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Sample records for cheekye river british

  1. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  2. River response to rapid Holocene environmental change: evidence and explanation in British catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Jones, Anna F.; Lewin, John

    2010-07-01

    Since the late 1980s our understanding of the relationship between climate, land-use and Holocene river development in Britain has changed radically. Conceptually simplistic and data-poor models of people-river environment interaction, many of which considered human activity alone to be the control of Holocene flooding and alluviation, have been replaced by more data-rich models that explain river behaviour in terms of a continuum of climate and anthropogenic drivers, individually operating over a range of temporal and spatial scales. One of the key factors in this paradigm shift has been the significant increase in the number of 14C-dated fluvial units that has itself recently facilitated the application of meta-analysis techniques to large fluvial data sets. These analyses have produced the first probability-based national and regional reconstructions of Holocene flooding in the British Isles that can be correlated with independent, high-resolution hydro-climate records. This paper critically reviews the major findings of this new research focusing on process-based causality relationships in fluvial systems and quantifying how environmental signals are propagated in river basins and preserved in landform and sedimentary sequences. By using cumulative probability density function (CPDF) plots of fluvial 14C dates that have been classified on the basis of sedimentary environment and evidence for changing depositional regime, 17 multi-centennial length periods of flooding and river instability during the Holocene are identified in the UK. The scale and timing of these episodes vary regionally and correlations can be made with a range of climate proxy records, including the North Atlantic drift-ice index, glacier variations in Europe, and mire surface wetness and water-table reconstructions. A new analysis of overbank floodplain sedimentation rates points to an acceleration after ca 1000 cal. BP, which can be related to the agricultural revolution of the Middle Ages

  3. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaske, Bart; Smith, Derald G.; Berendsen, Henk J. A.; de Boer, Arjan G.; van Nielen-Kiezebrink, Marinka F.; Locking, Tracey

    2009-10-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology — multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins — and lateral channel stability. We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River is caused by sediment (bedload) transport inefficiency, in combination with very limited potential for lateral bank erosion because of very low specific stream power (≤ 2.3 W/m 2) and cohesive silty banks. In a diagram of channel type in relation to flow energy and median grain size of the bed material, data points for the straight upper Columbia River channels cluster separately from the data points for braided and meandering channels. Measurements and calculations indicate that bedload transport in the anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River decreases downstream. Because of lateral channel stability no lateral storage capacity for bedload is created. Therefore, the surplus of bedload leads to channel bed aggradation, which outpaces levee accretion and causes avulsions because of loss of channel flow capacity. This avulsion mechanism applies only to the main channel of the system, which transports 87% of the water and > 90% of the sediment in the cross-valley transect studied. Because of very low sediment transport capacity, the morphological evolution of most secondary channels is slow. Measurements and calculations indicate that much more bedload is sequestered in the relatively steep upper anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River than in the relatively gentle lower anastomosing reach. With anastomosing morphology and related processes (e.g., crevassing) being best developed in the upper reach, this confirms the notion of upstream rather than downstream control of upper Columbia River anastomosis.

  4. Seasonal variability of river geochemistry in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, B. M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Montlucon, D.; Gillies, S. L.; Marsh, S.; Janmaat, A.; Downey, B.; Fanslau, J.; Fraser, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.

    2010-12-01

    River systems play a dynamic role in the cycling of carbon between terrestrial and marine reservoirs. The response of these systems to global warming and human activities is uncertain, but likely to involve complex interactions between hydrologic and biogeochemical changes from the basin-scale (e.g. shifts in distribution, volume, and type of precipitation; ecosystem adjustments to land use changes) to particle-scale (e.g. changes in organic matter composition due to altered terrestrial vegetation, changes in sediment characteristics due to damming on individual watersheds). To address these processes in a manner relevant to their global scope, a campaign (funded by the National Science Foundation’s Emerging Topics in Biogeochemical Cycling initiative) is underway to study basin-wide geochemical characteristics of the dissolved, suspended, and bed loads of several major rivers. The Fraser River is of particular interest due to its diversity of geological terrain, seasonality of discharge, and limited damming. Field campaigns in summer 2009 and fall 2010 offer a detailed characterization of the stable and radiogenic isotope signatures of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon; dissolved nutrients, organic and inorganic carbon, and trace metal concentrations; and dissolved 87Sr/86Sr at multiple points along the Fraser main stem and many tributaries. The critical next step is to extrapolate this information across seasonal cycles throughout the year. To that end, a time series sampling program has been established near the Fraser River mouth. Since late 2009, samples for dissolved nutrients, major ions, and 87Sr/86Sr have been collected by colleagues and undergraduate students at the University of the Fraser Valley in Abbotsford, B.C. With a full year of monthly or more frequent samples, we can assess how river geochemistry changes in response to seasonal cycles of temperature and discharge in such a heterogeneous system. This aspect of the world river project

  5. Linking interdecadal changes in British river ecosystems to water quality and climate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J

    2014-09-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Western European rivers have changed substantially in recent decades. Understanding the causes is challenging because improvements in water quality have coincided with climatic variations over this period. Using data covering >2300 rivers and 21 years (1991-2011) across England and Wales, we analysed family-level distributions and nationwide trends in prevalence (proportion of sampling locations where an organism was present) to diagnose the causes of ecological change. Our aims were to: (i) reveal the taxa driving assemblage-level trends; (ii) identify the main changes in family-level prevalence and distribution patterns; and (iii) test whether changes were accounted for by improving water quality, increasing temperatures or variations in discharge. While previous analyses revealed increasing richness among British river invertebrates, a partial turnover of taxa is now evident. Two distinct components of temporal trend have comprised: (i) overall increases or decreases in taxon prevalence over 21 years, which correlated with pollution sensitivity and discharge; and (ii) short-term variations in prevalence that correlated primarily with temperature and nutrient concentrations. The longer-term changes in prevalence were reflected in expansions or contractions in families' distributions linked to water quality, with little evidence of shifts consistent with increasing temperatures. Although these monitoring data had limitations (e.g., family-level data, few headwaters), they provide no clear evidence of long-term climate effects on invertebrates; the one feature consistent with climate warming - a small northward expansion of the range of many taxa - was accounted for by large improvements in water quality in northern England. Nevertheless, changes linked to discharge and temperature over the shorter-term (<2 years) point to the climatic sensitivity of invertebrate communities. It is therefore likely that any long-term climatic

  6. Annual bed-elevation regime in the alluvial channel of Squamish River, southwestern British Columbia Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the annual regime of channel scour and fill by monitoring bed-elevation changes in a reach of Squamish River in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Sonar surveys of 13 river cross-sections in a sandy gravel-bed single-channel study reach were repeated biweekly over a full hydrologic year (1995/6). The survey results show that bedload movement occurs as waves or pulses forming bedwaves that appear to maintain an overall coherence with movement downstream. These bedwaves propagate downstream by a mode here termed pulse scour and pulse fill, a process distinguished from the conventional mode of scour and fill commonly associated with flood events (here termed local scour and local fill). Bedwave celerity was estimated to be about 15.5 m d-1 corresponding to a bedwave residence time in the study reach of almost one hydrologic year. The total amount of local bed-elevation change ranged between 0.22 m and 2.41 m during the period of study. Analysis of the bed-elevation and flow data reveals that, because of the bedware phenomenon, there is no simple relation between the mean bed-elevation and discharge nor any strong linear correlation among cross-sectional behaviour. The bed-elevation data also suggest that complex changes to the bed within a cross-section are masked when the bed is viewed in one dimension, although no definitive trends in bed behaviour were found in the two-dimensional analysis. Although a weak seasonal effect is evident in this study, the bed-elevation regime is dominated by sediment supply-driven fluctuations in bedload transport occurring at timescales shorter than the seasonal fluctuation in discharge. The study also indicates that bed-elevation monitoring on Squamish River, and others like it, for purposes of detecting and measuring aggradation/degradation must take into account very considerable and normal channel-bed variability operating at timescales from hours to months. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and

  7. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  8. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  9. Surveying Cross Sections of the Kootenai River Between Libby Dam, Montana, and Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Moran, Edward H.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The declining population of Kootenai River white sturgeon, which was listed as an Endangered Species in 1994, has prompted a recovery team to assess the feasibility of various habitat enhancement scenarios to reestablish white sturgeon populations. As the first phase in this assessment, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section and longitudinal data during 2002—03 at about 400 locations along the Kootenai River from Libby Dam near Libby, Montana, to where the river empties into Kootenay Lake near Creston, British Columbia, Canada. Survey control stations with a horizontal and vertical accuracy of less than 0.1 foot were established using a global positioning system (GPS) prior to collection of stream channel cross-section data along the Kootenai River. A total of 245 cross sections were surveyed. Six cross sections upstream from Kootenai Falls were surveyed using a total station where the river was too shallow or dangerous to navigate by vessel. The remaining 239 cross sections were surveyed by interfacing real-time GPS equipment with an echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data and with a laser range- finder to obtain streambank data. These data were merged, straightened, ordered, and reduced in size to be useful. Spacing between these cross sections ranged from about 600 feet in the valley flat near Deep Creek and Shorty Island and near bridges to as much as several miles in other areas. These stream channel cross sections will provide information that can be used to develop hydraulic flow models of the Kootenai River from Libby Dam, Montana, to Queens Bay on Kootenay Lake in British Columbia, Canada.

  10. Atmospheric Rivers in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia: The Bella Coola Event of 2010 and Alaska Events of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, D. A.; Ralph, F. M.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Scott, C. A.; McCollor, D.; White, T.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are a recurring natural hazard responsible for large socioeconomic losses globally. In mid-latitude locations, such as Western North America and Europe, heavy precipitation and floods, are connected to intense water vapor transport in extra-tropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). This AR region is narrow (on the order of 300-500 km wide) and transports the majority of the poleward moisture flux. Given the strong link between ARs and floods on the west coast of North America, it is the aim of this research to determine if ARs are responsible for hydrohazards in British Columbia and Alaska.Using satellite measurements, atmospheric reanalyses, and in-situ observations we undertake a hydrometeorological analysis on two major flood events, namely the Bella Coola flood in British Columbia in September 2010 in which 10 inches (250mm) of rain fell in 36 hours, and an Alaskan event that produced over 50 inches (1250 mm) of precipitation in the month of September 2012 (mostly in two landfalling ARs), and led to record river stage heights. Furthermore, the Alaskan event resulted in one fatality and $35M in damages to buildings, homes, and infrastructure.Preliminary results suggest that AR conditions were present during these events, and are therefore likely to be important for hydrohazards more generally in British Columbia and Alaska. As the enhanced water vapor transport in the ARs encountered the steep terrain in these regions orographic enhancement of rainfall occurred resulting in record rainfall totals and floods. The occurrence of these events in September (earlier than noteworthy AR events in the U.S. West Coast farther south) may also relate to the earlier nascence of the winter circulation pattern in northern latitudes.

  11. Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

  12. Use of beta regression for statistical downscaling of precipitation in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sohom; Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2016-07-01

    Impacts of global climate change on water resources systems are assessed by downscaling coarse scale climate variables into regional scale hydro-climate variables. In this study, a new multisite statistical downscaling method based on beta regression (BR) is developed for generating synthetic precipitation series, which can preserve temporal and spatial dependence along with other historical statistics. The beta regression based downscaling method includes two main steps: (1) prediction of precipitation states for the study area using classification and regression trees, and (2) generation of precipitation at different stations in the study area conditioned on the precipitation states. Daily precipitation data for 53 years from the ANUSPLIN data set is used to predict precipitation states of the study area where predictor variables are extracted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the same interval. The proposed model is applied to downscaling daily precipitation at ten different stations in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada. Results show that the proposed downscaling model can capture spatial and temporal variability of local precipitation very well at various locations. The performance of the model is compared with a recently developed non-parametric kernel regression based downscaling model. The BR model performs better regarding extrapolation compared to the non-parametric kernel regression model. Future precipitation changes under different GHG (greenhouse gas) emission scenarios also projected with the developed downscaling model that reveals a significant amount of changes in future seasonal precipitation and number of wet days in the river basin.

  13. Remote mineralogic and lithologic mapping of the Ice River alkaline complex, British Columbia, Canada, using AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, T.L.; Rowan, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Ice River Alkaline Complex is a late Paleozoic intrusion of mafic alkaline rocks, syenite, and carbonatite exposed in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The complex intrudes Cambrian and Ordovician shales, slates, and limestones of the Chancellor and Ottertail Formations and the McKay Group. We examined the alkaline complex and adjacent country rocks using Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The data were first calibrated to relative reflectance and then used to spectrally map mineralogies in the study area by using a linear spectral unmixing program. This technique models each pixel spectrum in an AVIRIS image as a linear combination of unique endmember spectra. We selected endmember spectra from well-exposed and spectrally distinct mineralogic units, vegetation, and snow. Four of the endmembers reflect mineralogic variations within the McKay group in the study area, and may represent lateral and vertical variations of sedimentary or metamorphic facies. Otherwise, the resultant spatial distribution of endmembers shows generally close agreement with the published geologic map, although, in several places, our image-map is more accurate than the published map.

  14. Integration of Invertebrate Monitoring Data Into a Chemical-Based Water Quality Index for Selected Rivers in British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, S.; Ryan, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) is a recently developed tool used to summarize complex water quality data for communication to senior managers and the public. Within the index, water quality is assessed relative to its desirable state, as defined by water quality objectives, and indicates the degree to which it is affected by human activities. The index combines water quality measures of concern at a particular site (e.g. coliforms, metals, dissolved oxygen) and compares them to objectives to provide a ranking (e.g. good, fair, poor) for rivers and lakes. In British Columbia, the federal and provincial governments collaboratively maintain a network of water quality stations which are sampled routinely for a range of chemical variables. Environment Canada incorporated an annual biomonitoring component at 10 of these stations using the reference condition approach. Benthic invertebrates are used in this approach to assess the health of a stream by comparing expected invertebrate communities with observed communities. At one station the biological community indicated an impaired environment where the CCME WQI indicated "good" water quality. We will discuss options for incorporating the information provided by the benthic invertebrate community into the calculation of the index.

  15. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lithospheric mantle beneath West Kettle River, British Columbia: Evidence from ultramafic xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xianyu; Baadsgaard, H.; Scarfe, C.M. ); Irving, A.J. )

    1990-09-10

    A group of spinel peridotite xenoliths from West Kettle River, British Columbia, represents essentially undepleted to moderately depleted lithospheric mantle rocks in terms of major and compatible trace elements. Whole rock Sr isotopic composition for most of these xenoliths, and whole rock Sm-Nd isotopic composition and LREE contents for some of them, seem to have been perturbed by near-surface processes. Sr and Nd isotopic results for acid-cleaned clinopyroxenes separated from these spinel peridotites reveal an isotopically mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like mantle. Seven spinel lherzolites gave Nd model ages of 1.5-3.6 Ga, similar to MORB, and on a Sm-Nd isotope diagram plot close to a reference Nd isochron with an age of 0.7 Ga and an initial {var epsilon}{sub Nd} of +7. These features likely resulted from multiple mantle depletion. The isotopic similarities of these xenoliths with MORB suggest that this area is underlain by oceanic lithospheric mantle, possibly accreted to North America during the mid-Jurassic. The Nd isochron age could record the time when the oceanic lithosphere was isolated from the asthenosphere. Recent enrichment event may have acted on such a depleted mantle, as indicated by the low Sm/Nd ratios of two spinel harzburgites.

  16. Progress of a sediment wave along the Lillooet River, British Columbia following a large debris flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rego, K. G.; Eaton, B. C.; Hassan, M. A.; Lauer, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    We report field data and preliminary numerical modeling results documenting the transit of a sediment wave along the Lillooet River following a large debris flow in 2010. The Lillooet drains a midsize ( 4000 km2) glacially-influenced alpine catchment. Our study reach lies 70 km between the Mt. Meager Volcanic Complex (MMVC) and Lillooet Lake, which traps over 90% of incoming sediment. The channel transitions from braided and cobble-bedded to straight and sand-bedded, and the downstream half is dyked. Sediment supply is dominated by frequent debris flows originating in the MMVC. In 2010, a landslide on the MMVC released 48.5 x 106 m3 of material and triggered a debris flow that extended 2.5 km down the Lillooet Valley, briefly damming the river and causing an outburst flood. 1500 valley residents were evacuated temporarily, and the event led to $10 M CAD of damage to commercial forests and roads. The subsequent sediment wave is expected to lead to channel aggradation, putting pressure on the Lillooet's dyking system. We conducted bulk sampling and Wolman pebble counts along the river in 2014. Grainsize distributions from channel bars along the reach are compared to those of cutbanks to track the extent of the wave and the mobility of individual grainsize classes. We use the Morphodynamics and Sediment Tracers in 1-Dimension (MAST-1D) model to simulate the Lillooet's response to the debris flow on decadal timescales and to predict its recovery time. Sediment from the debris flow is traced in the model to estimate the proportion of the sediment wave that will remain in permanent storage within the valley fill. Future work will focus on quantifying the role of floodplain-channel interactions on sediment wave evolution for decadal and longer timescales.

  17. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Sean W.; Hood, Eran; Dalhke, Helen; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  18. Channel and landscape dynamics in the alluvial forest mosaic of the Carmanah River valley, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Patrick J.; Richardson, John S.; Alila, Younes

    2013-11-01

    The highly diverse shifting-mosaic of forest patches of an alluvial forest within the Carmanah River valley on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia was studied to examine the hydrogeomorphic disturbance regime that structures it. We used a landscape-scale analysis to quantify historical channel migrations and changes in the extent of specific forest types. This GIS-based analysis using a 70-year aerial photographic record was complemented by field-based research. Thirty-eight plots containing 4509 trees were sampled for forest structure, age, and elevation above the contemporary channel. These data, including a vegetation chronosequence spanning over 500 years, were used to examine channel and landscape dynamics. Our findings support a general conceptual model that describes cycles of patch development and destruction in unconfined alluvial forests of the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Over the past century, Carmanah River has eroded nearly 30% of the alluvial forest in this study area, and approximately 65% over the past 500 years. At least 80% of the 2007 channel was forested area within the past 70 years. Younger landforms were disturbed more frequently than mature forest patches, which suggest that as biogeomorphic succession progresses the likelihood of future disturbance decreases. Estimated half lives of landforms ranged from 24 years for pioneer bars to over 1500 years for old growth terraces. Years of regional high magnitude floods resulted in a net loss of floodplain forest area indicating that disturbance was climate driven in this pluvial watershed, whereby rain events result in flood disturbance that converted forests to channel. These events initiate a subsequent course of vegetation succession and geomorphic development, and often result in the deposition of large wood that modifies the channel environment and contributes to channel avulsion and further hydrogeomorphic disturbance. The composition of the landscape is a reflection of the

  19. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River and its Tributaries Between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halm, Douglas R.; Dornblaser, Mark M.

    2007-01-01

    The Yukon River basin is the fourth largest watershed in North America at 831,400 square kilometers (km2). Approximately 126,000 people live within the basin and depend on the Yukon River and its tributaries for drinking water, commerce, subsistence, and recreational fish and game resources. Climate warming in the Arctic and Subarctic regions encompassing the Yukon basin has recently become a concern because of possible far-reaching effects on the ecosystem. Large amounts of carbon and nutrients are stored in permafrost and have potential for release in response to this warming. These changes in carbon and nutrient cycling may result in changes in stream chemistry and productivity, including salmon populations, and ultimately changes in the chemistry and productivity of the Bearing Sea. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 5-year comprehensive water-quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries starting in 2000. The study included frequent water-quality sampling at a fixed site network as well as intensive sampling along the Yukon River and its major tributaries. This report contains observations of water and sediment quantity and quality of the Yukon River and its tributaries in Canada during 2004. Chemical, biological, physical, and discharge data are presented for the reach of river between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA.

  20. Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.; Peterman, R.; Lapointe, M.; Gillis, D.; Korman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We compare alternative models of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity (returns per spawner) using more than 30 years of catch and escapement data for Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. The models examined include several alternative forms of models that incorporate climatic influences as well as models not based on climate. For most stocks, a stationary stock-recruitment relationship explains very little of the interannual variation in productivity. In Bristol Bay, productivity co-varies among stocks and appears to be strongly related to fluctuations in climate. The best model for Bristol Bay sockeye involved a change in the 1970s in the parameters of the Ricker stock-recruitment curve; the stocks generally became more productive. In contrast, none of the models of Fraser River stocks that we examined explained much of the variability in their productivity.

  1. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  2. Some hydrologic aspects of proposed coal mining in the north fork of the Flathead River headwaters area, northwest Montana and southeast British Columbia. Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.A.; Van Voast, W.A.; Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    The proposed Cabin Creek coal mine in Canada, just north of the Montana-British Columbia border, has caused considerable concern in Montana because of its potential impact on the North Fork of the Flathead River. The objective of the project was to assess the impact of mining activity at the Cabin Creek site on water quality in the Flathead River. The results of the project indicate that acid mine drainage from the Cabin Creek mine should not be a problem. Analysis of the coal samples indicated that the acid-neutralizing potential exceeded the acid producing potential. Mineralization of waters entering the North Fork could result in some degradation of water quality, as could sediment from soil disturbances. The extent of degradation will depend on mining practices and on the location of retention facilities for water and other residual materials extracted from the mine.

  3. Seasonal variation in biological oxygen demand levels in the main stem of the Fraser River, British Columbia and an agriculturally impacted tributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, S. L.; Fraser, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B. M.; Marcotte, D.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M.; Hanson-Carson, J.; Luymes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Fraser River basin is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. In the Fraser River, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations impact many aquatic species. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter and is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments. We compared BOD, DO, and pH during winter (November 2011) and summer (July 2012) in the main stem of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and a tributary in an agricultural area of the Fraser Valley, Nathan Creek. In November the BOD of the main stem of the Fraser River was 2.36 mg/L, pH 7.26, and DO 9.13 mg/L. BOD and DO of Nathan Creek was not significantly lower at 1.68 mg/L and DO 8.28 mg/L, however, the pH was significantly lower (p=0.001) at 6.75. In July, the Fraser River had significantly higher BOD levels than in winter at 4.43 mg/L, but no significant change in pH and DO. Nathan Creek BOD was significantly higher than it was in winter and higher than the main stem at 7.34 mg/L, with no significant change in pH and DO. There were strong seasonal differences in BOD in the Fraser River and Nathan Creek, with the highest levels seen in July. The higher BOD seen in Nathan Creek in July may be an indication of agricultural impact. Although all BOD values fell in the range of 1-8 mg/L and are considered to be relatively unpolluted.

  4. Trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia, and at Columbia Falls, Montana, water years, 1975-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data for selected water quality variables were evaluated for trends at two sampling stations--Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia (Flathead station) and Flathead River at Columbia Falls, Montana (Columbia Falls station). The results were compared between stations. The analyses included data from water years 1975-86 at the Flathead station and water years 1979-86 at the Columbia Falls station. The seasonal Kendall test was applied to adjusted concentrations for variables related to discharge and to unadjusted concentrations for the remaining variables. Slope estimates were made for variables with significant trends unless data were reported as less than the detection limit. At the Flathead station, concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (total and dissolved), total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus increased during the study period. Concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and dissolved iron decreased during the same period. At the Columbia Falls station, concentrations increased for calcium and magnesium and decreased for sulfate and dissolved phosphorus. No trends were detected for 10 other variables tested at each station. Data for the Flathead station were reanalyzed for water years 1979-86. Trends in the data increased for magnesium and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and decreased for dissolved iron. Magnesium was the only variable that displayed a trend (increasing) at both stations. The increasing trends that were detected probably will not adversely affect the water quality of the Flathead River in the near future. (USGS)

  5. Modelling the Impacts of Changing Land Cover/Land Use and Climate on Flooding in the Elk River Watershed, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; Hopkinson, C.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Elk River is a mountain watershed located along the eastern border of British Columbia, Canada. The Elk River is confined by railway bridges, roads, and urban areas. Flooding has been a concern in the valley for more than a century. The most recent major flood event occurred in 2013 affecting several communities. River modifications such as riprapped dykes, channelization, and dredging have occurred in an attempt to reduce inundation, with limited success. Significant changes in land cover/land use (LCLU) such as natural state to urban, forestry practices, and mining from underground to mountaintop/valley fill have changed terrain and ground surfaces thereby altering water infiltration and runoff processes in the watershed. Future climate change in this region is expected to alter air temperature and precipitation as well as produce an earlier seasonal spring freshet potentially impacting future flood events. The objective of this research is to model historical and future hydrological conditions to identify flood frequency and risk under a range of climate and LCLU change scenarios in the Elk River watershed. Historic remote sensing data, forest management plans, and mining industry production/post-mining reclamation plans will be used to create a predictive past and future LCLU time series. A range of future air temperature and precipitation scenarios will be developed based on accepted Global Climate Modelling (GCM) research to examine how the hydrometeorological conditions may be altered under a range of future climate scenarios. The GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model will be used to simulate climate and LCLU to assess historic and potential future flood frequency and magnitude. Results will be used to create innovative flood mitigation, adaptation, and management strategies for the Elk River with the intent of being wildlife friendly and non-destructive to ecosystems and habitats for native species.

  6. Use of major ion and stable isotope geochemistry to delineate natural and anthropogenic sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Kettle River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, Leslie; Hutcheon, Ian; Mayer, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    The Kettle River Basin in South central British Columbia (Canada) is under increasing anthropogenic pressures affecting both water quantity and quality of surface waters and aquifers. We investigated water quality and sources and processes influencing NO3- and SO42- in the Kettle River Basin using a combination of chemical and isotopic techniques. The dominant water type in the Kettle River Basin is Ca-HCO3 with surface waters having total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations of < 115 mg/L and groundwaters having TDS values of up to 572 mg/L. Based on δ15NNO3andδ18ONO3 values and concentration data, NO3- in surface waters originates primarily from natural soil nitrification processes, with additional influences from anthropogenic activities, such as waste water effluents at sampling locations downstream from population centres. The source of NO3- in groundwater was predominantly nitrification of soil organic matter, although nitrate in a few groundwater samples originated from anthropogenic sources, including manure or septic systems. The dominant source of SO42- in surface water and groundwater samples was the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals. With increasing distance downstream, surface water δ18OSO4 values increase beyond the range of oxidation of sulfide minerals and into the range of soil and atmospheric-derived SO42- that is in part derived from anthropogenic emissions. Hence, we conclude that recent anthropogenic impacts have affected water quality only marginally at only few sites in the Kettle River Basin. The presented data will serve as an excellent baseline against which future impacts can be assessed.

  7. Atmospheric River impacts in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest on 22-24 January 2015 during the CalWater 2015 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggini, N. G.; Spackman, J. R.; Neiman, P. J.; White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.; Barnet, C.; Gambacorta, A.; Hughes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over 30 dropsonde transects were performed across atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the eastern Pacific during CalWater 2015. An event in late January allowed first-of-its-kind coordinated dropsonde transects of an AR using the NOAA G-IV aircraft in tandem with the NOAA Ronald H. Brown (RHB), which observed the marine boundary layer during the passage of this major AR. Dropsonde data collected on 22 January 2015 sampled the early stages of the AR, when the AR began making landfall near Vancouver Island, British Columbia. At the same time the RHB collected precipitation and oceanic moisture flux measurements on the warm side of the AR. A second flight on 24 January 2015 sampled the later stages of the AR, again passing over the RHB stationed beneath the AR. During this later period, the AR axis of moisture shifted north-northeast and fanned out along the coast, affecting regions from Northern Washington to Southern Alaska. Multi-day landfalling AR conditions led to flooding in British Columbia and northern Washington. The influence of the coastal orography combined with the shift in AR orientation is examined to understand the orographic control of precipitation that triggered the flooding. In addition, cross section analysis of the AR using dropsonde and reanalysis data are used to better understand the synoptic influences, water vapor transport, and moisture evolution during the lifecycle of the AR. To gain greater insight into AR development and prolonged AR conditions that led to enhanced flooding, a comparison of aircraft and ship data from CalWater 2015 and NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) retrievals (integrated water vapor, vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and an experimental ATMS-only rain rate product) will be compared for the 22-24 January period.

  8. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  9. Instability in eight sub-basins of the Chilliwack River Valley, British Columbia, Canada: A comparison of natural and logging-related landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Andrea; Ward, Brent; Millard, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Logging causes increased landslide frequency in British Columbia. In this study, the slope, type, initiation location, aspect, rate, bedrock geology, and size of mass movements located in eight logged tributary valleys of the Chilliwack River Valley are investigated. A landslide inventory was created by digitizing landslides identified on aerial photographs dating from 1941 to 2002. This database was analysed using qualitative observations and simple statistical tests, and a comparison between natural and logging-related landslides was made. Slope tests displayed a significant difference between natural and logging-related events, indicating that, on average, logging-related landslides require lower slope gradients to initiate than natural events. Although aspect, initiation location, and landslide type did not show a significant relationship between natural and logging-related landslides, they do suggest subtle differences. Landslide rate was calculated and compared for natural and logging-related landslides. It was significantly higher for logging-related events, attaining a maximum of 31 times the natural rate in 1978 and an overall average increase of nine times the natural rate. Logging-related landslides were on average smaller than natural landslides but this nevertheless resulted in a 3.1 times increase in area affected by logging-related landslides compared to natural landslides. Geology may influence landslide frequency as well; it appears to be higher over the less resistive sedimentary rocks of the Cultus Formation and Chilliwack Group and lower in granodioritic areas. Finally, roads affected slope stability more than clearcuts in the early decades of the study, but this effect decreased over time, suggesting a correlation with improved road construction.

  10. British Communicator Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy

    Occupations and organizations within the British press and broadcasting systems are examined in this paper. Its sections summarize recent British research on media communicators and discuss characteristics of craft unions and other media organizations; the historical development of the British press; the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and…

  11. Best of British: British Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of British databases and information services to U.S. business searchers and describes several British databases and services. Topics covered include database contents, available search strategies, access from the United States, language differences, and dating problems. A directory of contacts is provided. (six…

  12. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  13. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (<63 μm) was investigated in the Quesnel River Basin (QRB) (~11,500 km(2)) in British Columbia, Canada. Samples of fine-grained sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. PMID:25105754

  14. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (<63 μm) was investigated in the Quesnel River Basin (QRB) (~11,500 km(2)) in British Columbia, Canada. Samples of fine-grained sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal.

  15. ECOLOGICAL CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN RENEWED MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN ERADICATED AREA. A LOCALIZED OUTBREAK OF A. AQUASALIS-TRANSMITTED MALARIA ON THE DEMERARA RIVER ESTUARY, BRITISH GUIANA, IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF A. DARLINGI AND MALARIA ERADICATION.

    PubMed

    GIGLIOLI, G

    1963-01-01

    In British Guiana, the successful eradication of Anopheles darlingi and malaria from the coastal areas has caused a very rapid increase in the population and has favoured a considerable social and economic improvement and expansion of both agriculture and industry. Housing and industrial developments and the constantly expanding rice cultivation have taken over most of the accessible pasture-lands, displacing the livestock which previously abounded around villages and settlements. Mechanization on the roads and in the fields increases daily, and the horse, the mule, the donkey and the ploughing oxen are gradually becoming obsolete.In some areas these changes have already caused such an upset in the balance between the human and the livestock population that A. aquasalis, a very abundant species all along the coast, but until recently entirely "fixed" by the livestock population, is now shifting its attention from livestock to man. On the Demerara river estuary, an area where malaria transmission was interrupted sixteen years ago and where eradication has been continually maintained, this mosquito has been responsible for a sharp, but localized, outbreak of P. vivax malaria. An entirely new epidemiological problem thus presents itself.Environmental changes, introduced and fostered by successful malaria eradication, may thus cause an anopheline species, potentially capable of malaria transmission, but originally inactive and harmless as a vector, to alter its feeding habits and thereby renew transmission. The immediate and long-term significance of some secondary and potential vectors may therefore require renewed evaluation in the planning of malaria eradication campaigns.

  16. δ18O of mollusc shell carbonate as a proxy for summer river water temperature: Reconstructing British interglacial climates over the past 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, Ian; Waghorn, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    A range of carbonates exist in terrestrial and freshwater environments that may act as the basis for palaeo-temperature estimation. In many regions, such as Europe, the potential of using freshwater molluscs as a basis for reconstructing Quaternary environments is highly desirable because; 1) they are abundant in a wide range of deposits (interglacial, interstadial and stadial), and 2) isotopic analysis may allow climates to be reconstructed from a small number of individuals rather than extensive assemblages. Work in southern England in monitored river systems has shown that the shells of modern molluscs (Valavata piscinalis, Bithynia tentaculata) form in isotopic equilibrium with river waters during the summer months. This is true for both large river systems such as the Thames and smaller tributary systems and suggests that this proxy could allow the reconstruction of past summer temperatures. The potential of this technique for reconstructing relative temperatures is investigated by studying fossil shell assemblages from 6 of the last 8 interglacials over the last 800,000 years. Analysed samples all come from riverine deposits in southern and eastern England and are chosen from deposits which have known quantified estimates of summer temperatures from a number of biological proxies (beetles, plant macrofossils, vertebrates). There is a general consistency of 18O values from shell assemblages from all the interglacial sites, however, a large deviation from modern shell 18O values is found within assemblages from interglacial deposits which record summer temperatures that are significantly higher (3-6oC warmer) than temperatures in southern day England. The technique, therefore, allows a potential method of identifying periods of enhanced warmth in the Quaternary record. The relationship between shell 18O and water temperature is discussed and methods of quantification are proposed.

  17. Standards for British Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Reviews developments in British library standards since 1971, highlighting types of standards, public libraries, academic libraries (university, polytechnic, college), school libraries, and special libraries (hospital and health sciences, prison, subject specializations). Thirty-nine references are cited. (EJS)

  18. The detection of atmospheric rivers in atmospheric reanalyses and their links to British winter floods and the large-scale climatic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, David A.; Villarini, Gabriele; Allan, Richard P.; Wood, Eric F.; Wade, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs), narrow plumes of enhanced moisture transport in the lower troposphere, are a key synoptic feature behind winter flooding in midlatitude regions. This article develops an algorithm which uses the spatial and temporal extent of the vertically integrated horizontal water vapor transport for the detection of persistent ARs (lasting 18 h or longer) in five atmospheric reanalysis products. Applying the algorithm to the different reanalyses in the vicinity of Great Britain during the winter half-years of 1980-2010 (31 years) demonstrates generally good agreement of AR occurrence between the products. The relationship between persistent AR occurrences and winter floods is demonstrated using winter peaks-over-threshold (POT) floods (with on average one flood peak per winter). In the nine study basins, the number of winter POT-1 floods associated with persistent ARs ranged from approximately 40 to 80%. A Poisson regression model was used to describe the relationship between the number of ARs in the winter half-years and the large-scale climate variability. A significant negative dependence was found between AR totals and the Scandinavian Pattern (SCP), with a greater frequency of ARs associated with lower SCP values.

  19. Food chain sources of polychlorinated dioxins and furans to great blue herons, ardea herodias, foraging in the fraser river estuary, british columbia. Technical report series no. no. 169

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents results of determinations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in the prey of great blue herons foraging on the Fraser River estuary tidal flats. Observations of herons foraging at Iona and Westham Islands showed that starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) were the major prey species throughout the year. The paper includes measurements of PCDD/PCDF levels in those two species and others such as redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus), peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinum), and shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata). The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of contaminated inshore fish on the entry of PCDD/PCDF into herons.The purpose of the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network is to provide information and understanding needed for the sustainable management of Canada`s resources and resource-based industries. This document presents the proceedings of the first meeting of the Network. It includes presentations by federal government representatives on ecological monitoring and research programs in federal departments, reviews of progress in establishing Ecological Science Cooperatives for ecological monitoring and research, presentations on topical workshops, and workshop summaries. The workshops were arranged by ecological issue (biodiversity, climate change, ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals, and cumulative effects). They discussed and recommended local and national goals, objectives, and deliverables for ongoing research, monitoring, and synthesis related to the ecological effects of each issue.

  20. British military forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

    2004-04-01

    Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

  1. 1927: a British eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  2. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    PubMed

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  3. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  4. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  5. Origins of British geriatrics.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    We may see from the foregoing account that British physicians have played a major part in the history of geriatric medicine. Other countries have no counterpart to J H Sheldon of Wolverhampton, whose work on the social medicine of old age was so fundamental, or George Adams of Belfast, to whom we owe such a debt of knowledge about cerebrovascular disease in the aged, or to Marjory Warren and the other pioneers mentioned above. Long may this tradition continue. PMID:785477

  6. Thalassaemia in the British

    PubMed Central

    Knox-Macaulay, H. H. M.; Weatherall, D. J.; Clegg, J. B.; Pembrey, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Different forms of thalassaemia or related disorders were found in 116 people of apparently pure British stock. Among them were one family with a child homozygous for β-thalassaemia and eight heterozygous relatives, 16 families with 83 persons heterozygous for β-thalassaemia, two families with three persons with Hb H disease and three heterozygous for α-thalassaemia 1, one family with a child apparently homozygous for the “silent β-thalassaemia gene,” one family with six members heterozygous for a form of β-thalassaemia intermedia, and three families with 11 members heterozygous for different types of hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin. The clinical, haematological, and haemoglobin biosynthetic findings in these persons were similar to those of patients with thalassaemia from other racial groups. The heterozygous state for β-thalassaemia is overlooked in British patients, particularly during pregnancy, because it is not considered in the differential diagnosis of refractory anaemia. In many cases this leads to much unnecessary investigation and potentially harmful treatment. There seem to be several varieties of hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin production among British people. These conditions, while not causing anaemia, may cause difficulties during examination of maternal blood for fetal cells and may, if inherited with a β-thalassaemia gene, produce an unusually high level of Hb F in a person heterozygous for β-thalassaemia. PMID:4124395

  7. Important developments in northeast British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Kedgley, G.H.

    1981-07-01

    Provincial leaders in British Columbia wished to expand the natural resource base in British Columbia's economy. With this in mind, the development of the Peace River coalfield was carefully planned. Planners had to consider infrastructure needs in a virgin area, manpower requirements, and environmental effects. A computer model was developed to estimate the production costs of the various coal projects using different mining technologies. Alternatives for accommodating the increased population and services of the areas were also considered. The impacts of coal dust were investigated, alternative rail routes were identified and studied, and a comprehensive analysis of the supply and demand for manpower, both during construction and operation, was undertaken. Some 87 volumes of reports were prepared. The outcome of all this activity was a decision to build a rail spur line, a town at Tumbler Ridge, a new road south from Chetwynd, power lines, and a port at Prince Rupert. British Columbia had identified Japan as the only market that could accept such a large tonnage in a single purchase. After negotiations, it was agreed that the Japanese would buy 5,000,000 tons of metallurgical coal per year for a minimum 15 years on the understanding that the necessary infrastructure would be set up to ensure that the coal reached the marketplace at competitive prices.

  8. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  9. Are British psychiatrists racist?

    PubMed

    Lewis, G; Croft-Jeffreys, C; David, A

    1990-09-01

    Out of a sample of 220 British psychiatrists, 139 completed a questionnaire regarding a case vignette of psychotic illness. The sex and 'race' of the vignette were varied and the responses compared. The Afro-Caribbean case was regarded as that of an illness of shorter duration, and requiring less neuroleptics than the white case. Respondents judged the Afro-Caribbean case as potentially more violent and thought criminal proceedings were more appropriate. The female vignette was perceived as less violent, less criminal, and less likely to need neuroleptics. Cannabis psychosis and acute reactive psychosis tended to be diagnosed more often and schizophrenia less often in Afro-Caribbean cases, refuting the claim that psychiatrists tend to overdiagnose schizophrenia in this group. Such 'race thinking' (a form of stereotyping which is distinct from ideological racism) could lead to inappropriate management.

  10. History of British Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    1. The scientific background; 2. The technical background; 3. The initiation of the Skylark rocket programme; 4. Post IGY developments; 5. The Ariel programme; 6. The European Space Research Organisation; 7. Commonwealth co-operation in space research; 8. Smaller rockets for scientific purposes - Skua and Petrel; 9. Attitude controlled Skylark rockets; 10. The Trend Committee and the Science Research Council; 11. The transformation of ESRO into ESA; 12. The Space Science Committee for Europe; 13. Scientific studies by British space scientists I; 14. Scientific studies by British space scientists II; 15. The contribution from British space scientists to astronomy; 16. Concluding remarks; Appendices; Annexes.

  11. British Association of Clinical Anatomists

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented. PMID:19310890

  12. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  13. Tides of the British Seas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandon, Frank

    1975-01-01

    Examines the gravitational effects and the way that local conditions interact with these effects to produce the tides characteristic of the British seas. Presents some effects of tides including the possibility of harnessing tidal energy and the effect of tidal friction on the use of the earth as a clock. (GS)

  14. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  15. British Telecom and Project Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.

    1983-07-01

    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  16. Community-based stream conservation initiatives in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N

    2002-01-01

    British Columbia is a diverse province, with ecosystems ranging from semi-arid deserts to valley glaciers and vast ice fields. By world standards, BC has an abundance of fresh water in its lakes and rivers. However, rivers have been exploited for social and industrial purposes, often to the detriment of the natural values. Community groups and non-government organizations have been active in rehabilitating and restoring waterways. The Outdoor Recreation Council of BC is a provincial non-government organization that has been instrumental in river conservation issues in BC. Three key initiatives have been established by the Council since its formation in 1975. BC Rivers Day has grown into the largest river celebration of its kind in North America, and there is a move to establish a national Rivers Day in Canada based on the model established in BC. Second is the annual Endangered Rivers List compiled by the Council and released each spring. The third initiative is the River Recovery Project in which dams and impoundment structures were evaluated against a set of criteria. A short list of candidates was generated by the project that will be further studied to determine what actions should be taken to alter the management of the structures to restore ecological values of the rivers and streams on which they are built. The three initiatives described rely on local community support. The Outdoor Recreation Council of BC provides coordination, promotion, and publicity as well as some resource materials while local groups and communities take on stewardship roles for their local streams. This model may be useful for other jurisdictions.

  17. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Platygastroidea

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Peter N.; Notton, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Platygastroidea (Platygastridae) substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Distribution data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 381 British and Irish Platygastroidea represents a 47% increase on the number of British and Irish species reported in 1978. PMID:27279762

  18. High-frequency turbidity currents in British Columbia fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhold, Brian D.; Ren, Ping; Prior, David B.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency of turbidity currents in Bute Inlet and Knight Inlet (British Columbia, Canada) was monitored. A prototype instrument (turbidity event detector) was deployed adjacent to prominent incised sea-floor channels. Approximately 25 30 turbidity currents occur annually. They appear closely correlated to periods of higher river discharge into the heads of the fjords. Two peaks in both discharge and turbidity current fequency occur, one in response to snow melt in late June early July, the other to glacier melt in August. Virtually no turbidity currents were observed in winter. River mouth bars, channel deposits, and other deltaic sediments build up during lower discharge periods and are swept onto the steep delta front and into subaqueous channels, along with bedload, during floods.

  19. British atomic tests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Suter, K

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom and Australia have reached agreement on the British payment for cleaning up the Maralinga (South Australia) site at which the UK tested some of its atomic weapons in the 1960s. The tests were conducted amid great secrecy and only in recent years has the truth about the health hazards fully emerged. The peace movement opposed the tests and its stand has been vindicated. Also vindicated have been the claims by Aborigines that more damage was done by the tests than was earlier admitted.

  20. British psychiatry and its discontents

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Psychiatry in the UK is currently faced with serious difficulties arising from failure in recruiting British doctors and a high rate of early retirement from the specialty. To diagnose the underlying causes, account must be taken of government policies affecting the NHS in general and mental health services in particular. The latter include an excessive run-down of acute hospital beds, as well as projects aimed at changing the clinical role of psychiatrists and promoting mass treatment of milder mental disorders by non-medical personnel. Psychiatrists have reacted to these developments with anger and dismay, but have as yet reached no consensus with regard to either causal factors or appropriate response. Their uncertainty reflects the need for a firmer grasp of the historical background. Modern British psychiatry was effectively created and moulded as an integral part of the NHS. It flourished as long as the public service framework remained intact, but has suffered a decline since the whole structure began to buckle under the pressure of sustained political assaults. A clearer understanding of this vital connection would help to raise psychiatrists' morale and encourage them to establish common ground with medical colleagues and other healthcare professionals. PMID:20929890

  1. Immunization delivery in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Omura, John; Buxton, Jane; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Catterson, Jason; Li, Jane; Derban, Andrea; Hasselback, Paul; Machin, Shelagh; Linekin, Michelle; Morgana, Tamsin; O’Briain, Barra; Scheifele, David; Dawar, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences of family physicians and pediatricians delivering immunizations, including perceived barriers and supports. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Setting Ten cities throughout British Columbia. Participants A total of 46 family physicians or general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, and 2 residents. Methods A semistructured dialogue guide was used by a trained facilitator to explore participants’ experiences and views related to immunization delivery in British Columbia. Verbatim transcriptions were independently coded by 2 researchers. Key themes were analyzed and identified in an iterative manner using interpretive description. Main findings Physicians highly valued vaccine delivery. Factors facilitating physician-delivered immunizations included strong beliefs in the value of vaccines and having adequate information. Identified barriers included the large time commitment and insufficient communication about program changes, new vaccines, and the adult immunization program in general. Some physicians reported good relationships with local public health, while others reported the opposite experience, and this varied by geographic location. Conclusion These findings suggest that physicians are supportive of delivering vaccines. However, there are opportunities to improve the sustainability of physician-delivered immunizations. While compensation schemes remain under the purview of the provincial governments, local public health authorities can address the information needs of physicians. PMID:24627403

  2. Request Strategies in British English and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1996-01-01

    Tests request strategies used by speakers of Japanese and British English in two culturally neutral situations likely to trigger a request. Concludes that the degree of imposition goes on a par with the number of politeness strategies but that there are differences in the types of strategies used: the British use conventional forms and supportive…

  3. British Support for English Studies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This survey attempts to document British support for English Studies in Europe. "English Studies" is interpreted as covering English language, British literature in English, and appropriate background studies. The first part consists of short descriptions of the activities of the principal organizations active in this field: Association of…

  4. Psychology and homosexuality: the British Sexological Society.

    PubMed

    Weigle, D C

    1995-04-01

    The British Sexological Society was a largely unknown society composed of influential people of the early twentieth century in Great Britain. The present research is an archival study of the Society and its work concerning homosexuality. Issues addressed by the British Sexological Society are relevant to the early development of sexual emancipation movements as well as to issues of sexuality today.

  5. The Making of a Moral British Bangladeshi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlyn, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This article traces changing notions of a moral upbringing among British Bangladesh families in London. It reviews ideas of the making of a moral person ("manush corano") in Bangladesh and contrasts those with contemporary practices and ideas about the good child in London. It argues that in London, British Bangladeshis have embraced a…

  6. Providing a Background for British Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Diana Macintyre

    One consequence of teaching British literature far away from British shores is the loss of intimacy that comes from a shared culture. American teachers can help bring Britain into their classrooms by requesting audiovisual aids from the various museums and galleries in Britain that are willing to supply material. Among such sources are (1) Walton…

  7. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  8. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  9. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  10. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  11. Mortality among British Columbia pilots.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P

    1991-04-01

    We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640

  12. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Proctotrupoidea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Heloridae and Proctotrupidae (Proctotrupoidea) substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of three Heloridae and 39 Proctotrupidae (including only certainly recorded species) represents a 27% increase in the British list since 1978. Most species are still poorly known and there has been a dearth of taxonomic and faunistic work on the British and Irish fauna. PMID:27226750

  13. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  14. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  15. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  17. State and Church in British Honduran Education, 1931-39: A British Colonial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Offers an analysis of church and state influences on the development of education in British Honduras (now Belize). Focuses on the British neglect of education in the colony; the emergence of tensions between the church and state, exploring issues related to Roman Catholic and Protestant rivalry; and church-state issues. (CMK)

  18. British Aerospace Cryogenic Coolers For Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Harry W.

    1988-10-01

    The British Aerospace Dynamics Division has been active in the infrared field since the early 1950's. Originally infrared sensors were, and in many cases still are, cooled with Joule-Thomson coolers associated with rechargeable gas-bottles. Today, there is also a need for zero maintenance systems. To meet this need British Aerospace has productionised a range of viable Stirling Cycle cryogenic coolers. This paper summarises the intensive development programme which has taken place over the last seven years on such applications as the British Aerospace infrared linescan system for the Tornado and their suitability for further applications; both infrared and other sensors where signal-to-noise improvements at low temperatures are beneficial.

  19. British Contributions to Medical Libraries Overseas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Hilda M.

    1965-01-01

    Since the Second World War, Britain has established or rehabilitated medical schools in eight territories for which she has some responsibility, and, through the British Council, she is making medical library services available in many other countries. Official organizations and professional bodies provide abstract and review journals which enable medical men overseas to keep abreast of modern knowledge, while the Library Association Medical Section and the British National Book Centre have established flourishing exchange services, whose facilities are offered to medical libraries abroad. The most pressing need in developing countries at the present time is for professional medical librarians. Opportunities for training in Britain are open to librarians through at least six official sources besides the British Council and World Health Organization, but so far only two trainees have presented themselves on such grants. Less experienced librarians in the developing countries also need the continuing support of their senior colleagues overseas. PMID:14223737

  20. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  1. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  2. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  3. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  4. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Braconidae

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Mark R.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Braconidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, and the Natural History Museum, London. Distribution records are provided at the country level together with extensive synonymy and bibliography. New information Of the 1,338 species regarded as valid, presumed native and certainly identified, 83 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. One new synonym is established (Dyscritus suffolciensis Morley, 1933 = Syntretus splendidus (Marshall, 1887) syn. nov.) PMID:27226759

  5. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Ichneumonidae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Ichneumonidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the Natural History Museum, London and the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. Distribution records are provided at the country level. New information Of the 2,447 species regarded as valid and certainly identified, 214 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. Neorhacodinae is considered to be a separate subfamily rather than a synonym of Tersilochinae. Echthrini is treated as a junior synonym of the tribe Cryptini, not Hemigastrini. Echthrus Gravenhorst and Helcostizus Förster are classified in Cryptini rather than, respectively, Hemigastrini and Phygadeuontini. PMID:27733812

  6. The British Lower Palaeolithic of the early Middle Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosfield, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The archaeology of Britain during the early Middle Pleistocene (MIS 19-12) is represented by a number of key sites across eastern and southern England. These sites include Pakefield, Happisburgh 1, High Lodge, Warren Hill, Waverley Wood, Boxgrove, Kent's Cavern, and Westbury-sub-Mendip, alongside a 'background scatter' lithic record associated with the principal river systems (Bytham, pre-diversion Thames, and Solent) and raised beaches (Westbourne-Arundel). Hominin behaviour can be characterised in terms of: preferences for temperate or cool temperate climates and open/woodland mosaic habitats (indicated by mammalian fauna, mollusca, insects, and sediments); a biface-dominated material culture characterised by technological diversity, although with accompanying evidence for distinctive core and flake (Pakefield) and flake tool (High Lodge) assemblages; probable direct hunting-based subsistence strategies (with a focus upon large mammal fauna); and generally locally-focused spatial and landscape behaviours (principally indicated by raw material sources data), although with some evidence of dynamic, mobile and structured technological systems. The British data continues to support a 'modified short chronology' to the north of the Alps and the Pyrenees, with highly sporadic evidence for a hominin presence prior to 500-600 ka, although the ages of key assemblages are subject to ongoing debates regarding the chronology of the Bytham river terraces and the early Middle Pleistocene glaciations of East Anglia.

  7. A Look at Some British Performing Arts Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John Frank

    1974-01-01

    Highlights of four special collections: British Broadcasting Company Reference Library; National Film Archives and Book Library of the British Film Institute; Theatre Section of the Victoria and Albert Museum; and the Shakespeare Collection of the Birmingham Municipal Reference Library. (LS)

  8. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  9. A Firsthand Look at the British Open School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Gerald J.

    The author of this informal critique of the British Open School spent the 1972-73 academic year as a teacher in London's Battersea School as part of an exchange program in which six British open school teachers exchanged places with six teachers from British Columbia, Canada. After a brief description of the daily and weekly program at Battersea…

  10. Constructions of Racism by British Chinese Pupils and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Francis, Becky

    2005-01-01

    British Chinese pupils stand out as a high achieving group within the British education system and yet very little theoretical or policy attention has been given to these pupils' identities and experiences of education. In this paper we consider British Chinese pupils' (and parents') reports of their experiences of racism/s and their views on the…

  11. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  12. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  13. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  14. Martin Trow on British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    2009-01-01

    For almost half a century from the early 1960s Martin Trow was the most persistent American commentator on British higher education. He analysed the main reports from Robbins to Dearing, developed and applied a language for discussing common problems amongst different systems, and focused on the uncertain progress of the UK to mass higher…

  15. Gnathostomiasis Acquired by British Tourists in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma C.; van Tulleken, Christoffer; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Bailey, Robin L.; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Gnathostoma spinigerum has been generally confined to Southeast Asia and Central and South America. However, gnathostomiasis was recently found in British tourists who had visited Botswana. Consequently, travel to Africa should now be considered a risk factor for gnathostomiasis. PMID:19331741

  16. British Columbia water quality guidelines, criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This publication contains tables summarizing approved water quality guidelines for various contaminants that may be present in British Columbia water supplies. It begins with a section in question and answer format that explains certain aspects of the guidelines. Contaminants covered by the guidelines include particulate matter, nutrients and algae, aluminium, lead, mercury, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, copper, chlorine, fluoride, hydrocarbons, pH, and silver.

  17. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  18. First Employment of British Pharmacology Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Michael; Markham, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted in UK Universities to identify the employment of pharmacology graduates (BSc, MSc and PhD) 6 months after graduation in 2003. The aim was to provide data for the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) so they could offer advice to interested bodies and to University staff for careers information. 85% of 52 Universities…

  19. The British Novel: Conrad to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Paul L.

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who desire a useful research tool, this bibliography cites the works of and about British novelists, beginning with Joseph Conrad and terminating in 1950. The listings are selective with proper emphasis given to less celebrated but distinctive writers. A preface explaining the numerous…

  20. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  1. Representations of St Apollonia in British churches.

    PubMed

    Beal, J F

    1996-05-01

    St Apollonia is the patron saint of sufferers from toothache. Many medieval churches contain pictures of saints. Fifty-five representations of St Apollonia in British churches are listed. A large number of these are in the West Country and East Anglia. The majority are on rood screens or stained glass windows.

  2. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  3. A History of Modern British Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieldhouse, Roger

    The purpose of this book is: to set the historical development of British adult education in its wider policy and ideological context; to examine its various forms and formulations; and to identify what purpose or purposes it has served. The 16 chapters are as follows: "Historical and Political Context" (Roger Fieldhouse); "The Nineteenth Century"…

  4. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  5. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  6. Vocational and Civic Education: Whither British Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The current crisis in British VET (Vocational Education and Training) is explained in terms of the decline of opportunities beyond preparation for university for young people after school. The continuing large numbers of "NEETS" (those not in employment, education or training) is but one aspect of this problem: much larger is the decline in good…

  7. British I.T.A. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John

    1968-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations drawn from a 7-year study of the Initial Teaching Alphabet (i/t/a) made by the Reading Research Unit of London University are reported. The British research showed conclusively that traditional orthography (TO) is a major handicap for teachers and students of reading. Students taught with i/t/a made…

  8. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Robert S; Strathdee, Steffanie; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Remis, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP). Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955) men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744) and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232) contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community. PMID:16375771

  9. The British Experience of Reform in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Geraint

    1996-01-01

    The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)

  10. Live from Westminster: Broadcasting the British Parliament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter Hardiman

    1978-01-01

    Describes live radio broadcasting from the chambers of the British Parliament. After 55 years of campaigning by broadcasters and Members of Parliament, and following experimental broadcasting by the BBC and Independent Local Radio, service was installed in April 1978. Initial experimentation, current procedures, and implications for television…

  11. The Discourses of British Domestic Sitcom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Jim

    This analysis of the British domestic situation comedy (sitcom) as a genre begins by noting that it is considered basically taxonomical, using the categories of character, narrative, and theme to develop understanding of its discursive strategies. Considered to be preliminary and tentative, the results of this analysis suggest that: (1) the sitcom…

  12. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  13. Flathead River Creel Report, 1992-1993. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanzel, Delano

    1995-09-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on the Flathead River system, May 1992 through May 1993, as part of Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, funded by Bonneville Power Administration. The Flathead River system is a tributary to the Clarks Fork of the Columbia River originating in northwest Montana and southern British Columbia. The river creel survey was conducted in conjunction with a Flathead Lake creel survey. This document summarizes the creel survey on the river system. The purpose of these creel surveys was to quantify fishery status prior to mitigation efforts and provide replicative survey methodology to measure success of future mitigation activities. 4 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  15. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  16. Where is the British national press?

    PubMed

    MacInnes, John; Rosie, Michael; Petersoo, Pille; Condor, Susan; Kennedy, James

    2007-06-01

    Although globalization has highlighted the danger of conflating state, society and nation, sociologists remain insufficiently alert to such banal nationalism. Newspapers offer a strong test case of the extent of diversity in the construction of state, national and social boundaries, since Billig and Anderson have argued they comprise a special case where their orientation to an audience simultaneously located in a state, society and nation allows them to reproduce a sense of national identity. However, despite the commonsense obviousness of the term, it proves remarkably difficult to define what the 'British national press' might comprise. Circulation density of titles varies substantially across different parts of the UK and editorial copy is altered to address diverse 'national' readerships. 'British' newspapers also circulate in other states, especially the Republic of Ireland. After reviewing how newspapers might be defined as 'national' and/or 'British', we conclude that both Anderson and Billig over-estimate the congruence, relevance and obviousness of state, society and national boundaries. If the conceptualization of such boundaries is problematic in the case of the press, it follows that it must be still more so for most other objects of sociological analysis, including that of 'society' itself.

  17. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  18. Sustainable development in British land use regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basiago, A.D.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a new international theory of development founded on principles of futurity, environment, equity and participation. It is the legacy of twenty years of international environmental law that has established a doctrine of global trusteeship. Sustainable development has entered British land use regulation through the Maastricth Treaty; the EU`s Fifth Environmental Action Program; as well as the British government`s Planning Policy Guidance notes on land use principles, local plans, transport and historic preservation, and its white papers. The Earth Summit accord Agenda 21 is a blueprint on how to make development socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. Under its terms, Britain has prepared a national sustainable development strategy for the UN`s Commission on Sustainable Development. It features Local Agenda 21 strategies in which local authorities develop policies for sustainable development and establish partnerships with other sectors. In this paper, the Local Agenda 21 strategies of seven local authorities are evaluated according to the paradigm introduced in Agenda 21 and elaborated by Kahn that describes sustainable development as a dynamic system of integrated and interlinked economic, social and environmental sustainability. The author concludes that sustainable development in British land use regulation is guided by notions of economic development, social justice and environmental planning and not by the dynamic, integrated model of Agenda 21. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea

    PubMed Central

    Dale-Skey, Natalie; Askew, Richard R.; Noyes, John S.; Livermore, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 1754 British and Irish Chalcidoidea species represents a 22% increase on the number of British species known in 1978. PMID:27346954

  20. 'I never faced up to being gay': sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British Indian and British Pakistani gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. 'I never faced up to being gay': sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British Indian and British Pakistani gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22651130

  2. Variation in water chemistry parameters in the Clayburn Creek watershed, British Columbia during fall 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Clemence, E.; Faber, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; McCabe, M.; Toner, A.; Strangway, A.; Turner, S.; Sidhu, D.; Sidhu, B.; Sekhton, J.; Puri, K.; Paulson, D.; Mahil, G.; Leffers, R.; Kanda, S.; Gaultier, M.; Dhaliwal, H.

    2015-12-01

    faculty and students from the University of the Fraser Valley have conducted the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and five Fraser Valley tributaries as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) organized by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Clayburn Creek and Willband Creek in Abbotsford, British Columbiahave been part of this project and have been sampled for nutrient and major ion concentrations and parameters such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH and turbidity. This watershed is being threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) that may threaten the salmon that spawn in this watershed. Documenting the change in the water chemistry in this watershed as the seasons progress from a dry summer to a wet fall will yield a greater understanding of our impact on this watershed and may assist our attempts to protect this watershed.

  3. Using the British National Formulary effectively.

    PubMed

    Bellerby, Ann; Needham, Deborah Susan

    2016-09-21

    Nursing students, nurses and other healthcare professionals involved in prescribing, dispensing, administration and monitoring of medicines should be able to navigate and use the British National Formulary (BNF) effectively. Recent changes to the structure of the BNF have resulted in new symbols, additional sections in drug and drug-class monographs, and a reduction in the amount of cross-referencing between chapters. This article explores how healthcare professionals can access the information in the BNF to ensure that medicines use is optimised, therapeutic effects are maximised, and adverse drug reactions and drug interactions are minimised. PMID:27654562

  4. Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Langelier, K.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bowes, V.

    1994-12-31

    Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

  5. Malignant mesothelioma in British Columbia in 1982.

    PubMed

    Churg, A

    1985-02-01

    All cases newly diagnosed by a pathologist in 1982 in British Columbia as a malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum were reviewed. In men there were 17 cases (incidence rate, 17.0/million/year), and in women 2 cases (1.9/million/year). A history of asbestos exposure (largely in shipyards, construction, or insulation work) was obtained for 14 of 15 men, and 0 of 1 woman. Mineralogic analysis of lung on 6 of the men confirmed that the tumor was associated in every instance with exposure to amosite and crocidolite asbestos; some patients also had elevated levels of tremolite asbestos, presumably reflecting exposure to a chrysotile asbestos product. No unusual levels of asbestos were found in the lungs of the one woman studied. These data show that the incidence rate of mesothelioma in British Columbia has increased nearly six times for men compared to the period 1969 to 1975, but has remained roughly unchanged for women. Almost all of the cases in men in this series could be linked to asbestos exposure.

  6. Tropical skin diseases in British military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Skin complaints are common in travellers to foreign countries and are responsible for up to 25% of medical consultations by military personnel during deployments in the tropics. They also have relatively high rates of field hospital admission, medical evacuation and referral to UK Role 4 healthcare facilities. Non-infectious tropical skin diseases include sunburn, heat rash, arthropod bites, venomous bites, contact dermatitis and phytophotodermatitis. During tropical deployments skin infections that commonly occur in military personnel may become more frequent, severe and difficult to treat. Several systemic tropical infections have cutaneous features that can be useful in making early diagnoses. Tropical skin infections such as cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous myiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and leprosy do occur in British troops and require specialist clinical management. This illustrated review focuses on the most significant tropical skin diseases that have occurred in British military personnel in recent years. Clinical management of these conditions on deployments would be improved and medical evacuations could be reduced if a military dermatology 'reach-back' service (including a telemedicine facility) was available.

  7. Unions between Foreign Language and Business: British Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    Traditional British attitudes toward foreigners, which are now being challenged by current economic realities, and the increasing internationalization of British business, which magnifies the need for employees to communicate effectively with people from other countries and cultures, are discussed. A brief overview is provided that covers recent…

  8. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  9. Are We There yet? Intercultural Encounters with British Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasli, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on British Studies from the perspective of eight international students attending a British Studies module in part completion of a foundation/access programme in the UK. Drawing on three sets of in-depth student interviews and 15 classroom observations used to triangulate findings, the analysis…

  10. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British"…

  11. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  12. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  13. Proceedings of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    The 74th Meeting of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons was held jointly with the British Neuropathological Society in the Anatomy Department, Trinity College, Dublin, on 29-30 September 1966. The Presidents, Mr. Wylie McKissock (London) and Professor W. Blackwood (London), occupied the chair in rotation.

  14. Knowledge, Character and Professionalisation in Nineteenth-Century British Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…

  15. The Limits of Movement Politics: The Case of British Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Dorothy M.

    Analysis of the British feminist movement from 1850 to 1975 reveals a constant struggle by feminists for equality in the face of legal and social restrictions and a corresponding lack of response by the British government to movement demands. The political organization of the feminist movement is described in four phases. During the first phase,…

  16. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  17. British Television and Official Film, 1946-1951.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between the British Government's Information Services and both the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the commercial film trade after the BBC's television service resumed independent broadcasts in 1946. Examines proposals for using television as an alternative outlet for commercial and official films. (GEA)

  18. "Sort of" in British Women's and Men's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Hanna; Watson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper (Note 1) examines the form sort of in British men and women's speech, and investigates whether there is a gender difference in the use of this form. We do so through corpus analysis of the British National Corpus (BNC). We contend there is no quantitative difference in the use of sort of in men and women's speech. Contrary to general…

  19. Soaps and Suspicious Activity: Dramatic Experiences in British Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Offers examples of dramatic experiences (student produced soap operas) in two classrooms in British comprehensive secondary schools. Concludes that students in other countries would find such experiences as meaningful and enjoyable as their British counterparts. Notes that the two teachers managed to be flexible, appropriating effective…

  20. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  1. Profiles of British Muslim Identity: Adolescent Girls in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnik, Nimmi; Street, Rebecca Coran

    2010-01-01

    By asking students to fill in 10 statements beginning with "I am..." and a further 10 statements beginning with "I am not..." we constructed profiles of British Muslim ethnic and national identity. Participants were 108 British Muslim girls of mean age 12.6 years studying in a single sex girls' school in Birmingham, UK. Using content analysis we…

  2. Shakespearean Intertexts and European Identities in Contemporary Black British Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Valdivieso, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the presence of William Shakespeare as intertext in three recent novels by black British writers which deploy the work of the Bard as they explore British and European identities. Caryl Phillips's "The Nature of Blood" recreates an Othello-like figure who in early Modern Venice struggles to come to terms with his…

  3. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution.

  4. The Special Relationship: The United States as the British Have Seen It. A Selective Reading List by British Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Esmond, Comp.

    The selective annotated bibliography is a reader's guide to aspects of the American past and present as seen by British writers since the 1940s. Approximately 250 entries provide a sampling of how British students of United States studies perceive the New World. Childrens books are omitted. Nine categories are organized alphabetically by author.…

  5. Mercury, cadmium, and lead in British otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Last, N.I.; Macdonald, S.M.

    1986-12-01

    Otters (subfamily Lutrinae), at the top of the food chain and feeding largely on fish, are likely to be especially vulnerable to the effects of bioaccumulating pollutants, while their aquatic habitat is often a sink for such chemicals derived from agricultural, industrial and domestic sources. The European otter (Lutra lutra) has shown substantial declines through much of its range over the past 30 years, which have been attributed to pollution by organochlorines. There are few published data on metals in tissues of European otters and these refer only to mercury. The present paper reports on burdens of mercury, cadmium and lead in tissues of a sample of British otters collected between 1982 and 1984.

  6. Telemedicine in the British Antarctic survey.

    PubMed

    Grant, Iain C

    2004-12-01

    Medicine in the Antarctic is probably the most isolated situation in which a doctor can practise, differing in degree of severity even from that of the Arctic region. The increasing use of Telemedicine has helped to reduce this isolation and to improve access to secondary healthcare for those who live in the most remote bases in the world. The article describes the way in which Antarctic Telemedicine has evolved in the British Antarctic survey, outlining the use of low cost and low technology systems to improve the availability of emergency advice, both to the doctor and to isolated field parties, specialist consultation, medical education, and healthcare records. The Antarctic is a useful proving ground for technologies which may have applications in space and other extreme and isolated environments.

  7. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  8. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  9. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  10. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stone, J L

    1999-03-01

    nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.

  11. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  13. Towards Diversification of Secondary Special Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is the trend in British Columbia, Canada, towards diversification of secondary special education programs, which in the past were restricted to occupational programs that became "dumping grounds" for all types of problem students. (DLS)

  14. FILLING MOLDS MADE ON THE BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, AUTOMATIC COPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FILLING MOLDS MADE ON THE BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG (BMM) FROM MOBILE LADLE. EMPTY BULL LADLE IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Beliefs about Overcoming Psychological Problems among British and Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)

  16. British "Programme" Teaches Computer Literacy in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes the 1979 conception and subsequent development of "The Computer Programme," a British television series introducing adults to computers and computing. Discusses the positive response to the program. (DMM)

  17. Climatic variability and trends in the surface waters of coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.

  18. Socialism and the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Powell, M

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines some of the key characteristics of a socialist health care system using the example of the British National Health Service (NHS). It has been claimed that the NHS has socialist principles, and represents an island of socialism in a capitalist sea. However, using historical analysis, this paper argues that while the NHS claims some socialist ends, they could never be fully achieved because of the lack of socialist means. The socialist mechanisms which were associated with earlier plans for a national health service such as salaried service, health centres, elected health authorities and divorcing private practice from the public service were discarded in negotiation. Moreover, even these would have achieved socialism merely in the sense of distributing health care, without any deeper transformation associated with doctor-patient relationships and prevention. In short, the NHS is more correctly seen as nationalised rather than socialised medicine, achieving the first three levels of a socialist health service identified here. It can be said to have socialist principles in the limited distributional sense and has some socialist means to achieve these. However, it lacks the stronger means to fully achieve its distributional goals, and is very distant from the third level of a radical transformation of health care.

  19. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  20. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  1. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-08-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  2. Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported. PMID:21300314

  3. Sexual origins of British Aspergillus nidulans isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, D M; Arnold, M L; Timberlake, W E

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a holomorphic fungus, capable of producing both meiotically and mitotically derived spores. Meiosis may be an evolutionary relic in this species because it is potentially capable of mitotic recombination and because most Aspergilli lack the ability to produce meiotic spores. We tested the null hypothesis that meiosis has been a major factor in the origin of strains of A. nidulans from Great Britain by estimating linkage disequilibrium among restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These strains belong to different heterokaryon compatibility groups and are thus incapable of undergoing mitotic recombination with one another, so any recombination evidenced by linkage equilibrium is assumed to be the result of meiosis. Eleven cosmid clones of known chromosomal origin were used to generate multilocus genotypes based on restriction-pattern differences for each heterokaryon compatibility group. Low levels of genetic variation and little linkage disequilibrium were found, indicating that the heterokaryon compatibility groups represent recently diverged lineages that arose via meiotic recombination. The null hypothesis that loci are independent could not be rejected. Additionally, low levels of electrophoretic karyotype variation were indicative of meiosis. We conclude that although A. nidulans probably propagates in a primarily clonal fashion, recombination events are frequent enough to disrupt the stable maintenance of clonal genotypes. We further conclude that the British heterokaryon compatibility groups arose via recombination and not through novel mutation. Images PMID:7907796

  4. The vitamin status of young British adults.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Haller, J; Fordy, J

    1997-01-01

    Using biochemical indices thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid, cyanocobalanin, carotene and biotin status were assessed in a sample of 243 young British adults. Using conventional definitions the number of individuals whose vitamin status can be described as adequate, marginal or deficient was determined. Vitamin status was related to alcohol intake and smoking. The status of ascorbic acid, cyanocobalamin, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid and in males retinol, was adequate in the majority of cases. In the cases of riboflavin and pyridoxine the status of a substantial minority was either borderline or deficient. The thiamin and biotin status of a minority of both sexes, and retinol in the females, was marginal. In males alcohol was associated with better retinol, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and pyridoxine status and lower levels of biotin. Lower carotene values were associated with drinking alcohol. In both sexes those who smoked had lower ascorbic acid, folic acid and carotene values. In males smoking was additionally associated with lower riboflavin and biotin; in females cyanocobalamin and alpha-tocopherol were lower. As all the subjects were students volunteers, care should be taken in generalizing the data to other groups. PMID:9119611

  5. Magnetotactic bacteria from Pavilion Lake, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K.; Rees, Eric; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lower, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Pavilion Lake is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake located in British Columbia, Canada (50°51'N, 121°44'W). It is known for unusual organosedimentary structures, called microbialites that are found along the lake basin. These deposits are complex associations of fossilized microbial communities and detrital- or chemical-sedimentary rocks. During the summer, a sediment sample was collected from near the lake's shore, approximately 25–50 cm below the water surface. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from this sample using a simple magnetic enrichment protocol. The MTB isolated from Pavilion Lake belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class as determined by nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bacteria were spirillum-shaped and contained a single chain of cuboctahedral-shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals that were approximately 40 nm in diameter. This discovery of MTB in Pavilion Lake offers an opportunity to better understand the diversity of MTB habitats, the geobiological function of MTB in unique freshwater ecosystems, and search for magnetofossils contained within the lake's microbialites. PMID:24391636

  6. Magnetotactic bacteria from Pavilion Lake, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K; Rees, Eric; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Lower, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Pavilion Lake is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake located in British Columbia, Canada (50°51'N, 121°44'W). It is known for unusual organosedimentary structures, called microbialites that are found along the lake basin. These deposits are complex associations of fossilized microbial communities and detrital- or chemical-sedimentary rocks. During the summer, a sediment sample was collected from near the lake's shore, approximately 25-50 cm below the water surface. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from this sample using a simple magnetic enrichment protocol. The MTB isolated from Pavilion Lake belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class as determined by nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bacteria were spirillum-shaped and contained a single chain of cuboctahedral-shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals that were approximately 40 nm in diameter. This discovery of MTB in Pavilion Lake offers an opportunity to better understand the diversity of MTB habitats, the geobiological function of MTB in unique freshwater ecosystems, and search for magnetofossils contained within the lake's microbialites. PMID:24391636

  7. Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported.

  8. Magnetotactic bacteria from Pavilion Lake, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K; Rees, Eric; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Lower, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Pavilion Lake is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake located in British Columbia, Canada (50°51'N, 121°44'W). It is known for unusual organosedimentary structures, called microbialites that are found along the lake basin. These deposits are complex associations of fossilized microbial communities and detrital- or chemical-sedimentary rocks. During the summer, a sediment sample was collected from near the lake's shore, approximately 25-50 cm below the water surface. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from this sample using a simple magnetic enrichment protocol. The MTB isolated from Pavilion Lake belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class as determined by nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bacteria were spirillum-shaped and contained a single chain of cuboctahedral-shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals that were approximately 40 nm in diameter. This discovery of MTB in Pavilion Lake offers an opportunity to better understand the diversity of MTB habitats, the geobiological function of MTB in unique freshwater ecosystems, and search for magnetofossils contained within the lake's microbialites.

  9. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  10. Gambian-British and Nigerian-British Children's and Families' Experiences of Migration "Back" to West Africa. Research Briefing No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This research looks at the factors motivating Gambian-British and Nigerian-British parents to send their children "back" to West Africa and what this means for parents, children and families on both continents.

  11. Investigation into seasonal water chemistry variations in the Clayburn Creek watershed, British Columbia: An opportunity for authentic research experience for University of the Fraser Valley undergraduate students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Faber, A.; Clemence, E.; Yakemchuk, A.; McCabe, M.; Toner, A.; Dhaliwal, H.; Gaultier, M.; Kanda, S.; Leffers, R.; Mahil, G.; Paulson, D.; Puri, K.; Sekhton, J.; Sidhu, B.; Sidhu, D.; Turner, S.; Strangway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty and students from the University of the Fraser Valley participate in the time series sampling of the Fraser River and Fraser River tributaries as part of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Clayburn and Willband Creeks in Abbotsford, British Columbia are part of this project and are being threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) within the watershed. Undergraduate students from the Geography and Biology departments have been instructed in the sampling protocols and the collection of thw water chemistry data. Each student that has been involved in this sampling project will gain a greater understanding of the seasonal variation of the water chemistry of the Clayburn watershed. Through this involvement in this portion of the Global Rivers Observatory our students become more aware of the threats to our streams and the methods utilized to monitor water chemistry.

  12. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  13. Low Temperature Paleogene Thermal Evolution of the British Mountains using Apatite U-Th/He Dating, Northern Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, J. E.; Guest, B.; Schneider, D. A.; Lane, L.

    2014-12-01

    The age and rate of exhumation of the British Mountains is tied to the timing of deformation in the Beaufort Sea, an active site for hydrocarbon exploration. This region contains a large portion of North America's oil and gas reserves. The British Mountains, the eastern extent of the Brooks Range in Alaska, include Paleogene structures that are the onshore portion of the Beaufort fold belt. In the Beaufort Sea, deformation is dominated by thin-skinned folding and thrusting of Paleocene to Oligocene sediments that is sourced from the British Mountains. Onshore, Paleogene deformation overprints multiple older structural events. The low temperature time history of the onshore Paleogene structures will be determined through U-Th/He dating of apatites (AHe). The results will contribute to better understanding of the timing of the maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in the Beaufort Sea. Previous work on the thermal history of northern Yukon and the North Slope of Alaska provides a regional framework for the region's low temperature-time history. These regional studies of the northern Yukon and Alaska yielded Paleocene to Eocene (60Ma - 40Ma) apatite fission track (AFT) cooling ages that progressively young to the north, consistent with geological evidence for northward propagating deformation. The British Mountains consist of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic marine sediments that are intruded by scattered Devonian plutons; both rock types will be included in the study. This study aims to improve the understanding of the Paleogene tectonic activity of the British Mountains and the deformation history of the Beaufort fold belt. The two data sets, existing AFT and new AHe results, will be both be included in the interpretation of the study area. We will present AHe data to better constrain the onshore exhumation and deformation rates at low temperatures (~60-90°C). A sampled transect through the British mountains, along the Firth River valley will provide good

  14. Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors’ characteristics and motivations

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Abbas, Rachid; Hagi, Mathieu; Breton, Gwenaelle Le; Romestaing, M; Carnet, Dider

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the migration of doctors between the UK and France, in an attempt to identify the reasons for these migrations. Design This was a cross-sectional study conducted using a self-completed questionnaire. Setting The questionnaire was sent to all British doctors practising in France and to all French doctors practising in the UK. Participants The doctors were identified, thanks to official data of the National Medical Councils. There were 244 French doctors practising in the UK and 86 British doctors practising in France. Outcome measures A questionnaire was specifically developed for the study to determine the reasons why doctors moved to the other country and their level of satisfaction with regard to their expatriation. Results A total of 98 French doctors (of 244) and 40 British doctors (of 86) returned the questionnaire. The motivations of the two studied populations were different: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered by the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, moved to join a husband or wife or to benefit from favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the doctors who responded considered the expatriation a satisfactory experience. After expatriation, 84% of French doctors were satisfied with their new professional situation compared with only 58% of British doctors. Conclusions This study, which is the first of its kind and based on representative samples, has led to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the UK. PMID:23192244

  15. Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.

  16. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-06-01

    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  17. An 825-year long varve record from Lillooet Lake, British Columbia, and its potential as a flood proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heideman, Marit; Menounos, Brian; Clague, John J.

    2015-10-01

    Lillooet River in southwest British Columbia has produced damaging floods many times during the past century. The floods are recorded in Lillooet Lake, into which the river flows, as anomalously thick clastic varves. In order to determine whether an 825-year long varve record obtained from 12 percussion and vibracores can be used as flood proxy, we compare river discharge records dating back to 1914 to the thickness of the varves deposited during the same time period. Correlations between varve thickness and a variety of historical discharge measures are low to moderate for the periods 1914-2004 (r2 = 0.37) and 1914-1945 (r2 = 0.40), but higher for the period 1946-2004 (r2 = 0.55). The best correlation (r2 = 0.55) is between maximum fall discharge and varve thickness during the most recent period (1946-2004). Varve thickness for the earlier period of hydrometric data (1914-1946), which is a time of rapid glacier retreat and warmer temperatures in British Columbia, is best explained with a discharge proxy combining nival runoff, glacier runoff, and maximum fall discharge. Landslides, glacier fluctuations, river dyking, artificial lowering of Lillooet Lake, as well as lag effects of storms are responsible for the considerable unexplained variance in the relation between discharge measures and varve thickness over the historic period. The cores contain many anomalously thick varves, some of which we attribute to previously dated prehistoric landslides in the watershed or to local landslides into the lake. We conclude that many historic and prehistoric floods are faithfully recorded as anomalously thick clastic varves, but that other processes operating in the watershed preclude using this record as a reliable paleo-flood proxy.

  18. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    PubMed

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army.

  19. On the impartiality of early British clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Teira, David

    2013-09-01

    Did the impartiality of clinical trials play any role in their acceptance as regulatory standards for the safety and efficacy of drugs? According to the standard account of early British trials in the 1930s and 1940s, their impartiality was just rhetorical: the public demanded fair tests and statistical devices such as randomization created an appearance of neutrality. In fact, the design of the experiment was difficult to understand and the British authorities took advantage of it to promote their own particular interests. I claim that this account is based on a poorly defined concept of experimental fairness (derived from T. Porter's ideas). I present an alternative approach in which a test would be impartial if it incorporates warrants of non-manipulability. With this concept, I reconstruct the history of British trials showing that they were indeed fair and this fairness played a role in their acceptance as regulatory yardsticks.

  20. Directions and opportunities in health informatics in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K

    1994-06-01

    The social changes, and changes in perceptions of the effectiveness of health care in British Columbia have resulted in a large number of recommendations in the report of the British Columbia Royal Commission on Health Care and Costs. Many of these recommendations have implications for health informatics. The British Columbia Government, in outlining a response, foresees a major change in the emphases of health care, which will involve four major areas of health informatics: network evolution, automation of the patient record, outcome- and other quality-related databases, and consumer health education. These themes are discussed, in the light of the opinions of academics, health care providers, and the health-informatics industry. The themes must be intercalated into the health informatics curriculum, to equip graduates for the challenges of B.C.'s changing health care system.

  1. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    PubMed

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army. PMID:26621810

  2. Dialect and authography: some differences between American and British spellers.

    PubMed

    Treiman, R; Barry, C

    2000-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether American and British university students make different kinds of spelling errors as a function of the differences between their dialects. The American students spoke a rhotic dialect, pronouncing an /r/ in such words as leper, hermit, horde, and gnarl. The British students, with their nonrhotic dialect, did not include an /r/ in such words. The dialect differences led to different spelling errors in the 2 groups. For example, the British students sometimes misspelled horde as "haud" because its vowel has the alternative spelling au in their dialect. They sometimes spelled polka as "polker" because its final vowel is often spelled as er in other words. The U.S. students were much less likely to make such errors, although they did make other errors that reflected aspects of their dialect. Phonology, far from being superseded by other strategies in the development of spelling, continues to be important for adults.

  3. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  4. British privatization--taking capitalism to the people.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    1992-01-01

    From 1983 to 1986, John Moore served in the Thatcher government in Britain, launching that country's privatization program. In "British Privatization--Taking Capitalism to the People, " he describes the thinking behind privatization, the objections raised against it, and the actual measures taken to implement it. With privatization, corporate performance has improved and the government has been able to focus on regulation, not ownership. But in the end, says Moore, the greatest success of British privatization was that it transformed the public's attitude toward ownership and economic responsibility. PMID:10119711

  5. Is Smoking Behavior Culturally Determined? Evidence from British Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Lillard, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit migration patterns from the UK to Australia and the US to investigate whether a person's decision to smoke is determined by culture. For each country, we use retrospective data to describe individual smoking trajectories over the life-course. For the UK, we use these trajectories to measure culture by cohort and cohort-age, and more accurately relative to the extant literature. Our proxy predicts smoking participation of second-generation British immigrants but not that of non-British immigrants and natives. Researchers can apply our strategy to estimate culture effects on other outcomes when retrospective or longitudinal data are available. PMID:25620826

  6. Gender differences in the personality features of British managers.

    PubMed

    Melamed, T; Bozionelos, N

    1992-12-01

    In this study were examined the personality profiles of 132 British managers from the civil services, using the 16 PF. The data were compared to norms for the British adult population. The results suggested that managers scored higher on traits associated with intelligence, dominance, confidence, and extroversion. This pattern did not differ as a function of gender. Gender differences apparent in the general population were hardly evident among managers. Finally, the strength of traits associated with management increased as a function of the managerial grade. Yet this pattern was more distinct among men than women.

  7. Beliefs about overcoming psychological problems among British and Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Ota, H; Tatsuro, H; Koyasu, M

    2000-02-01

    This study was part of a series investigating lay attributions for the cure of psychological problems. Three groups of students--Japanese students in Japan, Japanese students studying in England, and British students--completed a questionnaire and rated the perceived efficacy of 24 different strategies for overcoming each of 5 psychological problems: agoraphobia, depression, smoking cessation, lack of confidence, and obesity. Factor analysis of the curative strategies revealed 5 interpretable factors, the first 3 of which were Professional Help, Inner Control, and Understanding. There were numerous cultural differences between the British group and both Japanese groups in their written ratings of strategies, particularly professional help, for each psychological problem.

  8. Agricultural pesticide residues in farm ditches of the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michael T; Kuo, Jen-ni; McPherson, Brad; Pasternak, John

    2006-01-01

    Transient and permanent farm ditches flowing to the Lower Fraser River tributary fish streams of British Columbia, Canada, were sampled at several locations in 2003-2004 to determine the occurrence and concentration of residues of selected pesticides, their transformation products, and soluble/extractable Cu++ ions. Of the 43 compounds analyzed, 28 and 22 pesticides were detected in transient farm ditch water and sediments, respectively. About 34% fewer pesticides, however, were found in both matrices of permanent farm ditches. Average concentrations (microg L(-1)) of those most frequently detected in permanent farm ditch water were atrazine (0.20), alpha -chlordane (0.06), desethylatrazine (0.13), diazinon (0.55), dieldrin (0.28), endosulfan sulfate (0.16), glyphosate (6), metalaxyl (0.27); and soluble Cu++ ions (25). Those most often found in ditch sediments (microg kg(-1)) were aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) (2,300), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) (250), endosulfan sulfate (500), glyphosate (1,225); and extractable Cu++ ions (58,000). The risk potential of these pesticide residues to non-target aquatic organisms inhabiting Fraser River tributary fish streams contiguous to permanent farm ditches is evaluated and discussed.

  9. Variation of Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Tributary Streams Water Chemistry, 2010 to 2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Voss, B.; Bulygina, E.; Fiske, G. J.; Birdwhistell, S.; Janmaat, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; Smith, S.; Faber, A.; Luymes, R.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M. C.; Fanslau, J.; Downey, B.; Wiebe, B.; VanKoughnett, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.; Herbert, J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has undertaken the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley, British Columbia and five Fraser Valley tributary creeks as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutionand Woods Hole Research Center. Kanaka Creek (Maple Ridge), Silverdale Creek (Mission), Clayburn Creek, Willband Creek and Nathan Creek (Abbotsford) have been sampled as part of the GRO. The creeks have been sampled for nutrient concentrations (silicate, phosphate, nitrate/nitrite, and ammonium), major ions and water chemistry parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, and turbidity monthly over the past four years. Each of these salmon bearing creeks is being threatened by anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) that is occurring in the watersheds. Nathan and Willband Creeks are being threatened by agricultural activity, while Kanaka, Clayburn and Silverdale Creeks are being threatened by residential developments. Understanding these changes and their seasonal variations is crucial in assisting in protecting the natural habitat of these watersheds and streams.

  10. The Rising Tide of Estuary English: The Changing Nature of Oral British Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    1995-01-01

    Defines "Estuary English," a fast-growing accent of British English that is spreading across England. Discusses its usage in the British business community; its acceptability and future; and its implications for business communicators, teachers, and consultants. (SR)

  11. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  12. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  13. Perspectives of Non-British Teachers of the International General Certificate of Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heap, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The International General Certificate in Secondary Education (IGCSE) has expanded its consumer base from British-led and British-staffed international schools into schools that may not have faculty familiar with this examination. Non-British teachers must adapt their teaching methods to the culture within the curriculum of the IGCSE. However, a…

  14. Ethnicity and British Colonialism; The Rationale for Racially-Based Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for ethnic schooling in former British colonial territories in East Africa and Southeast Asia. Critics, especially of British rule in Malaya and Singapore, have traditionally claimed that ethnic schools were established as part of a British political strategy of "divide et impera". An examination the…

  15. Are British Higher Educational Concerns Different from European Higher Educational Concerns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangset, Marte

    2008-01-01

    British universities are known among the other Bologna countries not to have adjusted fully to the new common three-tier degree structure. Is it the case that British higher educational concerns are different from Continental concerns? A study of recent developments in two British graduate schools of history shows that a three-tier study structure…

  16. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series...

  17. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1,...

  18. A Comparison of Male and Female Intonation in American and British Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brend, Ruth M.

    This paper attempts to identify some of the reasons for problems in American-British communication, particularly in the use of intonational contours by male and female speakers. One major contrast between British and American speech is found in the use of heads. Rising heads seem to be more frequent in British English, whereas a neutral head is…

  19. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part I: India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Colonial education has been controversial and widely divergent interpretations have been offered from contrasting ideological perspectives. British imperial education policy was highly contended during the colonial era and remains a contentious issue amongst many contemporary historians and a critical review of the historiography of the subject is…

  20. The Linguistics of British Sign Language: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Woll, Bencie

    This textbook provides support for learners of British Sign Language (BSL) and others interested in the structure and use of BSL, and assumes no previous knowledge of linguistics or sign language; technical terms and linguistic jargon are kept to a minimum. The text contains many examples from English, BSL, and other spoken and signed languages,…

  1. The British Role In American Life, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritcheson, Charles R.

    1974-01-01

    The Anglo-American Quaker communion provides an example of the author's thesis that British influence upon the United States persisted in the first half of the nineteenth century beyond that explored in traditional histories of political and diplomatic matters. (JH)

  2. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  3. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    PubMed

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  5. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  6. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1986-01-01

    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)

  7. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As three Ph.D.…

  8. The British Library Initiatives for Access Seminar: Digital Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the British Library's Initiatives for Access program which uses digital imaging. Highlights include digitization of microfilm, the electronic "Beowulf", electronic photographic viewing system, computer software that uses neural networks and fuzzy matching to provide links to search terms, and international projects. (LRW)

  9. Eight Teaching Modules for a Course on Major British Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denzell

    Each of eight modules in this course guide focuses on a specific work of British literature from a particular historical period. Each module contains descriptions of rationale, objectives, instructional activities, postassessment, remediation procedures for that particular unit of study, and a list of titles for additional reading. Subjects of the…

  10. Occupational Stress in British Educational Settings: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Mark G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews studies on occupational stress among teachers in British schools. Considers the prevalence of self-reported occupational stress, sources of stress, symptoms and effects, and coping actions. Argues that, in view of changes in education, further research is needed to provide updated information on which to base an understanding of teacher…

  11. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  12. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  13. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  14. The British Middle School at Age Thirty: An American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, C. Jay

    A historical overview of the development of the British middle school system is presented in this paper, with a focus on the impact of the national curriculum established by the Education Reform Act of 1988. Based on field observation, information is presented on curriculum, the role of head teachers and faculty, parental involvement, and student…

  15. The Application of 'British Contextualism' to Foreign Language Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Annamaria

    1981-01-01

    Describes linguistic model known as British Contextualism in the Federal Republic of Germany as a basis for the practical language component in second language teacher training programs. Concept goes beyond orthodox structuralism by adding a level of context. (Author/BK)

  16. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  17. Occupational Therapy: Roles and Functions in British Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Linda E.; Backman, Catherine L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 73 school districts in British Columbia (Canada) evaluated availability of occupational therapy (OT) services, the most important aspects of OT evaluation, OT treatment and services in general, additional training needed by occupational therapists, demographic information on therapists, and therapists' current roles and functions. (DB)

  18. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  19. Biographies and Portraits of British and Other Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingley, Peter; Chibnall, Mary I.; Howarth, Ian; Lane, John; Mitton, Jacqueline; Penston, Margaret; Ridpath, Ian; Murdin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated as a document intended to serve as a general guide to the sources of biographies and portraits of astronomers for historians of astronomy and other researchers, particularly British astronomers. It was first compiled by the Librarian of the Royal Astronomical Society, Peter Hingley (1921-2012).

  20. Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Clive

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

  1. ENGLISH LITERATURE OVERSEAS, A REPORT ON A BRITISH CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASHMEAD, JOHN

    THE BRITISH COUNCIL CONFERENCE IN 1962 MET TO CONSIDER THE DOUBTS AND DISSATISFACTION ABOUT THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH LITERATURE OVERSEAS, ESPECIALLY IN COUNTRIES WHICH USE ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE. THE FIRST THREE COMMISSIONS STUDIED RESPECTIVELY ENGLISH LITERATURE IN UNIVERSITIES OVERSEAS, ENGLISH LITERATURE IN ADULT EDUCATION, AND ENGLISH…

  2. Soldier Education in the British Army, 1920-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…

  3. British Columbia Library Network: A Study of Feasibility. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Ralph M.; Madden, Mary A.

    This feasibility study was conducted to collect financial, operational, and other data concerning the alternatives of continuing with the University of Toronto Library Automation System (UTLAS), the present supplier of catalog support to the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC) participating libraries, or of replicating the Washington Library…

  4. Teaching Culture during the Sixties: A British Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Laurence

    In the 1960s many teachers in the British secondary schools began a major effort to redefine their attitude toward the mass media in the light of certain social and cultural pressures. Changes in students made it necessary to provide materials of a less formal academic kind and to introduce literature, music, and art that would relate more…

  5. An Inquiry into Adult Education at Six British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Sylvia

    This study (which involved visits to six British universities, reading of university publications, and interviews with university officials) reveals the following three trends concerning how these institutions serve adult learners: (1) a trend toward offering liberal education courses to the general public for personal development; (2) a shift…

  6. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  7. Labelling And Alienation In A British Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The article reports the construction and testing of a short scale of alienation. The scale is used in a British secondary school to explore associations between the criterion measure and children's self concept of academic ability, self esteem, extraversion, and placement in high/low ability groupings. (Editor)

  8. Mission Groups and the New Politics of British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…

  9. Youth, Heroin, Crack: A Review of Recent British Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…

  10. The Cuts in British Higher Education: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ivan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discussed are (1) how public sector higher education poses threats and opportunities for sociology; (2) the effects of budget cuts on various British universities; (3) the retention of courses in a public sector college in spite of the budget cuts; and (4) problems and potentials of strategies for dealing with retrenchment. (RM)

  11. Administrative and Organizational Structures in American, British, and Continental Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This paper, written in 1991, examines some of the problems related to technological and cultural change common to American, British, and continental universities citing, for example, global competition; adaptability of the national workforce; changing concepts about the role of higher education; changing relationships among business, governments,…

  12. British Literature: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Susan

    This essay examines the ways in which British literature, as a discipline, has been influenced by feminist scholarship and research into the areas of gender and sexuality. It reports that feminist literary criticism took definitive shape in the late 1960s as part of the women's liberation movement, and that a central concern of this first…

  13. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  14. Handbook to the Study of British Commonwealth Literature in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, R. T., Ed.

    This handbook (for use with R. T. Robertson's "Terra Incognita") contains three kinds of study aids: (1) notes on over 100 British Commonwealth authors, (2) a chronological arrangement (1830-1930) of the works of the above authors, and (3) glossaries of proper names, local slang, and other unusual terms found in literary works from New Zealand,…

  15. A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education…

  16. Did Francis Drake bring Chilean potatoes to the British Isles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R.N Salaman, in 1937, speculated that the first potatoes cultivated in Great Britain and northern Europe were obtained by Francis Drake at Cartagena, Colombia and brought to the British Isles in the 1570-80’s. Presumably S. andigenum tubers would have been brought down the 500 miles from Bogotá to C...

  17. Rethinking Apprenticeship Training in the British Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The British government continued intervention to support apprenticeship training across the economy has been notable in recent years. The construction industry is the only sector to retain a levy/grant scheme (that supports training including apprenticeships) since 1964, yet it still faces the problem of skills shortages. This article thus reviews…

  18. British Students' Positive and Negative Evaluations of Personal Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Jones, Richard; Strong, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the central concerns and the positive and negative values of 150 British university students. Characteristics most positively valued included being happy, healthy, and reasonably honest, and getting on well with parents and friends. Males and females similarly valued characteristics on both positive/negative and centrality…

  19. Parent Choice of Schooling in British Columbia: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Jonathan; Erickson, Donald A.

    A 1978 survey in British Columbia of 993 mostly urban parents, with children in 121 public and private schools, sought to discover the ways they chose their children's schools, the qualities they desired in those schools, and the effects on their choice of a new provincial aid program. The factors examined included social class, income,…

  20. The British Peace Movement in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    The groups and personalities that comprise the British peace network are discussed and their activities are examined. The nuclear disarmament campaign is led by a combination of mass-based organizations, specialized interest groups, and individuals determined to end Britain's role as a nuclear weapons state and military base. Notable groups are…

  1. Interracial Panjabi in a British Adolescent Peer Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, M. B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration of the use of Panjabi by British Black adolescents and White adolescents in a mixed peer group, analyzing contexts of Panjabi occurrence and crossing, showed that Panjabi was important in managing the divisions that cross-cut youth community and in extending horizons beyond the confines of local neighborhood experience. (31…

  2. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology…

  3. The 1990 British Columbia Mathematics Assessment: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitaille, David F., Ed.

    This book presents the results of the fourth British Columbia Mathematics Assessment conducted in the spring of 1990. Students in Grades 4, 7, and 10 (approximately 120,000) were asked to provide information about themselves, to express their opinions about school-related experiences, and to demonstrate their ability to do the mathematics…

  4. Are the British Really Bad at Learning Foreign Languages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James; Meara, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examined the foreign-language-learning abilities of 14- to 15-year olds in Britain, Germany, and Greece. Comparison of results from tests of students' foreign vocabulary knowledge indicated that British students had only one-third to one-half of the foreign language vocabulary knowledge of Greek and German students. They also spent less time…

  5. Memos with Personality: A Model from British Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Notes that while American technical writing texts stress brevity and directness as important characteristics of business correspondence, British texts stress qualities of personality and courtesy, especially in the memo. Shows how to incorporate personality into correspondence, thereby building cooperation among colleagues. (FL)

  6. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Chad O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  7. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial data and…

  8. British and German Education Students in a Shifting Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken of students in the United Kingdom and Germany in order to investigate whether their attitudes were moving away from traditional patterns towards those that might be expected in more marketised higher education systems. The British students were found to be more instrumental and materialistic in relation to their…

  9. Aboriginal University Student Success in British Columbia: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloo, James Alan

    2007-01-01

    Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…

  10. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, F H

    1981-10-01

    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners.

  11. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  12. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  13. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001     ... the mighty river has flooded many times. The largest flood recorded in the lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper Mississippi was recorded by the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  14. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that eventually combine to form one of the world's mightiest rivers. ... Earth's discharge into the oceans. Millions of cubic feet of water empty into the Atlantic every second, and the effluent is transported ...

  15. Reconstructing a multi-centennial drought history for the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Neil; Chiverrell, Richard; Todd, Beverley; Bowen, James; Lennard, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The last two decades have witnessed some of the most severe droughts experienced within living memory in the UK, but have these droughts really been exceptional? Relatively few instrumental river flow, groundwater or reservoir series extend beyond 50 years in length, with few precipitation series currently available extending over 100 years. These relatively short series present considerable challenges in determining current and future drought risk, with the results affecting society and the economy. This study uses long instrumental precipitation series coupled with the SPI and scPDSi drought indices to reconstruct drought histories from different parts of the British Isles. Existing long precipitation series have been reassessed and several new precipitation series reconstructed (e.g. Carlisle 1757), with eight series now over 200 years in length, and a further thirteen over 150 years, with further sites currently being developed (e.g. Norwich, 1749-; Exeter, 1724-). This study will focuses on the eight longest series, with shorter series used to help explore spatial and temporal variability across British Isles. We show how historical series have improved understanding of severe droughts, by examining past spatial and temporal variability and exploring the climatic drivers responsible. It shows that recent well documented droughts (e.g. 1976; 1996 and 2010) which have shaped both public and water resource managers' perceptions of risk, have historically been exceeded in both severity (e.g. 1781) and duration (e.g. 1798-1810); with the largest droughts often transcending single catchments and affecting regions. Recent droughts are not exceptional when considered within a multi-centennial timescale, with improved understanding of historical events raising concerns in contemporary water resource management.

  16. Survey of Columbia River Basin Streams for Giant Columbia River Spire Snail Fluminicola columbiana and Great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA )

    1989-10-01

    Surveys have confirmed the survival of both the giant Columbia River spire snail Fluminicola columbiana and the great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington State, as well as other sites in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. A review of historical collection records suggests that both species exist in still other sites of the Columbia River Basin. At present, there is insufficient information to allow adequate appraisal of either species relative to possible federal or state listing as endangered or threatened species. The results of our studies suggest that additional undiscovered populations of both species exist. There is a relatively good chance that pristine habitat required by spire snails and limpets remains in 37 streams or portions of streams in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana (British Columbia was considered outside the project scope). For a thorough survey, visits to more than 600 sites will be required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  18. Early reactivation of European rivers during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Ménot, Guillemette; Bard, Edouard; Rostek, Frauke; Weijers, Johan W H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2006-09-15

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, the sea-level lowstand combined with the large extent of the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets led to the funneling of European continental runoff, resulting in the largest river system that ever drained the European continent. Here, we show an abrupt and early reactivation of the European hydrological cycle at the onset of the last deglaciation, leading to intense discharge of the Channel River into the Bay of Biscay. This freshwater influx, probably combined with inputs from proglacial or ice-dammed lakes, dramatically affected the hydrology of the region, both on land and in the ocean. PMID:16973877

  19. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  20. Genetic structure of Columbia River redband trout populations in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana, revealed by microsatellite and allozyme loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Sage, G.K.; Leary, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the genetic divergence among 10 populations of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri from the upper Columbia River drainage. Resident redband trout from two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage and hatchery stocks of migratory Kamloops redband trout from Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, were analyzed using allele frequency data from microsatellite and allozyme loci. The Kamloops populations have significantly different allele frequencies from those of the Kootenai River drainage. Of the total genetic variation detected in the resident redband trout, 40.7% (microsatellites) and 15.5% (allozymes) were due to differences between populations from the two Kootenai River watersheds. The divergence among populations within each watershed, however, was less than 3.5% with both techniques. Our data indicate that watershed-specific broodstocks of redband trout are needed by fisheries managers for reintroduction or the supplementation of populations at risk of extinction.

  1. Britishness, asylum-seekers and the northern working class: 1851.

    PubMed

    Belchem, John

    2002-01-01

    The arrival of a small group of Polish-Hungarian refugees in Liverpool in 1851 reveals a lot about contemporary political views in the United Kingdom. The refugees were members of General Wysocki's Polish legion, which had fought Russia and Austria during the Hungarian revolution in 1848-49. While British liberals had hailed the nationalist cause from a distance, they were made uneasy by the presence of the refugee republicans with radical ideas. For that reason, British liberals worked with the government to try to send the Hungarian refugees to the United States. On the other hand, tradesmen and artisans in Liverpool - who were drawn to the social democratic ideas of liberty expressed by the revolutionaries of 1848 - organized a successful campaign to grant the refugees asylum.

  2. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin L; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  3. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. PMID:20106528

  4. The frequency of consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis.

    PubMed

    Darr, A; Modell, B

    1988-03-01

    An enquiry answered by 100 randomly selected British Pakistani mothers in the postnatal wards of two hospitals in West Yorkshire showed that 55 were married to their first cousins, while in only 33 cases had their mother been married to her first cousin. This suggests an increasing rate of consanguineous marriage in this relatively small group, by contrast with the decreasing rate observed in some other countries. The genetic implications merit further study. PMID:3351906

  5. Extensional duplex in the Purcell Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1990-05-01

    An extensional duplex consisting of fault-bounded blocks (horses) located between how-angle normal faults is exposed in Proterozoic strata in the Purcell Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. This is one of the first documented extensional duplexes, and it is geometrically and kinematically analogous to duplexes developed in contractional and strike-slip fault systems. The duplex formed within an extensional fault with a ramp and flat geometry when horses were sliced from the ramp and transported within the fault system.

  6. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee.

  7. Challenges of investigating community outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lena; MacDougall, Laura; Ellis, Andrea; Ong, Corinne; Shyng, Sion; LeBlanc, Linda

    2009-08-01

    Investigations of community outbreaks of cyclosporiasis are challenged by case-patients' poor recall of exposure resulting from lags in detection and the stealthy nature of food vehicles. We combined multiple techniques, including early consultation with food regulators, traceback of suspected items, and grocery store loyalty card records, to identify a single vehicle for a cyclosporiasis outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, in 2007. PMID:19751593

  8. Challenges of Investigating Community Outbreaks of Cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lena; Ellis, Andrea; Ong, Corinne; Shyng, Sion; LeBlanc, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of community outbreaks of cyclosporiasis are challenged by case-patients’ poor recall of exposure resulting from lags in detection and the stealthy nature of food vehicles. We combined multiple techniques, including early consultation with food regulators, traceback of suspected items, and grocery store loyalty card records, to identify a single vehicle for a cyclosporiasis outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, in 2007. PMID:19751593

  9. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin L.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  10. Arts and the Perceived Quality of Life in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…

  11. Trust and British Gas partner in EPC scheme.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    In late August last year the St George's Healthcare NHS Trust in south-west London signed what the Trust's Estates and Facilities team described as 'a historic partnership' with British Gas for a £12 m Energy Performance Contract energy reduction scheme--via which the energy company has guaranteed to deliver £1.1 m in annual savings over the next 15 years. The agreement will see British Gas replace four 35-year-old gas-powered steam boilers and an ageing CHP plant in the boiler house at the Trust's main acute facility, the StGeorge's Hospital in Tooting, and upgrade some of the associated infrastructure. British Gas will also maintain the new plant to ensure that the projected savings are achieved while the Trust owns the new assets. The Trust should gain financially--via lower energy costs and carbon emissions, while estates personnel will be better able to complete the many other estate maintenance issues that would otherwise be contracted out at one of London's biggest acute hospitals. PMID:26268017

  12. Trust and British Gas partner in EPC scheme.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    In late August last year the St George's Healthcare NHS Trust in south-west London signed what the Trust's Estates and Facilities team described as 'a historic partnership' with British Gas for a £12 m Energy Performance Contract energy reduction scheme--via which the energy company has guaranteed to deliver £1.1 m in annual savings over the next 15 years. The agreement will see British Gas replace four 35-year-old gas-powered steam boilers and an ageing CHP plant in the boiler house at the Trust's main acute facility, the StGeorge's Hospital in Tooting, and upgrade some of the associated infrastructure. British Gas will also maintain the new plant to ensure that the projected savings are achieved while the Trust owns the new assets. The Trust should gain financially--via lower energy costs and carbon emissions, while estates personnel will be better able to complete the many other estate maintenance issues that would otherwise be contracted out at one of London's biggest acute hospitals.

  13. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the…

  14. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  15. The tropics and the rise of the British Empire: Mungo Park's perspective on Africa in the late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Viana, Larissa

    2011-03-01

    The young Scottish physician Mungo Park, aged 23, arrived in Africa in 1795 with a mission as specific as it was complex in those bygone days, namely to travel the entire length of the River Niger. In 1799, the story of this journey was published in a book that sold 1500 copies in the first month alone, with two further editions published that same year, as well as the translation of the work into French and German the following year. In this article, the narrative of Mungo Park is examined by taking due consideration of the relationship between the tropics, science and travel in the early days of British expansionism into the heart of Africa.

  16. Columbia River Treaty History and 2014/2024 Review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-02-01

    The Columbia River, the fourth largest river on the continent as measured by average annual flow, generates more power than any other river in North America. While its headwaters originate in British Columbia, only about 15 percent of the 259,500 square miles of the Columbia River Basin is actually located in Canada. Yet the Canadian waters account for about 38 percent of the average annual volume, and up to 50 percent of the peak flood waters, that flow by The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington. In the 1940s, officials from the United States and Canada began a long process to seek a joint solution to the flooding caused by the unregulated Columbia River and to the postwar demand for greater energy resources. That effort culminated in the Columbia River Treaty, an international agreement between Canada and the United States for the cooperative development of water resources regulation in the upper Columbia River Basin. It was signed in 1961 and implemented in 1964.

  17. Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities: a comparison of young people from British South Asian and White British backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Joel; Scior, Katrina

    2013-04-01

    Research with South Asian families of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) suggests an increased fear of stigma and isolation from the community. Evidence on attitudes towards ID among the wider community is very limited and was the focus of the present study. Responses were collected from 737 college students aged 16-19 using the Community Living Attitudes Scale-ID version. Results indicated that British South Asians (n=355) were less in favour of the social inclusion of people with ID than White British young people (n=382). British South Asian adolescents were more likely to hold the view that people with ID should be sheltered and not empowered. It is proposed that future inclusion policies integrate ethnic minority views whose religious and cultural values do not always conform to the core values of social inclusion policies. It is also proposed that culturally specific school based interventions could be introduced with the aims of decreasing stigma and fostering attitudes in line with the aims of normalisation.

  18. Wind energy on the horizon in British Columbia. A review and evaluation of the British Columbia wind energy planning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Jason

    This study examines the wind energy planning frameworks from ten North American jurisdictions, drawing important lessons that British Columbia could use to build on its current model which has been criticized for its limited scope and restriction of local government powers. This study contributes to similar studies conducted by Kimrey (2006), Longston (2006), and Eriksen (2009). This study concludes that inclusion of wind resource zones delineated through strategic environmental assessment, programme assessment, and conducting research-oriented studies could improve the current British Columbia planning framework. The framework should also strengthen its bat impact assessment practices and incorporate habitat compensation. This research also builds upon Rosenberg's (2008) wind energy planning framework typologies. I conclude that the typology utilized in Texas should be employed in British Columbia in order to facilitate utilizing wind power. The only adaptation needed is the establishment of a cross-jurisdictional review committee for project assessment to address concerns about local involvement and site-specific environmental and social concerns.

  19. Thermochronologic constraints on mylonite and detachment fault development, Kettle Highlands, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.R.; Snee, L.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The Kettle dome, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia, is one of several large metamorphic core complexes in the region. New Ar-40/Ar-39 cooling dates from the mylonite immediately beneath the Kettle River detachment fault at Barney's Junction, a cross-cutting mafic dike, and the youngest Eocene lavas in the Republic graben set constraints on kinematic models of the tectonic evolution of the dome and related grabens: Amphibolite--hornblende (59.0 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--muscovite (49.3 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--K-feldspar (49.2 [+-] 1); Augen gneiss--K-feldspar (48.0 [+-] 1); Mafic dike--hornblende (54.5 [+-] 0.1) and biotite (49.6 [+-] 0.1); Klondike Mt. Formation lava--feeder dike (48.8 [+-] 1). The authors interpret the dates to indicate that the tectonized amphibolite, part of a Cretaceous and older metamorphosed terrane, had formed and cooled to [approx] 500 C by Late Paleocene, the mylonite zone was being domed above the ductile zone by Early Eocene at the time of emplacement of the dike--temporally equivalent to the Keller Butte suite, Eocene Colville batholith--which crosscuts the mylonite, and incipient rifting was occurring in the Republic graben as evidenced by dike swarms. The mylonite complex reached 300 C by 49Ma coincident with the termination of Sanpoil volcanism, and then cooled rapidly to near or below 150 C by 48 Ma. At about this time, mafic Klondike Mt. lavas mark the termination of Republic graben rifting and possibly detachment faulting along the Kettle River fault.

  20. A field study of coherent flow structures over low angle dunes: Fraser Estuary, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, R. W.; Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aqueous dunes are present in nearly all sand bedded alluvial channels and can significantly influence flow resistance and sediment transport and deposition. The geometry of these bedforms can take on a high angle asymmetrical or low angle symmetrical shape. While advances have been made in understanding the mean and turbulent flow over high angle dunes, far less progress has been made in detailing flow over low angle dunes, commonly observed in large rivers, due to difficulties measuring near the bed and quantifying the turbulence over these bedforms. This field study documents the flow over low angle dunes in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, using an acoustic Doppler profiler (aDcp) to measure 3-D flow characteristics and a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) to provide high-resolution bed topography. Measurements were made over a dune field (~1 km long and ~0.5 wide) through two semi-diurnal tidal cycles during the 2010 freshet. We examine the coupling between the bedform morphology and the generation of coherent flow structures. Bedforms in the dune field range from low-angle symmetric to higher angle asymmetric and vary over tidal cycles; however, none display the classic angle of repose geometry. Mean flow velocity increases on falling tide while it decreases the rising tide. At lower tides, large scale motions caused by topographic forcing emerge on stoss slopes and rise up over the crest producing variations in suspended sediment over the bedforms. Our analysis is intended to contribute insight into what controls the occurrence of low angle bedforms in rivers.

  1. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  2. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  3. Evaluation of Gridded Snow Water Equivalent Products in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Hsieh, W. W.; Cannon, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate regional scale estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) are essential to skillful snow state initializations in hydrological models and improving streamflow predictions. This is especially true for the nival rivers of British Columbia, Canada. Several state-of-the-art gridded products are evaluated against in situ manual snow concourse surveys for their ability to estimate SWE over the province. These products span the range of reanalyses (ERA-Interim and MERRA), land data assimilation systems (GLDAS-1 and -2), observational products (CMC Snow Analysis), microwave emission products (NSIDC SWE Climatology), and hybrid observational products (GlobSnow). Interannual time series for the manual snow surveys and each gridded SWE product are constructed for each survey period and evaluated for amplitude and phase agreement. Comparisons of these timeseries demonstrate that the products in this study generally significantly underestimate SWE, with the most negative relative biases reported near the end of the snow season. Correlations suggest that relative interannual variations are best captured by most products earlier in the snow season, but significant geographic trends are not apparent. Skill scores also decline through the first few months of the season but show improvement as melt-off occurs in May and June. Peak SWE, which typically occurs on or near the beginning of April survey, is one of the most challenging times for accurate estimation, possibly associated with difficulties in estimating SWE for extremely large snowpacks.

  4. Geologic reservoir model for the Triassic Doig Formation, northeast British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Moslow, T.F. ); Munroe, H.D. )

    1991-03-01

    A subsurface investigation of the mid-Triassic Doig formation in northeastern British Columbia documented two main reservoir facies. Both are a product of mass movement and sediment gravity flow processes on a progradational, tectonically active continental shelf margin. Substrate instability was likely a product of sediment loading, perhaps in concert with seismic activity. Sedimentary facies and reservoir parameters were determined from analysis of approximately 150 cores and 900 well logs. Laterally discontinuous Doig sandstones are up to 60 m thick and trend northeasterly within the study area. The main reservoir facies are incised density flow deposits and laterally extensive slump deposits. Reservoir quality within these sands is extremely variable with porosity ranging from less than 5% to 15%. In core, these deposits consist of moderately well sorted, very fine grained sandstones with no vertical grain size variation. The best production to date is in the Buick Creek field with initial flows of 346 BOPD. The slump deposits are thinner and tend to be more elongate parallel to paleoshoreline. These sands were subject to some wave or current reworking. Modern analogs where similar processes and products of deposition are known to occur include the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf and the Fraser River Delta slope. Doig sandstones usually are enclosed in fine-grained shelf deposits that provide a good stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Successful development of Doig reservoirs must incorporate geologic modes that assist in understanding the complex and highly variable reservoir quality of sandstones units.

  5. Climate Oscillations and the Hydroclimatology of the Fraser River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, S. J.; Hernández-Henríquez, M.; Owens, P. N.; Parkes, M.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Fraser River is by volume the largest Canadian waterway flowing to the Pacific Ocean and remains largely unaffected by flow regulation. The Fraser River Basin (FRB) spans across 234,000 square kilometers or one quarter of British Columbia, Canada and bears a magnificent amount of natural and human heritage and the cultural and linguistic diversity of this region encompasses various First Nations peoples who use the Fraser River and its tributaries as waterways and for sustenance. This presentation will focus on the role of climate oscillations on the 1910-2009 variability and trends in annual streamflow at 141 sites across the FRB of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Our analyses reveal high runoff rates and low interannual variability in alpine and coastal rivers and low runoff rates and high interannual variability in streams on BC's interior plateau. Large-scale climate teleconnections such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), in conjunction with retreating glaciers, may be contributing to the greater range in annual streamflow fluctuations across the basin. This poses significant challenges for water resource managers and also has implications on ecological processes such as migrating salmon that are especially important to First Nations communities. As the climate continues to warm, greater variability in annual streamflow, and hence in hydrological extremes, may arise across the FRB in the 21st century.

  6. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations

  7. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  8. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  9. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  10. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Spring Flooding on the Mississippi     ... to melt and the Wapsipinicon River was 52 centimeters above flood stage at De Witt, Iowa (between Clinton and Davenport). By mid-April ... slightly below the level reached in the record-setting flood of 1993. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  11. Knowledge River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2004-01-01

    One of the most promising of all diversity initiatives in library and information studies (LIS) is Knowledge River (KR) at the School of Information Resources and Library Science (SIRLS) at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Created and directed by Patricia A. Tarin, the program has already recruited some 42 students into the profession, 20 of…

  12. Niger River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... third largest river in Africa, the Niger, forms an inland delta in central Mali. This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image ... the region as it appears after the rainy season, when the delta is flooded. The image covers an area measuring about 400 kilometers x 450 ...

  13. Do weirs influence a river's hydrosedimentological response to flood events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulcock, Amelia; Whitfield, Elizabeth; Lopez Tarazon, Jose; Whitfield, R. Greg

    2015-04-01

    Weirs are the most common anthropogenic pressures in British river systems. The agenda for catchment-scale restoration of river systems, largely driven by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD - 2000/60/EC), has led to a recognition that many of these structures may need to be removed to re-establish more 'natural' processes to river systems. These physical barriers impact rivers severely, modifying hydrology (i.e. creating artificial flow regimes), sediment flux (i.e. interrupting the sediment transfer through river systems), and channel forms at different scales (i.e. changing downstream erosion and deposition patterns). They also alter greatly the natural fluvial processes, hence making the regulated rivers behave significantly different to natural unmodified river channels. However, the above impacts, and the majority of accepted models for response to weir installation/removal, are conceptual and based on empirical observations. In fact, the impact of weirs on rivers hydro-geomorphology and sediment transport is largely unconstrained and poorly understood. Further to this, even less knowledge and research surrounds the impacts of weirs on individual flood events. The current study aims to use empirical observations of river flow (i.e. water monitoring), sediment transport (both suspended and bedload) and sedimentology (i.e. bed stability, sediment entrainment, long-term planform changes/evolution) together with climatic, hydrological and sedimentological modeling to improve the understanding of weirs' affectation on the river's hydro-geomorphology at several timescales (i.e. from singular flood events to annual/centurial scales). A step beyond the present project is to use the data and the knowledge that will be gained to better address/model the geomorphic adjustment of rivers following weir removal.

  14. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  15. "Signs of the times": Medicine and nationhood in British India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Medical practice and research in colonial India historically had been an imperial preserve, dominated by the elite members of the Indian Medical Service. This was contested from the 1900s on by the emerging Indian nationalism. This essay studies debates about the establishment of a medical research institution and how actors imposed the political identities of nationalism on British colonial practices of medical science. At the same time, Indian nationalism was also drawing from other emerging ideas around health and social welfare. The Indian nationalists and doctors sought to build the identities of the new nation and its medicine around their own ideas of its geography, people, and welfare.

  16. "Signs of the times": Medicine and nationhood in British India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Medical practice and research in colonial India historically had been an imperial preserve, dominated by the elite members of the Indian Medical Service. This was contested from the 1900s on by the emerging Indian nationalism. This essay studies debates about the establishment of a medical research institution and how actors imposed the political identities of nationalism on British colonial practices of medical science. At the same time, Indian nationalism was also drawing from other emerging ideas around health and social welfare. The Indian nationalists and doctors sought to build the identities of the new nation and its medicine around their own ideas of its geography, people, and welfare. PMID:20027771

  17. An overview of the British Aerospace HOTOL transatmospheric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesnard, J.

    1986-01-01

    British Aerospace's space-going aircraft and economical launcher Hotol, so named for its horizontal take-off and landing ability, is described. The craft uses Rolls Royce's new Swallow engine, the principle behind which is still secret, which burns atmospheric oxygen until it leaves the atmosphere and then switches to liquid oxygen. This lightens the craft's fuel load tremendously, so that it can carry significant payloads and still take off and land like a normal airplane. A typical future mission for the craft is described.

  18. West Nile virus in the British Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Garner, M M; Palminteri, L; Navarrete-Macias, I; Sanchez-Leon, M D; Briese, T; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2014-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in the US in 1999 and has since spread across the Americas. Here, we report the continued expansion of WNV to the British Virgin Islands following its emergence in a flock of free-roaming flamingos. Histologic review of a single chick revealed lesions consistent with WNV infection, subsequently confirmed with PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Full genome analysis revealed 99% sequence homology to strains circulating in the US over the past decade. This study highlights the need for rapid necropsy of wild bird carcasses to fully understand the impact of WNV on wild populations.

  19. Earthquake hazard mapping for lifeline engineering Coquitlam, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gohl, W.B.; Hawson, H.H.; Dou, H.; Nyberg, N.; Lee, R.; Wong, H.

    1995-12-31

    A series of maps plotted at a 1:15,000 scale were prepared to illustrate geotechnical aspects of seismic hazard for the 475 year return period earthquake event within the City of Coquitlam located in the Vancouver Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The maps were prepared to facilitate evaluation of lifeline damage potential within the City of Coquitlam (e.g. roads, sewers, water supply lines, oil/gas pipelines, power lines, compressor/pumping stations, water reservoirs, bridges, and rail lines) and to assist in evaluation of the impact of seismic ground shaking on new infrastructure.

  20. Low incidence of schizophrenia in British Columbia coastal Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, C E; Van Dam, C H

    1984-01-01

    Schizophrenia rates were obtained from a British Columbia coastal Indian group numbering 14 000. One subgroup numbering 12 200 showed an incidence of 10 cases per 100 000 population a year. An atypical subgroup of 1800 showed an incidence of 49 cases per 100 000 a year. These rates appear to be relevant to a hypothesis that suggests that schizophrenia may be caused by abnormal fatty acid metabolism. A study is reviewed which implies the existence of a delta-5 or delta-6 desaturase enzyme mutation or both, in the Indian population under study. PMID:6431048

  1. British Columbia's provincial nursing workload project: evidence to empowerment.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Maura; Jewell, Karen; Wardrop, Andrea; Ahmed, Ashifa; Mildon, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This case study describes an ongoing demonstration project that engages nurses and nurse leaders in decision-making with respect to workload management issues at eight practice sites within British Columbia (two per healthcare sector: acute care, long-term care, community health and community mental health). The primary goal of this project is to promote high-quality practice environments by empowering front-line nurses and their leaders: giving them the means to systematically examine and act upon factors that influence their workloads. Examples from practice sites illustrate tangible benefits from the project.

  2. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  3. Impacts of a changing winter precipitation regime on the Great Snowforest of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsvig, H.; Dery, S. J.; Coxson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Rising air temperatures have profoundly impacted British Columbia (BC) mountain ecosystems, including its Interior Wetbelt. This region supports the sole Interior Temperate Rainforest (ITR), or perhaps more appropriately "snowforest", of North America. This snowforest encompasses about 30,500 km2 and contains Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and western hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla) in excess of 1500 years old. This region is projected to be one of the more vulnerable biogeoclimatic zones in BC due to forest operations and climate change. Loss of snow as a storage medium has the potential to negatively affect the forest. A decrease in snow water equivalent (SWE) has the potential to decrease soil moisture values; impacts of decreased water availability in this region have the possibility to affect soil moisture storage, vegetative species composition, flora and fauna interdependence, and pathogen outbreaks. Given the projected climate change in high latitude and altitude areas, this project analyzes the contemporary and potential future climate of BC's Interior Wetbelt and explores the possible environmental and ecohydrological impacts of climate change on the snowforest. Models project an increase in air temperature and precipitation but a decrease in snowfall in this region. Analyses of the snow depth, SWE, and temperature from the Upper Fraser River Basin automated snow pillow sites of the BC River Forecast Centre (RFC) were conducted; snow depth, SWE, and temperature were also measured at the field site via automated weather stations and bi-monthly snow surveys. Surveys recorded depth and SWE after observed peak accumulation and continued until snowpack was depleted in 80% of the field site. To determine the influence of precipitation on the soil moisture levels in the ITR, soil moisture and water table levels were measured for the 2011-12 water year in addition to meteorological conditions; snow, spring water, and near surface ground water samples were collected

  4. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    PubMed

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism. PMID:11147093

  5. Where are we now in British health economics?

    PubMed

    Blaug, M

    1998-08-01

    Health economics took off in 1970 or thereabouts, just after the take-off date for the economics of education. Although early health economics made use of human capital theory as did the economics of education, it soon took a different route inspired by Arrow's work on medical insurance. The economics of education failed to live up to its promising start in the 1960s and gradually ran out of steam. The economics of health, however, has made steady theoretical and empirical progress since 1970, principally in coming to grips with the implications of supplier-induced demand and the difficulties of evaluating health care outcomes. Some of the best work on British health economics has been in the area of normative welfare economics, defining more precisely what is meant by equity in the delivery of health care and measuring the degree of success in achieving equity. Recent efforts to reform the NHS by the introduction of 'quasi markets' have improved the quantity and quality of health care in Britain. In short, British health economics has been characterised by the use of Pigovian piecemeal rather than Paretian global welfare economics, retaining a distinctive style that sets it apart from American health economics.

  6. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  7. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  8. Current attitudes to cementing techniques in British hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Nejad, A; Birch, N C; Goddard, N J

    1994-11-01

    Aseptic loosening is the major problem in hip joint replacement. Improved cementing techniques have been shown to improve the long-term survival of implants significantly. To assess the use of modern cementing techniques in British surgeons, a detailed questionnaire was sent to all Fellows of The British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) regarding cement preparation, bone preparation, cementing technique and prostheses used in total hip arthroplasty. Excluding retired fellows, surgeons who use no cement, and those who had filled in forms inadequately, 668 responded, who between them performed 43,680 hip arthroplasties per year. In this survey, 21 different types of hip prostheses were implanted by the surgeons; 48% of hips implanted were Charnley type. Of the surgeons, 46% used Palacos with gentamicin as their cement for both the femur and acetabulum. For the femur, 44% of surgeons remove all cancellous bone, 40% use pulse lavage, 59% use a brush to clear debris, 94% dry the femur, 97% plug the femur, 76% use a cement gun and 70% pressurise the cement. For the acetabulum, 88% of surgeons retain the subchondral bone, 40% use pulse lavage, 100% dry the acetabulum, 22% use hypotensive anaesthesia and 58% pressurise the cement. Overall only 25% of surgeons (26% of hips implanted) use 'modern' cementing techniques. This has implications for the number of arthroplasties that may require early revision.

  9. Considering death: the third British heart transplant, 1969.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen

    2014-01-01

    On May 29, 1969, London’s newspapers carried dramatic headlines:“Donor’s Heart ‘Switched Off’ by Doctors.” Margaret Sinsbury had died in Guy’s Hospital, after which her heart was removed and transplanted. This, the third British heart transplant, crystallized the deep concerns that were by then swirling around the wider transplant enterprise, notably whether the people from whom organs were being taken were dead or had been made so. Yet a year earlier, to reassure the public in this regard, a formula had been devised at the U.K. Health Ministries’ MacLennan Conference to enable death to be certified based on cerebral rather than cardiac indicators. This was the first such formula in the English-speaking world, and it included safeguards to protect the interests of dying patients who were considered to be potential organ donors. However, the third British heart transplant revealed these protections to be a chimera, and brought such operations there to a halt for a decade.

  10. Norms of care in British and American neurologic practice.

    PubMed

    Menken, M; Hopkins, A; DeFriese, G H

    1988-01-01

    At a Consensus Development Conference on the Scope of Neurological Practice in the United Kingdom, 26 British specialists in the field of neurology constructed norms of care for patients with 11 neurologic disorders. For each disorder, these specialists specified the percentage of all patients who should see a physician, as well as the percentage who should see a consultant neurologist, the appropriate duration of the initial patient encounter, and the appropriate frequency of follow-up visits per annum. When compared with American estimates used in health manpower planning, British neurologists generally make a far greater allowance for patient self-care, as well as care by nonphysician health care providers, allow less time for patient encounters, and see a need for follow-up care less frequently. These marked differences in the perceptions of specialists of a normative character may determine, in part, the different "practice styles" of physicians in different regions that cannot be explained in economic terms. Results suggest that the practice style concept should be broadened to include the use of health personnel of many types, the scope of specialty medicine, and the role definition of primary care.

  11. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version. PMID:23981147

  12. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatized in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier, This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKs) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance, However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  13. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a

  14. Growth rate responses of Missouri and lower Yellowstone river fishes to a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pegg, M.A.; Pierce, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Growth rate coefficients estimated for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, freshwater drums Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio and saugers Stizostedion canadense collected in 1996-1998 from nine river sections of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers at two life-stages (young-of-the-year and age 1 + years) were significantly different among sections. However, they showed no river-wide latitudinal trend except for age 1 + years emerald shiners that did show a weak negative relation between growth and both latitude and length of growing season. The results suggest growth rates of fishes along the Missouri River system are complex and could be of significance in the management and conservation of fish communities in this altered system. ?? 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Going for Gold in 2010: An Analysis of British Columbia's Literacy Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a recent government initiative aimed at raising adult literacy levels across the Canadian province of British Columbia by 2010. Through analysis of policy documents and interviews conducted with policymakers, analysts, researchers and practitioners, the author argues that the current focus on adult literacy in British Columbia…

  16. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  17. The "Heart" of the European "Body Politic". British and German Perspectives on Europe's Central "Organ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolff, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a corpus of British and German press coverage of European Union (EU) politics over the 1990s, the paper analyses uses of the geopolitical HEART metaphor. Over the course of the 1990s, successive British governments promised to work "at" the "heart of Europe". However, no one ever claimed that Britain was "in" the heart of Europe,…

  18. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  19. 75 FR 47583 - Application to Rescind Presidential Permit; Joint Application for Presidential Permit; British...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Hydro by operation of law pursuant to British Columbia's Clean Energy Act. Since restructuring of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority AGENCY: Office of Electricity...

  20. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document provides background information as well as degree completion statistics for Associate Degrees awarded in British Columbia from 1993-1994 to 2001-2002. The Associate Degree is a 2-year academic credential available with an art or science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer initiated the credential in…

  1. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions. The original curricular requirements, the goal of which were to…

  2. Language Planning and the British Empire: Comparing Pakistan, Malaysia, and Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Provides historical context for discussions of language planning in postcolonial societies by focusing on policies that have influenced language in three former British colonies. Suggests British colonialism, along with the emergence of America in the 20th century, is the main reason for the global role played by English today and an indispensable…

  3. Britishness, Belonging and the Ideology of Conflict: Lessons from the "Polis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edyvane, Derek

    2011-01-01

    A central aspiration of the "Britishness" agenda in UK politics is to promote community through the teaching of British values in schools. The agenda's justification depends in part on the suppositions that harmony arising from agreement on certain values is a necessary condition of social health and that conflict arising from pluralism connotes a…

  4. The British Federation of University Women and the Status of Women in Universities, 1907-1939.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyhouse, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Examines the origins of the British Federation of Women Graduates (BFUW) in the context of feminist concerns with women's positions in the universities in the early 1900s. Depicts the difficulties faced by the organization during their first 30 years. In 1990 the BFUW became the British Federation of Women Graduates. (MJP)

  5. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  6. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  7. Reactions: The British Academic Library From the Viewpoint of One American User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Donald C.

    An American librarian cast himself in the role of a user and made a series of relatively disciplined visits to a substantial number of middle-sized and middle-aged British university libraries during 1966-67 to study the provision of services and the use of materials and resources in British academic libraries. After two months of preliminary…

  8. The 1981-84 Retrenchment of the British University System. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William A.

    Information on how British institutions of higher education survive financial crises related to severe reductions in budget is provided. As British universities are working through more major budget cuts than American ones, U.S. institutions can learn from them what procedures, techniques, and philosophies allow them to survive. Chapter 1 is a…

  9. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jonathan, Ed.; Kavanagh, Kathryn, Ed.

    The guide to American and British culture, for upper secondary- and university-level students, is intended for use by learners of English as a second language. It is designed to explain specific aspects of British and American life and traditions not generally included in English language dictionaries. The guide has a dictionary format, with terms…

  10. "That Indefinable Something Besides": Southern Africa, British Identity, and the Authorial Informant, 1883-1924

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This project examines the role of southern Africa (from the Cape to the Zambezi) in the constitution of British identity from the rise of the systematic exploitation of the region's mineral deposits through the close of World War One. Reading a wide variety of print culture produced by South Africa's "authorial informants"--British authors who…

  11. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas employment…

  12. Benjamin Franklin's Pictorial Representations of the British Colonies in America: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the underlying reasons for the fundamental shift in Benjamin Franklin's portrayals of the British colonies in America. Explores the hypothesis that "Magna Britannia" was both a deliberative work directed toward the British Parliament and an apologetic work directed toward conservatives in the colonial public. Also discusses Franklin's…

  13. Privatizing Our Schools: Lessons from the British Army and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovoy, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    Notes how the British Army's Officer Corps, based on elitism and financial standing, brought the British Empire to its knees. Argues that privatization--a for-profit market system to ration out education--would have a similar effect. Suggests that charter schools (with considerable autonomy but still held accountable by the chain of command) are…

  14. Nineteenth Century British and American Chemistry Textbook Writers: Some Differences of Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some themes that I have discussed before at this seminar in previous years, namely the different perceptions of the best ways to teach chemistry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century between British and American chemists. In this paper I will examine the biographies of a number of nineteenth century British and…

  15. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  16. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British higher…

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ether trends in eggs of marine and freshwater birds from British Columbia, Canada, 1979-2002.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Wilson, Laurie K; Wakeford, Bryan

    2005-08-01

    Temporal, spatial, and interspecific trends in polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were determined in eggs of marine and freshwater bird species from the province of British Columbia, Canada. Temporal trends in the Fraser River estuary, 1983-2002, were examined by analysis of eggs of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and from the Strait of Georgia marine ecosystem, 1979-2002, in eggs of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Results were compared to those from eggs of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) taken along the lower Fraser River and along the Columbia River near Castlegar, British Columbia, and of a pelagic seabird, the Leach's storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), collected at a colony on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Mean concentration of sigmaPBDE, 455 microg/kg w.w., were highest in heron eggs collected in 2002 from the Fraser estuary. Concentrations in eggs of cormorants and ospreys taken from sites of varying urban influence tended to be about half that value. Leach's storm petrel eggs had only trace amounts of sigmaPBDE (3.38 microg/kg), despite having similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides to the other species. PBDEs increased exponentially with a doubling time of 5.7 years in eggs of both herons and cormorants. Over this period of increasing PBDEs, major chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as PCBs and DDE, were stable or decreased. The PBDE pattern was relatively consistent in most years and sites, with BDEs 47 > 100 > 99 > 153 > 154 > 28 > 183. This was interpreted as evidence of technical pentaBDE formulations as primary sources of the contamination, with the octaBDE formulations as secondary. Higher resolution analysis of a subsample of the eggs revealed the presence of up to nine other congeners, including BDE209 (range: 0.9-1.8 microg/kg), indicating exposure and uptake of decaBDE sourced congeners in North American foodchains. At some locations, concentrations of pentabrominated congeners and

  18. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F.; Turna, O.

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas` Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  19. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. ); Turna, O. )

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  20. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  1. Kootenai River Biological Baseline Status Report : Annual Report, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Diana

    1997-02-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia (B.C.) Canada has been severely degraded during the past 50 years. This aquatic ecosystem has changed from one that was culturally eutrophic, to one that is oligotrophic due to channelization, diking, impoundment (construction and operation of Libby Dam), and pollution abatement measures in the watershed. As a result of these influences, flow regimes, temperature patterns, and water quality were altered, resulting in changes in primary production and aquatic insect and fish populations. Construction of Libby Dam (creation of Lake Koocanusa) and closure of Cominco`s fertilizer plant resulted in decreased phosphorus load to the Kootenai River to below historical levels. Dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations averaged 0.383 mg/L in 1970 as compared to 0.039 mg/L in 1979. Total phosphorus concentrations followed a similar pattern. Both total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations remained below 0.05 mg/L from 1976 to 1994, characterizing the river as oligotrophic. Post Libby Dam primary productivity levels in the river represent an ultra-oligotrophic to mesotrophic system. Since the construction and operation of Libby Dam, invertebrate densities immediately downstream from the dam increased, but species diversity decreased. Insect diversity increased with increasing distance from the dam, but overall species diversity was lower than would be expected in a free-flowing river. Fish species composition and abundance has also changed as a result of the changes in the river and its watershed.

  2. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Myasthenia gravis: Association of British Neurologists' management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Jon; Farrugia, Maria E; Maddison, Paul; Hill, Marguerite; Leite, M Isabel; Hilton-Jones, David

    2015-06-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction for which many therapies were developed before the era of evidence based medicine. The basic principles of treatment are well known, however, patients continue to receive suboptimal treatment as a result of which a myasthenia gravis guidelines group was established under the aegis of The Association of British Neurologists. These guidelines attempt to steer a path between evidence-based practice where available, and established best practice where evidence is unavailable. Where there is insufficient evidence or a choice of options, the guidelines invite the clinician to seek the opinion of a myasthenia expert. The guidelines support clinicians not just in using the right treatments in the right order, but in optimising the use of well-known therapeutic agents. Clinical practice can be audited against these guidelines.

  4. Case study of copper poisoning in a British dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Bidewell, C A; Drew, J R; Payne, J H; Sayers, A R; Higgins, R J; Livesey, C T

    2012-05-01

    Following the initial diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning (CCP), the copper (Cu) status of a British dairy herd was investigated. Eight fatal cases of CCP were identified over a 17-month period, from December 1999 to May 2001, involving seven Jersey cows and one Holstein-Friesian; seven cows were dry when CCP occurred. Case diagnostic criteria were necrotising hepatopathy associated with abnormally high liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Analysis of the ration for the high-yielding Jersey cow group revealed about 50 mg Cu/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Risk factors predisposing to fatal CCP were Jersey breed, previous high yield, first two weeks of the dry period and moderately high dietary Cu (greater than 40 mg Cu/kg DMI). PMID:22562897

  5. Health service planning in a British new town.

    PubMed

    Reid, J J; Gooding, D G

    1975-01-01

    The initial postwar development of new towns in Britain took place at a time when the present British National Health Service was in its infancy, and few attempts were made to integrate health service planning into the overall planning process. The more recent new towns have been the object of better social planning and, at the same time, the National Health Service has been substantially unified, at first functionally and, in 1974, administratively. In consequence, attempts have been made to use the opportunities which such towns present for planning health services in a comprehensive and integrated manner. The evolution of a planning and implementation structure for health services in Milton Keynes, a new town with a target population of 250,000, is described, together with some of the implications for the administratively unified National Health Service which came into being in 1974.

  6. Commodity culture: tropical health and hygiene in the British Empire.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan

    2008-06-01

    Before heading to a 'tropical' region of the Empire, British men and women spent considerable time and effort gathering outfit believed essential for their impending trip. Ordinary items such as soap, clothing, foodstuffs and bedding became transformed into potentially life-saving items that required the fastidious attention of any would-be traveller. Everyone from scientists and physicians to missionaries and administrators was bombarded by relentless advertising and abundant advice about the outfit needed to preserve health in a tropical climate. A closer look at this marketing exercise reveals much about the way people thought about tropical people, places, health and hygiene and how scientific and commercial influences shaped this Imperial commodity culture.

  7. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  8. Resisting the Bohr Atom: The Early British Opposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-03-01

    When Niels Bohr's theory of atomic structure appeared in the summer and fall of 1913, it quickly attracted attention among British physicists. While some of the attention was supportive, others was critical. I consider the opposition to Bohr's theory from 1913 to about 1915, including attempts to construct atomic theories on a classical basis as alternatives to Bohr's. I give particular attention to the astrophysicist John W. Nicholson, who was Bohr's most formidable and persistent opponent in the early years. Although in the long run Nicholson's objections were inconsequential, for a short period of time his atomic theory was considered to be a serious rival to Bohr's. Moreover, Nicholson's theory is of interest in its own right.

  9. Early Holocene glacier advance, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menounos, Brian; Koch, Johannes; Osborn, Gerald; Clague, John J.; Mazzucchi, David

    2004-07-01

    Terrestrial and lake sediment records from several sites in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, provide evidence for an advance of alpine glaciers during the early Holocene. Silty intervals within organic sediments recovered from two proglacial lakes are bracketed by AMS 14C-dated terrestrial macrofossils and Mazama tephra to 8780-6730 and 7940- 6730 14C yr BP [10,150-7510 and 8990- 7510 cal yr BP]. Radiocarbon ages ranging from 7720 to 7380 14C yr BP [8630- 8020 cal yr BP] were obtained from detrital wood in recently deglaciated forefields of Sphinx and Sentinel glaciers. These data, together with previously published data from proglacial lakes in the Canadian Rockies, imply that glaciers in western Canada advanced during the early Holocene. The advance coincides with the well-documented 8200-yr cold event identified in climate proxy data sets in the North Atlantic region and elsewhere.

  10. The British Geological Survey and the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chesher, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The British Geological Survey is the UK`s national centre for earth science information with a parallel remit to operate internationally. The Survey`s work covers the full geoscience spectrum in energy, mineral and groundwater resources and associated implications for land use, geological hazards and environmental impact. Much of the work is conducted in collaboration with industry and academia, including joint funding opportunities. Activities relating directly to hydrocarbons include basin analysis, offshore geoscience mapping, hazard assessment, fracture characterization, biostratigraphy, sedimentology, seismology, geomagnetism and frontier data acquisition techniques, offshore. The BGS poster presentation illustrates the value of the collaborative approach through consortia support for regional offshore surveys, geotechnical hazard assessments and state-of-the-art R & D into multicomponent seismic imaging techniques, among others.

  11. Lunacy and the 'Islands in the British Seas'.

    PubMed

    Hirst, David

    2007-12-01

    In the mid-nineteenth century the Dependent Territories of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man all had small, relatively stable populations, many of whom did not speak English as their first language. The response of each to the public asylum movement was very different. Guernsey had an asylum by 1852, but Jersey and the Isle of Man opened permanent asylums only in 1868. This comparative study examines the interactions between British government agencies, the Home Office, Commissioners in Lunacy and Lieutenant Governors, and the autonomous insular legislatures. It discusses the reasons why Jersey and the Isle of Man were reluctant to establish publicly funded asylums, the alternatives considered, and the opportunities afforded to private madhouse proprietors by absent or lax supervisory frameworks.

  12. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries.

    PubMed

    Robb, Carolyn K

    2014-01-01

    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  13. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  14. Ecological niche modeling of lyme disease in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mak, Sunny; Morshed, Muhammad; Henry, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the geographic distribution and model the ecological niche for Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwaldt & Brenner), Ixodes pacificus (Cooley & Kohls), and Ixodes angustus (Neumann), the bacterium and primary tick vectors for Lyme disease, in British Columbia (BC), Canada. We employed a landscape epidemiology approach using geographic information systems mapping and ecological niche modeling (Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction) to identify geographical areas of disease transmission risk. Forecasted optimal ecological niche areas for B. burgdorferi are focused along the coast of Vancouver Island, the southwestern coast of the BC mainland, and in valley systems of interior BC roughly along and below the N51 degree line of latitude. These findings have been used to increase public and physician awareness of Lyme disease risk, and prioritize future field sampling for ticks in BC. PMID:20180315

  15. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required.

  16. Why British GPs use computers and hospital doctors do not.

    PubMed

    Benson, T

    2001-01-01

    Almost all general medical practitioners (GPs) in the UK use computers, compared with less than one in ten of hospital doctors. This paper explains how this unexpected situation came about over a thirty-year period, identifying some of the successes and failures of British medical computing along the way. Twelve separate factors are considered. The major determinants have not been technical, but rather a strong tide of political backing for general practice and leadership from the profession at the highest level, which have combined to build an appropriate regulatory framework and financial incentives that have encouraged GPs to embrace computers. Hospital computing has some difficulties not met by GPs, but the main factor preventing progress has been the lack of any real incentive positive (carrot) or negative (stick), for hospital doctors to use computers.

  17. British Military snake-bite guidelines: pressure immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Wall, Colin

    2012-09-01

    Snake-bite is a significant problem worldwide. Despite frequent deployments and exercises to countries where venomous snakes are endemic there are few reported cases of British Army personnel being bitten. Clinical Guidelines for Operations includes direction on the treatment of snakebite, including the application of pressure immobilisation. This article reviews the history and development of pressure immobilisation, the optimum equipment and the efficacy of training in order to inform future guidelines. It is the conclusion of this review that pressure immobilisation should be advocated in all snakebites where the snake species is not known. In addition guidelines should advocate the use of Sam splints and Emergency Bandages in the application of pressure immobilisation.

  18. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology.

    PubMed

    Rose, F Clifford

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles

  19. Occupational mortality in British commercial fishing, 1976–95

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To establish the causes and circumstances of all deaths occurring at work or related to work among fishermen in British commercial fishing between 1976 and 1995. Methods: A retrospective study, based on official mortality files, with a population of 440 355 fishermen-years at risk. Results: Of 616 deaths in British fishing, 454 (74%) were due to accidents at work, and 394 (87%) of these fishermen drowned. A total of 270 accidents were caused by casualties to vessels and 184 by personal accidents. There was no significant decline in the fatal accident rate, 103.1 per 100 000 fishermen-years, between 1976 and 1995. The fatal accident rate was 52.4 times higher (95% CI 42.9 to 63.8) than for all workers in Great Britain during the same period, and this relative risk increased through the 1980s up to 76.6 during 1991–95. Relative risks with the construction (12.3) and manufacturing (46.0) industries were higher than 5 and 20 respectively, during 1959–68. Trawlers foundering in adverse weather was the most frequent cause of mortality from casualties to vessels (115 deaths), and 82 of 145 personal accidents at sea arose during operations involving trawling nets. Conclusions: When compared with shore based industries, fishing remains at least as hazardous as before. Prevention should be aimed, most importantly, at the unnecessary operation of small vessels and trawling net manoeuvres in hazardous weather and sea conditions. Other measures should focus on preventing falls overboard, reducing fatigue, a more widespread use of personal flotation devices, and improvements in weather forecast evaluation. PMID:14691268

  20. An Early Pleistocene Till, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.

    2011-12-01

    During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts

  1. J.G. Crowther's War: Institutional strife at the BBC and British Council.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan

    2016-06-01

    Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts.

  2. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Shin, Hyoung-jin

    2013-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19th Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities. PMID:24259757

  3. Flow-pattern evolution of the last British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. C.; Clark, Chris D.; Jordan, Colm J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-flow patterns of the last British Ice Sheet from build-up to demise derived from geomorphological evidence. 100 flowsets identified in the subglacial bedform record (drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and ribbed moraine) are combined with ancillary evidence (erratic-transport paths, absolute dates and a semi-independently reconstructed retreat pattern) to define flow patterns, ice divides and ice-sheet margins during build-up, maximum glaciation and retreat. Overprinting and cross-cutting of landform assemblages are used to define the relative chronology of flow patterns and a tentative absolute chronology is presented based on a collation of available dates for ice advance and retreat. The ice-flow configuration of the last British Ice Sheet was not static. Some ice divides were remarkably stable, persisting through multiple stages of the ice-sheet evolution, whereas others were transient features existing for a short time and/or shifting in position 10s km. The 10 reconstructed stages of ice-sheet geometry capture two main modes of operation; first as an integrated ice sheet with a broadly N-S orientated ice divide, and second as a multi-domed ice sheet orientated parallel with the shelf edge. A thick integrated ice sheet developed as ice expanded out of source areas in Scotland to envelop southerly ice caps in northern England and Wales, and connect with the Irish Ice Sheet to the west and the Scandinavian Ice Sheet across the North Sea. Following break-up of ice over the North Sea, ice streaming probably drove mass loss and ice-sheet thinning to create a more complex divide structure, where ice-flow patterns were largely controlled by the form of the underlying topography. Ice surface lowering occurred before separation of, and retreat to, multiple ice centres centred over high ground. We consider this 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-sheet configuration to be the simplest palaeo

  4. Climate Change Impacts to Hydro Power Reservoir Systems in British Columbia, Canada: Modelling, Validation and Projection of Historic and Future Streamflow and Snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Schnorbus, M.; Werner, A. T.; Berland, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The British Columbia Hydro Electric Corporation (BC Hydro) has a mandate to provide clean, renewable and reliable sources of hydro-electric power into the future, hence managing those resources in the context of climate change will be an important component of reservoir operational planning in British Columbia. The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (www.PacificClimate.org) has implemented the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model parameterized at 1/16th degree (~32 km2) to provide BC Hydro with future projections of changes to streamflow and snowpack to the 2050s. The headwaters of the Peace, Columbia, and Campbell River basins were selected for study; the Upper Peace River basin (101,000 km2) is a snowmelt-dominated watershed, and the Upper Columbia River Basin (104,000 km2) has a mixed snowmelt-glacier melt runoff regime, with glacier runoff contributing up to 15 to 20% of late summer discharge. The Upper Campbell River watershed (1,200 km2) has a mixed rainfall and snowmelt (hybrid) hydrologic regime. The model has been calibrated using historical streamflow observations and validated against these observations, as well as automated snow pillow measurements. Future streamflow changes are estimated based on eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the CMIP3 suite, downscaled using the Bias Correction Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, run under three emissions scenarios (A2, A1B and B1; A1B is specifically reported on herein). Climate impacts by the 2050s in the three watersheds illustrate an increase in annual average temperature and precipitation ranging between +2.2°C to +2.8°C and +2% to +10% depending on basin, and an annual change in streamflow of -1% to +12% for the three watersheds. Changes are more profound on the seasonal time-scale and differ across basins. Summer streamflow in the Upper Campbell River watershed is projected to decline by -60%, where as the Upper Peace and Columbia systems are projected to decline by -25% and -22

  5. "Mirror, mirror...." a preliminary investigation of skin tone dissatisfaction and its impact among British adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Henry, Amy; Peacock, Nicola; Roberts-Dunn, Ahkin; Porter, Alan

    2013-10-01

    This study examined skin tone dissatisfaction, measured using a skin tone chart, among a multiethnic sample of British adults. A total of 648 British White individuals, 292 British South Asians, and 260 British African Caribbean participants completed a visual task in which they were asked to indicate their actual and ideal skin tones. They also completed measures of body appreciation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity attachment. Results showed that Asians had a lighter skin tone ideal than White and African Caribbean participants. Conversely, White participants had higher skin tone dissatisfaction (preferring a darker skin tone) than Asian and African Caribbean participants, who preferred a lighter skin tone. Results also showed that skin tone dissatisfaction predicted body appreciation once the effects of participant ethnicity, age, ethnic identity attachment, and self-esteem had been accounted for. Implications of our findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Unleashing the Power of Learning. An Interview with British Petroleum's John Browne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokesch, Steven E.

    1997-01-01

    British Petroleum's chief executive officer explains how the organization was redesigned to foster learning. Key topics include clear purpose, shared knowledge, distinctive relationships, breakthrough thinking, and peer team structure. (SK)

  7. The Maidstone Movement-Influential British Precursor of American Public School Instrumental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deverich, Robin K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the historical development of the British Maidstone Movement, a group violin instructional program for children. Examines the impact of the movement upon instrumental classes in U.S. public schools. (RKM)

  8. Steering under Conditions of Retrenchment in Higher Education: The British Experiences from a German Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1988-01-01

    The West German and British experiences in higher education planning and governance during a period of retrenchment are compared. Changes are interpreted in terms of the underlying characteristics of the two systems and their governance. (Author/MSE)

  9. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TWO CYCLOSPORIASIS OUTBREAKS IN VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two cyclosporiasis outbreaks in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) were investigated using molegular epidemiology. The cause of the 1999 outbreak has not been identiifed whereas the 2001 oubreak has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Thai basil. The internal tran...

  10. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  11. Three thousand families: English Canada's colonizing vision and British family settlement, 1919-39.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    After the First World War, Canada's immigration policy became more restrictive and immigration more controlled. For English Canadians, immigration of the "right type" of people—those from the British Isles—remained vital to strengthening the nation. This article examines the 3,000 Family Scheme, a joint British-Canadian settlement project in which British families, comprised of over 18,000 individuals, were relocated to homesteads as colonizers of Canada's remote areas. There, many endured isolation and hardship, and were largely blamed for their own plight. A nation-building project that failed, the 3,000 Family Scheme reveals the connections among several enduring national myths in the interwar years: the potential for agricultural expansion, British superiority, and the capabilities of a maturing Canadian state to control the settlement process.

  12. Analyses of flow modification on water quality on Nechako River

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.C.; James, C.B.; Edinger, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    Alcan Smelters and Chemicals Ltd. initiated construction of the final phase of the Kemano Completion Project in north-central British Columbia to divert additional water from the Nechako Reservoir to the existing powerhouse. The Nechako Reservoir was created by the construction of the Kenney Dam in Nechako Canyon, a natural barrier to salmon migration. The Nechako River downstream of Nechako Canyon supports important runs of sockeye and chinook salmon. This additional diversion of Nechako River flow creates the potential of high water temperatures and increased thermal stress to migrating sockeye salmon enroute to their spawning grounds in Nechako River tributaries. To achieve specific downstream water temperature objectives during sockeye salmon migration each summer, a two-level outlet facility adjacent to Kenney Dam is to be constructed to release cooling water at 10 C to the Nechako River. Results of mathematical modeling of Nechako River water temperatures show that, based on specified design criteria, a maximum Kenney Dam release of 167 m{sup 3}/s at 10 C would be required to meet the downstream water temperature objectives.

  13. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2005-07-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2005 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN Watershed Coordination Program is coordinating projects and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. The KRN willingly shares its resources with these groups. The 2004-2005 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out by one half-time Watershed Coordinator position in Montana-Idaho (Nancy Zapotocki) and one half-time Watershed Coordination team in British Columbia (Laura and Jim Duncan). Nancy Zapotocki was hired as the KRN US Watershed Coordinator in July 2004. Her extensive work experience in outreach and education and watershed planning complements the Duncans in British Columbia. To continue rejuvenating and revitalizing the KRN, the Board conducted a second retreat in November 2004. The first retreat took place in November 2003. Board and staff members combined efforts to define KRN goals and ways of achieving them. An Education and Outreach Plan formulated by the Watershed Coordinators was used to guide much of the discussions. The conclusions reached during the retreat specified four ''flagship'' projects for 2005-2006, to: (1) Provide leadership and facilitation, and build on current work related to the TMDL plans and planning efforts on the United States side of the border. (2) Continue facilitating trans-boundary British Columbia projects building on established work and applying the KRN model of project facilitation to other areas of the Kootenai basin. (3) Finalize and implement the KRN Education and Outreach plan

  14. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored. PMID:19848549

  15. British Thoracic Society guidelines for home oxygen use in adults.

    PubMed

    Hardinge, Maxine; Annandale, Joe; Bourne, Simon; Cooper, Brendan; Evans, Angela; Freeman, Daryl; Green, Angela; Hippolyte, Sabrine; Knowles, Vikki; MacNee, William; McDonnell, Lynn; Pye, Kathy; Suntharalingam, Jay; Vora, Vandana; Wilkinson, Tom

    2015-06-01

    The British Thoracic Society (BTS) Home Oxygen Guideline provides detailed evidence-based guidance for the use of home oxygen for patients out of hospital. Although the majority of evidence comes from the use of oxygen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the scope of the guidance includes patients with a variety of long-term respiratory illnesses and other groups in whom oxygen is currently ordered, such as those with cardiac failure, cancer and end-stage cardiorespiratory disease, terminal illness or cluster headache. It explores the evidence base for the use of different modalities of oxygen therapy and patient-related outcomes such as mortality, symptoms and quality of life. The guideline also makes recommendations for assessment and follow-up protocols, and risk assessments, particularly in the clinically challenging area of home oxygen users who smoke. The guideline development group is aware of the potential for confusion sometimes caused by the current nomenclature for different types of home oxygen, and rather than renaming them, has adopted the approach of clarifying those definitions, and in particular emphasising what is meant by long-term oxygen therapy and palliative oxygen therapy. The home oxygen guideline provides expert consensus opinion in areas where clinical evidence is lacking, and seeks to deliver improved prescribing practice, leading to improved compliance and improved patient outcomes, with consequent increased value to the health service.

  16. Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenagan, J. Donald

    2013-05-01

    The upland-lowland pattern in the plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada forms an extremely large anastomosing channel network, with the uplands representing interfluves between channels. The study area landscape is remarkably similar in form to water-produced channel systems and qualitatively resembles flood landscapes from the Channelled Scablands and the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Numerical shape analysis of the area erosional residuals gives similar results as those derived from known flood landscapes; the length-to-width ratios of the uplands (L/W = 2.38, R2 = 0.89) are similar to those reported for braid bars and erosional residuals formed by glacial outburst floods. Thus, the study area landscape records a megaflood or floods that almost completely immersed the landscape. Drumlins with, in places, ubiquitous hairpin furrows, locations downstream from steep slopes facing into the flow, and eroded into till and bedrock similarly reflect regional-scale meltwater flow that immersed the landscape. The regional flow submerged the anastomosing channels at the time of drumlin formation. Drumlins likely formed as the anastomosing network developed; divergent drumlin orientations probably reflect either late flow or separate drumlin-forming events that did not appreciably alter the anastomosing system.

  17. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR) and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs. PMID:20406489

  18. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  19. The deepwater exchange cycle in Indian Arm, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Brad de; Pond, Stephen

    1988-03-01

    A silled fjord on the British Columbia coast, Indian Arm, was used to study the exchange processes controlling deepwater exchange in fjords. Bottom-water renewal took place during the winter of 1984/85. Hydraulic control of the exchange is exerted over the long sill which restricts access to the fjord. The maximum density at the sill occurs during neap tides. No distinct peaks in the velocity at the sill are observed during periods of inflow. Reduced vertical mixing over the long sill during periods of neap tides sets the timing of the bottom water exchange. During each inflow over the 1984/85 winter about 20% of the water in the fjord was replaced. These exchanges occurred over periods of 5-10 days. Between the exchange years, diffusion of the water in the basin is important in conditioning the water for the next exchange event. The vertical diffusion coefficient ( Kt) was determined from an analysis of the salinity data and was found to be related to the buoyancy frequency N by the relationship, KvαN-1·6.

  20. The British Orthodontic Society MOrth cases prize 2014.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mohammad O

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successful in winning the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) Membership in Orthodonitcs (MOrth) cases prize in 2014. The first case describes the management of a 26-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class III skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an unerupted ectopic palatally displaced upper right permanent canine, an erupted palatally displaced upper left permanent canine, retained deciduous canines, generalised microdontia, an overall Bolton tooth size discrepancy, mild crowding in the upper arch, an increased overbite (complete to tooth tissue) and crossbites. Treatment involved a surgical exposure of the ectopic canine and the use of fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. The second case describes the management of a 12-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class 2 skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an increased overjet and overbite (complete to soft tissue), mild upper and lower arch crowding and an increased naso-labial angle. Treatment involved an initial phase of modified Clark Twin Block and sectional fixed appliances followed by complete fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. PMID:27086722

  1. Predisposing factors leading to depression in the British Army.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Srinivasan, Mike; Simpson, Robin

    Few studies have explored the predisposing factors leading to depression within the British Army, and this qualitative investigation provides a novel approach to advance knowledge in this poorly researched area. Information was provided by army mental health (MH) clinicians, with results aligned to theoretical groupings under the headings of: occupational stressors; macho culture, stigma and bullying; unhappy young soldier; relationships and gender. These issues were influenced by peacetime and operational settings; the support offered by the Army Medical Services and unit command. The results indicate that Army personnel are exposed to multi-factorial stressors that are incremental/accumulative in nature. Soldiers can cope with extreme pressures, often in hostile environments, but often cannot cope with a failing relationship. Officers were worried about the occupational implications of reporting ill, and the negative impact on their career, and might seek support from private civilian agencies, which have potentially dangerous ramifications as they may still deploy. GPs refer female soldiers more frequently for a mental health assessment because women express their emotions more openly then men. Young disillusioned soldiers who want to leave the Army form the main group of personnel accessing mental health support, although often they are not clinically depressed.

  2. Recovery and mental health: a review of the British literature.

    PubMed

    Bonney, S; Stickley, T

    2008-03-01

    Recovery is not a new concept within mental health, although in recent times, it has come to the forefront of the policy agenda. However, there is no universal definition of recovery, and it is a contested concept. The aim of this study was to examine the British literature relating to recovery in mental health. Three contributing groups are identified: service users, health care providers and policy makers. A review of the literature was conducted by accessing all relevant published texts. A search was conducted using these terms: 'recovery', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'mental illness' and 'mental health'. Over 170 papers were reviewed. A thematic analysis was conducted. Six main themes emerged, which were examined from the perspective of the stakeholder groups. The dominant themes were identity, the service provision agenda, the social domain, power and control, hope and optimism, risk and responsibility. Consensus was found around the belief that good quality care should be made available to service users to promote recovery both as inpatient or in the community. However, the manner in which recovery was defined and delivered differed between the groups. PMID:18211561

  3. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development. PMID:26930031

  4. The British Interplanetary Society - Val Cleaver and Wernher von Braun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willhite, I. P.

    This article is concerned with the early relationship between Wernher von Braun and the British Interplanetary Society (BIS). The BIS/Wernher von Braun/Val Cleaver correspondence files located here at the US Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama are unparalleled. As one reads the stimulating comments between Cleaver and von Braun, the need to share their thoughts prevails. Following is an excerpt from one letter that whets ones appetite for more. 10 June 1951 Cleaver writes, “I'm so glad you enjoyed my last letter, and look forward to your promised further contribution to our discussion of the ethics of science in general and astronautics in particu- lar. As regards the one particular point on which you found yourself unable to hold your fire, I should say there are really two distinct issues at stake:. . .” This article attempts to represent the best of the letters as they goad each other on scientific principles, means to prevent wars, and other philosophic ideas.

  5. Perceptions of technology at sea amongst British seafaring officers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    The use of Information Communication Technology is growing in the maritime industry as more systems become monitored remotely and new technologies are introduced to aid environmental awareness and increase safety. An exploratory survey was conducted as part of the EU project 'FLAGSHIP' to assess how seafarers perceive the current state of technology onboard ship and to identify areas of resistance to advancements in this area. Only 5.8% of the sample of British officers (overall n = 805) reported feeling resistant to new technology either 'quite a lot' or 'a great deal' at a general level compared to 82.8% when asked about the specific issue of training. Logistic regression analysis revealed older seafarers and those with low computer literacy to show greater resistance to new technology. Resistance was also higher on vessels with smaller crews, although a confound with vessel type is likely. Technology training for seafarers should be improved but not as a means of compensating for equipment developed without reference to user-centred design principles. Around 90% of all goods are transported by ship yet ergonomic research into the onboard environment is extremely limited. New technology is being introduced to substitute for the human element but little has been done to investigate how work processes have adapted. Seafarers' perceptions of new technology are examined here. PMID:19662554

  6. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  7. The British National Health Service: a tarnished moral vision?

    PubMed

    Doyal, L; Doyal, L

    1999-01-01

    Last year (1998) saw the celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the British National Health Service (NHS). One of the few completely nationalized systems of health care in the world, the NHS is seen by many as a moral beacon of what it means to provide equitable medical treatment to all citizens on the basis of need and need alone. However, others argue that it has failed to achieve the overall goals for which it was created. Because of scarce resources, some urgently needed care is not available at all, while that which is received is sometimes second class. For these reasons, it is claimed that the NHS should be scrapped and replaced by other systems of health care delivery. This paper outlines the history of the NHS, indicating some of the problems and innovations which have led to its current organization and structure. The philosophical foundations of the NHS are then articulated and defended on the grounds that it still represents a morally coherent and economically efficient approach to the delivery of health care. Scarce resources are the key problem facing the NHS, making rationing inevitable and it is shown that this is not incompatible with the moral foundations of the service. However, there can be little doubt that the NHS is now becoming dangerously under-funded. The paper concludes with arguments about why this is so and what might be done about it.

  8. The British Orthodontic Society MOrth cases prize 2014.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mohammad O

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successful in winning the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) Membership in Orthodonitcs (MOrth) cases prize in 2014. The first case describes the management of a 26-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class III skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an unerupted ectopic palatally displaced upper right permanent canine, an erupted palatally displaced upper left permanent canine, retained deciduous canines, generalised microdontia, an overall Bolton tooth size discrepancy, mild crowding in the upper arch, an increased overbite (complete to tooth tissue) and crossbites. Treatment involved a surgical exposure of the ectopic canine and the use of fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. The second case describes the management of a 12-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class 2 skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an increased overjet and overbite (complete to soft tissue), mild upper and lower arch crowding and an increased naso-labial angle. Treatment involved an initial phase of modified Clark Twin Block and sectional fixed appliances followed by complete fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months.

  9. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryan R.; Rahs, Engel Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent ( n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations ( p≤0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  10. Strangers in a British world? Integration of international nurses.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann-Gleed, Andrea; Seeley, Janet

    This article, based on research carried out in 2002-2003, examines the experiences of recently internationally qualified migrant nurses to Britain and explores their stories with the aim of understanding aspects of their work-related identities. The migrant nurses' encounters at work may highlight their difference to the majority, namely the British qualified nurses. Despite attempts on behalf of some healthcare employers of embracing diversity, the process of achieving acceptance and respect as a migrant worker can be a taxing one. Findings indicate that the nurses' identity as a 'migrant', rather than as a 'man' or 'woman', drew most comment in their day-to-day work. While the nurses encountered some prejudice because of their foreign origin, they also experienced fair and respectful interactions. The study highlights the complexity of work-related identities among international migrants, a group of employees which, despite nursing shortages in the NHS, has attracted little research interest and poses a challenge to management. PMID:16237349

  11. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development.

  12. An economic evaluation of a telehealth network in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Joseph; Pantazi, Stefan V; Moehr, Jochen R; Anglin, Christine R; Grimm, Nicole A

    2007-01-01

    We carried out an economic evaluation of the northernmost five sites of the British Columbia telehealth network. The videoconferencing network links health-care facilities in 12 communities with Vancouver, for clinical consultations, administrative meetings and educational sessions. The economic evaluation was based on the netcost criterion (i.e. cost of telehealth minus travel costs avoided). Cost and utilization data were obtained from client interviews and log data compiled between September 2001 and January 2003. The results showed that the subnetwork of five sites was not only cost reducing, but also cost-effective. Travel costs for administrative meetings were reduced by $724,457/annum and were greater than the annual fixed and variable costs of all the telehealth sessions ($553,740). A sensitivity analysis was conducted on six parameters: amortization period, opportunity cost of capital, operating cost of a telehealth session (by type of session), number of telehealth sessions, travel time and the opportunity cost of travel time. The study suggests that the cost-effectiveness of telehealth to remote areas will increase over time as the cost of equipment continues to fall, as network connections become cheaper and as utilization rates rise. PMID:17697513

  13. The broad spectrum of preclinical radiobiology: British contributions.

    PubMed

    Denekamp, J

    1996-09-01

    British radiobiologists have often been at the forefront in taking clinical questions into the laboratory and in taking the results back into the clinic, i.e., what is nowadays labeled as Translational Research. They have published widely and have been very active in lectures, workshops, and discussions, forming an important component of the international communication web, both within the basic science aspects and in the translation from science to medicine, and back again. Major contributions have been made at the cellular and subcellular level, and at the level of multicellular structures, both normal and malignant. The common features of the response of cells to single doses in well-defined conditions have been used to interpret the much greater complexity of tissue and tumor responses treated with repeated small doses in a fractionated course, both of photons and other radiations, with and without chemical modifiers. The many contributions to the field of cell kinetics have provided the tools with which an understanding has been gained of the latency and evolution of radiation damage in different tissues. The prolonged interest in microenvironmental gradients and compensatory responses to injury have provided a framework for designing better radiotherapy schedules, and considerable spin-off to other branches of cancer therapy.

  14. Nutritional practices of competitive British wheelchair games players.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Crosland, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    This study described the dietary intake profiles of 14 female (F) and 9 male (M) trained British wheelchair games players. The M group showed significantly higher daily energy (2060 +/- 904 vs. 1520 +/- 342 kcal x day(-1)), carbohydrate and protein intakes than the F group (p < .05). The energy derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat for both F and M groups were similar (53.6%, 16.9% and 29.3% and 53.3%, 19.0% and 26.8%, respectively), yet the carbohydrate intakes were slightly lower than those recommended for athletes. Only two participants from the F group showed adequate intakes of iron, and 19 participants from both F and M groups did not meet the dietary fiber recommendation but this may be related to individualized bowel management strategies. Overall, the dietary practices encompassed aspects of the dietary guidelines recommended for sport, but balancing the energy needs of wheelchair games play with the promotion of long-term health still needs careful consideration.

  15. Perceptions of technology at sea amongst British seafaring officers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    The use of Information Communication Technology is growing in the maritime industry as more systems become monitored remotely and new technologies are introduced to aid environmental awareness and increase safety. An exploratory survey was conducted as part of the EU project 'FLAGSHIP' to assess how seafarers perceive the current state of technology onboard ship and to identify areas of resistance to advancements in this area. Only 5.8% of the sample of British officers (overall n = 805) reported feeling resistant to new technology either 'quite a lot' or 'a great deal' at a general level compared to 82.8% when asked about the specific issue of training. Logistic regression analysis revealed older seafarers and those with low computer literacy to show greater resistance to new technology. Resistance was also higher on vessels with smaller crews, although a confound with vessel type is likely. Technology training for seafarers should be improved but not as a means of compensating for equipment developed without reference to user-centred design principles. Around 90% of all goods are transported by ship yet ergonomic research into the onboard environment is extremely limited. New technology is being introduced to substitute for the human element but little has been done to investigate how work processes have adapted. Seafarers' perceptions of new technology are examined here.

  16. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Washington, Alaska, British Columbia, and U.S.S.R.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The standard error of measurement of snow covered areas in major drainage basins in the Cascade Range, Washington, using single measurements of ERTS-1 images, was found to range from 11% to 7% during a typical melt season, but was as high as 32% in midwinter. Many dangerous glacier situations in Alaska, Yukon, and British Columbia were observed on ERTS-1 imagery. Glacier dammed lakes in Alaska are being monitored by ERTS-1. Embayments in tidal glaciers show changes detectable by ERTS-1. Surges of Russell and Tweedsmuir Glaciers, now in progress, are clearly visible. The Tweedsmuir surge is likely to dam the large Alsek River by mid-November, producing major floods down-river next summer. An ERTS-1 image of the Pamir Mountains, Tadjik S.S.R., shows the surging Medvezhii (Bear) Glacier just after its surge of early summer which dammed the Abdukagor Valley creating a huge lake and later a flood in the populous Vanch River Valley. A map was compiled from an ERTS-1 image of the Lowell Glacier after its recent surge, compared with an earlier map compiled from pain-stakingly compiled from a mosaic of many aerial photographs, in a total elapsed time of 1.5 hours. This demonstrates the value of ERTS-1 for rapid mapping of large features.

  17. Numerical Modelling of Freshwater Flux and Temperature on the Northern British Columbia Coast in support of Marine Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, D. R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fortin, V.; Durnford, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Canada has the longest coastline of any country (>120,000 miles). Canadian response to potential oil spills along its coast is being improved under a high-level federal government strategy, falling under the rubric of the World Class Tanker Safety System (WCTSS). The first component of this strategy focuses on the Kitimat area and its marine approaches on the northern British Columbia (BC) coast. This initiative reflects concerns around both existing ship traffic, and potential increases in tanker traffic associated with the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline. The project includes joint development, between multiple federal departments, of an operational modeling system to predict currents in the coastal ocean. One of Environment Canada's (EC) contributions is the development and implementation of a short-term forecast model of river flows with corresponding stream temperatures. These quantities influence currents in the coastal ocean, which in turn affect oil spill fate and transport. Our platform is based on the Surface Prediction System (SPS), which is essentially a driver for a land surface scheme (LSS) linked to a hydrological routing model, and is related to the earlier MESH platform. LSS's under consideration for use in this mountain rainforest environment are the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), and the Soil and Vegetation Simulator (SVS), which is an evolution of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) model. Runoff and drainage outputs are then routed through the stream network by WATROUTE. The River Basin Model (RBM), a physically-based stream temperature simulator, is also being integrated into SPS to additionally enable water temperature forecasting. The freshwater modelling system will be directly driven by EC's numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems.Preliminary results from this ambitious modeling program are presented, along with recommendations for improvements to physical process representation in the various models employed.

  18. Numerical simulation of the landslide-generated tsunami in Kitimat Arm, British Columbia, Canada, 27 April 1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, A.; Bornhold, B.

    2007-06-01

    It remains challenging to predict and estimate potential damage from tsunamis using computer models. One of the approaches to validate models is to compare their results with site observations. We carried out numerical modeling for both the underwater landslide and the associated tsunami that occurred near Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada on 27 April 1975. A few observations of high water marks along the coastline indicated 8.2 m tsunami waves. Previous survey results of the seafloor showed that a landslide traveled about 5 km down the axis of the fjord from its source areas on the sidewall of the fjord, near the head of the inlet, and on the lower Kitimat River delta. We modeled the subaqueous slope failure as a Bingham visco-plastic fluid (debris flow) based on previous geotechnical investigations at the site, and numerically solved the landslide-generated tsunami wave and debris flow equations using a finite-volume Godunov-type scheme. This method resolves abrupt wave and landslide front interactions and remains oscillation-free. The computed motion of the debris flow is generally consistent with observations; simulations indicate that the failure propagated approximately 4.5 km down the fjord axis from its inception point. We have found that computed amplitudes for the tsunami wave crest at the coast of Kitimat Arm were between 6 and 11 m; these values are somewhat higher than previous simplistic solitary wave theory estimates of 6.3 m and observations of 8.2 m.

  19. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Michael G. G.; Guo, Ming; Garver, Kyle A.; Stucchi, Dario; Chandler, Peter; Wan, Di; Morrison, John; Tuele, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed. PMID:26114643

  20. Ameson metacarcini sp. nov. (Microsporidia) infecting the muscles of Dungeness crabs Metacarcinus magister from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Small, Hamish J; Meyer, Gary R; Stentiford, Grant D; Dunham, Jason S; Bateman, Kelly; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-11

    The Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister supports a large and valuable fishery along the west coast of North America. Since 1998, Dungeness crabs exhibiting pink- to orange-colored joints and opaque white musculature have been sporadically observed in low prevalence from the Fraser River delta of British Columbia, Canada. We provide histological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence that this condition is caused by a new microsporidian parasite. Crabs displaying gross symptoms were confirmed to have heavy infections of ovoid-shaped microsporidian spores (~1.8 × 1.4 µm in size) within muscle bundles of the skeletal musculature. The parasite apparently infected the outer periphery of each muscle bundle, and then proliferated into the muscle fibres near the centre of each infected bundle. Light infections were observed in heart tissues, and occasionally spores were observed within the fixed phagocytes lining the blood vessels of the hepatopancreas. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed multiple life stages of a monokaryotic microsporidian parasite within the sarcoplasm of muscle fibres. Molecular analysis of partial small subunit rRNA sequence data from the new species revealed an affinity to Ameson, a genus of Microsporidia infecting marine crustaceans. Based on morphological and molecular data, the new species is distinct from Nadelspora canceri, a related microsporidian that also infects the muscles of this host. At present, little is known about the distribution, seasonality, and transmission of A. metacarcini in M. magister. PMID:25114045

  1. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Michael G G; Guo, Ming; Garver, Kyle A; Stucchi, Dario; Chandler, Peter; Wan, Di; Morrison, John; Tuele, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed. PMID:26114643

  2. Language at Work. Selected Papers from the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics (University of Birmingham, England, September 1997). British Studies in Applied Linguistics 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunston, Susan, Ed.

    Papers on the role of language in the work environment include: "Institutions, Writing and Talk in Environmental Discourse" (Greg Myers); "Negotiating Training: Shifting Participant Frameworks in the Workplace" (Kristina Bennert); "Relational Management in Chinese-British Business Meetings" (Helen Spencer-Oatey, Jianyu Xing); "A Pragmatic Approach…

  3. Education, British Colonialism, and a Plural Society in West Malaysia: The Development of Formal Education in the British Settlements along the Straits of Malacca, 1786-1874.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Peter C.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the origins of West Malaysia's cultural pluralism in the century prior to 1874. Traces the development of formal educational provision in the early years of the Straits of Malacca settlements. Concludes that West Malaysia's communal ills were the consequence of a multiplicity of circumstances, not merely British educational policies.…

  4. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  5. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2006-02-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN is coordinating activities and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. To this end, the KRN primarily focuses on maintaining communication networks among private and public watershed improvement groups in the Columbia River Basin. The KRN willing shares its resources with these groups. The 2003-2004 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out through Watershed Coordinator position. The highly successful Kootenai River Network Annual General Meeting in Bonners Ferry in May 2003 demonstrated the tremendous gains that the Kootenai River Network has made in trans-boundary networking of watershed issues and accomplishments. The Annual General Meeting included seventy five participants representing more than forty US and Canadian citizen groups, tribes, first nations, agencies, ministries, businesses and private land owners from Montana, British Columbia, Idaho and Alberta. The International Restoration Tour in July 2004 featured the Grave Creek and Therriault Wetlands restoration projects in Montana and the Sand Creek and Wolf Creek restoration projects in British Columbia. The tour was attended by more than thirty people representing US and Canadian Federal and State/Provincial agencies, schools, colleges, conservation groups, private land owners, consultants, tribes, first nations, and politicians. These exciting trans-boundary successes encouraged the KRN to establish half-time Watershed Coordinator positions in both the United

  6. Web services for open meteorological data in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, J.; Anslow, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, British Columbia suffered from a dearth of publicly and easily accessible (open) meteorological data. While Environment Canada (EC) maintains approximately 250 active in situ weather stations, the remaining meteorological and climate data -- which represent the majority of observations made in the province -- have been gathered by the provincial government within several disparate, ministry-specific networks. Those observations have traditionally been either inaccessible to non-government employees or only available on a network-by-network basis by contacting network managers and requesting custom data queries. Under a collaborative agreement between several provincial ministries, private industry and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) and with support from EC, the entire province's meteorological archive has been collected into a single database at PCIC and made publicly accessible via web services and open data protocols. In this paper, we describe our web services, built on open-source software, which provide users access to the full catalogue of BC's meteorological observations through a simple user interface. Our geographic web services provide users access to station locations using Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Mapping Service and Web Feature Service protocols. We use OpenDAP to provide users download access to over a century of weather observations through a variety of open formats such as NetCDF, HDF, ASCII, and others. The goals of these web services are twofold. We primarily aim to provide planners, scientists and researchers with timely and comprehensive climate data as conveniently and efficiently as possible. A natural consequence of this is to enable the flexibility to expand the volume and types of data served and to facilitate more sophisticated analysis regarding past and future climate.

  7. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): mind the gap!

    PubMed

    Orfanidou, Eleni; McQueen, James M; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were preceded by nonsense signs which were produced in either the target location or another location (with a small or large transition). Half of the transitions were within the same major body area (e.g., head) and half were across body areas (e.g., chest to hand). Deaf adult BSL users (a group of natives and early learners, and a group of late learners) spotted target signs best when there was a minimal transition and worst when there was a large transition. When location changes were present, both groups performed better when transitions were to a different body area than when they were within the same area. These findings suggest that transitions do not provide explicit sign-boundary cues in a modality-specific fashion. Instead, we argue that smaller transitions help recognition in a modality-general way by limiting lexical search to signs within location neighbourhoods, and that transitions across body areas also aid segmentation in a modality-general way, by providing a phonotactic cue to a sign boundary. We propose that sign segmentation is based on modality-general procedures which are core language-processing mechanisms. PMID:25628070

  8. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): mind the gap!

    PubMed

    Orfanidou, Eleni; McQueen, James M; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were preceded by nonsense signs which were produced in either the target location or another location (with a small or large transition). Half of the transitions were within the same major body area (e.g., head) and half were across body areas (e.g., chest to hand). Deaf adult BSL users (a group of natives and early learners, and a group of late learners) spotted target signs best when there was a minimal transition and worst when there was a large transition. When location changes were present, both groups performed better when transitions were to a different body area than when they were within the same area. These findings suggest that transitions do not provide explicit sign-boundary cues in a modality-specific fashion. Instead, we argue that smaller transitions help recognition in a modality-general way by limiting lexical search to signs within location neighbourhoods, and that transitions across body areas also aid segmentation in a modality-general way, by providing a phonotactic cue to a sign boundary. We propose that sign segmentation is based on modality-general procedures which are core language-processing mechanisms.

  9. Diet and glycosylated haemoglobin in the 1946 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prynne, CJ; Mander, A; Wadsworth, MEJ; Stephen, AM

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration is a recognised risk factor for diabetes the incidence of which is rising world-wide. The intake of certain foods has been related to HbA1c concentration . The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrient intake, sourced by these foods, was predictive of raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration in a British cohort. Subjects/methods: The subjects were 495 men and 570 women who were members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Diet was assessed from 5-day records in 1982, 1989 and 1999. HbA1c was measured in blood samples collected in 1999. Individuals in whom concentration of HbA1c was ≥ 6.3% were identified as being “at risk” and their nutrient intake was compared to those whose concentration of HbA1c was within the normal range (≤6.2%). Results: Lower intakes of protein, carbohydrate, non-starch polysaccharide, iron, folate, vitamin B12 and a higher percentage energy from fat in 1989 were significantly predictive of high HbA1c status in 1999. In 1999 there were no nutrient intakes that were predictive of HbA1c status. Global tests of whether the intakes of energy, carbohydrate, sodium, iron, riboflavin and vitamin B12 at all three time-points were related to HbA1c status in 1999, were significant. Conclusion: An increased intake of energy, carbohydrate, sodium, iron, riboflavin and vitamin B12 over 10 years was predictive of raised HbA1c status. Increased energy intake may have resulted in the increase in body weight that is a risk factor for diabetes. PMID:19550434

  10. From the President of the British Fertility Society.

    PubMed

    Mclaren, A

    1996-01-01

    Dr. Anne McLaren's speech as the nominee for the Presidency of the British Fertility Society (BFS) is presented. In 1985, her predecessor, Callum MacNaughton, as President of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG), persuaded the Medical Research Council to join with the College in setting up and funding the Voluntary Licensing Authority. There is little doubt that the regulatory system that has evolved in Britain since that time is the envy of many other countries. In the 1950s, the nominated President and her colleagues were working on embryo transfer in mice. The immediate applications envisaged were in farm animals, but women with blocked tubes would be able to benefit from similar procedures before many decades had passed. In the early 1970s, McLaren's interest became the legal and ethical aspects of donor insemination. These activities resulted in her membership of the RCOG Advisory Committee and the chairing of its Infertility Subcommittee. Today intracytoplasmic sperm injection is the most exciting advance in assisted reproduction since in vitro fertilization itself. Every day nearly a million women get pregnant, and at least 500 women die every day from unsafe abortion. Economic growth, women's education, urbanization, and social organization are important in reducing the burden of unwanted children all over the world, but good family planning services, contraceptives that are easy to use, safe, cheap, and readily available, and safe and available abortion are a must in the war against a disastrously overpopulated world. Inevitably the BFS will remain largely clinical and largely human concerned with clinical practice as well as with research, while the Society for the Study of Fertility will remain wholly research-oriented, largely nonclinical, and largely nonhuman. But the two societies will be complementary rather than competitive.

  11. Cretaceous and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Selena Y; Currah, Randolph S; Stockey, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    Two fossil poroid hymenophore fragments, one from the Cretaceous Period and the other from the Eocene Epoch, are described. The permineralized specimens were obtained from marine calcareous concretions on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Size and distribution of pores in the hymenophores, as well as the hyphal anatomy of the dissepiments and some hymenial elements, were examined. In the Cretaceous specimen, Quatsinoporites cranhamii sp. nov., pores are round to elliptical, three per mm, and 130-540 μm diam. Dissepiments consist of narrow, simple septate, hyphae. Neither basidia nor basidiospores are present, but acuminate hymenial cystidia, up to 54 μm in length, are common. The Eocene specimen, Appianoporites vancouverensis sp. nov., has a pore density of six per mm and pores are 130-163 μm in diam. Dissepiments consist of narrow, simple septate, thin-walled hyphae. Neither basidia nor basidiospores are present, but acuminate, thick-walled hymenial cystidia, up to 32 μm in length, are common. The poroid hymenophore is a characteristic of a number of extant basidiomycete taxa, including the Boletales, Polyporales and Hymenochaetales. It is unlikely that the fleshy, ephemeral, terrestrial basidiomata of the Boletales would be preserved in a marine environment, and thus the specimens are interpreted as belonging to basidiomycete lineages, with persistent, leathery or corky basidiomata. The simple septate hyphae, the minute pores and presence of cystidia most closely resemble taxa of the Hymenochaetales. These fossils unequivocally push back the minimum age of homobasidiomycetes and extend their paleogeographical range.

  12. MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN IN ELITE PROFESSIONAL MUSICIANS FROM BRITISH SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Richard; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional musicians may have high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but few studies have analysed risks by work activities or the psychosocial work environment. Aims To assess the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal pain, and its relation to playing conditions, mental health and performance anxiety, in musicians from leading British symphony orchestras. Methods Musicians from six professional orchestras completed a questionnaire concerning their orchestral duties and physical activities at work; mental health (somatising tendency, mood, demand, support and control at work, performance anxiety); and regional pain in the past four weeks and past 12 months. Prevalence rates were estimated by anatomical site, and associations with risk factors assessed by logistic regression. Results Responses were received from 243 musicians (51% of those approached), among whom 210 (86%) reported regional pain in the past 12 months, mainly affecting the neck, low-back, and shoulders. Risks tended to be higher in women, in those with low mood, and especially in those with high somatising scores. Only weak associations were found with psychosocial work stressors and performance anxiety. However, risks differed markedly by instrument category. Relative to string players, the odds of wrist/hand pain were raised 2.9-fold in wind players, but 60% lower in brass players, while the odds of elbow pain were 50% lower among wind and brass players. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain is common in elite professional musicians. A major personal risk factor is somatising tendency, but performance anxiety has less impact. Risks differ substantially by instrument played, offering pointers towards prevention. PMID:22003061

  13. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528

  14. An aminostratigraphy for the British Quaternary based on Bithynia opercula

    PubMed Central

    Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Preece, Richard C.; Bridgland, David R.; Keen, David H.; Meijer, Tom; Parfitt, Simon A.; White, Tom S.; Collins, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Aminostratigraphies of Quaternary non-marine deposits in Europe have been previously based on the racemization of a single amino acid in aragonitic shells from land and freshwater molluscs. The value of analysing multiple amino acids from the opercula of the freshwater gastropod Bithynia, which are composed of calcite, has been demonstrated. The protocol used for the isolation of intra-crystalline proteins from shells has been applied to these calcitic opercula, which have been shown to more closely approximate a closed system for indigenous protein residues. Original amino acids are even preserved in bithyniid opercula from the Eocene, showing persistence of indigenous organics for over 30 million years. Geochronological data from opercula are superior to those from shells in two respects: first, in showing less natural variability, and second, in the far better preservation of the intra-crystalline proteins, possibly resulting from the greater stability of calcite. These features allow greater temporal resolution and an extension of the dating range beyond the early Middle Pleistocene. Here we provide full details of the analyses for 480 samples from 100 horizons (75 sites), ranging from Late Pliocene to modern. These show that the dating technique is applicable to the entire Quaternary. Data are provided from all the stratotypes from British stages to have yielded opercula, which are shown to be clearly separable using this revised method. Further checks on the data are provided by reference to other type-sites for different stages (including some not formally defined). Additional tests are provided by sites with independent geochronology, or which can be associated with a terrace stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. This new aminostratigraphy for the non-marine Quaternary deposits of southern Britain provides a framework for understanding the regional geological and archaeological record. Comparison with reference to sites yielding independent geochronology, in

  15. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  16. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  17. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded

  18. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  19. J.G. Crowther's War: Institutional strife at the BBC and British Council.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan

    2016-06-01

    Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts. PMID:27076038

  20. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  1. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Stock Status of Burbot and Rainbow Trout and Fisheries Inventory, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1995-11-01

    The author sampled 33 burbot Lota lota in the Kootenay River in British Columbia, Canada. Burbot catch from November 1994 to February 1995 averaged 0.047 fish/net-day. Total length ranged from 3854 mm to 958 mm and weighed from 272 g to 4,086 g (mean = 982 g). Twelve burbot were implanted with sonic transmitters and released at capture sites. Two additional burbot had active transmitters from the previous season. Telemetry of burbot during the pre-spawn, spawning, and post-spawning periods was conducted. Burbot were located a total of 203 times from November 1994 through August 8, 1995. Ripe burbot were captured and they appeared to have an affinity to water <2C. The author believes burbot spawned in the Goat River, British Columbia. Burbot with sonic transmitters did not reach Idaho until after the spawning period. Statistical analysis of burbot movement and discharge from Libby Dam indicated there was a significant relation between winter power production and spawning migration of burbot. A controlled test is needed to verify this relation. Zooplankton samples from the Kootenai River were substantially lower than the delta of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada.

  2. Flowing with Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  3. Amu Darya River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Amu Darya River     View Larger Image This false-color image of the Amu Darya River was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in ... causing highly vegetated areas to appear red. The Amu Darya river forms a wide delta in the western deserts of Uzbekistan and ...

  4. Measuring River Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  5. Rethinking the River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1994-01-01

    Examines the ecological impacts of the Mississippi River flood of 1993 and the rethinking of river management practices that has resulted. Provides a map of the flood area which shows the occurrence of rare wildlife found in or near the region's rivers. (LZ)

  6. Mathematics. Rivers Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueggeman, Gail; Clendenin, Donna

    The Rivers Project at Southern Illinois University began in February, 1990 as a pilot program involving eight high schools along the Mississippi and lower Illinois River. The Rivers Project network has grown through the training of teachers from across the United States and Canada. With scientific literacy as the ultimate goal, students collect…

  7. Pharmacists' perceptions of alternative health approaches--a comparison between U.S. and British pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M V; Bailie, G R; Areny, H

    1990-04-01

    A survey was sent to 1,000 United States (U.S.) pharmacists (19.7% responded) and 750 British pharmacists (63.0% responded) to assess their perceived knowledge, perceived usefulness, referrals, and utilization of alternative health approaches (AHA). More than 50% of U.S. and British citizens had 'never heard of' or 'only heard of' about half of the 21 AHA assessed. Acupuncture was the AHA felt to be most useful by the majority of pharmacists, both in the U.S. (83.8%) and in Britain (91.0%). Osteopathy (38.6%) and chiropractic (33.5%) were most often referrals by U.S. pharmacists, whereas homeopathy (14.7%) and osteopathy (14.5%) were most often referrals by British pharmacists. The most utilized AHAs were osteopathy (21.8%) and chiropractic (19.3%) by U.S. pharmacists and homeopathy (10.1%) and herbal medicine (6.0%) by British pharmacists. Differences exist in the perceived knowledge, perception of usefulness, referrals, and utilization of AHAs between U.S. and British pharmacists. It is quite likely that the low-response rates, particularly among the U.S. pharmacists, may mask even greater ignorance about AHAs. It may also underestimate the proportion of pharmacists who are of the view that AHAs are useless and not worthy of answering questions about. PMID:2341492

  8. British and Pakistani children's understanding of death: cultural and developmental influences.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Ashraf, Aisha; Aubby, Herjit

    2015-03-01

    This study explored British and Pakistani 4- to 7-year-olds' (N = 188) understanding of death. The aim was to examine possible influences on the acquisition of the subcomponents of the death concept by investigating how they are understood by children of different ages and cultural and religious backgrounds. Three groups of children were compared: White British and British Muslim living in London, and Pakistani Muslim living in rural Pakistan. In line with previous research (Slaughter, 2005, Aust. Psychol., 40(3), 179), irreversibility of death was one of the first subcomponents to be acquired, while causality was the last. The two groups of British children shared many similarities in their understanding of inevitability, applicability, irreversibility, and cessation. Pakistani Muslim children understood irreversibility earlier than did children in both British groups. In all three cultural groups, children's responses demonstrated very limited understanding of causality. Our findings support the view that aspects of a mature understanding of death develop between the ages of 4 and 7 years and that the process of understanding death as a biological event is, to a great extent, universal. They also suggest that aspects of children's reasoning are influenced by culturally specific experiences, particularly those arising from living in rural versus urban settings.

  9. A journey to citizenship: constructions of citizenship and identity in the British Citizenship Test.

    PubMed

    Gray, Debra; Griffin, Christine

    2014-06-01

    The British Citizenship Test was introduced in 2005 as one of a raft of new procedures aimed at addressing the perceived problems of integration and social cohesion in migrant communities. In this study, we argue that this new citizenship procedure signals a shift in British political discourse about citizenship - particularly, the institutionalization of a common British citizen identity that is intended to draw citizens together in a new form of political/national community. In line with this, we examine the British Citizenship Test from a social psychological perspective to interrogate the ways in which the test constitutes identity, constitutes citizenship, and constitutes citizenship-as-identity. Analysis of the test and its associated documents highlights three ways in which Britishness-as-identity is constituted, that is, as a collective identity, as a superordinate and national identity, and finally as both a destination and a journey. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for models of citizenship and models of identity.

  10. Pharmacists' perceptions of alternative health approaches--a comparison between U.S. and British pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M V; Bailie, G R; Areny, H

    1990-04-01

    A survey was sent to 1,000 United States (U.S.) pharmacists (19.7% responded) and 750 British pharmacists (63.0% responded) to assess their perceived knowledge, perceived usefulness, referrals, and utilization of alternative health approaches (AHA). More than 50% of U.S. and British citizens had 'never heard of' or 'only heard of' about half of the 21 AHA assessed. Acupuncture was the AHA felt to be most useful by the majority of pharmacists, both in the U.S. (83.8%) and in Britain (91.0%). Osteopathy (38.6%) and chiropractic (33.5%) were most often referrals by U.S. pharmacists, whereas homeopathy (14.7%) and osteopathy (14.5%) were most often referrals by British pharmacists. The most utilized AHAs were osteopathy (21.8%) and chiropractic (19.3%) by U.S. pharmacists and homeopathy (10.1%) and herbal medicine (6.0%) by British pharmacists. Differences exist in the perceived knowledge, perception of usefulness, referrals, and utilization of AHAs between U.S. and British pharmacists. It is quite likely that the low-response rates, particularly among the U.S. pharmacists, may mask even greater ignorance about AHAs. It may also underestimate the proportion of pharmacists who are of the view that AHAs are useless and not worthy of answering questions about.

  11. Identities in the third space? Solidity, elasticity and resilience amongst young British Pakistani Muslims.

    PubMed

    Mythen, Gabe

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade the issue of identity has been prevalent in discussions about British Muslims, with the events of 9/11 serving as a touchstone for media debates about religious, national and cultural affiliations. The 7/7 terrorist attacks in the UK led to young British Pakistanis being subjected to intense public and institutional scrutiny and wider political concerns being expressed about the failure of multiculturalism. Young British Pakistanis have thus had to negotiate and maintain their identities in an environment in which they have been defined as a threat to national security whilst simultaneously being pressurized to align with 'core British values'. Within this context, we convey the findings of a qualitative study involving British Pakistanis living in the North-west of England. In presenting the experiences and perspectives of participants, three interconnected processes salient to the maintenance of identity are delineated: solidity, elasticity and resilience. Having unpacked these processes, we draw upon Bhabha's third space thesis to explore the political potentiality of and the limits to hybridic identities.

  12. Submarine Channels In Rupert Inlet, British Columbia: I. Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Alex E.; Murray, J. W.; Burling, R. W.

    1983-11-01

    The evolution of submarine channel systems in a mine-tailing deposit is presented. Three successive phases of channel development were observed in time-series of seismic reflection, side-scan sonar and bathymetric surveys: (1) a meandering channel phase; (2) an "apron" phase, in which the channel was obliterated; and (3) a rechannelized phase. The meander phase consisted of a leveed channel with three morphologically distinct reaches: a left-hooking upper reach (axial slope decreasing from 9 to 2°); a middle meander reach (1° slope, 500-300 m and 100 m meander wavelength and average amplitude); and a straight lower reach (0.5° slope). The meanders are geometrically similar to those in rivers. Channel width and depth decreased down-channel suggesting continuous loss of solids by deposition and overspill. The morphology of the channel is compared to that of deep-sea fan valleys, particularly the Redondo, which exhibits a meandering-braided transition at an increase in slope from 1 to 2°. Braided-meandering and meandering-straight transitions in subaqueous channels are discussed in the context of the slope—discharge dependence of such transitions in subaerial rivers. Probable trajectories of the Rupert Inlet and Redondo systems in slope—discharge parameter space are proposed, and illustrate the importance to the occurrence of meanders in subaqueous channels of the entrainment of ambient fluid and of suspended sediment loss through deposition and channel overspill.

  13. Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems and their relation to ore deposition, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, Robert E.; Fleck, Robert J.; Taylor, Hugh P., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems have altered the rocks exposed over more than 5 % of the land surface of the northwestern United States and southern British Columbia, including at least 25,000 km2 in Idaho. The systems typically involved convective circulation of fluid derived from ordinary meteoric groundwaters around crystallizing, calc-alkaline, epizonal plutons emplaced into coeval volcanic cover rocks. These individual systems had widely ranging "lifetimes" of 103 to 106 years and operated locally throughout the Cenozoic, although the most profound development of such activity occurred during Eocene time. Individual systems varied in size from a few tens of square kilometers (Yankee Fork, Idaho) or less to several thousand square kilometers (Sawtooth and Castro ring zones, Idaho) Typically, regional propylitization aacompanied the fluid circulation, although the higher-temperature alteration assemblages were developed locally, as were intense alteration effects (e.g., silicification, sericitization, etc.) near some veins and in mining districts. A significant amount, probably 25-50%, of the mineral production and potential in the region is closely related to Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data clearly demonstrate the close geologic association of meteoric hydrothermal systems and mineralization in (1) the Paleocene, Cu-Zn-Pb-Mn Main Stage mineralization at Butte, Montana; (2) numerous Eocene epithermal deposits principally valued for Au and Ag but also including significant deposits of Cu, Pb, Zn, F, Sb, etc., as at Republic, Washington, and in several mining districts in the Idaho batholith and the Challis volcanic field; (3) several Eocene skarn deposits valued for W (Ima, Idaho) and Cu (Mackay, Idaho); (4) important lead-silver vein and replacement deposits of Tertiary (Bluebell, British Columbia) and of probable Cretaceous and early Tertiary age (Wood River, Idaho); (5) several potentially economic Mo-, Be-, and

  14. Holocene glacier activity in the British Columbia Coast Mountains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mood, Bryan J.; Smith, Dan J.

    2015-11-01

    The Coast Mountains flank the Pacific Ocean in western British Columbia, Canada. Subdivided into the southern Pacific Ranges, central Kitimat Ranges and northern Boundary Ranges, the majority of large glaciers and icefields are located in the Boundary and Pacific ranges. Prior descriptions of the Holocene glacial history of this region indicate the Holocene was characterized by repeated episodes of ice expansion and retreat. Recent site-specific investigations augment our understanding of the regional character and duration of these events. In this paper, previously reported and new radiocarbon evidence is integrated to provide an updated regional assessment. The earliest evidence of glacier expansion in the Coast Mountains comes from the Boundary Ranges at 8.9 and 7.8 ka and in the Pacific Ranges at 8.5-8.2 ka, with the latter advance corresponding to an interval of rapid, global climate deterioration. Although generally warm and dry climates from 7.3 to 5.3 ka likely limited the size of glaciers in the region, there is radiocarbon evidence for advances over the interval from 7.3 to 6.0 and at 5.4-5.3 ka in the Pacific Ranges. Following these advances, glaciers in the Pacific Ranges expanded down valley at 4.8-4.6, 4.4-4.0, 3.5-2.6, 1.4-1.2, and 0.8-0.4 ka, while glaciers in Boundary Ranges were advancing at 4.1-4.0, 3.7-3.4, 3.1-2.8, 2.3, 1.7-1.1, and 0.8-0.4 ka. After 0.4 ka, it appears that most glaciers in the Coast Mountains continued to expand to attain their maximum Holocene extents by the early 18th to late 19th centuries. This enhanced record of Holocene glacier activity highlights the temporal synchrony in the Coast Mountains. Individual expansion events in the mid-to late Holocene broadly correspond to intervals of regional glacier activity reported in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and on high-elevation volcanic peaks in Washington State.

  15. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  16. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  17. Study on river regulation measures of dried-up rivers of Haihe River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Li, Shaoming; Qi, Lan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers.

  18. 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Angela E

    2010-08-01

    The 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology was notable, not only for its golden anniversary, but also because it coincided with the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and the ensuing travel chaos. In total, 28 speakers from overseas were unable to reach Edinburgh, including a significant number of British speakers who were stranded. However, owing to the superb efforts of the conference organisers and Edinburgh International Conference Centre staff, teleconferencing equipment was installed and all speakers were contacted and able to give their talks on time. The program, consisting of simultaneous sessions and plenary lectures, covered not only recent advances in clinical and laboratory hematology, but also reflected on the contribution of British hematology to the international arena over the past 50 years.

  19. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks. PMID:26502354

  20. Developing leadership in nurse managers: the British Columbia Nursing Leadership Institute.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Maura; Bouthillette, France

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia Nursing Administrative Leadership Institute for First Line Nurse Leaders (BC NLI) is a collaborative partnership among British Columbia's Chief Nursing Officers, the Ministry of Health Nursing Directorate and the University of British Columbia School of Nursing. This initiative consists of a four-day residential program and a year-long leadership project between BC NLI participants and their organizational mentors. The evidence-based curriculum covers universal leadership and management concepts, but it also addresses leadership issues of relevance to nurse leaders in today's complex healthcare environments. The BC NLI is part of a provincial health human resources endeavour to ensure sufficient nursing leaders - for now and in the future. This paper will discuss the development, implementation and evaluation of the BC NLI. Unique aspects of the program, such as its online networking component, will be described, and its role in nursing leadership research will be briefly examined.

  1. The Aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: a Perspective from the British Embassy in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, R J; Franklin, K C

    2016-04-01

    The British Embassy in Tokyo was at the heart of providing information in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Richard Oppenheim, who was present at the time, and Keith Franklin, who joined the Embassy shortly afterwards, give their perspectives on communicating information on radiation to the public and what lessons can be learned. Richard Oppenheim was head of the Climate Change and Energy team at the British Embassy in Tokyo from 2011 to 2015 and part of the Embassy team responding to the crisis. He travelled to Sendai on 12 March 2011. Keith Franklin has been on secondment to the British Embassy in Tokyo from the National Nuclear Laboratory since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi.

  2. The Aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: a Perspective from the British Embassy in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, R J; Franklin, K C

    2016-04-01

    The British Embassy in Tokyo was at the heart of providing information in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Richard Oppenheim, who was present at the time, and Keith Franklin, who joined the Embassy shortly afterwards, give their perspectives on communicating information on radiation to the public and what lessons can be learned. Richard Oppenheim was head of the Climate Change and Energy team at the British Embassy in Tokyo from 2011 to 2015 and part of the Embassy team responding to the crisis. He travelled to Sendai on 12 March 2011. Keith Franklin has been on secondment to the British Embassy in Tokyo from the National Nuclear Laboratory since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. PMID:27386586

  3. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, George

    2013-01-01

    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials.

  4. British and American Influences on the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language from the 1950s till the 1970s Mediated by the British Council and the Council of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg B.

    A research project concerned with the development of English as a school subject in the Norwegian elementary and junior high school identifies and describes British and American influences on the theoretical climate of foreign language teaching in Western Europe from the 1950's to the 1970's. A distinct British influence, the so-called Palmer,…

  5. As seen on TV: observational study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical dramas

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, P N; Williamson, S; Lawler, P G

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and accuracy with which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is portrayed in British television medical dramas. Design: Observational study. Subjects: 64 episodes of three major British television medical dramas: Casualty, Cardiac Arrest, and Medics. Main outcome measures: Frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shown on television; age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients undergoing resuscitation; rate of survival through resuscitation. Results: Overall 52 patients had a cardiorespiratory arrest on screen and 3 had a respiratory arrest alone, all the arrests occurring in 40 of the 64 episodes. Of the 52 patients having cardiorespiratory arrest, 32 (62%) underwent an attempt at cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 8 attempts were successful. All 3 of the patients having respiratory arrests alone received ventilatory support and survived. On 48% of occasions, victims of cardiac arrest seemed to be less than 35 years old. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory resuscitation is often depicted in British television medical dramas. Patients portrayed receiving resuscitation are likely to be in a younger age group than in real life. Though the reasons for resuscitation are more varied and more often associated with trauma than in reality, the overall success rate is nevertheless realistic. Widespread overoptimism of patients for survival after resuscitation cannot necessarily be blamed on British television medical dramas. Key messagesA quarter of patients in British television medical dramas who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation on screen seemed to surviveThis figure is comparable to initial survival rates in a series of patients in real lifePatients on television are more likely to suffer cardiac arrest as a result of trauma than in real life, and patients undergoing resuscitation are likely to be younger than patients in real lifeThe overall survival rate of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical drama seems

  6. Fish tapeworm infections (diphyllobothriasis) in Canada, particularly British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Ching, H L

    1984-05-01

    Although the risk of diphyllobothriasis is generally low in Canada, fish tapeworm infections seem to have become more frequent in recent years. This increase is probably a consequence of the growing popularity of raw or inadequately cooked ethnic fish dishes or of a preference for lightly cooked fish, especially salmon. Only freshwater fish become infected with the larvae, but not everyone may realize that salmon can acquire the parasites before they leave their native lakes and rivers for the sea. If fish known to be sources of the tapeworms are to be eaten raw they should first be well frozen or salted to kill the larvae. Physicians should regard fish tapeworm infection as a notifiable disease. In Canada niclosamide, the drug of choice, is available from the manufacturer on a patient-by-patient basis. PMID:6713334

  7. Mass care and the University of British Columbia: A new approach to disaster response.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Reg

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a major earthquake affecting the lower mainland of British Columbia, the University of British Columbia (UBC) would be expected to provide emergency services and support to a population of over 51,000 students, 14,000 faculty and staff and over 10,000 UBC community residents and private companies who live and work on the Point Grey peninsula. This paper will detail how UBC would provide shelter, food, accommodation and support (together known as mass care) to this demographic.

  8. Shooting Stars: The Women Directors of the Meteor Section of the British Astronomical Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2006-12-01

    In the early 20th century, three women amateur astronomers -- Catherine O. Stevens, Fiammetta Wilson, and A. Grace Cook -- made significant contributions to the Meteor Section of the British Astronomical Association, both as observers and as Directors of the Section. This paper discusses the role each played in meteoric science in general, and the Meteor Section in particular. It will be shown that all three women made significant and historically important contributions to the Section, and that their lives and work are worthy of study because of the light such study sheds on the birth and youth of amateur astronomical societies in the British Isles.

  9. Medical Refugees and the Modernisation of British Medicine, 1930–1960

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper reappraises the position of medical refugees in Britain between the 1930s and 1950s. Advocates of reforming British medicine in terms of its knowledge base and social provision emerged as strongly supportive of the medical refugees. By way of contrast, an élite in the British Medical Association attempted to exercise a controlling regime through the Home Office Advisory Committee. The effects of these divisions are gauged by reconstructing the complete spectrum of refugees as a total population. Applying this methodology of population reconstruction provides a corrective to the notion of a cohesive ‘medical establishment’ exercising rigid and discriminatory controls. PMID:26166948

  10. A Moral Panic? The Problematization of Forced Marriage in British Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari; Gill, Aisha K

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the British media's construction of forced marriage (FM) as an urgent social problem in a context where other forms of violence against women are not similarly problematized. A detailed analysis of four British newspapers over a 10-year period demonstrates that media reporting of FM constitutes a moral panic in that it is constructed as a cultural problem that threatens Britain's social order rather than as a specific form of violence against women. Thus, the current problematization of FM restricts discursive spaces for policy debates and hinders attempts to respond to this problem as part of broader efforts to tackle violence against women.

  11. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  12. Mass care and the University of British Columbia: A new approach to disaster response.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Reg

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a major earthquake affecting the lower mainland of British Columbia, the University of British Columbia (UBC) would be expected to provide emergency services and support to a population of over 51,000 students, 14,000 faculty and staff and over 10,000 UBC community residents and private companies who live and work on the Point Grey peninsula. This paper will detail how UBC would provide shelter, food, accommodation and support (together known as mass care) to this demographic. PMID:27318287

  13. British Society for Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics and British Transplantation Society guidelines for the detection and characterisation of clinically relevant antibodies in allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Howell, W M; Harmer, A; Briggs, D; Dyer, P; Fuggle, S V; Martin, S; Sinnott, P; Smith, J; Taylor, C J; Vaughan, R

    2010-12-01

    Ongoing technological developments in antibody detection and characterisation allowing relative quantitation of HLA-specific antibody levels, combined with crossmatch results, now allow a graded assessment of patient potential donor immunological risk for allotransplantation, rather than a simple 'positive' or 'negative' categorization of crossmatch results. These developments have driven a thorough revision of the British Society for Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics and British Transplantation Society Guidelines for the Detection and Characterisation of Clinically Relevant Antibodies in Allotransplantation. These newly published revised Guidelines contain a number of recommendations as to best practice for antibody detection and crossmatching for the transplantation of a wide range of solid organs and tissues. These recommendations are briefly summarized in this article.

  14. The Role of Lifelong Learning in Building Citizenship: European Union Approaches in the Light of British and Colonial Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John

    2006-01-01

    This article considers European Union measures to strengthen "citizenship" through the use of lifelong learning in the light of two twentieth-century British initiatives. European citizenship is discussed, and current EU initiatives to harness lifelong learning to the development of citizenship are briefly outlined. Aspects of British and colonial…

  15. "I Want More Freedom, but Not Too Much": British Muslim Girls and the Dynamism of Family Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the dynamics of Muslim family life and the role of family values in shaping the present experiences and future aspirations of adolescent British Muslim girls. It argues that these young women are getting ambiguous messages about freedom and that they feel ambivalent about various features of their Asian and British ethnicities. (GR)

  16. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  17. The Other Voices of International Higher Education: An Empirical Study of Students' Perceptions of British University Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moufahim, Mona; Lim, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Against a backdrop of globalised higher education (HE)--one in which a number of British universities are setting up campuses overseas--China represents a vast and lucrative market. This paper presents data on the perceptions and experiences of 20 Chinese students who are currently studying at a British university's campus located in China.…

  18. The Barriers to Achieving the Wider Goals of General Education and Their Implications for the British Educational Research Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, John

    1990-01-01

    Advocates revamping the British educational system from technical-rational content model to student-centered process programs designed to promote critical thinking, individual initiative, and communication skills. Discusses obstacles to this educational reform, emphasizing research orientation. Urges the British Educational Research Association to…

  19. The Decline of Diversity, Autonomy and Trust in Post-War British Higher Education: An American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This is a summary of a paper prepared for a conference on the White Paper of 2003, sponsored by The Center for Studies in Higher Education, UC Berkeley, and OxCHEPS, New College, Oxford, in Oxford, 28-30 September 2004. It offers reflection on the history of the relationship between British higher education and various British governments since…

  20. A comparative study of the pathergy reaction among Turkish and British patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yazici, H; Chamberlain, M A; Tüzün, Y; Yurdakul, S; Müftüoglu, A

    1984-02-01

    Forty-eight Turkish and 12 British patients along with 24 Turkish and 7 British healthy controls were assessed for the presence of the pathergy phenomenon. A photographic method with 'blind' reading was utilised. The pathergy phenomenon was present only among the Turkish patients.

  1. Children in Care: A Report to the Representative for Children and Youth from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in the public schools of British Columbia have a special responsibility to help ensure that the aesthetic, emotional, intellectual, physical, and social development of children in care is met. Representatives of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) from the Aboriginal Education Advisory Committee, the Committee for Action on…

  2. Graduation Requirements Review. A Brief to the Ministry of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Public schools are places where all students are welcomed and supported in their learning. Making changes to the Graduation Program should reinforce and support students' opportunities to learn and grow. In reviewing the current graduation requirements for the province of British Columbia (BC), the British Columbia Teachers' Federation…

  3. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  4. Aquatic impacts of an environmental disaster in a relatively pristine watershed: the breach of the Mount Polley Mine tailings impoundment, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Albers, Sam

    2015-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids), in addition to eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek, were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a large plume of fine-grained sediment (d50 of ca. 1 µm) moved both up-lake towards important salmon spawning areas and down-lake into Quesnel River, which in turn flows into the Fraser River. This movement of the sediment plume is controlled by the physical limnology of the lake, especially seiche events. Samples of lake water and sediment samples taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of metals and other elements, which may have important implications for the ecosystem in this watershed (>11,000 km2). This presentation describes the failure and presents preliminary findings of the aquatic impacts of this environmental disaster.

  5. Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 2. Modeling potential hydrogeological impacts associated with depressurizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.

    2000-12-01

    A three-dimensional, finite-element flow model was used to assess the hydrogeological effects of depressurizing coalbeds lying in the Weary Creek exploration block, Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results permit, at an early stage, assessment of the environmental and economic implications of how the flow system may respond to depressurization. Estimated reservoir conditions for the coal-seam gas targets lying within the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Mist Mountain Formation indicate that the coalbeds must be depressurized by up to 350 m to attain the critical gas desorption pressure. The simulations suggest that depressurizing has little effect on groundwater flux to the Elk River. Simulated water production for three depressurizing wells operating under steady-state, single-phase flow for initial reservoir conditions of 13 and 16.5 cm3/g is 645 m3/d (4,057 barrels/d) and 355 m3/d (2,233 barrels/d), respectively. Groundwaters collected from monitoring wells have relatively low salinity, ranging from about 250-1,300 mg/L. The groundwater is supersaturated with respect to Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates (calcite, dolomite, and siderite) and Al-bearing silicates, including kaolinite and illite. Dissolved trace-metal concentrations are low; only Fe, Cd, Cr, and Zn exceed Canadian water-quality guidelines for aquatic life. Groundwaters were devoid of the more soluble monocyclic aromatic organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and polycyclic aromatic compounds, including naphthalene.

  6. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...) entitled ``Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 36447). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11,'' which consists of aerial...

  7. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm

    2014-05-01

    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/sigma/home.html) in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field

  8. Classification of river regimes: A context for hydroecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Friedman, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, ecologists have demostrated the importance of flow and temperature as primary variables in driving running water, riparian and floodplain ecosystems. As it is important to assess the size and timing of discharge variations in relation to those in temperature, a method is proposed that uses multivariate techniques to separately classify annual discharge and temperature regimes according to their 'shape' and 'magnitude', and which then combines the classifications. This paper: (i) describes a generally applicable method; (ii) tests the method by applying it to riparian systems on four British rivers using a 20-year record (1977-97) of flow and air temperature: (iii) proposes a hydroecological interpretation of the classification; (iv) considers the degree to which the methodology might provide information to support the design of ecologically acceptable flow regimes. 'Regimes' are defined for discharge and air temperature using monthly mean data. The results of applying the classification procedure to four British rivers indicates that the 'typical' regimes for each of the four catchments are composite features produced by a small number of clearly defined annual types that reflect interannual variability in hydroclimatological conditions. Annual discharge patterns are dominated by three 'shape' classes (accounting for 94% of the station years: class A, early (November) peak; class B, intermediate (December-January) peak; and class C, late (March) peak) and one 'magnitude' class (70% of the station years fall into class 3, intermediate), with two subordinate 'magnitude' classes: low-flow years (18%) and high flow years (12%). For air temperature, annual patterns are classified evenly into three 'shape' and four 'magnitude' classes. It is argued that this variety of flow-temperature patterns is important for sustaining ecosystem integrity and for establishing benchmark flow regimes and associated frequencies to aid river management. Copyright

  9. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  10. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Stock Status of Burbot, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kozfkay, Joseph R.; Whitman, Vint

    2001-10-01

    In Idaho, the burbot Lota lota are native only to the Kootenai River and are genetically distinct from burbot in the Montana reach of the river. Burbot once provided a substantial fishery with tens of thousands of burbot harvested annually. Burbot now number fewer than 1000 in the Kootenai River and Kootenay Lake and may be nearing demographic extinction. Studies completed in the winter of 1997-1998 indicated flow management at Libby Dam likely affected burbot spawning migration during winter. The objective of our study was to monitor the movement of burbot during a period of normal winter operation and a low flow period to test the null hypothesis (H{sub o}) that winter operation of Libby Dam does not affect burbot migration distance or travel rate. In addition, we monitored the stock status of burbot. We captured 36 burbot in Idaho and British Columbia with baited hoop nets. Twenty-three burbot were caught in Idaho, including 12 at Ambush Rock. The remaining 13 burbot were caught in British Columbia, including eight in the Kootenai River and five in the Goat River. One burbot escaped and was not measured, and one recaptured burbot was not measured. Burbot ranged from 332 mm to 705 mm total length (TL) (mean = 541 mm, SE = 14.02) and weighed from 350 g to 2,850 g (mean = 1,059 g, SE = 90.51). Relative weight (W{sub r}) ranged from 40.5 to 127.6 and averaged 88.6 (SE = 2.44). Population estimates for 1996, 1997, and 1998 were made for the Kootenai River from Bonners Ferry to Kootenay Lake; they were 738, 540, and 43 fish respectively. These estimates were not considered valid because we had so few recaptures, and confidence intervals could not be provided. Four burbot were implanted with sonic transmitters and their movement was monitored. We requested a low flow test (170 m{sup 3}/s) period of five weeks from the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to study burbot migration distance or travel rate. The USACE could not provide an adequate low flow test period

  11. Rivers: Nature's Wondrous Waterways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    Rivers play a vital role in the life of the planet. They provide water for wildlife, plant life, and people, and they help to fertilize fields where corn and other crops grow. But how were these rivers made? This children's book takes readers/students on a journey down a river from its source at the top of a mountain to its mouth where it meets…

  12. Probabilistic river forecast methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Karen Suzanne

    1997-09-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) operates deterministic conceptual models to predict the hydrologic response of a river basin to precipitation. The output from these models are forecasted hydrographs (time series of the future river stage) at certain locations along a river. In order for the forecasts to be useful for optimal decision making, the uncertainty associated with them must be quantified. A methodology is developed for this purpose that (i) can be implemented with any deterministic hydrologic model, (ii) receives a probabilistic forecast of precipitation as input, (iii) quantifies all sources of uncertainty, (iv) operates in real-time and within computing constraints, and (v) produces probability distributions of future river stages. The Bayesian theory which supports the methodology involves transformation of a distribution of future precipitation into one of future river stage, and statistical characterization of the uncertainty in the hydrologic model. This is accomplished by decomposing total uncertainty into that associated with future precipitation and that associated with the hydrologic transformations. These are processed independently and then integrated into a predictive distribution which constitutes a probabilistic river stage forecast. A variety of models are presented for implementation of the methodology. In the most general model, a probability of exceedance associated with a given future hydrograph specified. In the simplest model, a probability of exceedance associated with a given future river stage is specified. In conjunction with the Ohio River Forecast Center of the NWS, the simplest model is used to demonstrate the feasibility of producing probabilistic river stage forecasts for a river basin located in headwaters. Previous efforts to quantify uncertainty in river forecasting have only considered selected sources of uncertainty, been specific to a particular hydrologic model, or have not obtained an entire probability

  13. Recent limnological changes in southern Kootenay Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1976-01-01

    n response to a significant abatement of phosphate loading and the construction of a dam on its major inflow (the Kootenay River), southern Kootenay Lake experienced a number of limnological changes between 1969 and 1974. Water temperatures in 1974–1975 were similar to those previously reported for 1966–1969. However, water transparency has increased, particularly during the spring months.Nitrate concentrations have remained unchanged since 1969, and ranged from 2 to 8 μM between 6 June 1974 and 22 May 1975. However, ammonium levels have been reduced in the winter months when mean concentration was about 1 μM. Dissolved phosphorus levels in 1966–1969 were consistently around 3 μM, but never reached 1 μM in 1974. Phytoplankton populations in 1974–1975 (measured as chlorophyll a) were lower than those during the 1966–1969 period, and evidence is presented that suggests that major shifts have occurred in the species composition of the phytoplankton. Whereas Kootenay Lake experienced blue–green and green algal blooms during the 1960's, no such phenomena were observed in 1974–1975 when the plankton was dominated by diatoms. Population maxima of the three most common zooplankters (Cyclops bicuspidatus, Diaptomus ashlandi, andDiaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum) have increased since 1966–1969.

  14. Scientific Research in British Universities and Colleges 1969-70, Volume II, Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This annual publication aims to provide a brief summary of active research topics in British universities and other institutions. This volume, the second of a three-volume series, is divided into broad subject fields and the university/college entries are arranged alphabetically within them. Also included within this volume on the biological…

  15. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2000 British Columbia (BC) College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey. It addresses a number of issues related to the admissions and transfer experiences of former students from BC's college and institute system, from the students' perspective. Twenty-one…

  16. The Aesthetics of Everyday Literacies: Home Writing Practices in a British Asian Household

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article explores young people's home literacy practices drawing on an ethnographic study of writing in the home of a British Asian family living in northern England. The theoretical framework comes from the New Literacy Studies, and aesthetic and literary theory. It applies an ethnographic methodology together with an engaged approach to…

  17. The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia. Annual Report, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native Courtworker and Counseling Association of British Columbia, Vancouver.

    The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia, with objectives of providing courtworker services for Native Indians charged with offenses; supplying information on legal rights, responsibilities, and operation of the justice system; and reducing the number of Native people in conflict with the law, handled 4,860 Native…

  18. Connections '99. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (5th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner W., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1999 annual conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria (British Columbia). The papers are: (1) "Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art" (Bill Zuk, Robert Dalton); (2) "Finding the Fund$ in Fun Run: Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Physical Activity Events as…

  19. Housing and Transport: Access Issues for Disabled International Students in British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorenian, Armineh

    2013-01-01

    This article explores two disabled people's "Seven Needs" to independent living, those of "housing" and "transport" issues, in relation to disabled international students in British universities. Firstly, students' living arrangements, including issues related to the suitability of university accommodation…

  20. Scientific Research in British Universities and Colleges 1969-70, Volume I, Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This annual publication (1969-1970) contains brief statements about current research in the physical sciences being conducted at British universities and colleges. Areas included are chemistry, physics, engineering, biochemistry, biometry, biophysics, physical geography, mathematics, computing science, and history and philosophy of science. (CP)

  1. Economies of Scale Revisited: School District Operating Costs in British Columbia, 1972-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter; LaRocque, Linda

    1984-01-01

    Data prepared by the British Columbia School Trustees Association were used to identify fundamental variables affecting school district expenses. Correlation and multiple regression analysis reveal that teacher salary costs per pupil and mean school size combined with pupil-teacher ratio are the primary predictors of operating costs. (MCG)

  2. A Dichotomous Key for the Identification of Common British Wild Flower Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Piers

    2004-01-01

    This article argues the need for, and provides, a dichotomous single access key for the identification of common British wild flower families. A minimum of technical vocabulary is used while at the same time retaining most of the recent botanical names of families. The key provides a user-friendly opportunity for school pupils to become familiar…

  3. Contesting the Limond Thesis on British Influence in Irish Education since 1922: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Tom; Harford, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to David Limond's exposition, "[An] historical culture ... rapidly, universally, and thoroughly restored"? British influence on Irish education since 1922, which appeared in "Comparative Education", Vol. 46, No. 4, November 2010, pp. 449-462. Limond's overall thesis is that "a post-colonial overhang affects Irish…

  4. Prevalence and Needs Assessment Study of Autistic Children in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1979-01-01

    Studies determining the prevalence of autistic children are reviewed. The findings of the survey, conducted in British Columbia in 1978 for the purpose of enumerating the children identified as autistic, psychotic, or schizophrenic, are presented. Among variables described are age, sex, school placement, manner of communication, and existence of…

  5. Promoting Quality in China's Higher Education by Motivating Students Attending the British Culture Survey Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Weihua

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an intervention project by means of motivational approaches in a British culture survey course for English majors in mainland China's university classroom context. The intervention uses such motivational theories as attribution and task orientation to motivate the teaching and learning of the EFL course so as to create a…

  6. "The Torment of Every Seminary": The Teaching of French in British Schools, 1780-1830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalin, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This article reconsiders the way in which the French language was taught in British schools from 1780 to 1830. In particular, it is shown that (contrary to recent claims) the use of recitation- and conversation-based techniques, as opposed to rule-based grammatical learning, persisted well into the 1820s, both in influential pedagogic textbooks…

  7. Missing Voices: Representations of Autism in British Newspapers, 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Past research indicates that newspaper representations of developmental disability reinforce negative stereotypes. The aim of this study was to examine depictions of autism in British newspapers. A qualitative content and discourse analysis of newspaper accounts of autism was conducted over four 1-month time points, every 3 years, between May 1999…

  8. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION IN THE BRITISH ARMED FORCES, A REPORT ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLIS, D.; AND OTHERS

    THE BRITISH ARMED SERVICES HAVE APPLIED PROGRAMING IN SCHOLASTIC SUBJECTS. A MARKED IMPROVEMENT IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF TRAINING HAS RESULTED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MORE SYSTEMATIC DERIVATION OF TRAINING OBJECTIVES, CLOSER ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY OF POTENTIAL STUDENTS, AND MORE ACCURATE SPECIFICATION OF CONTENTS, METHODS, AND MATERIALS…

  9. Arab Portrayals in U.S. and British News Magazines: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sandra

    A study examined the influence of national political and economic interests, culture, and history on the portrayal of Arabs in two weekly news magazines. Sample articles from the American weekly "Time" magazine and the British weekly "The Economist" were examined for coverage of the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the June 1982 Israeli invasion…

  10. British Women, Chemistry, and Poetry: Some Contextual Examples from the 1870s to the 1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Marelene F.; Rayner-Canham, Geoff W.

    2011-01-01

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, British women chemists used poetry as a way of describing their work and as a means of social commentary. As far as we are aware, the chemistry-poetry interface has not previously been explored in the context of women's experience.

  11. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1977/1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    The 1977-78 annual report on continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia is presented. The provision of continuing education by the university is decentralized. Several administrative units are responsible for credit and noncredit, general and professional continuing education, and professional development. The following…

  12. Forced Choice Recognition of Sign in Novice Learners of British Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ruth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of the accuracy of novice learners of British Sign Language (BSL) and sign-naive subjects in recognizing possible and impossible BSL signs and in naming signs suggests that rated iconicity and the ability to process potentially meaningful gestures, determined recognition and naming accuracy. (19 references) (Author/CB)

  13. Review of the British Thoracic Society Winter Meeting 2015, 2-4 December, London, UK.

    PubMed

    José, Ricardo J; Chalmers, James D; Greening, Neil J; Janes, Sam M

    2016-06-01

    The British Thoracic Society Winter Meeting 2015 is reviewed in this article. Over 3 days in December, this annual scientific meeting attracted over 2300 delegates and up-to-date respiratory research was presented by leading UK and international speakers. This article reviews a number of symposia and selected abstract presentations from the meeting. PMID:27015800

  14. Partnership and Workplace Learning in the UK: Pioneering Work at British Telecommunications plc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    A partnership between British Telecommunications (BT) and the Communication Workers Union resulted in a part-time bachelor's degree program for BT employees. The union played a key role in establishing the credibility of the program. Concerns included employee access to the program and manager resistance. The need to sustain workplace learning…

  15. British Environmental Education: A Perspective. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Arthur R.; Hammerman, Donald R., Ed.

    British environmental education differs somewhat from that of the United States. In the U.S. "environmental education" refers to the teaching of a set of concepts by which one might learn to appreciate, conserve and protect the natural environment. In Great Britain many of the same objectives and procedures of the U.S. system are employed, but…

  16. Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post-immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, October 2013.

    PubMed

    Murti, M; Krajden, M; Petric, M; Hiebert, J; Hemming, F; Hefford, B; Bigham, M; Van Buynder, P

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of vaccine-associated measles in a two-year-old patient from British Columbia, Canada, in October 2013, who received her first dose of measles-containing vaccine 37 days prior to onset of prodromal symptoms. Identification of this delayed vaccine-associated case occurred in the context of an outbreak investigation of a measles cluster. PMID:24330942

  17. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  18. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  19. Third-Person Present Singular Verb Inflection in Early British and American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyto, Merja

    1993-01-01

    In a sociohistorical variation analysis of verb inflection in Early Modern British and American English, corpus-based comparisons focus on several extralinguistic and linguistic factors that have influenced the choice of forms over successive periods of time. Contrary to customary theories of "colonial lag," the rate of change was faster in the…

  20. Potentialities for Community Development in a Kekchi Indian Village in British Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Colin

    Investigators spent six months in the Kekchi Indian village of San Miguel, British Honduras, where data gathering was combined with participation in agricultural and social activities and in practical community development. Respondents (85 men and youths) provided much informal data on attitudes relevant to community development, which were…