startle probes were occasionally presented and eye-blink responses (orbicularis occuli) recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also indexed. In addition to comparing control participants and social phobia patients, the influences of diagnostic subtype (circumscribed, generalized), comorbid depression, and chronicity were assessed. Patients exceeded control participants in startle reflex and autonomic responding during imagery of social threat, whereas the groups evinced commensurate reactivity to contents depicting commonly shared fears (survival threat). Individuals with circumscribed performance phobia were similar to control participants, with the exception of more robust reactions to idiographic, performance fear imagery. In contrast, generalized phobic patients were characterized by longer disorder chronicity and demonstrated heightened sensitivity to a broader range of fear contents. Those with generalized phobia plus comorbid depression showed attenuation of fear-potentiated startle and reported the most protracted social anxiety. Subtypes of social phobia can be objectively distinguished in patterns of physiological reactivity. Furthermore, subtypes vary systematically in chronicity and defensive engagement with the shortest disorder duration (circumscribed phobia) associated with the most robust and focal physiological reactivity, followed by broader defensive sensitivity in more chronic generalized phobia, and finally attenuation of the formerly exaggerated fear potentiation in the comorbidly depressed, the most chronic form.

  20. Pain and depression comorbidity: a preclinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Pain and depression are two highly prevalent and deleterious disorders with significant socioeconomic impact to society. Clinical observations have long recognized the co-existence and interactions of pain and depression. However, the underlying mechanisms of pain-depression comorbidity and their dynamic interactions remain largely unknown. Preclinical animal studies may provide critical information for the understanding of this important comorbidity. This review analyzed the current preclinical evidence of interactions between pain and depression, which generally supports the causative relationship of the two conditions. In addition, the analysis proposed to apply domain interplay concept in future model development of pain-depression comorbidity and mechanism studies. The application of spectrum-centered animal models will better the understanding of pain-depression dyad and foster the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:24797835

  1. Managing comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Blair G; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Major risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include older age and a history of smoking, which predispose to several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases. IPF can be associated with additional comorbidities through other mechanisms as either a cause or a consequence of these diseases. We review the literature regarding the management of common pulmonary and extra-pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, venous thromboembolism, sleep-disordered breathing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, coronary artery disease, depression and anxiety, and deconditioning. Recent studies have provided some guidance on the management of these diseases in IPF; however, most treatment recommendations are extrapolated from studies of non-IPF patients. Additional studies are required to more accurately determine the clinical features of these comorbidities in patients with IPF and to evaluate conventional treatments and management strategies that are beneficial in non-IPF populations. PMID:26451121

  2. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD). Methods The paper describes three patients affected by AS and bipolar spectrum disorders. Results and conclusion Mood stabilizers and 2nd generation antipsychotics were effective in the treatment of these AS patients with comorbid BD, while the use of antidepressants was associated with worsening of the mood disorder. It is of importance to recognize both the psychiatric diagnoses in order to arrange an exhaustive therapeutic program and to define specific and realistic goals of treatment. PMID:19014623

  3. Asperger's syndrome: diagnosis, comorbidity and therapy.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Pleskow, J; Mousa, S A

    2015-03-01

    Asperger's syndrome (AS), a behavioral disorder that is related to autism, is associated with abnormal social functioning and repetitive behaviors but not with a decrease in intelligence or linguistic functionality. This article reviews the clinical diagnosis of AS and discusses the comorbid disorders that may be present with AS, as well as the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pharmacotherapies given to AS patients, as reported in preclinical and clinical studies. AS may be present with several comorbid disorders including: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and Tourette's syndrome. The difficulty in distinguishing AS from autism results in treating the comorbid disorder symptoms, rather than treating the symptoms of AS. Accordingly, there is a great need to further understand the psychobiology of AS and its association with other disorders, which should expand the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options and improve the quality of life for AS patients.

  4. Autism Parenting Stress Index: Initial Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Data validating the Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) is presented for 274 children under age six. Cronbach's alpha was 0.827. As a measure of parenting stress specific to core and co-morbid symptoms of autism, the APSI is unique. It is intended for use by clinicians to identify areas where parents need support with parenting skills, and to…

  5. Autism Parenting Stress Index: Initial Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Data validating the Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) is presented for 274 children under age six. Cronbach's alpha was 0.827. As a measure of parenting stress specific to core and co-morbid symptoms of autism, the APSI is unique. It is intended for use by clinicians to identify areas where parents need support with parenting skills, and to…

  6. Fatigue and Comorbidities in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fiest, Kirsten M.; Fisk, John D.; Patten, Scott B.; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; McKay, Kyla A.; Berrigan, Lindsay I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fatigue is commonly reported by people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Comorbidity is also common in MS, but its association with the presence of fatigue or fatigue changes over time is poorly understood. Methods: Nine hundred forty-nine people with definite MS were recruited from four Canadian centers. The Fatigue Impact Scale for Daily Use and a validated comorbidity questionnaire were completed at three visits over 2 years. Participants were classified into groups with no fatigue versus any fatigue. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between fatigue and each comorbidity at baseline, year 1, year 2, and overall. Results: The incidence of fatigue during the study was 38.8%. The prevalence of fatigue was greater in those who were older (P = .0004), had a longer time since symptom onset (P = .005), and had greater disability (P < .0001). After adjustment, depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03–3.27), irritable bowel syndrome (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18–2.48), migraine (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.27–2.27), and anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.15–2.16) were independently associated with fatigue that persisted during the study. There was also an individual-level effect of depression on worsening fatigue (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08–2.07). Conclusions: Comorbidity is associated with fatigue in MS. Depression is associated with fatigue and with increased risk of worsening fatigue over 2 years. However, other comorbid conditions commonly associated with MS are also associated with persistent fatigue, even after accounting for depression. Further investigation is required to understand the mechanisms by which comorbidities influence fatigue. PMID:27134583

  7. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  8. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  9. The association of race, comorbid anxiety, and antidepressant adherence among Medicaid enrollees with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsuen; Erickson, Steven R; Piette, John D; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Depressed patients often have comorbid anxiety. African-Americans with depression are less likely to adhere to antidepressant treatment. Knowledge of the association between race, comorbid anxiety, and adherence among Medicaid enrollees with depression is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of race, comorbid anxiety, and antidepressant adherence, and persistence among Medicaid enrollees with major depressive disorder (MDD). The MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid Database (Thomson Reuters, Ann Arbor, MI) was used in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Medicaid enrollees aged between 18 and 64 years, with MDD but without bipolar disorders, and with a newly initiated antidepressant between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006 were identified. An index date was assigned corresponding to the newly initiated antidepressant. Patients having claims for any antidepressant refills during the 12 months before the index date were excluded. Eligible patients were then followed-up for 12 months after the index date. Adherence was measured by a modified medication possession ratio. Adherence was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Persistence was assessed based on treatment discontinuation and examined by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox-propositional hazard regression models. A total of 3083 Medicaid patients with MDD were included. Approximately, 25% of patients had comorbid anxiety. The odds of adhering to antidepressants were 40% lower among African-Americans than Caucasians, adjusting for covariates (AOR [adjust odds ratio]=0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.51-0.72, P<.001). MDD patients with comorbid anxiety were more likely to adhere to antidepressants than patients with MDD alone (AOR=1.55, 95% CI=1.27-1.90, P<.001). African-Americans had a higher hazard of not persistently taking antidepressants (hazard ratio=1.47, 95% CI=1.30-1.65, P<.001). The interaction between race and comorbid anxiety was not associated with

  10. Comorbidities impacting on prognosis after lung transplant.

    PubMed

    Vaquero Barrios, José Manuel; Redel Montero, Javier; Santos Luna, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the clinical circumstances presenting before lung transplant that may have negative repercussions on the long and short-term prognosis of the transplant. Methods for screening and diagnosis of common comorbidities with negative impact on the prognosis of the transplant are proposed, both for pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases, and measures aimed at correcting these factors are discussed. Coordination and information exchange between referral centers and transplant centers would allow these comorbidities to be detected and corrected, with the aim of minimizing the risks and improving the life expectancy of transplant receivers. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Comorbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Hope L; Slater, Shalonda K

    2016-02-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. Several validated screening tools have recently been used in studies of pediatric patients with CDH. Once identified, treatment of comorbid psychological conditions may lead to improved functioning and headache outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Patient Comorbidities Be Included in Clinical Performance Measures for Radiation Oncology?

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jean B.; Khalid, Najma; Ho, Alex; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Tao, May Lin; Currey, Adam; Wilson, J. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Patient comorbidities may affect the applicability of performance measures that are inherent in multidisciplinary cancer treatment guidelines. This article describes the distribution of common comorbid conditions by disease site and by patient and facility characteristics in patients who received radiation therapy as part of treatment for cancer of the breast, cervix, lung, prostate, and stomach, and investigates the association of comorbidities with treatment decisions. Materials and Methods: Stratified two-stage cluster sampling provided a random sample of radiation oncology facilities. Eligible patients were randomly sampled from each participating facility for each disease site, and data were abstracted from medical records. The Adult Comorbidity Evaluation Index (ACE-27) was used to measure comorbid conditions and their severity. National estimates were calculated using SUDAAN statistical software. Results: Multivariable logistic regression models predicted the dependent variable “treatment changed or contraindicated due to comorbidities.” The final model showed that ACE-27 was highly associated with change in treatment for patients with severe or moderate index values compared to those with none or mild (P < .001). Two other covariates, age and medical coverage, had no (age) or little (medical coverage) significant contribution to predicting treatment change in the multivariable model. Disease site was associated with treatment change after adjusting for other covariates in the model. Conclusions: ACE-27 is highly predictive of treatment modifications for patients treated for these cancers who receive radiation as part of their care. A standardized tool identifying patients who should be excluded from clinical performance measures allows more accurate use of these measures. PMID:24643573

  13. The Influence of Co-Morbidity and Other Health Measures on Dental and Medical Care Use among Medicare beneficiaries 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John; Manski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of co-morbidity and other health measures on the use of dental and medical care services among the community-based Medicare population with data from the 2002 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Methods A co-morbidity index is the main independent variable of our study. It includes oral cancer as a co-morbidity condition and was developed from Medicare claims data. The two outcome variables indicate whether a beneficiary had a dental visit during the year and whether the beneficiary had an inpatient hospital stay during the year. Logistic regressions estimated the relationship between the outcome variables and co-morbidity after controlling for other explanatory variables. Results High scores on the co-morbidity index, high numbers of self-reported physical limitations, and fair or poor self-reported health status were correlated with higher hospital use and lower dental care utilization. Similar results were found for other types of medical care including medical provider visits, outpatient care, and prescription drugs. A multiple imputation technique was used for the approximate 20% of the sample with missing claims, but the resulting co-morbidity index performed no differently than the index constructed without imputation. Conclusions Co-morbidities and other health status measures are theorized to play either a predisposing or need role in determining health care utilization. The study’s findings confirm the dominant role of these measures as predisposing factors limiting access to dental care for Medicare beneficiaries and as need factors producing higher levels of inpatient hospital and other medical care for Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:21972460

  14. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  15. Real-world burden of comorbidities in US patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kamal; Mellars, Lillian; Changolkar, Arun; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-08-01

    Understanding background comorbidity rates in psoriasis can provide perspective for adverse events associated with new therapies. We sought to assess the extent of comorbidities in psoriasis patients by use of the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database. MarketScan, comprising commercial claims representative of a large US-insured population, had 1.22 million patients with ≥1 claim with a psoriasis diagnosis between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014. Patients ≥18 years of age who had ≥2 health claims in any diagnosis field for psoriasis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification 696.1) with a psoriasis diagnosis (index) date between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2014, were included to allow follow-up observation time. Prevalence and incidence of 24 comorbidities were assessed in 469,097 psoriasis patients; the most common comorbidities were hyperlipidemia (45.64% and 30.83%, respectively), hypertension (42.19% and 24.19%), depression (17.91% and 12.68%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (17.45% and 8.44%), and obesity (14.38% and 11.57%). A limitation of the study was that only a certain insured population was represented. Comorbidity rates align with those described in the literature and support the concept that psoriasis patients have high rates of cardiometabolic comorbidities. This analysis highlights the potential utility of very large insurance databases for determining comorbidity prevalence in psoriasis, which may aid health care providers in managing psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between medical comorbidity and self-rated pain, mood disturbance, and function in older people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Leong, Ian Y; Farrell, Michael J; Helme, Robert D; Gibson, Stephen J

    2007-05-01

    Aging is associated with greater risk for many illnesses and the prospect of multiple, concurrent disease states. Chronic pain is also very common in advanced age, and there is likely to be a relationship with comorbid burden, but few studies have examined this issue. This study tests the hypothesis that comorbid burden is associated with greater levels of self-reported pain and associated disturbance in mood and function. Psychometric and medical data were collected from 562 patients (mean age = 76.3 years) attending a geriatric pain clinic. The number of categories endorsed on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) score was used to measure accumulated comorbid burden. These groups were tested for differences in the severity of self-reported pain. The predictive capacity of comorbid burden for explaining variance in mood disturbance and functional disability was assessed after controlling for any differences in age and severity of pain. Over 50% of the sample had three or more comorbid problems. Groups with greater levels of comorbidity scored higher on the Present Pain Intensity Index, the sensory and affective subscales of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis showed that the CIRS score explained a significant proportion of the variance in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (4.1%), Human Activities Profile (4.8%), and the physical domain of the Sickness Impact Profile (5.9%). Greater levels of comorbidity are associated with reports of more severe pain, more depressive symptoms, reduced activity levels, and higher physical impact from pain.

  17. Questioning the 10-year Life Expectancy Rule for High-grade Prostate Cancer: Comparative Effectiveness of Aggressive vs Nonaggressive Treatment of High-grade Disease in Older Men With Differing Comorbid Disease Burdens.

    PubMed

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Lai, Julie; Dick, Andrew W; Setodji, Claude M; Hanley, Janet M; Litwin, Mark S; Saigal, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    To determine if the 10-year rule should apply to men with high-grade, clincially localized prostate cancer, we characterized the survival benefits of aggressive (surgery, radiation, brachytherapy) over nonaggressive treatment (watchful waiting, active surveillance) among older men with differing comorbidity at diagnosis. We sampled 44,521 men older than 65 with cT1-2, poorly differentiated prostate cancer diagnosed in 1991-2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. We used propensity-adjusted, competing-risks regression to calculate 5- and 10-year cancer mortality among those treated aggressively and nonaggressively across comorbidity subgroups. We determined 5- and 10-year absolute risk reduction in cancer mortality and numbers needed to treat to prevent one cancer death at 10 years. In propensity-adjusted, competing-risks regression analysis, aggressive treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of cancer mortality for those with Charlson scores of 0 (sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.47), 1 (SHR 0.48, 95% CI 0.40-0.58), and 2 (SHR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) but not 3+ (SHR 0.68, 95% CI 0.44-1.07). Absolute reductions in cancer mortality between those treated aggressively and nonaggressively were 7%, 5.5%, 6.9%, and 2.5% at 5 years, and 11.3%, 7.9%, 8.6%, and 2.8% at 10 years for men with Charlson scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3+ , respectively; numbers needed to treat to prevent 1 cancer death at 10 years were 9, 13, 12, and 36 men. The 10-year rule may not apply to men with high-grade, clinically localized disease. Older men with Charlson scores ≤2 should consider aggressive treatment of such disease due to its substantial short-term cancer survival benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  19. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). Methods: To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children…

  20. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). Methods: To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children…

  1. Co-Morbidity of Conditions among Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkfield, Alison J.; Graffam, J.; Meneilly, Sharn

    2009-01-01

    Eighty seven adult prisoners (58 males, 29 females) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a questionnaire on current health in order to examine both the prevalence of co-morbid conditions and the relation of depression and anxiety to ill-health and prior substance use. High prevalence rates of…

  2. The psychiatric comorbidities of cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S

    2013-02-01

    Although the comorbidity of migraine has been extensively studied, the relationships between cluster headache and psychiatric disease have not been well-addressed. In this review the available literature concerning cluster headache and depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, aggression, suicide, and their implications are discussed. Potential mechanisms, confounding variables, and unanswered questions are also addressed.

  3. Co-Morbidity of Conditions among Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkfield, Alison J.; Graffam, J.; Meneilly, Sharn

    2009-01-01

    Eighty seven adult prisoners (58 males, 29 females) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a questionnaire on current health in order to examine both the prevalence of co-morbid conditions and the relation of depression and anxiety to ill-health and prior substance use. High prevalence rates of…

  4. Parkinson disease and comorbid cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nanhoe-Mahabier, Wandana; de Laat, Karlijn F; Visser, Jasper E; Zijlmans, Jan; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2009-10-01

    Optimal management of chronic diseases not only requires tackling of the primary disease processes, but also necessitates timely recognition and treatment of comorbid conditions. In this article, we illustrate this two-pronged approach for two common age-related disorders: Parkinson disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We first discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that could provide a link between PD and CVD. Patients with PD have a series of risk factors that could promote development of CVD, but also have several protective factors. We then review the available clinical, radiological and neuropathological evidence to support an association between these two conditions. We conclude by discussing the potential implications for clinical practice, highlighting how comorbid CVD could alter the clinical presentation of PD and reviewing the possibilities for prevention and secondary prophylaxis. Additional research will be needed to fully evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of comorbid CVD in PD. Pending further evidence, we recommend that cerebral neuroimaging should be considered if patients with initially uncomplicated PD develop-either acutely or chronically-prominent and/or treatment-resistant gait impairment, postural instability, depression, cognitive decline, or urinary incontinence. Finding comorbid CVD in such patients could have prognostic implications, and could necessitate treatment to arrest further progression of CVD.

  5. Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Suicidality in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies have reported that psychiatric disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). However, surprisingly little is known about the independent associations between each disorder and each suicidal behavior due to a failure to account for comorbidity. Methods This study used data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001–2002) to examine the unique associations between psychiatric disorders and suicidality. Results A prior psychiatric disorder was present in 48.8% of those with a suicide ideation and in 65.2% of those with an attempt. Discrete-time survival models adjusting for comorbidity revealed that conduct disorder and alcohol abuse/dependence were the strongest predictors of a subsequent suicide attempt. Most disorders predicted suicidal ideation but few predicted the transition from ideation to a suicide plan or attempt. Limitations M-NCS is a household survey that excluded homeless and institutionalized people, andthe diagnostic instrument used did not include an assessment of all DSM-IV disorders which would increase the comorbidity discussed here. Conclusions These results reveal a complex pattern of associations in which diverse psychiatric disorders impact different parts of the pathway to suicide attempts. These findings will help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries. PMID:19926141

  6. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trajectory in obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidities.

    PubMed

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Hounie, Ana G; Shavitt, Roseli G; Fossaluza, Victor; Ferrão, Ygor; Leckman, James F; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos; do Rosario, Maria Conceição; Miguel, Eurípedes C

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the trajectory of comorbid disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) according to the first manifested psychiatric disorder and its impact in the clinical course of OCD and subsequent psychiatric comorbidities. One thousand and one OCD patients were evaluated at a single time point. Standardized instruments were used to determine the current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and for impulse-control disorders) as well as to establish current obsessive-compulsive, depressive and anxiety symptom severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale; Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the OCD Natural History Questionnaire). To analyze the distribution of comorbidities according to age at onset Bayesian approach was used. Five hundred eight patients had the first OC symptom onset till the age of 10 years old. The first comorbidity to appear in the majority of the sample was separation anxiety disorder (17.5%, n=175), followed by ADHD (5.0%, n=50) and tic disorders (4.4%, n=44). OCD patients that presented with separation anxiety disorder as first diagnosis had higher lifetime frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (p=0.003), higher scores in the Sexual/Religious dimension (p=0.04), Beck Anxiety (p<0.001) and Depression (p=0.005) Inventories. OCD patients that initially presented with ADHD had higher lifetime frequencies of substance abuse and dependence (p<0.001) and worsening OCD course (p=0.03). OCD patients that presented with tic disorders as first diagnosis had higher lifetime frequencies of OC spectrum disorders (p=0.03). OCD is a heterogeneous disorder and that the presence of specific comorbid diagnoses that predate the onset of OCD may influence its clinical presentation and course over the lifetime.

  8. Comorbidity indices for clinical trials: adaptation of two existing indices for use with the FREEDOM trial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S L; Wang, A; Cheng, L; Yang, Y; Libanati, C; Geller, M; Grauer, A; Nevitt, M; Revicki, D; Viswanathan, H N

    2016-01-01

    Two comorbidity indices were adapted for use in the FREEDOM trial and significantly correlated with the number of medications and impaired health status at baseline. The indices have applications for the analysis of clinical trial data and would allow for the appropriate adjustment of comorbidities when evaluating clinical trial outcomes. The purpose of this study is to adapt two published comorbidity indices for use with the FREEDOM clinical trial evaluating postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. FREEDOM enrolled women aged 60-90 years with a bone mineral density T-score <-2.5 at the lumbar spine or total hip and ≥-4.0 at both sites. Comorbidity indices were calculated using methods described by Sangha (Arthritis Rheum 49:156-163, 2003) and Wolfe (J Rheumatol 37:305-315, 2010) following modification. The adapted Sangha index included 12 conditions with a summary score of 0-12; the adapted Wolfe index included 7 conditions with a weighted summary score of 0-8. Higher scores indicated greater comorbidity. A panel of clinicians independently reviewed subjects' medical histories using a systematic process based on Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) preferred terms to map specified comorbid conditions. Spearman correlations between the adapted indices and baseline subject characteristics expected to be associated with comorbidities were examined. Of the 7808 subjects in this study, 74 % had ≥1 comorbidities based on the adapted Sangha or Wolfe comorbidity indices. The mean (SD) adapted Sangha and Wolfe comorbidity indices were 1.4 (1.2) and 1.4 (1.3), respectively. Both indices correlated positively with age, body mass index, and the number of medications (r = 0.54 to 0.55) at baseline and inversely correlated with health-related quality of life (r = -0.22 to -0.30) (all P < 0.0001). Further, when either the adapted Sangha or Wolfe index was included as a covariate for assessing mortality over 36 months in the FREEDOM population, the

  9. Index interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.

    1993-01-01

    The Index Interferometer is a novel instrument being developed by Northeast Photosciences. The instrument is a breakthrough in the high-accuracy measurement of the index of refraction, the dispersion, and the index profile of materials. The instrument accurately measures the index of refraction of materials to one or two more significant figures than previous instruments. Material slices polished moderately flat are sufficient, without any requirement for special or complicated material shapes, such as prisms. The index profile at any chosen wavelength can be measured using a simple color filter. No special laser sources or carefully collimated parallel beams are required. The index profile over an entire sample can be directly obtained at any desired wavelength. This instrument is remarkable in that it greatly increases the accuracy of measurement, eliminates the need for high-quality, extremely narrow sources and for fabrication of special-geometry samples, and adds additional features, such as index profile measurements. The technique compares the fringe pattern from the top surface with that from a reference mirror to determine the thickness. Then, with the aid of a filtered white light source, the interference pattern from the back surface is compared with that from the front to yield the optical thickness of the sample. The combination of the two measurements gives the index. The back surface fringe pattern itself gives the index profile.

  10. Approaches to ascertaining comorbidity information: validation of routine hospital episode data with clinician-based case note review.

    PubMed

    Soo, Martin; Robertson, Lynn M; Ali, Tariq; Clark, Laura E; Fluck, Nicholas; Johnston, Marjorie; Marks, Angharad; Prescott, Gordon J; Smith, William Cairns S; Black, Corri

    2014-04-21

    In clinical practice, research, and increasingly health surveillance, planning and costing, there is a need for high quality information to determine comorbidity information about patients. Electronic, routinely collected healthcare data is capturing increasing amounts of clinical information as part of routine care. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of routine hospital administrative data to determine comorbidity, as compared with clinician-based case note review, in a large cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. A validation study using record linkage. Routine hospital administrative data were compared with clinician-based case note review comorbidity data in a cohort of 3219 patients with chronic kidney disease. To assess agreement, we calculated prevalence, kappa statistic, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Subgroup analyses were also performed. Median age at index date was 76.3 years, 44% were male, 67% had stage 3 chronic kidney disease and 31% had at least three comorbidities. For most comorbidities, we found a higher prevalence recorded from case notes compared with administrative data. The best agreement was found for cerebrovascular disease (κ = 0.80) ischaemic heart disease (κ = 0.63) and diabetes (κ = 0.65). Hypertension, peripheral vascular disease and dementia showed only fair agreement (κ = 0.28, 0.39, 0.38 respectively) and smoking status was found to be poorly recorded in administrative data. The patterns of prevalence across subgroups were as expected and for most comorbidities, agreement between case note and administrative data was similar. Agreement was less, however, in older ages and for those with three or more comorbidities for some conditions. This study demonstrates that hospital administrative comorbidity data compared moderately well with case note review data for cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes, however there was

  11. Influence of age and comorbidity on prognosis and application of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly Japanese patients with colorectal cancer: A retrospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Tomoki; Yamauchi, Shinichi; Kimura, Kei; Babaya, Akihito; Hamanaka, Michiko; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fukumoto, Miki; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masafumi; Tomita, Naohiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-08-01

    Adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients aged ≥75 years is supported by inadequate evidence, although such patients are increasing in number worldwide. We assessed the influence of age and comorbidities on the prognosis of CRC in elderly patients using pooled data by the Japanese Study Group for Postoperative Follow-up of Colorectal Cancer. In total, 4598 patients (3304 with colon cancer and 1294 with rectal cancer) who underwent curative surgery from 2004 to 2006 were analysed with respect to age, Charlson comorbidity score (CS), tumour marker positivity, adjuvant therapy and prognosis. The number of patients aged <64, 65-74 and >75 years was 2007 (44%), 1614 (35%) and 977 (21%), respectively. Tumour location, tumour marker positivity, clinical stage, performance of adjuvant therapy, CS and overall survival (OS) were significantly different among these age groups (P < 0.0001). Among patients aged ≥75 years with stage III CRC, 35% with colon cancer and 21% with rectal cancer received adjuvant therapy; these proportions were much lower than those in younger patients. Application of adjuvant therapy was dependent on the CS in patients aged ≤74 years, but not in older patients. Sex, the carcinoembryonic antigen concentration and adjuvant therapy were significantly associated with OS in elderly patients with stage III CRC. Age and comorbidities worsened the OS of patients with CRC who underwent curative surgery. However, patients aged ≥75 years were undertreated regardless of their CS despite the possibility of OS improvement by adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-morbidity in psoriasis: mechanisms and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. It is important to identify and treat these co-morbidities because they have a strongly negative effect on the overall health of patients with psoriasis. Unfortunately, these co-morbidities are often overlooked and/or left untreated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of how co-morbidities are associated with psoriasis as well as implications for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co-morbidities. Expert commentary: Effective management of psoriasis involves targeting of both psoriasis and co-morbidities.

  13. The Impact of Comorbidities on Hormone Use

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Katherine M; Buist, Diana S M; Miglioretti, Diana L; Beverly, Kevin; Hartsfield, Cynthia L; Chan, K Arnold; Andrade, Susan E; Wei, Feifei; Connelly, Maureen T; Kessler, Larry

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the impact of fracture, coronary disease, and diabetes on changes in rates of discontinuation and initiation of estrogen therapy with (EPT) and without (ET) progestin, before (September 1, 1999 to June 30, 2002, baseline) versus 5 months after (follow-up) release of the Women's Health Initiative EPT trial results (WHI). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational cohort; 169,586 women 40 to 80 years old from 5 U.S. HMOs. METHODS We used pharmacy data to identify ET and EPT users. A woman was a user any month she filled ≥1 estrogen prescription and in subsequent months based upon the number of pills/patches dispensed. We used inpatient and outpatient claims to identify fracture January 1, 1999 to June 30, 2002 and pharmacy data to identify disease-based groups of medications for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. MEASURES EPT/ET prevalence, initiation, and discontinuation rates. RESULTS Baseline to follow-up EPT and ET prevalence declined 45% and 22%, respectively, with no difference by comorbidity. Follow-up EPT initiation was half the baseline rate irrespective of comorbidity. Compared to baseline, follow-up EPT discontinuation rates increased among women with diabetes (relative risk [RR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6 to 8.4), cardiovascular disease (RR, 5.5; 95% CI, 4.9 to 6.2), fracture (RR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.4 to 5.7), and no comorbidity (RR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9 to 4.9). The RRs for follow-up versus baseline EPT discontinuation were higher among women with diabetes (P <.01) and cardiovascular disease (P <.01) versus women without these comorbidities. ET discontinuation rates among these same groups were elevated 2- to 2.8-fold. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were associated with higher EPT discontinuation rates post-WHI compared to women without comorbidity; comorbidity had little impact on changes in prevalence or initiation of ET/EPT after release of the WHI. PMID:15857493

  14. Comorbidity in youth with specific phobias: Impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome and the impact of treatment on comorbid disorders.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Ost, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. In an analysis of data from an existing randomized control trial of brief cognitive behavioral treatment on specific phobias (One-Session Treatment, OST; Ollendick et al., 2009), we examined 1) the effect of comorbid specific phobias and other anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes, and 2) the effect of treatment of the specific phobia on these co-occurring disorders. These relations were explored in 100 youth presenting with animal, natural environment, situational, and "other" types of phobia. Youth were reliably diagnosed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and Parent versions (Silverman & Albano, 1996). Clinician severity ratings at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up were examined as were parent and child treatment outcome satisfaction measures. Results indicated that the presence of comorbid phobias or anxiety disorders did not affect treatment outcomes; moreover, treatment of the targeted specific phobias led to significant reductions in the clinical severity of other co-occurring specific phobias and related anxiety disorders. These findings speak to the generalization of the effects of this time-limited treatment approach. Implications for treatment of principal and comorbid disorders are discussed, and possible mechanisms for these effects are commented upon.

  15. Comorbidity in youth with specific phobias: Impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome and the impact of treatment on comorbid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Öst, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. In an analysis of data from an existing randomized control trial of brief cognitive behavioral treatment on specific phobias (One-Session Treatment, OST; Ollendick et al., 2009), we examined 1) the effect of comorbid specific phobias and other anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes, and 2) the effect of treatment of the specific phobia on these co-occurring disorders. These relations were explored in 100 youth presenting with animal, natural environment, situational, and “other” types of phobia. Youth were reliably diagnosed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and Parent versions (Silverman & Albano, 1996). Clinician Severity Ratings at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up were examined as were parent and child treatment outcome satisfaction measures. Results indicated that the presence of comorbid phobias or anxiety disorders did not affect treatment outcomes; moreover, treatment of the targeted specific phobias led to significant reductions in the clinical severity of other co-occurring specific phobias and related anxiety disorders. These findings speak to the generalization of the effects of this time-limited treatment approach. Implications for treatment of principal and comorbid disorders are discussed, and possible mechanisms for these effects are commented upon. PMID:20573338

  16. Psychiatric Comorbidities among Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…

  17. Psychiatric Comorbidities among Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…

  18. Kidney Disease and Psoriasis. A New Comorbidity?

    PubMed

    González-Parra, E; Daudén, E; Carrascosa, J M; Olveira, A; Botella, R; Bonanad, C; Rivera, R

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, particularly in young patients and patients with more severe forms of the disease. Recent studies have also linked psoriasis to kidney disease, and this would seem only logical, as the kidney is both a target of classic cardiovascular risk factors and susceptible to the toxic effects of some of the traditional drugs used to control psoriasis. In this article, we would like to draw readers' attention to this recently described comorbidity and stress the importance of early detection, as once chronic kidney disease develops, it cannot be reversed. When evaluating patients with psoriasis, particularly when they are candidates for systemic therapy, we believe it is important to order laboratory tests including glomerular filtration rate and a simple urine test to screen for albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio).

  19. The Comorbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    Several factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and an aging population, contribute to epidemic rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression frequently occurs comorbidly with diabetes although it is unrecognized and untreated in approximately two thirds of patients with both conditions. The course of depression in patients with both diabetes and depression is chronic and severe. Up to 80% of patients with diabetes and depression will experience a relapse of depressive symptoms over a 5-year period. Depression is associated with nonadherence to diabetes self-care—including following dietary restrictions, medication compliance, and blood glucose monitoring—resulting in worse overall clinical outcomes. Due to potential negative health consequences associated with comorbid diabetes and depression, both conditions should be optimally treated to maximize patient outcomes. PMID:18954592

  20. Cardiac Imaging in Heart Failure with Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chiew; Chen, Sylvia; Iyngkaran, Pupalan

    2017-01-01

    Imaging modalities stand at the frontiers for progress in congestive heart failure (CHF) screening, risk stratification and monitoring. Advancements in echocardiography (ECHO) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have allowed for improved tissue characterizations, cardiac motion analysis, and cardiac performance analysis under stress. Common cardiac comorbidities such as hypertension, metabolic syndromes and chronic renal failure contribute to cardiac remodeling, sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms starting with interstitial changes, structural changes and finally clinical CHF. These imaging techniques can potentially detect changes earlier. Such information could have clinical benefits for screening, planning preventive therapies and risk stratifying patients. Imaging reports have often focused on traditional measures without factoring these novel parameters. This review is aimed at providing a synopsis on how we can use this information to assess and monitor improvements for CHF with comorbidities.

  1. Autism Parenting Stress Index: initial psychometric evidence.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Data validating the Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) is presented for 274 children under age six. Cronbach's alpha was .827. As a measure of parenting stress specific to core and co-morbid symptoms of autism, the APSI is unique. It is intended for use by clinicians to identify areas where parents need support with parenting skills, and to assess the effect of intervention on parenting stress. Mean parenting stress in the autism group was four times that of the typical group and double that of the other developmental delay group [F(2,272) = 153; p < 001]. An exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors impacting parenting stress: one relating to core deficits, one to co-morbid behavioral symptoms, and one to co-morbid physical symptoms.

  2. Severe maternal morbidity and comorbid risk in hospitals performing <1000 deliveries per year.

    PubMed

    Hehir, Mark P; Ananth, Cande V; Wright, Jason D; Siddiq, Zainab; D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M

    2017-02-01

    While research has demonstrated increasing risk for severe maternal morbidity in the United States, risk at lower volume hospitals remains poorly characterized. More than half of all obstetric units in the United States perform <1000 deliveries per year and improving care at these hospitals may be critical to reducing risk nationwide. We sought to characterize maternal risk profiles and severe maternal morbidity at low-volume hospitals in the United States. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to evaluate trends in severe maternal morbidity and comorbid risk during delivery hospitalizations in the United States from 1998 through 2011. Comorbid maternal risk was estimated using a comorbidity index validated for obstetric patients. Severe maternal morbidity was defined as the presence of any 1 of 15 diagnoses representative of acute organ injury and critical illness. A total of 2,300,279 deliveries occurred at hospitals with annual delivery volume <1000, representing 20% of delivery hospitalizations overall. There were 7849 cases (0.34%) of severe morbidity in low-volume hospitals and this risk increased over the course of the study from 0.25% in 1998 through 1999 to 0.49% in 2010 through 2011 (P < .01). The risk in hospitals with ≥1000 deliveries increased from 0.35-0.62% during the same time periods. The proportion of patients with the lowest comorbidity decreased, while the proportion of patients with highest comorbidity increased the most. The risk of severe morbidity increased across all women including those with low comorbidity scores. Risk for severe morbidity associated with obstetric hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, and medical conditions all increased during the study period. Our findings demonstrate increasing maternal risk at hospitals performing <1000 deliveries per year broadly distributed over the patient population. Rates of morbidity in centers with ≥1000 deliveries have also increased. These findings

  3. Headache and comorbidity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Benedetta; Arruda, Marco; Cescut, Alessandra; Saulle, Cosetta; Persico, Antonello; Carotenuto, Marco; Gatta, Michela; Nacinovich, Renata; Piazza, Fausta Paola; Termine, Cristiano; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Lucchese, Franco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2013-09-24

    Headache is one of the most common neurological symptom reported in childhood and adolescence, leading to high levels of school absences and being associated with several comorbid conditions, particularly in neurological, psychiatric and cardiovascular systems. Neurological and psychiatric disorders, that are associated with migraine, are mainly depression, anxiety disorders, epilepsy and sleep disorders, ADHD and Tourette syndrome. It also has been shown an association with atopic disease and cardiovascular disease, especially ischemic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO).

  4. Seventy-Five Years of Comorbidity Research

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Matt G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: As part of the 75th anniversary edition of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, this article reviews research on the relationship between mental disorders and substance use disorders (“comorbidity”) from 1940—the journal’s inception—to the present. Method: First, a survey of the titles and abstracts of all articles published in the journal was used to identify those articles pertaining to comorbidity. Seminal and representative works from this set of articles and a limited selection of articles from other journals were included in the review. Results: The early psychosocial research emphasized psychoanalytic formulations of alcohol use as a defensive symptom, which informed the early experimental research on the tension-reducing properties of alcohol. The “cognitive revolution,” occurring in the 1970s, enabled an expansion of the tension-reduction theory to include a central role for mental processes (e.g., alcohol expectancies) in promoting drinking to cope with negative affectivity. The early clinical research characterized mental conditions commonly co-occurring with alcohol disorders and considered their etiological relationship to alcohol disorders. The “neo-Kraepelinian revolution” in psychiatry, which also occurred in the 1970s, infused the clinical comorbidity research with a more rigorous diagnostic technology and a range of biomedical research methodologies to study the mechanistic linkages of co-occurring disorders. Conclusions: Although a substantial quantity of scientific information on comorbidity has accumulated over the past 75 years, a standard model(s) of comorbidity has yet to congeal. Barriers and opportunities related to achieving this important goal are discussed. PMID:24565311

  5. Headache and comorbidity in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common neurological symptom reported in childhood and adolescence, leading to high levels of school absences and being associated with several comorbid conditions, particularly in neurological, psychiatric and cardiovascular systems. Neurological and psychiatric disorders, that are associated with migraine, are mainly depression, anxiety disorders, epilepsy and sleep disorders, ADHD and Tourette syndrome. It also has been shown an association with atopic disease and cardiovascular disease, especially ischemic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). PMID:24063537

  6. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  7. Does Comorbid Obesity Impact Quality of Life Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Toby O.; Mace, Jess C.; Deconde, Adam S.; Xiao, Christopher C.; Storck, Kristina A.; Gudis, David A.; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Soler, Zachary M.; Smith, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both obesity and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are characterized by inflammation. Furthermore, both disease processes are independently associated with decreases in quality-of-life (QOL). We sought to investigate the role of comorbid obesity in QOL outcomes in CRS patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Methods Adult patients with medically refractory CRS (n=241) were prospectively enrolled into a multi-institutional treatment outcomes investigation. Body mass index (BMI) calculations were used to differentiate patient weight groups (normal weight: 18.5–24.9, overweight: 25.0–29.9; and obese: ≥30.0). Preoperative and postoperative QOL (Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22)) were evaluated compared across BMI groups and obesity subclasses. Results The prevalence of comorbid obesity was 41% (n=99). Higher prevalence of comorbid disease was found across increasing BMI groups including diabetes mellitus, asthma, and depression. No significant differences were found in mean preoperative QOL measures between any BMI groups. Significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative QOL mean scores (p≤0.050) was found for all BMI groups. Despite no significant difference in mean QOL improvement between BMI groups (p≥0.142), overweight and obese patients reported reduced relative mean percentage (%) improvement compared to normal weight participants on the RSDI total score (33% and 37% vs. 55%, respectively) and SNOT-22 total score (29% and 40% vs. 48%, respectively). Conclusions Patients with comorbid obesity experience significant improvement in average QOL gains following ESS though the percentage of relative improvement in QOL may be decreased in patients with comorbid obesity and CRS as compared to those without. PMID:26201473

  8. Do Medical Comorbidities Affect Outcomes in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Gagnier, Joel J.; Allen, Benjamin; Watson, Scott; Robbins, Christopher B.; Bedi, Asheesh; Carpenter, James E.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of medical comorbidities on clinical outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears (RCTs) have not been fully elucidated. This study investigates the association between medical comorbidities, as measured by the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI), and clinical outcomes in patients treated surgically or nonsurgically for symptomatic, full-thickness RCTs. Hypothesis: Patients with RCTs who have more comorbidities will have worse outcome scores. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We collected the following outcome measures at baseline and at regular intervals up to 64 weeks in all patients: FCI, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. Changes in outcomes were compared separately for surgical and nonsurgical patients using paired t tests. The relationship of the FCI and all outcomes of interest at baseline, at 64-week follow-up, and for changes from baseline was explored using linear regression modeling. Results: Of the 222 study patients (133 males; mean age, 60.0 ± 9.6 years), 140 completed the 64-week WORC and 120 completed the 64-week ASES. Overall, 128 patients underwent RCT repair, and 94 patients were treated nonsurgically. Both treatment groups improved compared with baseline at 64 weeks on the ASES score and WORC. At 64 weeks, patients with higher baseline FCI scores had worse WORC score (by 74.5 points; P = .025) and ASES score (by 3.8 points; P < .01). A higher FCI score showed a trend toward predicting changes in the WORC and ASES scores at 64 weeks compared with baseline, but this did not reach statistical significance (WORC change, P = .15; ASES change, P = .07). Conclusion: Patients with higher FCI scores at baseline reported worse baseline functional scores and demonstrated less improvement with time. The magnitude of this change may not be clinically significant for single comorbidities. PMID:28856169

  9. The Comorbidity of Daydreaming Disorder (Maladaptive Daydreaming).

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Ross, Colin A

    2017-07-01

    To determine the comorbidity profile of individuals meeting criteria for a proposed new disorder, daydreaming disorder (more commonly known as maladaptive daydreaming [MD]), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders were administered to 39 participants who met criteria for MD on a structured interview. We determined high rates of comorbidity: 74.4% met criteria for more than three additional disorders, and 41.1% met criteria for more than four. The most frequent comorbid disorder was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (76.9%); 71.8% met criteria for an anxiety disorder, 66.7% for a depressive disorder, and 53.9% for an obsessive-compulsive or related disorder. Notably, 28.2% have attempted suicide. Individuals meeting criteria for MD have complex psychiatric problems spanning a range of DSM-5 disorders. This finding provides evidence that MD is different than normal daydreaming and that these individuals experience considerable distress and impairment.

  10. Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    1995-01-01

    We develop several formal models for comorbidity between multifactorial disorders. Based on the work of D. N. Klein and L. P. Riso, the models include (i) alternate forms, where the two disorders have the same underlying continuum of liability; (ii) random multiformity, in which affection status on one disorder abruptly increases risk for the second; (iii) extreme multiformity, where only extreme cases have an abruptly increased risk for the second disorder; (iv) three independent disorders, in which excess comorbid cases are due to a separate, third disorder; (v) correlated liabilities, where the risk factors for the two disorders correlate; and (vi) direct causal models, where the liability for one disorder is a cause of the other disorder. These models are used to make quantitative predictions about the relative proportions of pairs of relatives who are classified according to whether each relative has neither disorder, disorder A but not B, disorder B but not A, or both A and B. For illustration, we analyze data on major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) assessed in adult female MZ and DZ twins, which enable estimation of the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors. Several models are rejected--that comorbid cases are due to chance; multiformity of GAD; a third independent disorder; and GAD being a cause of MD. Of the models that fit the data, correlated liabilities, MD causes GAD, and reciprocal causation seem best. MD appears to be a source of liability for GAD. Possible extensions to the models are discussed. PMID:7573055

  11. Self Report Co-Morbidity and Health Related Quality of Life -- A Comparison with Record Based Co-Morbidity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voaklander, Donald C.; Kelly, Karen D.; Jones, C. Allyson; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare three hospital-based measures of co-morbidity to patient self-report co-morbidity and to determine the relative proportion of outcome predicted by each of the co-morbidity measures in a population of individuals receiving major joint arthroplasty. Baseline measures using the SF-36 general health…

  12. Self Report Co-Morbidity and Health Related Quality of Life -- A Comparison with Record Based Co-Morbidity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voaklander, Donald C.; Kelly, Karen D.; Jones, C. Allyson; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare three hospital-based measures of co-morbidity to patient self-report co-morbidity and to determine the relative proportion of outcome predicted by each of the co-morbidity measures in a population of individuals receiving major joint arthroplasty. Baseline measures using the SF-36 general health…

  13. Associations between diet quality, health status and diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes and comorbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Mangou, Apostolis; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Mirkopoulou, Daphne; Sailer, Nikolaos; Kotzamanidis, Charalambos; Tsigga, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) demonstrate low dietary adherence and this is further aggravated with comorbid obesity. The aim of the present study was to assess diet quality in patients with T2DM and comorbid obesity compared to patients with T2DM alone and to examine the associations between comorbidities and diet quality. The sample consisted of 59 adult patients with diabesity (T2DM and comorbid obesity) and 94 patients with T2DM alone. All diabetes comorbidities and complications were recorded and diet quality was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Mean raw HEI of the diabese subjects was 81.9±7.1 and the diabetic subjects was 80.2±6.9. When HEI was adjusted to the sex, age and weight status, the diabese demonstrated a higher HEI. Among comorbidities, only renal disease decreased HEI. According to the principal component analysis of the total sample, adequate diet quality was explained by cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, peptic ulcer, sex, diabesity and diabetic foot syndrome. In the diabese, adequate HEI was explained by diabetic foot syndrome, smoking, drinking alcohol and having a family history of diabetes. Adult patients with T2DM demonstrate adequate diet quality. Different factors are associated with the adoption of a high quality diet between the diabese and the T2DM alone. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of the Atopic March: Development of Atopic Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lynda; Hanifin, Jon; Boguniewicz, Mark; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Spergel, Jonathan M; Dakovic, Rada; Paller, Amy S

    2016-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is often the first step in the atopic march leading to the development of asthma or allergic rhinitis. The goal of this study was to determine whether early intervention with pimecrolimus limits the atopic march in infants with AD and to evaluate its efficacy and safety. This was a 3-year double-blind study in which patients were randomized to pimecrolimus or vehicle and then open-label pimecrolimus for a planned further 3 years. Rescue topical corticosteroid was permitted if 3 days of study medication led to no improvement; investigators made decisions on rescue medication until week 14 and caregivers thereafter. Efficacy assessments included disease-free days, Eczema Area and Severity Index, and body surface area affected. Infants ages 3 to 18 months with recent-onset AD (≤3 months) were observed for a mean of 2.8 years (N = 1,091). No significant differences between pimecrolimus- and placebo-treated groups were found in the percentage of patients with AD who developed asthma (10.7%) or other allergic conditions (allergic rhinitis, 22.4%; food allergy, 15.9%; allergic conjunctivitis, 14.1%; one or more atopic comorbidities, 37.0%) by study end. Allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and having one or more atopic comorbidities (but not asthma or allergic conjunctivitis alone) developed significantly more often in infants with greater AD severity at baseline. Pimecrolimus was significantly more effective than vehicle for AD treatment at week 14. Adverse event incidences were similar. This longitudinal observation of infants with AD provides evidence of the atopic march. Pimecrolimus was safe and effective in infants with mild to moderate AD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of age and comorbidity on cause and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cillóniz, Catia; Polverino, Eva; Ewig, Santiago; Aliberti, Stefano; Gabarrús, Albert; Menéndez, Rosario; Mensa, Josep; Blasi, Francesco; Torres, Antoni

    2013-09-01

    Prolonged life expectancy has currently increased the proportion of the very elderly among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age and comorbidity on microbial patterns in patients over 65 years of age with CAP. This study was a prospective observational study of adult patients with CAP (excluding those in nursing homes) over a 12-year period. We compared patients aged 65 to 74 years, 75 to 84 years, and > 85 years for potential differences in clinical presentation, comorbidities, severity on admission, microbial investigations, causes, antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes. We studied a total of 2,149 patients: 759 patients (35.3%) aged 65 to 74 years, 941 patients (43.7%) aged 75 to 84 years, and 449 patients (20.8%) aged > 85 years. At least one comorbidity was present in 1,710 patients (79.6%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen in all age groups, regardless of comorbidity. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounted for 9.1% of isolates, and Haemophilus influenzae, 6.4%. All these pathogens were isolated only in patients with at least one comorbidity. Mortality increased with age (65-74 years, 6.9%; 75-84 years, 8.9%; > 85 years, 17.1%; P < .001) and was associated with increased comorbidities (neurologic; OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.1), Pneumonia Severity Index IV or V (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), bacteremia (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), the presence of a potential multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae; OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3), and ICU admission (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.9-6.1) on multivariate analysis. Age does not influence microbial cause itself, whereas comorbidities are associated with specific causes such as H. influenzae and potential MDR pathogens. Mortality in the elderly is mainly driven by the presence of comorbidities and potential MDR pathogens.

  16. Specific Learning Disabilities and Psychiatric Comorbidities in School Children in South India.

    PubMed

    Bandla, Shailaja; Mandadi, Gowri Devi; Bhogaraju, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Specific learning disabilities (SLDs) are an important cause of academic underachievement in children and are also associated with comorbidities like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which further have an impact on the child's education. To estimate the prevalence and psychosocial profile and psychiatric comorbidities in children with SLD in two settings, i.e., on special (remedial) education and schools and to compare the findings with normal children. This study was carried out in schools situated in urban and semi-urban areas and special education schools. A total of 96 children were chosen for the study. After taking informed consent from the parents, the details about socioeconomic status, family, developmental history, and school history of the children were collected on a semi-structured pro forma and then the children were screened for SLD. They were administered colored/standard progressive matrices and Malin's intelligence scale for assessing their intelligence quotient and NIMHANS SLD index and developmental psychopathology checklist to study psychopathology. Chi-square test and ANOVA were done. The prevalence of SLD in schools is found out to be 6.6%. There was a significant association with prematurity, cesarean section, delayed speech, and family history of SLD. Among comorbidities of SLD, association with ADHD alone has been found to be significant. The most common type of SLD is combined type comorbid with ADHD. There is a need for early identification of learning disabilities in schools so that with early recognition and remedial intervention children can be helped with to cope with studies.

  17. Intermittent hypoxemia and OSA: implications for comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Naresh A; Nieto, F Javier; Somers, Virend K

    2015-01-01

    OSA is a common chronic disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality including cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive disease and increased cancer-related deaths. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas associated with repetitive episodes of intermittent hypoxemia, intrathoracic pressure changes, and arousals. Intermittent hypoxemia (IH) is now being recognized as a potential major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of OSA-related comorbidities. OSA-related high-frequency IH is characterized by cycles of hypoxemia with reoxygenation that is distinctly different than sustained low-frequency hypoxia and contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Data from both animal and human studies support mechanistic links between IH and its adverse impact at the tissue level. IH promotes oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species and angiogenesis, increased sympathetic activation with BP elevation, and systemic and vascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction that contributes to diverse multiorgan chronic morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, cognitive decline, and progression of cancer. Data from observational studies in large population groups also support the role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of OSA comorbidity. Treatment with CPAP to reverse OSA-related symptoms and comorbidities has been shown to provide variable benefit in some but not all patient groups. Early treatment with CPAP makes intuitive sense to promote maximal functional recovery and minimize residual injury. More studies are needed to determine the interacting effects of IH and obesity, differential effects of both short-term and long-term hypoxemia, and the effect of CPAP treatment.

  18. [Demographic factors and comorbidity associated to prehypertension].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Negrete, Adolfo; Márquez-Celedonio, Félix Guillermo; Soler-Huerta, Elizabeth; Rojas-Carrera, Sonia Irma; González-Santes, Mario; Blanco-Cornejo, Aída Verónica; Rojas-Uribe, Magdalena; Texon-Fernández, Obdulia

    2013-01-01

    prehypertension is the category established in JNC-7, which designates the individuals that present diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mm Hg, and it is associated to high rates of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to identify prevalence rates and their correlation with sociodemographic factors and comorbidity in a sample of a population of Veracruz, Mexico. a cross-sectional and representative survey was chosen by means of probability sampling. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics were assessed. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were obtained. the prehypertension prevalence found was 33.8 %, with an average age of 40.9 ± 14.2 years in prehypertensive subjects, and 50.6 ± 12.7 in hypertension subjects (p < 0.05). In relation with prehypertension, males presented a 1.48 (1.18-1.86) OR. Also, those who had more than 40 years had an OR of 1.9 (1.51-2.38); the ones with basic schooling, an OR of 1.73 (1.38-2.17); subjects with hyperglycemia, OR 3.0 (1.5-3.75); with overweight, OR 1.41 (1.01-1.68); and those with other comorbidities an OR of 1.61 (1.09-2.36). a high prevalence of prehypertension was found in the sample, and it was associated to male gender subjects, aged above 40 years, with basic schooling and relevant comorbidities, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  19. [Comorbidity between cocaine addiction and personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, J; Lorea, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the current knowledge about the comorbidity between cocaine dependence and personality disorders. Results concerning a specific profile of cocaine patients are not conclusive. The prevalence rate of personality disorders in cocaine dependents is very heterogeneous (with a mean of 66% of cases), and a great variability is observed between all the studies carried out. There is a tendency for a higher proportion of cocaine dependents to be found within the cluster B category (mainly antisocial and borderline). Lastly, implications of this kind of study for future research and clinical practice are commented upon.

  20. Comorbidity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Diseases in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Olmos, Luis; Salvador, Carlos H.; Alberquilla, Ángel; Lora, David; Carmona, Montserrat; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Monteagudo, José Luis; García-López, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare management is oriented toward single diseases, yet multimorbidity is nevertheless the rule and there is a tendency for certain diseases to occur in clusters. This study sought to identify comorbidity patterns in patients with chronic diseases, by reference to number of comorbidities, age and sex, in a population receiving medical care from 129 general practitioners in Spain, in 2007. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a health-area setting of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma), covering a population of 198,670 individuals aged over 14 years. Multiple correspondences were analyzed to identify the clustering patterns of the conditions targeted. Results Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8–42.2) of the registered population had at least one chronic condition. In all, 24.5% (95% CI: 24.3–24.6) of the population presented with multimorbidity. In the correspondence analysis, 98.3% of the total information was accounted for by three dimensions. The following four, age- and sex-related comorbidity patterns were identified: pattern B, showing a high comorbidity rate; pattern C, showing a low comorbidity rate; and two patterns, A and D, showing intermediate comorbidity rates. Conclusions Four comorbidity patterns could be identified which grouped diseases as follows: one showing diseases with a high comorbidity burden; one showing diseases with a low comorbidity burden; and two showing diseases with an intermediate comorbidity burden. PMID:22359665

  1. The Multimorbidity Index: A Tool for Assessing the Prognosis of Patients from Their History of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Farrokh; Levy, Cari R.; Kheirbek, Raya E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Multimorbidity (MM) Index predicts the prognosis of patients from their diagnostic history. In contrast to existing approaches with broad diagnostic categories, it treats each diagnosis as a separate independent variable using individual International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 (ICD-9) codes. Objective: This paper describes the MM Index, reviews the published data on its accuracy, and provides procedures for implementing the Index within electronic health record (EHR) systems. Methods: The MM Index was tested on various patient populations by using data from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs data warehouse and claims data within the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. Results: In cross-validated studies, the MM Index outperformed prognostic indices based on physiological markers, such as CD4 cell counts in HIV/AIDS, HbAlc levels in diabetes, ejection fractions in heart failure, or the 13 physiological markers commonly used for patients in intensive care units. When predicting the prognosis of nursing home patients by using the cross-validated area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the MM Index was 15 percent outperformed the Quan variant of the Charlson Index, 27 percent more accurate than the Deyo variant of the Charlson Index, and 22 percent more accurate than the von Walraven variant of the Elixhauser Index. For patients in intensive care units, the MM Index was 13 percent outperformed the cross-validated area under ROC associated with Elixhauser’s categories. The MM Index also demonstrated greater accuracy than a number of commercially available measures of illness severity; including a fivefold greater accuracy than the All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups and a threefold greater accuracy than All Payer Severity-Adjusted Diagnosis-Related Groups. Conclusion: The MM Index is statistically more accurate than many existing measures of

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy in persons with comorbid insomnia: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne M; Rogers, Valerie E; Liu, Wen; Ludeman, Emilie M; Downton, Katherine D; Diaz-Abad, Montserrat

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is effective for treatment of primary insomnia. There has been no synthesis of studies quantifying this effect on insomnia comorbid with medical and psychiatric disorders using rigorous selection criteria. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of CBT-I in studies including patients with medical or psychiatric disorders. Studies were identified from 1985 through February 2014 using multiple databases and bibliography searches. Inclusion was limited to randomized controlled trials of CBT-I in adult patients with insomnia diagnosed using standardized criteria, who additionally had a comorbid medical or psychiatric condition. Twenty-three studies including 1379 patients met inclusion criteria. Based on weighted mean differences, CBT-I improved subjective sleep quality post-treatment, with large treatment effects for the insomnia severity index and Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Sleep diaries showed a 20 min reduction in sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset, 17 min improvement in total sleep time, and 9% improvement in sleep efficiency post-treatment, similar to findings of meta-analyses of CBT-I in older adults. Treatment effects were durable up to 18 mo. Results of actigraphy were similar to but of smaller magnitude than subjective measures. CBT-I is an effective, durable treatment for comorbid insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  4. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  5. Specific phobia and comorbid depression: a closer look at the National Comorbidity Survey data.

    PubMed

    Choy, Yujuan; Fyer, Abby J; Goodwin, Renee D

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship between specific phobia and major depression have reported mixed findings. The results of some studies have suggested that specific phobia is associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid depression, whereas others have found no association. The purpose of this study was to further examine whether specific phobia is an independent contributor to major depression by using data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a household probability sample of adults (n = 5877) aged 15 to 54 years in the United States. After adjusting for demographic differences and comorbid mental disorders, multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that specific phobia remains positively associated with comorbid depression (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.4). Additional analysis found this relationship to be specific to individuals with a fear of heights, animals, and closed spaces, as well as those endorsing at least 2 irrational fears. These results suggest that the types and number of fears play an important role in the probability of lifetime depression.

  6. Genetic Profiling and Comorbidities of Zika Infection.

    PubMed

    Moni, Mohammad Ali; Lio', Pietro

    2017-09-15

    The difficulty in distinguishing infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) from other flaviviruses is a global health concern, particularly given the high risk of neurologic complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS]) with ZIKV infection. We developed quantitative frameworks to compare and explore infectome, diseasome, and comorbidity of ZIKV infections. We analyzed gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq data from ZIKV, West Nile fever (WNF), chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, GBS, and control datasets. Using neighborhood-based benchmarking and multilayer network topology, we constructed relationship networks based on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database and our identified significant genes. ZIKV infections showed dysregulation in expression of 929 genes. Forty-seven genes were highly expressed in both ZIKV and dengue infections. However, ZIKV shared <15 significant transcripts with other flavivirus infections. Notably, dysregulation of MAFB and SELENBP1 was common to ZIKV, dengue, and GBS infection; ATF5, TNFAIP3, and BAMB1 were common to ZIKV, dengue, and WNF; and NAMPT and PMAlP1 were common to ZIKV, GBS, and WNF. Phylogenetic, ontologic, and pathway analyses showed that ZIKV infection most resembles dengue fever. We have developed methodologies to investigate disease mechanisms and predictions for infectome, diseasome, and comorbidities quantitatively, and identified particular similarities between ZIKV and dengue infections.

  7. Tuberculosis Comorbidity with Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew; Marais, Ben J; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-02-06

    The 18th WHO Global Tuberculosis Annual Report indicates that there were an estimated 8.6 million incident cases of tuberculosis (TB) in 2012, which included 2.9 million women and 530,000 children. TB caused 1.3 million deaths including 320,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people; three-quarters of deaths occurred in Africa and Southeast Asia. With one-third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), active TB disease is primarily associated with a break down in immune surveillance. This explains the strong link between active TB disease and other communicable diseases (CDs) or noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) that exert a toll on the immune system. Comorbid NCD risk factors include diabetes, smoking, malnutrition, and chronic lung disease, all of which have increased relentlessly over the past decade in developing countries. The huge overlap between killer infections such as TB, HIV, malaria, and severe viral infections with NCDs, results in a "double burden of disease" in developing countries. The current focus on vertical disease programs fails to recognize comorbidities or to encourage joint management approaches. This review highlights major disease overlaps and discusses the rationale for better integration of tuberculosis care with services for NCDs and other infectious diseases to enhance the overall efficiency of the public health responses. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Comorbidity between neurological illness and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in many neurological disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and stroke. These comorbidities increase disease burden and may complicate the treatment of the combined disorders. Initial studies of the comorbidity of psychiatric and neurological disorders were cross-sectional, and time order of the associations was impossible to elucidate. More recent work has clarified time associations between psychiatric disorders and neurological disorders, particularly in epilepsy and stroke where epidemiological evidence suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship. This article takes an epidemiological approach to understanding these relationships and focuses mostly on epilepsy. Although, these relationships are understood in many neurological disorders, routine screening for psychiatric disorders in neurological disorders is infrequent, mostly due to the lack of partnerships between psychiatrists and neurologists and the paucity of neuropsychiatrists. Much more needs to be done to improve the detection and treatment of patients affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the scope of this overlap may inspire collaborations to improve the lives of people affected by both disorders.

  9. [Psychiatric comorbidities with tobacco-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Mühlig, S; Andreas, S; Batra, A; Petersen, K U; Hoch, E; Rüther, T

    2016-01-01

    The coincidence of tobacco smoking and psychiatric disorders is of great epidemiological and therapeutic importance. Tobacco smoking by people with mental disorders leads to disproportionately high somatic health risks, an adverse clinical course, poorer clinical outcomes and reduced quality of life (QoL). The etiological causes of the high comorbidity between smoking and mental disorders are still unclear: currently, tobacco smoking is discussed as being either the consequence or contributory cause of psychological disorders or both disorders share common antecedents and interactions. Psychiatric patients are motivated to quit and smoking cessation is not generally less effective with smokers with mental disorders than with mentally healthy individuals. Specific smoking cessation programs in the inpatient and outpatient settings are time-consuming and complex but effective. Within the framework of the current S3 guidelines the international evidence has been updated and transformed into treatment guidelines following an elaborate consensus process. Basically the same interventional measures should be used as with mentally healthy individuals; however, smokers with a psychological comorbidity often need more intensive adjuvant psychotherapeutic interventions and often need pharmaceutical support, (bupropion, varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy). Due to the overall unsatisfactory findings the treatment guidelines are partially based on clinical consensus decisions. In this field, a considerable need for research has been determined.

  10. Neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy: Role of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mazarati, Andrey M; Lewis, Megan L; Pittman, Quentin J

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a high incidence of comorbid neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the association of epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and depression. There is high concordance of these behavioral pathologies with epilepsy. We review data that unambiguously reveal that epilepsy, ASD, and depression are associated with elevated brain inflammatory markers and that these may interact with serotoninergic pathways. Interference with inflammatory pathways or actions can reduce the severity of seizures, depression, and ASD-like behavior. Inflammation in the brain can be induced by seizure activity as well as by behavioral, environmental, and physiologic stressors. Furthermore, induction of inflammation at an early time point during gestation and in early neonatal life can precipitate both an ASD-like phenotype as well as a more excitable brain. It appears likely that priming of the brain due to early inflammation could provide a means by which subsequent inflammatory processes associated with epilepsy, ASD, and depression may lead to comorbidity. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Bacterial flora in the sputum and comorbidity in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Boixeda, Ramon; Almagro, Pere; Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Recio, Jesús; Martin-Garrido, Isabel; Soriano, Joan B

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine in patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) the association between the isolation of potential pathogens in a conventional sputum culture and comorbidities. Patients and methods The ESMI study is a multicenter observational study. Patients with AE-COPD admitted to the Internal Medicine departments of 70 hospitals were included. The clinical characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities were gathered. The results of conventional sputum cultures were recorded. Results A total of 536 patients were included, of which 161 produced valid sputum and a potentially pathogenic microorganism was isolated from 88 subjects (16.4%). The isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.7%) was associated with a greater severity of the lung disease (previous admissions [P= 0.026], dyspnea scale [P=0.047], post-broncodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) [P=0.005], and the BODEx index [P=0.009]); also with higher prevalence of cor pulmonale (P=0.017), heart failure (P=0.048), and cerebrovascular disease (P=0.026). Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.1%) was associated with more comorbidity according to number of diseases (P=0.018); notably, peripheral artery disease (P=0.033), hypertension (P=0.029), dyslipidemia (P=0.039), osteoporosis (P=0.0001), and depression (P=0.005). Conclusion Patients with AE-COPD and P. aeruginosa present higher severity of COPD, while those with S. pneumoniae present greater comorbidity. The potentially pathogenic microorganism obtained in the sputum culture depends on the associated comorbidities. PMID:26664106

  12. Relationship Between Comorbid Conditions and Utilization Patterns of Immediate Breast Reconstruction Subtypes Post-mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Wenger, Julia; Guo, Lifei

    2016-05-01

    There is limited information on the influence of a patient's comorbid status on the type of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) selected. Our aim was to provide a population-based review of the relationship between baseline comorbid conditions and IBR subtype selected. This is a retrospective cohort study using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify IBR recipients. Multivariable regression analyses was performed to identify the association between comorbidity and IBR subtype selection (prosthetic, pedicled, and free autologous). A total of 48,096 mastectomy patients were identified, of which 17,404 patients received IBR. IBR patients were younger (51 ± 10.4 versus 61.5 ± 13.6 years) and had a lower body mass index (27.1 ± 6.4 versus 28.9 ± 7.3) relative to patients who did not pursue IBR (p < 0.001 for all). Overall, IBR patients had a significantly lower incidence of comorbid conditions. In adjusted models, patients aged 45-64 years were more likely to pursue pedicled-autologous reconstruction (OR: 1.43, p < 0.001) and those older than 65 years were less likely to undergo free-autologous reconstruction (OR: 0.64, p = 0.02). Class I and II obesity was associated with pedicled (class I OR: 1.57, class II OR: 1.41) and free transfer (class I OR: 1.81, class II OR: 1.66) autologous IBR utilization (all p < 0.001). Also, smoking was related to increased chance of prosthetic reconstruction while preoperative radiotherapy was linked to free-autologous IBR. IBR patients were noted to be healthier than their non-IBR counterparts, and each IBR subtype was associated with a particular comorbidity profile. This has significant implications with regard to creation of an IBR-predictive model. Such a tool will improve preoperative counseling and decision making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity in generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and their comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Wichmann, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Hilbert, Kevin; Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited. Alongside psychometric data, HCC (N = 43) and salivary cortisol stress reactivity in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 45) were determined. Findings revealed that MD patients exhibited lower HCC compared to controls and GAD patients, with no differences between the latter two groups. Interestingly, when the GAD group was separated into two groups based on MD comorbidity, lower HCC in MD patients were found compared to controls and GAD-noMD patients, but did not show differences when compared to GAD-MD patients. No HCC differences were seen between GAD-MD or GAD-noMD patients and healthy controls. No TSST group differences emerged. Our findings suggest MD to be related to long-term attenuation in cortisol secretion. While no group differences emerged between patients with GAD, neither with nor without MD, and controls, the current results provide tentative evidence that MD determines long-term endocrine changes, with pure GAD showing a distinct pattern. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in larger samples of pure and comorbid groups.

  14. Treatment costs related to bipolar disorder and comorbid conditions among Medicaid patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jeff J; Keck, Paul E; Li, Hong; Patel, Nick C

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed costs among patients with bipolar disorder for treatment related to bipolar disorder and to comorbid conditions. Risk factors associated with costs were also assessed. Data (January 1998 to December 2002) were from a seven-state Medicaid managed care claims database for 13,471 patients who had received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, most of whom received medications. Each medical claims cost was adjusted by the medical component of the Consumer Price Index as the dollar value in 2002. In a Poisson regression analysis, treatment costs per enrollment month were regressed on patient's age, gender, medications, and clinical comorbidities. Bipolar disorder treatment accounted for 30% of costs and comorbid disorders for 70%. Key cost components were inpatient care (35%), outpatient care (16%), prescriptions (13%), and physician encounters (11%). Patients with bipolar disorder received a variety of medications: lithium, 13%; anticonvulsants, 35%; second-generation antipsychotics, 24%; first-generation antipsychotics, 22%; and antidepressants, 42%. Compared with the costs for patients receiving antidepressants alone or no medication, the high costs for bipolar disorder treatment and overall treatment were associated with use of second-generation antipsychotics (rate ratio [RR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-1.86 and RR=1.26, CI=1.18-1.34, respectively) and use of anticonvulsants (RR=1.37, CI=1.26-1.48 and RR=1.06, CI=1.00-1.12). Higher costs were significantly associated with key comorbidities, such as drug abuse (RR=1.58, CI=1.47-1.70), cerebral-vascular disease (RR=1.72, CI=1.51-1.94), ischemic heart disease (RR=1.47, CI=1.30-1.66), and hypertension (RR=1.44, CI=1.33-1.56). Cost-containment efforts may need to manage or prevent key comorbidities among patients with bipolar disorder and to evaluate the association between antipsychotic use and treatment outcomes and hospital services.

  15. Psychiatric comorbidities in Asian adolescent asthma patients and the contributions of neuroticism and perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger; Lim, Tow Keang; Kuan, Win Sen; Goh, Daniel Yam Thiam; Mahadevan, Malcolm; Sim, Tiong Beng; Ng, Tze-Pin; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2014-08-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is reported to be common among adolescents with asthma, but little is known about its underlying psychological factors. This study explored the profile of anxiety and depressive comorbidities among adolescents with well-controlled and poorly controlled asthma and the contribution of neuroticism and perceived stress. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Neuroticism subscale of Big Five Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, and Asthma Control Test were administered to 198 adolescents (aged 12-19 years) with well-controlled (n = 137) and poorly controlled asthma (n = 61) as well as 171 healthy neighborhood controls. Adolescents with poorly controlled asthma, compared with well-controlled asthma patients and healthy controls, had higher scores of depression (p = .006), panic attacks (p = .002), total anxiety (p = .038), and total internalizing symptoms (p = .017), after adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and family housing type. Adolescents with asthma had higher neuroticism (p = .025), perceived stress (p = .022), and body mass index (p = .006) and lower self-rated health (p < .001) than healthy controls. No significant differences in psychiatric comorbidity scores were observed after accounting for differences in underlying psychological and physical factors. Among asthma patients, increased asthma control was associated with decreased scores of psychiatric comorbidity (p < .01), but the association was not significant after allowing for decreased neuroticism and perceived stress. The diagnosis of asthma and poor asthma control in adolescents is associated with excess psychiatric comorbidity, which is likely due to increased neuroticism and perceived stress. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of culture on pain comorbidity in women with and without temporomandibular disorder-pain.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthy, M; Michelotti, A; List, T; Ohrbach, R

    2017-02-28

    Evidence on cultural differences in prevalence and impact of common chronic pain conditions, comparing individuals with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) versus individuals without TMD, is limited. The aim was to assess cross-cultural comorbid pain conditions in women with chronic TMD pain. Consecutive women patients (n = 122) with the index condition of chronic TMD pain diagnosed per the research diagnostic criteria for TMD and TMD-free controls (n = 121) matched for age were recruited in Saudi Arabia, Italy and Sweden. Self-report questionnaires assessed back, chest, stomach and head pain for prevalence, pain intensity and interference with daily activities. Logistic regression was used for binary variables, and ancova was used for parametric data analysis, adjusting for age and education. Back pain was the only comorbid condition with a different prevalence across cultures; Swedes reported a lower prevalence compared to Saudis (P < 0·01). Saudis reported higher prevalence of work reduced >50% due to back pain compared to Italians or Swedes (P < 0·01). Headache was the most common comorbid condition in all three cultures. The total number of comorbid conditions did not differ cross-culturally but were reported more by TMD-pain cases than TMD-free controls (P < 0·01). For both back and head pain, higher average pain intensities (P < 0·01) and interference with daily activities (P < 0·01) were reported by TMD-pain cases, compared to TMD-free controls. Among TMD-pain cases, Italians reported the highest pain-related disability (P < 0·01). Culture influences the associated comorbidity of common pain conditions. The cultural influence on pain expression is reflected in different patterns of physical representation.

  17. Identification of disease comorbidity through hidden molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Younhee; Cho, Minah; Lee, Jin-Sung; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-01-01

    Despite multiple diseases co-occur, their underlying common molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Identification of comorbid diseases by considering the interactions between molecular components is a key to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we developed a novel approach utilizing both common disease-causing genes and underlying molecular pathways to identify comorbid diseases. Our approach enables the analysis of common pathologies shared by comorbid diseases through molecular interaction networks. We found that the integration of direct genetic sharing and indirect high-level molecular associations revealed significantly strong consistency with known comorbid diseases. In addition, neoplasm-related diseases showed high comorbidity patterns within themselves as well as with other diseases, indicating severe complications. This study demonstrated that molecular pathway information could be used to discover disease comorbidity and hidden biological mechanism to understand pathogenesis and provide new insight on disease pathology. PMID:27991583

  18. Handling clinical comorbidity in randomized clinical trials in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ruth; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Gould, Christine E; Froehlich, Wendy; Kraemer, Helena C

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to a) outline the importance of including patients with clinical comorbidities in Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) of psychiatric treatments; and b) to propose a specific approach for best handling, analyzing and interpreting the data on clinical comorbidities in terms of their impact on treatment outcomes. To do this we first define and describe clinical comorbidity and differentiate it from other forms of comorbidity. We then describe the methodological and analytical problems associated with excluding patients with clinically comorbid conditions from RCTs, including the impact on the outcomes of RCTs in psychiatry and the impact on evidence-based clinical decision-making. We then address the challenges inherent to including patients with clinical comorbidities in RCTs. Finally, we propose a methodological and analytic approach to deal with these issues in RCTs which aims to significantly improve the information yielded from RCTs in psychiatry, and thus improve clinical decision-making.

  19. [Health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Lehnert, T; Konnopka, A; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H

    2011-01-01

    Physical-mental comorbidity is often associated with worse clinical and psychosocial outcomes, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization. The following article is dedicated to the health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity. It presents basic theoretical and methodological aspects of cost-of-illness studies and economic evaluations related to physical-mental comorbidity, which are explained and discussed for the practical example of comorbid depression in diabetes mellitus. The results show that mental comorbidity in diabetes is associated with increased healthcare costs, which can in part be attributed to an increased somatic health service use. Appropriate interventions can lower these excess costs. Economic evaluations assessing the effectiveness of interventions for depressive diabetics have shown that overall health can be improved and costs saved. However, especially in health economics, mental comorbidity in somatic diseases has not been comprehensively investigated and further research is warranted.

  20. Current and new thinking in the management of comorbid insomnia.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, David N

    2009-02-01

    Insomnia occurs predominantly in conjunction with a medical or psychiatric illness. New thinking regarding the treatment of comorbid insomnia has moved the field away from practices that called for treating the comorbid condition to resolve the coexisting insomnia to one in which the insomnia is treated as a separate condition. Although 10 medications currently are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia, only 2, eszopiclone and zolpidem, have been evaluated for efficacy in patients with chronic comorbid insomnia. Studies suggest clear benefits in comorbid insomnia. Nonpharmacologic treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, and relaxation training, have also been investigated for comorbid insomnia, with studies suggesting these approaches may be effective either alone or in conjunction with medications. While behavioral issues should be optimized, clinicians need to customize treatments for patients with comorbid insomnia based on coexisting medical and psychiatric morbidities, age, medical history, current medications, and lifestyle issues.

  1. [Comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients treated with disease modifying drugs].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Z A; Sizyakina, L P; Belovolova, R A; Megeryan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Because of intensive growth of the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases (AID) during the last years, the comorbidity of MS and AID is not a rarity. In this literature review, the development of comorbid AID in patients with MS is considered to be the probable complication of disease modifying therapy with drugs of different groups. The authors present the own data on the prevalence of comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients with MS treated with disease modifying drugs.

  2. Adherence to Antihypertensives in Patients With Comorbid Condition

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Zahra; Nikdoust, Farahnaz; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Bahremand, Mostafa; Shobeiri, Elham; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharramzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity has been noted as a potential barrier to proper adherence to antihypertensive medications. Objectives: We decided to investigate whether comorbidity could significantly affect adherence of Iranian patients with hypertension to their medication regimen. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and eighty consecutive hypertensive patients were interviewed in 4 cities of Iran. The 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale (MMAS-8) (validated in Persian) was used to assess medication adherence. This scale determines adherence by scores as lower than 6 (low adherence), 6 or 7 (moderate adherence), and 8 (high adherence). Comorbidity was considered as any concomitant medical condition, which necessitates the patient to take medicine for a minimum of 6 months prior to the interviews. Results: The most common comorbid conditions were ischemic heart disease (65 patients, 23.2%), diabetes mellitus (55 patients, 19.6%), and dyslipidemia (51 patients, 18.2%). Mean (± SD) MMAS-8 score in comorbid group was 5.68 (± 1.85) and in non-comorbid hypertensive patients, it was 5.83 (± 1.91) (P = 0.631). Mean (± SD) number of comorbidities was 1.53 (± 0.75) in low adherence group compared to 1.54 (± 0.77) in moderate/high adherers (P = 0.98). With increasing the number of comorbid diseases, the proportion of patients with high adherence decreased successively from 20% in those with no comorbid disease to 14.1% in those with one or two comorbid conditions, and finally 11.1% in those with 3 to 5 comorbid conditions. Conclusions: With increasing the number of comorbid conditions, the proportion of patients with high adherence decreases. In our opinion, this finding is a useful clinical note for healthcare providers when managing patients with hypertension who have other medical problems at the same time. PMID:26539419

  3. Comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Daihui; JIANG, Kaida

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common in patients with bipolar disorders. This comorbid condition complicates the clinical treatment of the two disorders, so identifying these individuals is important. We discuss the comorbid occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, introduce possible etiological mechanisms that could result in this common comorbid condition, discuss recent research advances in the area, and propose some clinical principles for managing such patients. PMID:26549961

  4. Comorbidities predict worse prognosis in patients with primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Kate J.; Naqvi, Kiran; Nguyen, Khanh T.; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Tanaka, Maria Florencia; Pierce, Sherry; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Background Comorbidities have been shown to play an important role in prognostic assessment of several hematologic conditions; however, the role of comorbidities in primary myelofibrosis has not been studied. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of comorbidities in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27). Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, we evaluated 349 consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PMF who presented to our institution from 2000 to 2008. We evaluated the frequency and severity of comorbidities in these patients and assessed their impact on survival in a bivariable model that included the ACE-27 and Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) scores as covariates. Results Sixty-four percent of patients had at least one comorbid condition, and diseases of the cardiovascular system (63%) were most common. Comorbidities had a significant negative impact on survival (P < 0.001). Patients with severe comorbidities had twice the risk of death as those with no comorbidities. When stratified by demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities were significantly associated with worse survival in patients younger than 65 years (P < 0.001) and those with performance status < 1 (P < 0.001). In a multivariable model that included the ACE-27 and Dynamic-International Prognostic Scoring System scores, comorbidities retained a significant association with shorter survival (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions Assessment of comorbid conditions in patients with PMF, particularly those who are younger and with good performance status, has important implications for overall prognosis and treatment planning. PMID:24917509

  5. The Effects of Comorbidity and Age on RTOG Study Enrollment in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Are Eligible for RTOG Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Firat, Selim; Byhardt, Roger W.; Gore, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of measured comorbidity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) combined modality therapy (CMT) study enrollment in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-one patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score {>=}70 and clinical Stage III NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively for comorbidity, RTOG study eligibility, and enrollment at initial consultation. Effect of comorbidity scores (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) were tested on patient selection for CMT, RTOG enrollment, and overall survival. Results: Comorbidity (Grade 4; p < 0.005) and use of radiation only (p {<=} 0.001) were associated with inferior survival independent of other factors. Patient selection for CMT was affected by age ({>=}70, p < 0.001), comorbidity (severity index [SI]> 2, p = 0.001), and weight loss (>5%, p = 0.001). Thirty-three patients (19%) were enrolled in a CMT RTOG study (Group 1). Forty-nine patients (29%) were eligible but not enrolled (Group 2), and 57 (33%) were ineligible (Group 3). The most common ineligibility reasons were weight loss (67%) and comorbidity in the exclusion criteria of the RTOG studies (63%). Group 1 patients were the youngest (p = 0.02), with the lowest comorbidity scores (p < 0.001) and SI (p < 0.001) compared with Groups 2 and 3. Group 3 patients were the oldest with the most unfavorable comorbidity profile. Comorbidity scores (SI >2; p = 0.006) and age ({>=}70; p = 0.05) were independent factors influencing RTOG study enrollment in patients meeting study eligibility requirements (Groups 1 and 2). Conclusions: Comorbidity scales could be useful in stratification of patients in advanced lung cancer trials and interpretation of results particularly regarding the elderly population.

  6. Validated questionnaires heighten detection of difficult asthma comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Tay, Tunn Ren; Hore-Lacy, Fiona; Stirling, Robert; Hoy, Ryan; Dabscheck, Eli; Hew, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Multiple extra-pulmonary comorbidities contribute to difficult asthma, but their diagnosis can be challenging and time consuming. Previous data on comorbidity detection have focused on clinical assessment, which may miss certain conditions. We aimed to locate relevant validated screening questionnaires to identify extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma, and evaluate their performance during a difficult asthma evaluation. MEDLINE was searched to identify key extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma. Screening questionnaires were chosen based on ease of use, presence of a cut-off score, and adequate validation to help systematically identify comorbidities. In a consecutive series of 86 patients referred for systematic evaluation of difficult asthma, questionnaires were administered prior to clinical consultation. Six difficult asthma comorbidities and corresponding screening questionnaires were found: sinonasal disease (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis), vocal cord dysfunction, dysfunctional breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, anxiety and depression, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. When the questionnaires were added to the referring clinician's impression, the detection of all six comorbidities was significantly enhanced. The average time for questionnaire administration was approximately 40 minutes. The use of validated screening questionnaires heightens detection of comorbidities in difficult asthma. The availability of data from a battery of questionnaires prior to consultation can save time and allow clinicians to systematically assess difficult asthma patients and to focus on areas of particular concern. Such an approach would ensure that all contributing comorbidities have been addressed before significant treatment escalation is considered.

  7. The challenge of comorbidity in clinical trials for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron; Sormani, Maria Pia; Thompson, Alan; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Trojano, Maria; O'Connor, Paul; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to provide recommendations for addressing comorbidity in clinical trial design and conduct in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We held an international workshop, informed by a systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in MS and an international survey about research priorities for studying comorbidity including their relation to clinical trials in MS. Results: We recommend establishing age- and sex-specific incidence estimates for comorbidities in the MS population, including those that commonly raise concern in clinical trials of immunomodulatory agents; shifting phase III clinical trials of new therapies from explanatory to more pragmatic trials; describing comorbidity status of the enrolled population in publications reporting clinical trials; evaluating treatment response, tolerability, and safety in clinical trials according to comorbidity status; and considering comorbidity status in the design of pharmacovigilance strategies. Conclusion: Our recommendations will help address knowledge gaps regarding comorbidity that interfere with the ability to interpret safety in monitored trials and will enhance the generalizability of findings from clinical trials to “real world” settings where the MS population commonly has comorbid conditions. PMID:26888986

  8. Comorbidities of Psoriasis - Exploring the Links by Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing epidemiological studies in patients with psoriasis report the frequent occurrence of one or more associated disorders. Psoriasis is associated with multiple comorbidities including autoimmune disease, neurological disorders, cardiometabolic diseases and inflammatory-bowel disease. An integrated system biology approach is utilized to decipher the molecular alliance of psoriasis with its comorbidities. An unbiased integrative network medicine methodology is adopted for the investigation of diseasome, biological process and pathways of five most common psoriasis associated comorbidities. A significant overlap was observed between genes acting in similar direction in psoriasis and its comorbidities proving the mandatory occurrence of either one of its comorbidities. The biological processes involved in inflammatory response and cell signaling formed a common basis between psoriasis and its associated comorbidities. The pathway analysis revealed the presence of few common pathways such as angiogenesis and few uncommon pathways which includes CCKR signaling map and gonadotrophin-realising hormone receptor pathway overlapping in all the comorbidities. The work shed light on few common genes and pathways that were previously overlooked. These fruitful targets may serve as a starting point for diagnosis and/or treatment of psoriasis comorbidities. The current research provides an evidence for the existence of shared component hypothesis between psoriasis and its comorbidities.

  9. Comorbidities of Psoriasis - Exploring the Links by Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing epidemiological studies in patients with psoriasis report the frequent occurrence of one or more associated disorders. Psoriasis is associated with multiple comorbidities including autoimmune disease, neurological disorders, cardiometabolic diseases and inflammatory-bowel disease. An integrated system biology approach is utilized to decipher the molecular alliance of psoriasis with its comorbidities. An unbiased integrative network medicine methodology is adopted for the investigation of diseasome, biological process and pathways of five most common psoriasis associated comorbidities. A significant overlap was observed between genes acting in similar direction in psoriasis and its comorbidities proving the mandatory occurrence of either one of its comorbidities. The biological processes involved in inflammatory response and cell signaling formed a common basis between psoriasis and its associated comorbidities. The pathway analysis revealed the presence of few common pathways such as angiogenesis and few uncommon pathways which includes CCKR signaling map and gonadotrophin-realising hormone receptor pathway overlapping in all the comorbidities. The work shed light on few common genes and pathways that were previously overlooked. These fruitful targets may serve as a starting point for diagnosis and/or treatment of psoriasis comorbidities. The current research provides an evidence for the existence of shared component hypothesis between psoriasis and its comorbidities. PMID:26966903

  10. Predicting Comorbid Conditions and Trajectories using Social Health Records.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James

    2016-05-05

    Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.

  11. Major depression in panic disorder patients with comorbid social phobia.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S R; Otto, M W; Pollack, M H; Rosenbaum, J F

    1991-07-01

    Rates of depression among panic disorder patients are particularly elevated in patients with comorbid social phobia. However, it is unclear whether this association is specific to social phobia, or whether any comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of depression. We assessed 100 panic disorder patients and found a significantly higher incidence of lifetime major depression for panic patients with comorbid social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Panic patients with comorbid social phobia had significantly higher scores on measures of dysfunctional attitudes and lower scores on measures of assertiveness; these variables may mediate the link between social phobia and depression in this population.

  12. Women's Perceptions Regarding Obesity and Comorbidities and Provider Interaction.

    PubMed

    Goldkamp, Jennifer; Anderson, Sara; Lifits-Podorozhansky, Yulia; Gavard, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    To assess women's perceptions of current body mass index (BMI) category, evaluate their knowledge of medical and surgical conditions associated with obesity, and assess their previous exposure to counseling on obesity. Questionnaire-based survey. Gynecology clinics in a large midwestern city. Non-pregnant women age 18 to 65 years. Descriptive design with distribution of anonymous questionnaires pertaining to demographics, current medical conditions, perceived weight, medical conditions associated with obesity, surgical complications from obesity, and previous weight loss counseling. All data were analyzed using chi-squared tests, and statistical significance was set at a p value of <.05. The majority of the sample (65%) was overweight or obese, and 44% of participants underestimated their BMI categories. The relationship of perceived versus actual BMI differed significantly by race (p < .001), income (p < .05), and education (p < .05); African American women and women with less education tended to underestimate their BMI categories. Increasing actual BMI was inversely correlated with the ability to identify obesity as a risk factor for medical conditions (p < .01). Only 43% of participants discussed their weight or related concerns with medical professionals. A significant number of participants were unaware of their BMI status as well as the relationship between obesity and other comorbidities. Counseling and patient education efforts by health care providers are essential. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Obesity, insulin resistance and comorbidities – Mechanisms of association

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ana Valeria B.; Kolka, Cathryn M.; Kim, Stella P.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Overall excess of fat, usually defined by the body mass index, is associated with metabolic (e.g. glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia) and non-metabolic disorders (e.g. neoplasias, polycystic ovary syndrome, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, glomerulopathy, bone fragility etc.). However, more than its total amount, the distribution of adipose tissue throughout the body is a better predictor of the risk to the development of those disorders. Fat accumulation in the abdominal area and in non-adipose tissue (ectopic fat), for example, is associated with increased risk to develop metabolic and non-metabolic derangements. On the other hand, observations suggest that individuals who present peripheral adiposity, characterized by large hip and thigh circumferences, have better glucose tolerance, reduced incidence of T2DM and of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the main culprits in the association between obesity, particularly visceral, and metabolic as well as non-metabolic diseases. In this review we will highlight the current pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms possibly involved in the link between increased VAT, ectopic fat, IR and comorbidities. We will also provide some insights in the identification of these abnormalities. PMID:25211442

  14. Severe Obesity and Comorbid Condition Impact on the Weight-Related Quality of Life of the Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Meg H.; Inge, Thomas H.; Modi, Avani C.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Helmrath, Michael; Courcoulas, Anita; Harmon, Carroll M.; Rofey, Dana; Baughcum, Amy; Austin, Heather; Price, Karin; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Brandt, Mary L.; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess links between comorbid health status, severe excess weight, and weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) in adolescents with severe obesity and undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) to inform clinical care. Study design Baseline (pre-operative) data from Teen-LABS, a prospective multicenter observational study of 242 adolescents with severe obesity (MdnBMI = 50.5 kg/m2; Mage=17.1; 75.6% female; 71.9% White) undergoing WLS, were utilized to examine the impact of demographics, body mass index (BMI), presence/absence of 16 comorbid conditions, and a cumulative comorbidity load (CLoad) index on WRQOL scores (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids; IWQOL-Kids). Results WRQOL was significantly lower than reference samples of healthy weight, overweight, and obese samples. Of 16 comorbid conditions, the most prevalent were dyslipidemia (74.4%), chronic pain (58.3%), and obstructive sleep apnea (56.6%). Males had a higher CLoad (p=.01) and BMI (p=.01), yet less impairment in total WRQOL (p<.01) than females. CLoad was a significant predictor of male WRQOL. For females, psychosocial (versus physical) comorbidities, BMI, and White race were significant predictors of WRQOL impairment. Less prevalent conditions (e.g., stress urinary incontinence) also emerged as contributors to lower WRQOL. Conclusions WRQOL impairment is substantial for adolescents with severe obesity undergoing WLS, with predictors varying by sex. These patient-data highlight targets for education, support, and adjunctive care referrals prior to WLS. Further, they provide a comprehensive empirical base for understanding heterogeneity in adolescent WRQOL outcomes following WLS, as weight and comorbidity profiles change over time. PMID:25556022

  15. Identifying Performance Gaps in Comorbidity and Risk Factor Screening, Prevention, and Counseling Behaviors of Providers Caring for Children with Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Swary, Jillian H; Stratman, Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities and risk factors are associated with pediatric psoriasis. It is unknown whether pediatricians and dermatologists ask about, record, or counsel on pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities. The aim of our study was to assess the rate at which pediatricians and dermatologists inquire about, counsel on, and document pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities in a stable population. This was a retrospective chart review from 2011 to 2013 in a large, rural multidisciplinary clinic, the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. Participants were children ages 18 years and younger with plaque psoriasis. Rates of counseling and screening for pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities by pediatricians and dermatologists were determined. Thirty patients qualified for the study. Data were collected on body mass index (BMI) and tobacco exposure. Caregiver counseling rates on these factors were low; 66.7% and 60% did not receive counseling on BMI reduction or family member smoking cessation, respectively. Counseling on stress as a risk factor was performed at only one patient's dermatology visit (3.3%). Lipid panels were collected for 40% of patients and fasting glucose levels for 33.3% since the date of first psoriasis diagnosis. Blood pressure was collected for all patients. Only 13.3% of patients were counseled on the psoriasis comorbidity hyperlipidemia, 10% on hypertension, and 3.3% on diabetes mellitus. Dermatologists and pediatricians have a low rate of counseling, documenting, and screening for pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities, suggesting that psoriasis comorbidity education is an aspect of the patient visit that may need improvement. Pediatric psoriasis counseling and screening guidelines are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Corchs, Felipe; Mercante, Juliane P P; Guendler, Vera Z; Vieira, Domingos S; Masruha, Marcelo R; Moreira, Frederico R; Bernik, Marcio; Zukerman, Eliova; Peres, Mario F P

    2006-12-01

    Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.

  17. Senescence in COPD and Its Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2017-02-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is regarded as a disease of accelerated lung aging. This affliction shows all of the hallmarks of aging, including telomere shortening, cellular senescence, activation of PI3 kinase-mTOR signaling, impaired autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, stem cell exhaustion, epigenetic changes, abnormal microRNA profiles, immunosenescence, and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging). Many of these pathways are driven by chronic exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress. There is also a reduction in antiaging molecules, such as sirtuins and Klotho, which further accelerate the aging process. COPD is associated with several comorbidities (multimorbidity), such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, that share the same pathways of accelerated aging. Understanding these mechanisms has helped identify several novel therapeutic targets, and several drugs and dietary interventions are now in development to treat multimorbidity.

  18. Childhood maltreatment, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate or tolerate negative emotional states, has been associated with interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress. Affect-regulation difficulties play a role in many psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders, and especially major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span. Exposure to traumatic events and interpersonal trauma in childhood is associated with wide-ranging psychosocial, developmental, and medical impairments in children, adolescents, and adults, with emotional dysregulation being a core feature that may help to account for this heightened risk. In order to understand how the developmental effects of childhood maltreatment contribute to emotional dysregulation and psychiatric sequelae, we review emotional regulation and its developmental neurobiology, and examine the research evidence of associations between childhood trauma, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric comorbidities in children, adolescents, and adults.

  19. Conversion Disorder Comorbidity and Childhood Trauma.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Fatma; Gökalp, Peykan G; Erdiman, Sezgin; Oflaz, Serap; Karşidağ, Çağatay

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the presence of comorbidity, and the link with childhood traumatic experiences in patients with conversion disorder (CD) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. A total of 60 literate, female patients between 18 and 65 years of age who were referred to the general psychiatry outpatient clinic and who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were included in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Dissociative Events Scale (DES) were used to assess the cases. The mean age of the participants was 36.27±11.18 years. 72% of the patients were married and 63% were primary school graduates. The most common symptoms were asthenia (100%), aphasia (96.7%), and crying-convulsions (93%). The most common co-morbidities were depression (50%) and dissociative disorders (48.3%). Among the patients, 53.3% reported a history of exposure to physical violence and 25% reported a history of sexual assault in childhood. Assessment of the Childhood Traumatic Questionnaire revealed a significant positive relation between emotional, physical, and sexual abuse scores and DES score. CD has not yet been fully analyzed in detail in health institutions; co-existence of another mental disorder and the presence of traumatic experiences in the past further complicate the issue. Consideration of these factors during treatment will have a positive impact on the course and prognosis of the disorder.

  20. Migraine and Stroke: “Vascular” Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Donata; Rota, Eugenia; Morelli, Nicola; Immovilli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Several comorbidities are associated to migraine. Recent meta-analyses have consistently demonstrated a relationship between migraine and stroke, which is well-defined for ischemic stroke and migraine with aura (MA), even stronger in females on oral contraceptives or smokers. However, there seems to be no clear-cut association between stroke in migraineurs and the common vascular risk factors, at least in the young adult population. Migraineurs also run an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, while the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease remains poorly defined. Another aspect is the relationship between migraine and the presence of silent brain lesions. It has been demonstrated that there is an increased frequency of ischemic lesions in the white matter of migraineurs, especially silent infarcts in the posterior circulation territory in patients with at least 10 attacks per month. Although there is a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in migraineurs, the relationship between migraine and PFO remains controversial and PFO closure is not a recommended procedure to prevent migraine. As an increased frequency of cervical artery dissections has been observed in migrainous patients, it has been hypothesized that migraine may represent a predisposing factor for cervical artery dissection. There still remains the question as to whether migraine should be considered a true “vascular disease” or if the comorbidity between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may have underlying shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms. Although further studies are required to clarify this issue, current evidence supports a clinical management where MA patients should be screened for other concomitant vascular risk factors and treated accordingly. PMID:25339937

  1. Comorbidity headache and epilepsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Yamane, L E; Montenegro, M A; Guerreiro, M M

    2004-04-01

    Epilepsy and headache are both frequent in childhood. Because seizures are frequently a frightening event, other medical conditions--including headache--are often neglected not only by the patient, but also by the physician. The objective of this study was to verify the comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in childhood. This was a prospective study conducted at the pediatric epilepsy clinic of our university hospital. Fifty children with epilepsy and ability to describe their symptoms, between 5 and 18 years old, were interviewed according to a semi-structured questionnaire. The headache was classified according to the International Headache Society. The frequency of headache was compared with the findings of a control group composed by children without epilepsy, siblings of children with epilepsy. Fifty children were evaluated, 29 boys, mean age 11 years. Twenty-three (46 %) patients presented with headache, as opposed to only 1 (2.5 %) in the control group ( p < 0.01). Ten (43.5 %) had migraine, 4 (17.4 %) had tension type headache and in 9 (39.1 %) the type of headache could not be established. In 9/23 (39 %) a temporal relationship between headache and epilepsy was present, 6 postictal and 3 preictal. There was no difference in gender, age, type of seizure and family history of headache in the groups of patients with or without headache. However, most patients with headache were older than 10 years (54.5 %) and had idiopathic epilepsy (65.2 %; p < 0.01). The headache usually started in the same year or after the diagnosis of epilepsy (95 %; p < 0.01). Headache and epilepsy are a common comorbidity in childhood, and occur mostly in children older than 10 years with idiopathic epilepsy. The headache usually starts in the same year or after the diagnosis of epilepsy.

  2. Comorbidities and Crash Involvement among Younger and Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Michela; Boccardi, Virginia; Prestano, Raffaele; Angellotti, Edith; Desiderio, Manuela; Marano, Luigi; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies identified comorbidities as predictors of older driver performance and driving pattern, while the direct impact of comorbidities on road crash risk in elderly drivers is still unknown. The present study is a cross-sectional aimed at investigating the association between levels of comorbidity and crash involvement in adult and elderly drivers. 327 drivers were stratified according to age range in two groups: elderly drivers (age ≥70 years old, referred as older) and adult drivers (age <70 years old, referred as younger). Driving information was obtained through a driving questionnaire. Distance traveled was categorized into low, medium and high on the basis of kilometers driven in a year. CIRS-illness severity (IS) and CIRS-comorbidity indices (CI) in all populations were calculated. Older drivers had a significantly higher crash involvements rate (p = .045) compared with the younger group based on the number of licensed drivers. Dividing comorbidity indices into tertiles among all licensed subjects, the number of current drivers significantly decreased (p<.0001) with increasing level of comorbidity. The number of current drivers among older subjects significantly decreased with increasing comorbidity level (p = .026) while no difference among younger group was found (p = .462). Among younger drivers with increasing comorbidity level, the number of road accidents significantly increased (p = .048) and the logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity level significantly associated with crash involvement independent of gender and driving exposure. Older subjects with high level of comorbidity are able to self-regulate driving while comorbidity burden represents a significant risk factor for crash involvements among younger drivers. PMID:24722619

  3. Incremental Hospital Costs Associated With Comorbidities of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Black, Libby; Hulsey, Thomas; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel C; Ebeling, Myla D

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) of less than 37 weeks, is associated with increased hospital costs. Lower GA at birth is negatively correlated with the presence of neonatal comorbidities, further increasing costs. This study evaluated incremental costs associated with comorbidities of PTB following spontaneous labor at 24-36 weeks. Birth records from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina were screened to identify infants born at GA 23-37 weeks after uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and surviving to discharge. Comorbidities of interest and incremental costs were analyzed with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model adjusted for comorbidities and GA. Incremental comorbidity-associated costs, as well as total costs, were estimated for infants of GA 24-36 weeks. A total of 4,292 delivery visit records were analyzed. Use of the PLS regression model eliminated issues of multicollinearity and allowed derivation of stable cost estimates. Incremental costs of comorbidities at a mean GA of 34 weeks ranged from $4,529 to $23,121, and exceeded $9,000 in 6 cases. Incremental costs rangedfrom a high of $41,161 for a GA 24-week infant with a comorbidity of retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery (ROP4) to $3,683 for a GA 36-week infant with a comorbidity of convulsions. Incremental comorbidity costs are additive, so the costs for infants with multiple comorbidities could easily exceed the high of $41,161 seen with ROP4. The PLS regression model allowed derivation of stable cost estimates from multivariate and highly collinear data and can be used in future cost analyses. Using this data set, predicted costs of all comorbidities, as well as total costs, negatively correlated with GA at birth.

  4. WONOEP appraisal: Biomarkers of epilepsy-associated comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Teresa; Onat, Filiz Y; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Depaulis, Antoine; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Mazarati, Andrey; Numis, Adam L; Sankar, Raman; Friedman, Alon

    2017-03-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. Diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of such comorbidities do not exist. They may share pathogenetic mechanisms with epileptogenesis/ictogenesis, and as such are an unmet clinical need. The objectives of the subgroup on biomarkers of comorbidities at the XIII Workshop on the Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP) were to present the state-of-the-art recent research findings in the field that highlighting potential biomarkers for comorbidities in epilepsy. We review recent progress in the field, including molecular, imaging, and genetic biomarkers of comorbidities as discussed during the WONOEP meeting on August 31-September 4, 2015, in Heybeliada Island (Istanbul, Turkey). We further highlight new directions and concepts from studies on comorbidities and potential new biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of epilepsy-associated comorbidities. The activation of various molecular signaling pathways such as the "Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription," "mammalian Target of Rapamycin," and oxidative stress have been shown to correlate with the presence and severity of subsequent cognitive abnormalities. Furthermore, dysfunction in serotonergic transmission, hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, the role of the inflammatory cytokines, and the contributions of genetic factors have all recently been regarded as relevant for understanding epilepsy-associated depression and cognitive deficits. Recent evidence supports the utility of imaging studies as potential biomarkers. The role of such biomarker may be far beyond the diagnosis of comorbidities, as accumulating clinical data indicate that comorbidities can predict epilepsy outcomes. Future research is required to reveal whether molecular changes in specific signaling pathways or advanced imaging techniques could be detected in the clinical settings and correlate

  5. The comorbidity of ADHD and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Zhang-James, Yanli; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-10-01

    ADHD and autism spectrum disorder are common psychiatric comorbidities to each another. In addition, there is behavioral, biological and neuropsychological overlap between the two disorders. There are also several important differences between autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Treatment strategies for the comorbid condition will also be reviewed. Future areas of research and clinical need will be discussed.

  6. Book Review: ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical Assessment and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews "ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical Assessment and Management" by Steven R. Pliszka, Caryn L. Carlson, and James M. Swanson, a book that provides information on children displaying both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other comorbid psychiatric conditions, complex psychopharmacological interventions that may…

  7. ADHD with Comorbid Anxiety: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, David Beck; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective/Method: ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with rates approaching 25% in many samples. This current review's goal is to examine the literature on ADHD with comorbid anxiety from 1998 to the present. Results: Recent studies indicate that anxiety in ADHD may a) partially inhibit the impulsivity and response inhibition deficits,…

  8. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  9. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  10. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  11. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  12. Impact of Comorbidity in Prevention of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possel, Patrick; Seemann, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Despite the well-known relevance of comorbidity, few studies have examined the impact of comorbid anxiety or externalizing symptoms on the prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents. To replicate earlier positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program of depressive symptoms and to test the hypothesis that the prevention program…

  13. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  14. ADHD with Comorbid Anxiety: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, David Beck; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective/Method: ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with rates approaching 25% in many samples. This current review's goal is to examine the literature on ADHD with comorbid anxiety from 1998 to the present. Results: Recent studies indicate that anxiety in ADHD may a) partially inhibit the impulsivity and response inhibition deficits,…

  15. Comorbidity and Risk Behaviors among Drug Users Not in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Wells, Rebecca S.; Theno, Shelley A.; Fisher, Dennis G.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 700 drug users, 64% evidenced comorbidity (i.e., coexisting substance use and psychiatric disorders). Robust relationships between the presence of comorbidity and increased levels of risk behavior, such as needle sharing and trading sex for money, were revealed. (Contains 44 references and 2 tables.) (Author)

  16. Comorbidity among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilkerton, Courtney S.

    2011-01-01

    Comorbidity is a growing challenge and the older adult population is most at risk of developing comorbid conditions. Comorbidity is associated with increased risk of mortality, increased hospitalizations, increased doctor visits, increased prescription medications, nursing home placement, poorer mental health, and physical disability. American Indians experience some of the highest rates of chronic conditions, but to date there have been only two published studies on the subject of comorbidity in this population. With a community-based sample of 505 American Indians aged 55 years or older, this study identified the most prevalent chronic conditions, described comorbidity, and identified socio-demographic, functional limitations, and psychosocial correlates of comorbidity. Results indicated that older American Indians experience higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, back pain, and vision loss compared to national statistics of older adults. Two-thirds of the sample experienced some degree of comorbidity according to the scale used. Older age, poorer physical functioning, more depressive symptomatology, and lower personal mastery were all correlates of higher comorbidity scores. Despite medical advances increasing life expectancy, morbidity and mortality statistics suggest that the health of older American Indians lags behind the majority population. These findings highlight the importance of supporting chronic care and management services for the older American Indian population. PMID:20532973

  17. Recommendations for observational studies of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron; Sormani, Maria Pia; Thompson, Alan; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Trojano, Maria; O'Connor, Paul; Fiest, Kirsten; Reider, Nadia; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To reach consensus about the most relevant comorbidities to study in multiple sclerosis (MS) with respect to incidence, prevalence, and effect on outcomes; review datasets that may support studies of comorbidity in MS; and identify MS outcomes that should be prioritized in such studies. Methods: We held an international workshop to meet these objectives, informed by a systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in MS, and an international survey regarding research priorities for comorbidity. Results: We recommend establishing age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence estimates for 5 comorbidities (depression, anxiety, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes); evaluating the effect of 7 comorbidities (depression, anxiety, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic lung disease, and autoimmune diseases) on disability, quality of life, brain atrophy and other imaging parameters, health care utilization, employment, and mortality, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disease duration as potential confounders; harmonizing study designs across jurisdictions; and conducting such studies worldwide. Ultimately, clinical trials of treating comorbidity in MS are needed. Conclusion: Our recommendations will help address knowledge gaps regarding the incidence, prevalence, and effect of comorbidity on outcomes in MS. PMID:26865523

  18. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  19. ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical Assessment and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliszka, Steven R.; Carlson, Caryn L.; Swanson, James M.

    This book is designed to help clinicians assess and treat children or adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder who also present other disabilities. Major comorbidities are described in depth and empirically grounded guidelines are presented for evaluation and treatment. Part 1 provides an overview of issues in comorbidity,…

  20. Does Comorbidity Matter in Body Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel; Redden, Sarah A.; Curley, Erin; Odlaug, Brian L.; Keuthen, Nancy J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania (TTM) and skin picking disorder (SPD) have been characterized as Body Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders (BFRBs). Because BFRBs frequently co-occur, we sought to discover the similarities and differences between having both TTM and SPD as opposed to just one. Methods 421 participants with primary TTM were evaluated regarding the comorbidity of SPD and 124 were participants with primary SPD were evaluated regarding the comorbidity of TTM. The effects of comorbid overlap on demographic and clinical measures were evaluated. Results Of the 421 participants with primary TTM, 61 (14.5%) had co-occurring SPD. Of 124 adults with primary SPD, 21 (16.9%) had comorbid TTM. Those with primary TTM and comorbid SPD had significantly more severe trichotillomania symptoms and were more likely to have major depressive disorder than those with TTM alone. Those with primary of SPD and comorbid TTM reported significantly more severe skin picking symptoms than those who only had SPD. Conclusions Individuals with co-occurring TTM and SPD may have more problematic hair pulling or skin picking symptoms. Hair pullers with comorbid SPD were more likely to have comorbid depression. Evaluating people for multiple BFRBs may be important to assess severity of symptoms and may have treatment implications. PMID:27490833

  1. Comorbidity of schizophrenia and infection: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Agerbo, Esben

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that there is an overlap between infection and schizophrenia. Infections have been identified as a risk factor for schizophrenia, but the possible overlap between schizophrenia and infections remains unidentified so far. Here, we describe the use of the comorbidity index, a method for objectively integrating associations into a single measure estimating overlap. Data were drawn from three population-based registers, the Civil Registration Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. We selected a cohort of 1,403,183 persons born in Denmark 1977-2002. Our results indicate that persons who have had a hospital contact with an infection (IRR 1.53, CI 1.46-1.61) are more likely to develop schizophrenia than persons who have not had such a contact. Persons who have had a diagnosis with schizophrenia are more likely to have had a hospital contact with an infection (IRR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.57-1.91) than persons who have had no schizophrenia diagnosis. A comorbidity index of 1.40 (95 % CI 1.34-1.46) was found, indicating an overlap between schizophrenia and infection. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia and infections overlap and that they share risk factors. The comorbidity index showed that the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and infection was 40 % higher than if the two disorders had occurred independently. Although the incidence of schizophrenia and infection was associated with each factor, the overlap could not be explained by urbanicity, parental history of psychiatric admission and infection.

  2. Oral infections, comorbidities and sensory evidences in elderly: Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nathalia Santos Viana; da Silva, Luciana Alvarenga; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de

    2017-11-01

    Oral infections affect the general health and overlap with chronic diseases due to infectious-immune mechanisms. On the other side, sensory abnormalities may be symptoms of this association. To evaluate the prevalence of oral infections, comorbidities, health parameters and sensory abnormalities in elderly patients. Thirty (30) elderly with mean age 70.4 yo, distributed according to ages were evaluated with a protocol that included demographics, comorbidities, medications, laboratory tests, blood pressure, heart rate, mini-mental state examination, clinical oral evaluation and systematized sensory testing (gustative, olfactory, thermal, mechanical and pain thresholds). Data were tabled and statistically analyzed. Twenty-three (76.6%) subjects had chronic diseases that increased according to the age. Seventeen (56.7%) elderly were having medication. Mean probing pocket depth was 1.90mm±0.39mm, mean clinical attachment level was 0.76mm±0.54mm and mean gingival bleeding index was 29.10%±29.05%. All periodontal indexes increased with age (p <0.05) and were associated with comorbidities and use of medication. Patients with chronic diseases had more numbness and pricking sensations (p=0.031; p=0.000). Main sensory findings were: abnormal gustative and vibratory thresholds, which were associated with hematological parameters (blood count, cholesterol levels and glycaemia). Periodontal parameters were associated with facial cold threshold (p=0.000). This study showed an association between systemic diseases, periodontal indexes and sensory thresholds. Sensory findings were associated with blood parameters and are potential tools for periodical health evaluation. Inflammatory or neural mechanisms need further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity: Clinical Assessment and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pallanti, Stefano; Grassi, Giacomo; Sarrecchia, Elisa Dinah; Cantisani, Andrea; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1–3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on comorbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome. PMID:22203806

  4. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  5. Adaptation of the Palliative Prognostic Index in patients with advanced medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Nieto Martín, M D; Bernabeu Wittel, M; de la Higuera Vila, L; Mora Rufete, A; Barón Franco, B; Ollero Baturone, M

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the accuracy of the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI) in patients with advanced medical diseases and to recalibrate it in order to adapt it to the profile of these patients. Multicenter, prospective, observational study that included patients with one or more advanced medical diseases. Calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit) and discriminative power (ROC and area under the curve [AUC]) of PPI were analyzed in the prediction of mortality at 180 days. Recalibration was carried out by analyzing the scores on the PPI of each quartile upward of dying probability. Accuracy of PPI was compared with that obtained for the Charlson index. Overall mortality of the 1.788 patients was 37.5%. Calibration in the prediction of mortality was good (goodness of fit with P=.21), the prognostic probabilities ranging from 0-0,25 in the first quartile of risk and from 0,48-0,8 in the last quartile. Discriminative power was acceptable (AUC=69; P=.0001). In recalibrated groups, mortality of patients with 0/1-2/2.5-9.5/≥10 points was 13, 23, 39 and 68%, respectively. Sensitivity (S) and negative predicative value (NPF) of the cutoff point above 0 points were 96 and 87%, respectively; while specificity (sp) and positive predictive value (PPV) of the cutoff point above 9.5 points were 95 and 68%. Calibration of the Charlson index was good (P=.2), and its discriminative power (AUC=.52; P=.06) was suboptimal. PPI can be a useful tool in predicting 6-month survival of patients with advanced medical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. [Clinical application of adult comorbidity evaluation-27 in endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Tian, W Y; Wang, Y M; Yan, Y; Gao, J P; Sun, D D; Jiang, S; Sheng, Y; Teng, F; Xue, F X

    2016-11-25

    Objective: To investigate the significant role of the clinical application of adult comorbidity evaluation-27 (ACE-27) in endometrial cancer (EC). Methods: A total of 847 EC patients were included during Jan. 1985 to Dec. 2015 from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. The clinical data of the patients were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All of the patients were received operation with no chemotherapy and radiotherapy before operation. The average age was 57.6 years old (range from 25 to 85 years old). The average follow-up period was 59.0 months (range from 2 to 312 months). The comorbidity of the patients was evaluated by ACE-27. EC patients survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The relationship between the prognosis of EC and ACE-27, age, body mass index (BMI) , pathological characteristic were showed by Cox modeling. Results: (1) The patient number of score 0, 1, 2 and 3 of ACE-27 in EC patients were respectively 311 (36.7%), 263 (31.1%), 132 (15.6%) and 141 (16.6%) cases. (2) Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that overall survival time of EC patients was gradually decreased as increased score of ACE-27 (χ(2)=19.003, P=0.000) . In the patients of BMI<25 kg/m(2) and BMI 25-<30 kg/m(2), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage Ⅰ, endometrial adenocarcinoma type and the overall survival time of those EC patients were gradually decreased as increased score of ACE-27 (P<0.05) . However, there was no statistically significant difference in overall survival time for patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2), FIGO stage with Ⅱ-Ⅳand non-endometrial adenocarcinoma type (P>0.05). Per unvariate logistic modeling showed that the risk of death in score 3 of ACE-27 was increased compared with score 0 of ACE-27 (OR=2.53, P=0.000) . The overall survival time in EC patients with aged 50-59, 60-69 and ≥70 years old, BMI 25-<30 kg/m(2) and ≥ 30 kg/m(2), G3, FIGO stage Ⅱ-Ⅳ and non-endometrial adenocarcinoma

  7. Diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hapunda, G; Abubakar, A; Pouwer, F; van de Vijver, F

    2015-06-01

    To replicate, in Zambia, a recent global study by the WHO, which reported that the odds of depression were not increased in African people with diabetes, and to explore the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with depression. A total of 773 control subjects and 157 Zambian patients with diabetes completed the Major Depression Inventory and a list of demographic indicators. Compared with control subjects (mean ± sd Major Depression Inventory score 15.10 ± 9.19), depressive symptoms were significantly more common in patients with diabetes (mean ± sd Major Depression Inventory score 19.12 ± 8.95; P < 0.001). ancova showed that having diabetes [F(1,698) = 16.50, P < 0.001], being female [F(1,698) = 7.35, P < 0.01] and having low socio-economic status (F(1,698) = 13.35, P < 0.001) were positive predictors of depression. Contrary to the WHO study, we found that depression was a common comorbid health problem among Zambian people with diabetes. Clinicians should consider patients' health status, sex and socio-economic status as potential factors predicting depression. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  9. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  10. Comorbidity of personality disorders with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Mellos, Eleftherios; Liappas, Ioannis; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    There is high comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mood, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders. Personality disorders, in particular, are considered to be an important contributing and/or predisposing factor in the pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment outcome of alcohol dependence. According to clinical and epidemiological studies, the prevalence of personality disorders in alcoholism ranges from as low as 22-40% to as high as 58-78%. The literature has focused primarily on antisocial and borderline personality disorders; however, almost the whole spectrum of personality disorders can be encountered in alcohol dependence, such as the dependent, avoidant, paranoid and others. A number of factors, such as sampling methods, diagnostic criteria used or assessment procedures applied, may explain this wide variation. The quest of a distinct 'alcoholic personality' dates from the first half of the 20th century but failed to reveal consistent and strong substantiation. However, renewed efforts provided evidence for the importance of impulsivity/ disinhibition and neuroticism/negative affectivity in the development of alcohol dependence; the role of other personality traits such as extraversion/sociability is still unclear. These findings led to a number of typologies, some of the most popular and influential being those of Cloninger, Babor, and Lesch.

  11. Compulsive buying: descriptive characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Christenson, G A; Faber, R J; de Zwaan, M; Raymond, N C; Specker, S M; Ekern, M D; Mackenzie, T B; Crosby, R D; Crow, S J; Eckert, E D

    1994-01-01

    Compulsive buying is infrequently described in the psychiatric literature despite suggestions that it may be prevalent. The authors investigated the demographics and phenomenology of this syndrome and assessed psychiatric comorbidity via interviews of both compulsive buyers and normal buyers. Twenty-four compulsive buyers were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched normal buyers using (1) a semistructured interview for compulsive buying and impulse control disorders, (2) a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and (3) scales measuring compulsiveness, depression, and anxiety. The typical compulsive buyer was a 36-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 17 1/2 and whose buying had resulted in adverse psychosocial consequences. Purchases were usually of clothes, shoes, jewelry, or makeup, which frequently went unused. Compared with normal buyers, compulsive buyers had a higher lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders and were more depressed, anxious, and compulsive. Among compulsive buyers, 16 (66.7%) described buying that resembled obsessive compulsive disorder, whereas 23 (95.8%) described buying that resembled an impulse control disorder. Compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome that can result in significant psychosocial impairment and which displays features of both obsessive compulsive disorder and the impulse control disorders.

  12. Obesity and Metabolic Comorbidities: Environmental Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Carla; Genovesi, Giuseppe; Specchia, Palma; Costantini, Daniela; Mariani, Stefania; Petrangeli, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Gnessi, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic comorbidities represent increasing health problems. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous agents that change endocrine function and cause adverse health effects. Most EDCs are synthetic chemicals; some are natural food components as phytoestrogens. People are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals throughout their lives. EDCs impact hormone-dependent metabolic systems and brain function. Laboratory and human studies provide compelling evidence that human chemical contamination can play a role in obesity epidemic. Chemical exposures may increase the risk of obesity by altering the differentiation of adipocytes. EDCs can alter methylation patterns and normal epigenetic programming in cells. Oxidative stress may be induced by many of these chemicals, and accumulating evidence indicates that it plays important roles in the etiology of chronic diseases. The individual sensitivity to chemicals is variable, depending on environment and ability to metabolize hazardous chemicals. A number of genes, especially those representing antioxidant and detoxification pathways, have potential application as biomarkers of risk assessment. The potential health effects of combined exposures make the risk assessment process more complex compared to the assessment of single chemicals. Techniques and methods need to be further developed to fill data gaps and increase the knowledge on harmful exposure combinations. PMID:23577225

  13. Medical co-morbidity in depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Benton, Tami; Staab, Jeffrey; Evans, Dwight L

    2007-01-01

    Depression is much more prevalent among those with chronic medical conditions compared to the general population of the United States. Depression is recognized as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality and has been associated with higher health care costs, adverse health behaviors, significant functional impairment, lost work productivity, occupational disability and increased health care utilization. Searches of Medline, OVIDMedline, PubMed and PsycINFO of all English-language articles published between 1966 and 2007 were conducted using the keywords mood disorders, medical comorbidity, depression, antidepressant therapy. Supplemental references were manually extracted from relevant articles and chapters. Reviews of mechanistic studies and open label and randomized controlled trials of depression in patients with medical co morbidities were reviewed. Depressive disorders are prevalent among the medically ill and the relationship between depression and medical illness may be bidirectional. Antidepressant medications are effective in the treatment of depression in the medically ill. Depressive disorders can adversely impact the course of medical illnesses. Available antidepressant treatments are effective for the treatment of depression in the medically ill. Early identification and treatment of depression in medical illness can positively influence medical outcomes and quality of life.

  14. Social phobia and depression: prevalence and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-03-01

    Social phobia may seriously impair the functioning of affected individuals. It is frequently associated with other mental disorders. To estimate the co-occurrence of social phobia with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to analyze their interaction. Subjects were 18,980 individuals, aged 15 years or older, representative of the general population of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, who were interviewed by telephone. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the Sleep-EVAL system. The point prevalence for social phobia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.7%) of the sample. It was higher in women (odds ratio: 1.6) and decreased with age. MDDs were found in 19.5% of participants with social phobia. Co-occurrence of another anxiety disorder was high and increased when a MDD was present (65.2%). The odds of developing a major depressive episode 2 years after the appearance of the social phobia was of 5.74. Social phobia is highly prevalent in the general population. It increases the risk of developing a MDD and has a high comorbidity with other mental disorders. Social phobia is often present in the course of depression, more obviously during remission period of MDD. Physicians must explore and treat more systematically this frequent pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Comorbid Psychopathology with the Duration of Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Walker, Denise D.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) have been well–researched. Comparatively little is known, however, about factors associated with the persistence of CUDs over time. This research explored whether the temporal sequencing of comorbid psychiatric disorders in relation to the onset of the index CUD episode were associated with the length of this episode. Four comprehensive diagnostic assessments were conducted between ages 16 and 30 with a large and regionally representative community sample (n = 816), among which 173 persons were diagnosed with a lifetime CUD. In separate unadjusted analyses, any internalizing disorder and any mood disorder with onset prior to that of the index CUD episode were each significantly and negatively associated with CUD duration. These effects, however, were reduced to trend-level in adjusted analyses that controlled for putative confounders. Following the onset of the index CUD episode, the subsequent occurrence of any axis I disorder, internalizing disorder, externalizing disorder, or other substance use disorder during the index CUD episode was significantly and positively associated with the duration of that episode in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. These findings collectively suggest that the presence of internalizing-spectrum disorders prior to the onset of the index CUD episode affords some modest protection against protracted episodes, whereas the emergence of broad-spectrum psychopathology within the index CUD episode, most notably non-cannabis substance use disorders, is associated with greater disorder persistence. The relevance of these findings for various motivational models of cannabis addiction is discussed. PMID:26766543

  16. Obesity and the prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in Delaware.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relative associations of obesity with the prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in Delaware. Compelling research evidence demonstrates that obesity is a major independent risk factor both for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Analysis was conducted using Delaware data for 4,777 respondents from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The likelihood of having diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular (CVD) comorbidities increased with Body Mass Index (BMI). Compared with normal-weight adults, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetes was 7.14 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 4.70-10.83) and 2.54 (95 percent CI, 1.65-3.92); OR for diabetes and comorbid hypertension was 9.93 (95 percent CI, 5.82-16.93) and 3.66 (95 percent CI 2.13-6.30); OR for diabetes and high cholesterol OR was 6.76 (95 percent CI, 3.98-11.48) and 3.09 (95 percent CI,1.78-5.37); and the OR for diabetes and heart disease was 7.64 (95 percent CI, 3.15-18.50) and 3.82 (95 percent CI, 1.42-10.30) in obese and overweight adult Delawareans, respectively. One of the objectives of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce the rate of cardiovascular disease deaths in persons with diagnosed diabetes. Findings from this study provide compelling local data for health professionals to prioritize and implement evidence based obesity prevention and control interventions among persons with diagnosed diabetes to reduce the risk of cardiovascular comorbidities.

  17. Specific Learning Disabilities and Psychiatric Comorbidities in School Children in South India

    PubMed Central

    Bandla, Shailaja; Mandadi, Gowri Devi; Bhogaraju, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Background: Specific learning disabilities (SLDs) are an important cause of academic underachievement in children and are also associated with comorbidities like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which further have an impact on the child's education. Aims: To estimate the prevalence and psychosocial profile and psychiatric comorbidities in children with SLD in two settings, i.e., on special (remedial) education and schools and to compare the findings with normal children. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in schools situated in urban and semi-urban areas and special education schools. A total of 96 children were chosen for the study. After taking informed consent from the parents, the details about socioeconomic status, family, developmental history, and school history of the children were collected on a semi-structured pro forma and then the children were screened for SLD. They were administered colored/standard progressive matrices and Malin's intelligence scale for assessing their intelligence quotient and NIMHANS SLD index and developmental psychopathology checklist to study psychopathology. Chi-square test and ANOVA were done. Results: The prevalence of SLD in schools is found out to be 6.6%. There was a significant association with prematurity, cesarean section, delayed speech, and family history of SLD. Among comorbidities of SLD, association with ADHD alone has been found to be significant. Conclusion: The most common type of SLD is combined type comorbid with ADHD. There is a need for early identification of learning disabilities in schools so that with early recognition and remedial intervention children can be helped with to cope with studies. PMID:28250563

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity, psychological distress, and quality of life in gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rama M; Dijkstra, Boukje A G; de Weert-van Oene, Gerdien H; van Duren, Josja A M; de Jong, Cornelis A J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence among gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent individuals of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress levels and their association with the individuals' pattern of misuse and quality of life. There were 98 patients tested with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-plus, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Depression Anxiety Stress scale, and the EuroQoL-5D as a part of the Dutch gamma-hydroxybutyrate detoxification monitor in 7 addiction treatment centers. Participants were selected from those undergoing inpatient gamma-hydroxybutyrate detoxification treatment between March 2011 and September 2012. Males accounted for 68% of the participants and the average age was 28-years-old. A high rate of psychiatric comorbidity (79%) was detected, including anxiety (current 38%, lifetime 40%), mood (13%, 31%), and psychotic disorders (13%, 21%). The level of psychological distress was significantly higher than the standard outpatient reference group, especially in patients with current psychiatric comorbidity (Brief Symptom Inventory Global Severity Index mean 1.61 versus 1.09, p ≤ 0.01). Increased gamma-hydroxybutyrate misuse (higher dose and shorter interval between doses) was associated with the presence of lifetime psychosis, current mood disorders (rpb = 0.23, p = 0.025), and psychoticism as a symptom of psychological distress. Current anxiety, mood disorders and high psychological stress had a negative effect on participants' quality of life. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence is characterized by serious psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress, both of which are, in turn, associated with increased gamma-hydroxybutyrate use and a lower quality of life. This needs to be considered during

  19. Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Egyptian Patients With Opioid Use Disorders Attributed to Tramadol.

    PubMed

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Youssif, Usama M; Hussein, Ramadan A; Saeed, Mervat

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use disorders attributed to tramadol (OUD-T) is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to assess the psychiatric comorbidity among patients with opioid use disorder attributed to tramadol. This study included 100 patients with opioid use disorders attributed to tramadol (according to DSM-IV-TR) and 100 control persons (matched for age, sex, and education), who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. The participants were interviewed using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID-I and SCID-II), Addiction Severity Index scale (patients), and urine screening for drugs. Twenty-four percent of the patients used tramadol only (pure tramadol group), whereas 76% of the patients used other substances in addition to tramadol (polysubstance group). Most (91%) of the patients had tramadol dependence. Forty-nine percent of the patients had psychiatric comorbidity, especially mood disorders (59.2%), whereas only 24% of the control persons had psychiatric comorbidity, especially anxiety disorders (83.3%). The most common personality disorders among patients were borderline (24%) and antisocial (22%), whereas in control persons, the most common personality disorders were obsessive compulsive personality disorder (8%) and the avoidant personality disorder (7%). Cluster B (76.6%) was the most common category among patients (compared with 25.8% in control persons), whereas cluster C (51.6%) was the most common category among control persons (compared with 15.6% in patients). Most of the patients were dependent on tramadol, and approximately 3 out of 4 used many substances. Almost half of the patients had psychiatric comorbidity, and approximately 3 out of 4 had cluster B personality disorders.

  20. The impact of comorbid migraine on quality of life outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    DeConde, Adam S.; Mace, Jess C.; Smith, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and migraine are common entities with overlapping symptomatology yet little research exists which investigates the intersection of the two. This study seeks to investigate whether patients with CRS with and without a migraine history experience comparable quality-of-life (QOL) improvement after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Study Design Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort Methods An adult population (n=229) with medically refractory CRS was prospectively evaluated following ESS using disease-specific QOL surveys: the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI), the Chronic Sinusitis Survey (CSS), and the Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22). History of comorbid migraine was identified (n=46) and pre- and postoperative QOL was compared to patients without migraine (n=183). Results Patients migraine and CRS were more likely to be female (p=0.023), experience allergies (p=0.024), fibromyalgia (p=0.009), depression (p=0.010), and be less likely to have nasal polyposis (p=0.003). Objective measures of disease (endoscopy and computed tomography scores) were significantly lower in patients with migraine (p=0.027 and p=0.002, respectively), yet these patients scored lower on baseline RSDI and SNOT-22 scores (p=0.025 and p=0.019, respectively). QOL in both patients with and without migraine improved significantly after ESS (p<0.003) and by comparable magnitudes (p>0.062). Conclusion Patients with comorbid migraine and CRS are more likely to have less severe evidence of disease and worse preoperative baseline QOL scores. This may imply that comorbid migraine disorder, in the setting of CRS, compels these patients to seek surgical management earlier in the disease process. Regardless, ESS provides comparable improvement for both patients with and without comorbid migraine. PMID:24431279

  1. The impact of comorbid migraine on quality-of-life outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    DeConde, Adam S; Mace, Jess C; Smith, Timothy L

    2014-08-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and migraine are common entities with overlapping symptomatology, yet little research exists that investigates the intersection of the two. This study seeks to investigate whether patients with CRS-with and without a migraine history-experience comparable quality-of-life (QOL) improvement after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort. An adult population (n = 229) with medically refractory CRS was prospectively evaluated following ESS using disease-specific QOL surveys: the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI), the Chronic Sinusitis Survey (CSS), and the Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22). History of comorbid migraine was identified (n = 46), and preoperative and postoperative QOL was compared to patients without migraine (n = 183). Patients migraine and CRS were more likely to be female (P = 0.023); experience allergies (P = 0.024), fibromyalgia (P = 0.009), and depression (P = 0.010); and be less likely to have nasal polyposis (P = 0.003). Objective measures of disease (endoscopy and computed tomography scores) were significantly lower in patients with migraine (P = 0.027 and P = 0.002, respectively), yet these patients scored lower on baseline RSDI and SNOT-22 scores (P = 0.025 and P = 0.019, respectively). QOL in both patients with and without migraine improved significantly after ESS (P ≤ 0.003) and by comparable magnitudes (P ≥ 0.062). Patients with comorbid migraine and CRS are more likely to have less severe evidence of disease and worse preoperative baseline QOL scores. This may imply that comorbid migraine disorder, in the setting of CRS, compels these patients to seek surgical management earlier in the disease process. Regardless, ESS provides comparable improvement for both patients with and without comorbid migraine. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity in injecting drug users in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Shelly; Kamal, Rama; De Jong, Cor A

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Western countries is high and is associated with lower quality of life and reduces the effectiveness of treatment programs. The aim of this study is to provide a review about psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs in Asia and Africa, where HIV prevalence is high and still increasing. Studies focusing on psychiatric comorbidity in Asia and Africa are scarce. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity is comparable with the prevalence in western countries. Psychiatric disorders can occur before or during drug abuse and are also associated with substance abuse and physical comorbidity and its treatments. Childhood trauma followed by post-traumatic disorders is a significant risk factor for substance abuse. Psychiatric co-occurring disorders influence the adherence to the physical and drug use treatment. Evidence-based treatment for psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs is still limited. A better understanding of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in IDUs and its impact on the overall treatments is growing. However, more studies focusing on the treatment for psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs in Asia and Africa are needed.

  3. Physical activity in patients with COPD: the impact of comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Dell'Era, Silvina; MacNee, William; Rabinovich, Roberto A

    2017-09-01

    Comorbidities are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it plays an important role on physical activity (PA) in this population. Since low PA levels have been described as a key factor to predict morbi-mortality in COPD, it seems crucial to review the current literature available on this topic. Areas covered: This review covers the most common comorbidities found in COPD, their prevalence and prognostic implications. We explore the differences in PA between COPD patients with and without comorbidities, as well as the impact of the number or type of comorbidities on activity levels of this population. The effect of different comorbidities on activities of daily living in patients with COPD is also reviewed. Finally, we discuss options for the treatment of inactivity in COPD patients considering their comorbidities and limitations. Expert commentary: Comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with COPD and further deteriorate PA levels in this population. Despite the wide range of interventions available in COPD, the evidence in the field seems to point at PA coaching with feedback on individual goals and longer lasting PR programmes with more than 12 weeks of duration when attempting to raise the activity levels of this population.

  4. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is adenosine the common link?

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-10-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the 'adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities' implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic 'comorbidity model', in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain co-morbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions.

  5. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabi; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation are to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and comorbidity of social phobia in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents; (2) examine differences in the rates and features of social phobia across the proposed DSM-5 social phobia subtypes. Method The National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13–18 years in the continental U.S. Results Approximately 9% of adolescents met criteria for any social phobia in their lifetime. Of these adolescents, 55.8% were affected with the generalized subtype and 44.2% exhibited non-generalized social phobia. Only 0.7% met criteria for the proposed DSM-5 performance only subtype. Generalized social phobia was more common among female adolescents and risk for this subtype increased with age. Adolescents with generalized social phobia also experienced an earlier age of onset, higher levels of disability and clinical severity, and a greater degree of comorbidity relative to adolescents with non-generalized forms of the disorder. Conclusions This study indicates that social phobia is a highly prevalent, persistent, and impairing psychiatric disorder among adolescent youth. Results of this study also provide evidence for the clinical utility of the generalized subtype and highlight the importance of considering the heterogeneity of social phobia in this age group. PMID:21871369

  6. Social phobia and subtypes in the national comorbidity survey-adolescent supplement: prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2011-09-01

    Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and comorbidity of social phobia in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents; and (2) examine differences in the rates and features of social phobia across the proposed DSM-5 social phobia subtypes. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age in the continental United States. Approximately 9% of adolescents met criteria for any social phobia in their lifetime. Of these adolescents, 55.8% were affected with the generalized subtype and 44.2% exhibited nongeneralized social phobia. Only 0.7% met criteria for the proposed DSM-5 performance-only subtype. Generalized social phobia was more common among female adolescents and risk for this subtype increased with age. Adolescents with generalized social phobia also had a younger age of onset, higher levels of disability and clinical severity, and a greater degree of comorbidity relative to adolescents with nongeneralized forms of the disorder. This study indicates that social phobia is a highly prevalent, persistent, and impairing psychiatric disorder among adolescent youth. Results of this study also provide evidence for the clinical utility of the generalized subtype and highlight the importance of considering the heterogeneity of social phobia in this age group. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment Patterns among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Psychiatric or Neurologic Comorbidities in Sweden: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sikirica, Vanja; Gustafsson, Per A; Makin, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents and occurs frequently with psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities on pharmacotherapy patterns among patients with ADHD in Sweden. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using medical records from a regional database in Sweden. Patients aged 6-17 years, with ≥1 prescription for ADHD medication between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2009, and continuously active in the database for ≥12 months before and after their prescription index date were selected. Patients were categorized as ADHD alone (ADHD-only) or with comorbidities (ADHD-comorbid). Between-group differences were analyzed before and after adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Data on 1794 patients (1083 ADHD-only; 711 ADHD-comorbid) were analyzed. Among newly treated patients, 21.7% augmented their index therapy (ADHD-only, 20.5%; ADHD-comorbid, 24.4%; p = 0.23). After adjustment, ADHD-only patients were less likely (p = 0.002) to augment versus ADHD-comorbid patients [odds ratio = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27, 0.73]. ADHD-comorbid patients received more prescriptions versus ADHD-only patients (mean 13.1 vs 10.0; p < 0.001), and had more outpatient visits (mean 11.9 vs. 8.1; p < 0.001) and hospitalizations (10.7% vs. 6.0%; p < 0.001). After adjustment, ADHD-only patients had fewer outpatient visits (p < 0.001) and referrals (p < 0.001) versus ADHD-comorbid patients (visits: β = -0.21, 95% CI -0.28, -0.13; referrals: β = -0.25, 95% CI -0.33, -0.18). Patients with ADHD with comorbidities had more hospitalizations, physician visits, and medication prescriptions during 12 months' follow-up than did those with ADHD alone. ADHD therapy augmentation was prevalent among children/adolescents with ADHD, even among those without psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities.

  8. A retrospective cohort study of patients with stomach and liver cancers: the impact of comorbidity and ethnicity on cancer care and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sarfati, Diana; Gurney, Jason; Stanley, James; Koea, Jonathan

    2014-11-07

    Comorbidity has an adverse impact on cancer survival partly through its negative impact on receipt of curative treatment. Comorbidity is unevenly distributed within populations, with some ethnic and socioeconomic groups having considerably higher burden. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationships between comorbidity, ethnicity, receipt of treatment, and cancer survival among patients with stomach and liver cancer in New Zealand. Using the New Zealand Cancer Registry, Māori patients diagnosed with stomach and liver cancers were identified (n = 269), and compared with a randomly selected group of non-Māori patients (n = 255). Clinical and outcome data were collected from medical records, and the administrative hospitalisation and mortality databases. Logistic and Cox regression modelling with multivariable adjustment were used to examine the impacts of ethnicity and comorbidity on receipt of treatment, and the impact of these variables on all-cause and cancer specific survival. More than 70% of patients had died by two years post-diagnosis. As comorbidity burden increased among those with Stage I-III diseas