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Sample records for cheese whey permeate

  1. Fermentation of lactose to ethanol in cheese whey permeate and concentrated permeate by engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna; Casanova, Michela; Micoli, Giuseppina; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Magni, Paolo

    2017-06-02

    Whey permeate is a lactose-rich effluent remaining after protein extraction from milk-resulting cheese whey, an abundant dairy waste. The lactose to ethanol fermentation can complete whey valorization chain by decreasing dairy waste polluting potential, due to its nutritional load, and producing a biofuel from renewable source at the same time. Wild type and engineered microorganisms have been proposed as fermentation biocatalysts. However, they present different drawbacks (e.g., nutritional supplements requirement, high transcriptional demand of recombinant genes, precise oxygen level, and substrate inhibition) which limit the industrial attractiveness of such conversion process. In this work, we aim to engineer a new bacterial biocatalyst, specific for dairy waste fermentation. We metabolically engineered eight Escherichia coli strains via a new expression plasmid with the pyruvate-to-ethanol conversion genes, and we carried out the selection of the best strain among the candidates, in terms of growth in permeate, lactose consumption and ethanol formation. We finally showed that the selected engineered microbe (W strain) is able to efficiently ferment permeate and concentrated permeate, without nutritional supplements, in pH-controlled bioreactor. In the conditions tested in this work, the selected biocatalyst could complete the fermentation of permeate and concentrated permeate in about 50 and 85 h on average, producing up to 17 and 40 g/l of ethanol, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing efficient ethanol production from the lactose contained in whey permeate with engineered E. coli. The selected strain is amenable to further metabolic optimization and represents an advance towards efficient biofuel production from industrial waste stream.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a potential prebiotic trisaccharide from cheese whey permeate and sucrose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides dextransucrase.

    PubMed

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Montilla, Antonia; Jimeno, M Luisa; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-02-29

    The production of new bioactive oligosaccharides is currently garnering much attention for their potential use as functional ingredients. This work addresses the enzymatic synthesis and NMR structural characterization of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose derived from sucrose:lactose and sucrose:cheese whey permeate mixtures by using a Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512F dextransucrase. The effect of synthesis conditions, including concentration of substrates, molar ratio of donor/acceptor, enzyme concentration, reaction time, and temperature, on the formation of transfer products is evaluated. Results indicated that cheese whey permeate is a suitable material for the synthesis of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose, giving rise to yields around 50% (in weight respect to the initial amount of lactose) under the optimum reaction conditions. According to its structure, this trisaccharide is an excellent candidate for a new prebiotic ingredient, due to the reported high resistance of α-(1→2) linkages to the digestive enzymes in humans and animals, as well as to its potential selective stimulation of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine mainly attributed to the two linked glucose units located at the reducing end that reflects the disaccharide kojibiose (2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose). These findings could contribute to broadening the use of important agricultural raw materials, such as sucrose or cheese whey permeates, as renewable substrates for enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides of nutritional interest.

  3. Evaluation of whey, milk, and delactosed permeates as salt substitutes.

    PubMed

    Smith, S T; Metzger, L; Drake, M A

    2016-11-01

    Whey and milk permeates are by-products of high-protein dairy powder manufacture. Previous work has shown that these permeates contribute to salty taste without contributing significantly to sodium content. The objective of this study was to explore the sensory characteristics and compositional analysis of permeates from different milk and whey streams and a low-sodium product application made from them. Skim milk, Cheddar, cottage, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were manufactured in triplicate, and delactosed whey permeate was obtained in triplicate. Composition (protein, fat, solids, minerals) was conducted on permeates. Organic acid composition was determined using HPLC. Volatile compounds were extracted from permeates by solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A trained sensory panel documented sensory attributes of permeates and cream of broccoli soups with and without salt or permeates followed by consumer acceptance testing (n=105) on the soups. Cottage cheese whey permeate contained a higher lactic acid content than other permeates, which has been shown to contribute to a higher salty taste. Cottage cheese whey permeate also contained potato or brothy and caramel flavors and sour and salty tastes, whereas delactosed whey permeate had high intensities of cardboard and beefy or brothy flavors and salty taste. Milk, Cheddar, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were characterized by sweet taste and cooked milky flavor. Permeates with higher cardboard flavor had higher levels of aldehydes. All permeates contributed to salty taste and to salty taste perception in soups; although the control soup with added salt was perceived as saltier and was preferred by consumers over permeate soups. Soup with permeate from cottage cheese was the least liked of all soups, likely due to its sour taste. All other permeate soups scored at parity for liking. These results demonstrate the potential for milk, whey, and delactosed permeates from

  4. UTILIZATION OF CHEESE WHEY FOR WINE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wine was successfully produced in the laboratory from cheese whey. The method used involves the deproteinization of either sweet (cheddar cheese) whey or acid (cottage cheese) whey by heat or ultrafiltration, the addition of sulfur dioxide to stabilize the whey by Kruyveromyces f...

  5. Cheese whey management: a review.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  7. Cheese whey: A potential resource to transform into bioprotein, functional/nutritional proteins and bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Yan, Song; Pilli, Sridhar; Kumar, Lalit; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2015-11-01

    The byproduct of cheese-producing industries, cheese whey, is considered as an environmental pollutant due to its high BOD and COD concentrations. The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. These technological advancements have enhanced whey utilization and about 50% of the total produced whey is now transformed into value-added products such as whey powder, whey protein, whey permeate, bioethanol, biopolymers, hydrogen, methane, electricity bioprotein (single cell protein) and probiotics. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding. The main important factor which is attractive for transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory status of whey. Whey and whey permeate are biotransformed into proteinaceous feed and food-grade bioprotein/single cell protein through fermentation. On the other hand, whey can be directly processed to obtain whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and individual whey proteins. Further, whey proteins are also transformed into bioactive peptides via enzymatic or fermentation processes. The proteinaceous products have applications as functional, nutritional and therapeutic commodities. Whey characteristics, and its transformation processes for proteinaceous products such as bioproteins, functional/nutritional protein and bioactive peptides are covered in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Production and characterisation of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Athira, Syamala; Mann, Bimlesh; Saini, Prerna; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cheese whey is a rich by-product in nutritional terms, possessing components with high biological value, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. In the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultra-filtrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolysed with food-grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions (pH, temperature and time) were optimised for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Whey protein hydrolysed for 8 h at pH 9 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg(-1) protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultra-filtration through a 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides - β-Lg f(123-131), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(124-131), β-Lg f(123-134), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(96-100) and β-Lg f(94-100) - were identified by LC-MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolysate. The incorporation of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5-10 g L(-1)) increased the antioxidant activity from 76% to 90% as compared to control. Hydrolysis of ultra-filtrated retentate of whey can be an energy- and cost-effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health-promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Alternative bleaching methods for Cheddar cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Kang, E J; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2012-07-01

    Residual annatto colorant (norbixin) in fluid Cheddar cheese whey can be bleached. The 2 approved chemical bleaching agents for whey, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide (BP), negatively impact the flavor of dried whey protein. The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for bleaching liquid whey: ultraviolet radiation (UV), acid-activated bentonite (BT), and ozone (OZ). Colored Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured followed by pasteurization and fat separation. Liquid whey was subjected to one of 5 treatments: control (CT) (no bleaching; 50 °C, 1 h), HP (250 mg/kg; 50 °C, 1 h), UV (1 min exposure; 50 °C), BT (0.5% w/w; 50 °C, 1 h), or OZ (2.2g/h, 50 °C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Color (norbixin extraction and measurement), descriptive sensory, and instrumental volatile analyses were conducted on WPC80. Norbixin elimination was 28%, 79%, 39%, and 15% for HP, BT, UV, and OZ treatments, respectively. WPC80 from bleached whey, regardless of bleaching agent, had lower sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors compared to unbleached CT (P < 0.05). The HP and BT WPC80 had higher fatty flavor compared to the CT WPC80 (P < 0.05), and the UV and OZ WPC80 had distinct mushroom/burnt and animal flavors. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results and confirmed higher relative abundances of volatile aldehydes in UV, HP, and OZ WPC80 compared to CT and BT WPC80. Based on bleaching efficacy and flavor, BT may be an alternative to chemical bleaching of fluid whey. The 2 approved chemical bleaching agents for whey, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide (BP), negatively impact flavor of dried whey protein, and restrictions on these agents are increasing. This study evaluated 3 alternatives to chemical bleaching of fluid whey: UV radiation, ozone, and bentonite. © 2012 Institute of Food

  10. Valorization of Cheese and Tofu Whey through Enzymatic Synthesis of Lactosucrose.

    PubMed

    Corzo-Martinez, Marta; Luscher, Alice; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Moreno, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the development of a new bioprocess for the efficient synthesis of lactosucrose, a potential prebiotic oligosaccharide with a high value-added, from two important and inexpensive agro-industrial by-products such as tofu whey and cheese whey permeate. The bioconversion is driven by the ability of the enzyme levansucrase SacB from Bacillus subtilis CECT 39 to transfructosylate lactose contained in the cheese whey permeate by using not only sucrose but also raffinose and stachyose, which are present in considerable amounts in the tofu whey, as suitable donors of fructosyl moieties. The maximum lactosucrose concentration obtained from both by-products was 80.1 g L-1 after a short reaction time 120 min at 37°C, leading to productivity and specific productivity values of 40.1 g lactosucrose L-1 h-1 and 80.1 mg lactosucrose U enzyme-1 h-1, respectively. Findings contained in this work could provide a new strategy to valorize agro-industrial by-products as cheese whey permeate and, specially, tofu whey by means of their use as renewable resources in the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive oligosaccharides.

  11. Valorization of Cheese and Tofu Whey through Enzymatic Synthesis of Lactosucrose

    PubMed Central

    Corzo-Martinez, Marta; Luscher, Alice; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Moreno, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the development of a new bioprocess for the efficient synthesis of lactosucrose, a potential prebiotic oligosaccharide with a high value-added, from two important and inexpensive agro-industrial by-products such as tofu whey and cheese whey permeate. The bioconversion is driven by the ability of the enzyme levansucrase SacB from Bacillus subtilis CECT 39 to transfructosylate lactose contained in the cheese whey permeate by using not only sucrose but also raffinose and stachyose, which are present in considerable amounts in the tofu whey, as suitable donors of fructosyl moieties. The maximum lactosucrose concentration obtained from both by-products was 80.1 g L-1 after a short reaction time 120 min at 37°C, leading to productivity and specific productivity values of 40.1 g lactosucrose L-1 h-1 and 80.1 mg lactosucrose U enzyme−1 h−1, respectively. Findings contained in this work could provide a new strategy to valorize agro-industrial by-products as cheese whey permeate and, specially, tofu whey by means of their use as renewable resources in the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive oligosaccharides. PMID:26406885

  12. Use of cheese whey for biomass production and spray drying of probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Lavari, Luisina; Páez, Roxana; Cuatrin, Alejandra; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The double use of cheese whey (culture medium and thermoprotectant for spray drying of lactobacilli) was explored in this study for adding value to this wastewater. In-house formulated broth (similar to MRS) and dairy media (cheese and ricotta whey and whey permeate) were assessed for their capacity to produce biomass of Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lb. rhamnosus 64 and Lb. gasseri 37. Simultaneously, spray drying of cheese whey-starch solution (without lactobacilli cells) was optimised using surface response methodology. Cell suspensions of the lactobacilli, produced in in house-formulated broth, were spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and viability monitored throughout the storage of powders for 2 months. Lb. rhamnosus 64 was able to grow satisfactorily in at least two of the in-house formulated culture media and in the dairy media assessed. It also performed well in spray drying. The performance of the other strains was less satisfactory. The growth capacity, the resistance to spray drying in cheese whey-starch solution and the negligible lost in viability during the storage (2 months), makes Lb. rhamnosus 64 a promising candidate for further technological studies for developing a probiotic dehydrated culture for foods, utilising wastewaters of the dairy industry (as growth substrate and protectant) and spray drying (a low-cost widely-available technology).

  13. Physicochemical characterization of mozzarella cheese wheys and stretchwaters in comparison with several other sweet wheys.

    PubMed

    Gernigon, G; Piot, M; Beaucher, E; Jeantet, R; Schuck, P

    2009-11-01

    To better understand the origins of the problems occurring during mozzarella cheese whey concentration, lactose crystallization, and spray-drying steps, a physicochemical characterization was achieved. For this purpose, mozzarella cheese wheys were sampled and their content in different compounds such as total nitrogen, noncasein nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactate, citrate, chloride, sulfate, phosphate anions, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium cations, and the sugars glucose and galactose were measured. In a second step, the results were compared with the corresponding content in cheddar cheese wheys, raclette cheese wheys, soft cheese wheys, and Swiss-type cheese wheys. At the end of this survey, it was shown that mozzarella cheese wheys were more concentrated in lactate and in minerals--especially phosphate, calcium, and magnesium--than the other cheese wheys and that they contained galactose. These constituents are known to be hygroscopic. Complementary surveys are now necessary to compare the hygroscopicity of galactose and lactate and discover whether the amounts of these compounds found in mozzarella cheese wheys are a factor in the problems encountered during the concentration, lactose crystallization, and spray-drying steps.

  14. Technological optimization of manufacture of probiotic whey cheese matrices.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana R; Brandão, Teresa; Gomes, Ana M; Pintado, Manuela E; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-03-01

    In attempts to optimize their manufacture, whey cheese matrices obtained via thermal processing of whey (leading to protein precipitation) and inoculated with probiotic cultures were tested. A central composite, face-centered design was followed, so a total of 16 experiments were run using fractional addition of bovine milk to feedstock whey, homogenization time, and storage time of whey cheese as processing parameters. Probiotic whey cheese matrices were inoculated with Lactobacillus casei LAFTIL26 at 10% (v/v), whereas control whey cheese matrices were added with skim milk previously acidified with lactic acid to the same level. All whey cheeses were stored at 7 °C up to 14 d. Chemical and sensory analyses were carried out for all samples, as well as rheological characterization by oscillatory viscometry and textural profiling. As expected, differences were found between control and probiotic matrices: fractional addition of milk and storage time were the factors accounting for the most important effects. Estimation of the best operating parameters was via response surface analysis: milk addition at a rate of 10% to 15% (v/v), and homogenization for 5 min led to the best probiotic whey cheeses in terms of texture and organoleptic properties, whereas the best time for consumption was found to be by 9 d of storage following manufacture.

  15. Cultivability of Streptococcus thermophilus in Grana Padano cheese whey starters.

    PubMed

    Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Rossetti, Lia; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2006-04-01

    The application of a culture-independent approach, that of reverse transcriptase-length heterogeneity-PCR coupled with epifluorescence microscopy, allowed us to observe that Streptococcus thermophilus is metabolically active, but only partially cultivable in Grana Padano cheese whey starters. A short preincubation of the starters in sterile skimmed whey was followed by cultivation in sterile skimmed whey-enriched M17. This procedure restored the cultivability of S. thermophilus and enabled us to detect S. thermophilus at ranges (10(7)-10(8) CFU mL(-1)) which have rarely been reported in these cultures. The use of cheese whey as a cultivation-revitalization substrate can be useful to obtain an unbiased picture of the microbial composition of whey starters for Grana Padano cheese, thus avoiding an underestimation of S. thermophilus in these cultures.

  16. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    PubMed

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  17. Decolorization of Cheddar cheese whey by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Campbell, Rachel; Drake, MaryAnne; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Colored Cheddar whey is a source for whey protein recovery and is decolorized conventionally by bleaching, which affects whey protein quality. Two activated carbons were studied in the present work as physical means of removing annatto (norbixin) in Cheddar cheese whey. The color and residual norbixin content of Cheddar whey were reduced by a higher level of activated carbon at a higher temperature between 25 and 55°C and a longer time. Activated carbon applied at 40g/L for 2h at 30°C was more effective than bleaching by 500mg/L of hydrogen peroxide at 68°C. The lowered temperature in activated-carbon treatments had less effect on protein structure as investigated for fluorescence spectroscopy and volatile compounds, particularly oxidation products, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Activated carbon was also reusable, removing more than 50% norbixin even after 10 times of regeneration, which showed great potential for decolorizing cheese whey. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of pH in the recovery of bovine milk oligosaccharides from colostrum whey permeate by nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joshua L.; Barile, Daniela; Liu, Yan; de Moura Bell, Juliana M. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides are associated with improved health outcomes in infants. Nanofiltration (NF) is used for isolation of bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO). The study aim was to improve the recovery of BMO from lactose-hydrolyzed colostrum whey permeate. The retention factors of carbohydrates at various pH and transmembrane pressures were determined for a nanofiltration membrane, which was used at pilot scale to purify BMO. Carbohydrates were quantified by liquid chromatography and characterized using nano-LC-Chip-QToF mass spectrometry. BMO purity was improved from an initial 4% in colostrum whey permeate to 98%, with 99.8% permeation of monosaccharides and 96% recovery of oligosaccharides, represented by 23 unique BMO compounds identified in the final retentate. The pH during NF was a determining factor in the selectivity of carbohydrate separation. This NF method can be applied to conventional cheese-whey permeate and other milk types for extraction of bioactive oligosaccharides providing new options for the dairy industry. PMID:28652648

  19. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Lia; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Gatti, Monica; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the species composition and the genotypic strain heterogeneity of dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from whey starter cultures used to manufacture Grana Padano cheese. Twenty-four Grana Padano cheese whey starters collected from dairies located over a wide geographic production area in the north of Italy were analyzed. Total thermophilic LAB streptococci and lactobacilli were quantified by agar plate counting. Population structure of the dominant and metabolically active LAB species present in the starters was profiled by reverse transcriptase, length heterogeneity-PCR (RT-LH-PCR), a culture-independent technique successfully applied to study whey starter ecosystems. The dominant bacterial species were Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Diversity in the species composition allowed the whey cultures to be grouped into four main typologies, the one containing L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus being the most frequent one (45% of the cultures analyzed), followed by that containing only the two lactobacilli (40%). Only a minor fraction of the cultures contained L. helveticus alone (4%) or all the four LAB species (11%). Five hundred and twelve strains were isolated from the 24 cultures and identified by M13-PCR fingerprinting coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most of the strains were L. helveticus (190 strains; 37% of the total), L delbrueckii subsp. lactis (90 strains; 18%) and S. thermophilus (215 strains; 42%). This result was in good agreement with the qualitative whey starter composition observed by RT-LH-PCR. M13-PCR fingerprinting indicated a markedly low infra-species diversity, i.e. the same biotypes were often found in more than one culture. The distribution of the biotypes into the different cultures was mainly dairy plant-specific rather than correlated with the different production areas.

  20. Use of immobilised biocatalysts in the processing of cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R; Panesar, Parmjit S; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kennedy, John F

    2009-12-01

    Food processing industry operations need to comply with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations related to the disposal or utilisation of by-products and wastes. These include growing restrictions on land spraying with agro-industrial wastes, and on disposal within landfill operations, and the requirements to produce end products that are stabilised and hygienic. Much of the material generated as wastes by the dairy processing industries contains components that could be utilised as substrates and nutrients in a variety of microbial/enzymatic processes, to give rise to added-value products. A good example of a waste that has received considerable attention as a source of added-value products is cheese whey. The carbohydrate reservoir of lactose (4-5%) in whey and the presence of other essential nutrients make it a good natural medium for the growth of microorganisms and a potential substrate for bioprocessing through microbial fermentation. Immobilised cell and enzyme technology has also been applied to whey bioconversion processes to improve the economics of such processes. This review focuses upon the elaboration of a range of immobilisation techniques that have been applied to produce valuable whey-based products. A comprehensive literature survey is also provided to illustrate numerous immobilisation procedures with particular emphasis upon lactose hydrolysis, and ethanol and lactic acid production using immobilised biocatalysts.

  1. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  2. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    PubMed

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Composition and functionality of whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate.

    PubMed

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underused. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to 1 WPPC supplier. The objective of this research was to fully characterize a range of WPPC. Four WPPC samples and 1 DLP sample were analyzed for chemical composition and functionality. This analysis showed that WPPC composition was highly variable between suppliers and lots. In addition, the functionality of the WPPC varies depending on the supplier and testing pH, and cannot be correlated with fat or protein content because of differences in processing. The addition of DLP to WPPC affects functionality. In general, WPPC has a high water-holding capacity, is relatively heat stable, has low foamability, and does not aid in emulsion stability. The gel strength and texture are highly dependent on the amount of protein. To be able to use these 2 dairy products, the composition and functionality must be fully understood. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Succinic Acid Production from Cheese Whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning

    Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z was used to produce succinic acid from cheese whey in this study. At the presence of external CO2 supply, the effects of initial cheese whey concentration, pH, and inoculum size on the succinic acid production were studied. The by-product formation during the fermentation process was also analyzed. The highest succinic acid yield of 0.57 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, while the highest succinic acid productivity of 0.58 g h-1 L-1 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 100 g/L. Increase in pH and inoculum size caused higher succinic acid yield and productivity. At the preferred fermentation condition of pH 6.8, inoculum size of 5% and initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, succinic acid yield of 0.57, and productivity of 0.44 g h-1 L-1 were obtained. Acetic acid and formic acid were the main by-products throughout the fermentation run of 48 h. It is feasible to produce succinic acid using lactose from cheese whey as carbon resource by A. succinogenes 130 Z.

  6. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-06-01

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m 2 was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  7. Whey-cheese production using freeze-dried kefir culture as a starter.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Banat, I M; Marchant, R; Koutinas, A A

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a freeze-dried kefir culture in the production of a novel type of whey-cheese similar to traditional Greek Myzithra-cheese, to achieve improvement of the quality characteristics of the final product and the extension of shelf-life. The use of kefir culture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product compared with whey-cheese without starter culture. The effect of the starter culture on production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavour was also studied using the solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Spoilage in unsalted kefir-whey-cheese was observed on the thirteenth and the twentieth day of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while the corresponding times for unsalted whey-cheese preservation were 11 and 14 days. The cheeses produced were characterized as high-quality products during the preliminary sensory evaluation. An indication of increased preservation time was attributed to the freeze-dried kefir culture, which also seemed to suppress growth of pathogens. The results suggested the use of kefir culture as a means to extend the shelf-life of dairy products with reduced or no salt content.

  8. Continuous ethanol production from cheese whey fermentation by Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1997-12-01

    Three pilot-scale continuous mix reactors of 5-L volume each were used to study the effects of retention time (18--42 hours) and initial substrate concentration (50--150 g/L) on the cell yield, lactose consumption, and maximum ethanol concentration during continuous fermentation of cheese whey using the yeast Candida pseudotropicalis. A microaeration rate of 480 mL/min and a nutrient supplement (yeast extract) concentration of 0.1% vol/vol were used. The results indicated that the dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, cell concentration, lactose utilization rate, and ethanol concentration were affected by hydraulic retention time and initial substrate concentration. The highest cell concentration of 5.46 g/L andmore » the highest ethanol concentration of 57.96 g/L (with a maximum ethanol yield of 99.6% from the theoretical yield) were achieved at the 42-hour hydraulic retention time and the 150 g/L initial substrate concentration, whereas the highest cell yield was observed at the 50 g/L initial substrate concentration and the 36-hour hydraulic retention time. Lactose utilizations of 98, 91, and 83% were obtained with 50, 100, and 150 g/L initial substrate concentrations at the 42-hour hydraulic retention time. A pH control system was found unnecessary.« less

  9. Mass spectrometry detection of fraudulent use of cow whey in water buffalo, sheep, or goat Italian ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Serena; Montepeloso, Emanuela; Casella, Marialuisa; Crescenzi, Marco; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Fuselli, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    Ricotta cheese is a typical Italian product, made with whey from various species, including cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Ricotta cheese nominally manufactured from the last three species may be fraudulently produced using the comparatively cheaper cow whey. Exposing such food frauds requires a reliable analytical method. Despite the extensive similarities shared by whey proteins of the four species, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed that exploits three species-specific peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. This method can detect as little as 0.5% bovine whey in ricotta cheese from the other three species. Furthermore, a tight correlation was found (R(2)>0.99) between cow whey percentages and mass spectrometry measurements throughout the 1-50% range. Thus, this method can be used for forensic detection of ricotta cheese adulteration and, if properly validated, to provide quantitative evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of activated carbon and carbon nanotubes as adsorbents to remove annatto (norbixin) in cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Removing annatto from cheese whey without bleaching has potential to improve whey protein quality. In this work, the potential of two activated carbon products and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) was studied for extracting annatto (norbixin) in aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were studied for the effects of solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact duration, and ionic strength. The equilibrium adsorption data were observed to fit both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters estimated from adsorption isotherms demonstrated that the adsorption of norbixin on three adsorbents is exothermic, and the entropic contribution differs with adsorbent structure. The adsorption kinetics, with CNT showing a higher rate than activated carbon, followed the pseudo first order and second order rate expressions and demonstrated the significance of intraparticle diffusion. Electrostatic interactions were observed to be significant in the adsorption. The established adsorption parameters may be used in the dairy industry to decolorize cheese whey without applying bleaching agents.

  11. Fractionation of sheep cheese whey by a scalable method to sequentially isolate bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan

    2016-07-15

    This study reports a procedure for the simultaneous purification of glyco(caseino)macropeptide, immunoglobulin, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin from sheep cheese sweet whey, an under-utilized by-product of cheese manufacture generated by an emerging sheep dairy industry in New Zealand. These proteins have recognized value in the nutrition, biomedical and health-promoting supplements industries. A sequential fractionation procedure using economical anion and cation exchange chromatography on HiTrap resins was evaluated. The whey protein fractionation is performed under mild conditions, requires only the adjustment of pH between ion exchange chromatography steps, does not require buffer exchange and uses minimal amounts of chemicals. The purity of the whey protein fractions generated were analyzed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and the identity of the proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry. This scalable procedure demonstrates that several proteins of recognized value can be fractionated in reasonable yield and purity from sheep cheese whey in one streamlined process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved ethanol production from cheese whey, whey powder, and sugar beet molasses by "Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expressing" Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Sar, Taner; Ozcelik, Busra

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the improvement of ethanol production by engineered ethanologenic Escherichia coli to express the hemoglobin from the bacterium Vitreoscilla (VHb). Ethanologenic E. coli strain FBR5 and FBR5 transformed with the VHb gene in two constructs (strains TS3 and TS4) were grown in cheese whey (CW) medium at small and large scales, at both high and low aeration, or with whey powder (WP) or sugar beet molasses hydrolysate (SBMH) media at large scale and low aeration. Culture pH, cell growth, VHb levels, and ethanol production were evaluated after 48 h. VHb expression in TS3 and TS4 enhanced their ethanol production in CW (21-419%), in WP (17-362%), or in SBMH (48-118%) media. This work extends the findings that "VHb technology" may be useful for improving the production of ethanol from waste and byproducts of various sources.

  13. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. d-Tagatose production by permeabilized and immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum using whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Jayamuthunagai, J; Srisowmeya, G; Chakravarthy, M; Gautam, P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the work is to produce d-Tagatose by direct addition of alginate immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum cells to lactose hydrolysed whey permeate. The cells were untreated and immobilized (UIC), permeabilized and immobilized (PIC) and the relative activities were compared with purified l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) for d-galactose isomerization. Successive lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli and d-galactose isomerization using l-AI from Lactobacillus plantarum was performed to investigate the in vivo production of d-tagatose in whey permeate. In whey permeate, maximum conversion of 38% and 33% (w/w) d-galactose isomerization by PIC and UIC has been obtained. 162mg/g and 141mg/g of d-tagatose production was recorded in a 48h reaction time at 50°C, pH 7.0 with 5mM Mn 2+ ion concentration in the initial substrate mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population Dynamics of Lactobacillus helveticus in Swiss Gruyère-Type Cheese Manufactured With Natural Whey Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Aline; Schafroth, Karl; Meile, Leo; Egger, Lotti; Badertscher, René; Irmler, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus, a ubiquitous bacterial species in natural whey cultures (NWCs) used for Swiss Gruyère cheese production, is considered to have crucial functions for cheese ripening such as enhancing proteolysis. We tracked the diversity and abundance of L. helveticus strains during 6 months of ripening in eight Swiss Gruyère-type cheeses using a culture-independent typing method. The study showed that the L. helveticus population present in NWCs persisted in cheese and demonstrated a stable multi-strain coexistence during cheese ripening. With regard to proteolysis, one of the eight L. helveticus populations exhibited less protein degradation during ripening. PMID:29670601

  16. Population Dynamics of Lactobacillus helveticus in Swiss Gruyère-Type Cheese Manufactured With Natural Whey Cultures.

    PubMed

    Moser, Aline; Schafroth, Karl; Meile, Leo; Egger, Lotti; Badertscher, René; Irmler, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus , a ubiquitous bacterial species in natural whey cultures (NWCs) used for Swiss Gruyère cheese production, is considered to have crucial functions for cheese ripening such as enhancing proteolysis. We tracked the diversity and abundance of L. helveticus strains during 6 months of ripening in eight Swiss Gruyère-type cheeses using a culture-independent typing method. The study showed that the L. helveticus population present in NWCs persisted in cheese and demonstrated a stable multi-strain coexistence during cheese ripening. With regard to proteolysis, one of the eight L. helveticus populations exhibited less protein degradation during ripening.

  17. Semicontinuous Production of Lactic Acid From Cheese Whey Using Integrated Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Coulibaly, Sekou; Mims, Michele M.

    Semicontinuous production of lactic acid from cheese whey using free cells of Bifidobacterium longum with and without nanofiltration was studied. For the semicontinuous fermentation without membrane separation, the lactic acid productivity of the second and third runs is much lower than the first run. The semicontinuous fermentation with nanoseparation was run semicontinuously for 72 h with lactic acid to be harvested every 24 h using a nanofiltration membrane unit. The cells and unutilized lactose were kept in the reactor and mixed with newly added cheese whey in the subsequent runs. Slight increase in the lactic acid productivity was observed in the second and third runs during the semicontinuous fermentation with nanofiltration. It can be concluded that nanoseparation could improve the lactic acid productivity of the semicontinuous fermentation process.

  18. Effect of lactose concentration on batch production of ethanol from cheese whey using Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of lactose concentration on growth of Candida pseudotropicalis and ethanol production from cheese whey under batch conditions was investigated. Four initial lactose concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 g/L (5 to 20% wt/vol) were used. High concentration of lactose had an inhibitory effect on the specific growth rate, lactose utilization rate, and ethanol production rate. The maximum cell concentration was influenced by the initial substrate concentration as well as ethanol concentration. Inhibition of ethanol production was more pronounced at higher initial lactose concentrations. The maximum ethanol yield (96.6% of the theoretical yield) was achieved with the 100 g/Lmore » initial substrate concentration. The results indicated that pH control during alcohol fermentation of cheese whey is not necessary. 41 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.« less

  19. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24%more » lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.« less

  20. Performance of microbial fuel cell double chamber using mozzarella cheese whey substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, M. D.; Hawa, L. C.; Argo, B. D.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays the availability of electric energy is decreasing, hence there is a need for innovation of electric energy producer alternative; one of them is microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC is a bioelectrochemical system generated by bacterial metabolism that utilizes organic substrate. One of the substrates that can be used is whey, a waste generated from cheese production. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the power of potential current and voltage generated from the use of whey cheese as a substrate for bacterial metabolism. In this research, double chamber system was used in microbial fuel cell reactor by using cheese whey as substrate at anode and potassium permanganate as cathode and utilizing membrane nafion 212 as membrane of proton exchange. The variable of experiment was bacteria type. The types of bacteria used in this study were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei. While the operating time used was 100 hours. The highest current produced was 74.6 μA and the highest voltage was 529.3 mV produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteria. In this study, it was also found that the death phase of the three bacteria was at 70-80 hours.

  1. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and <1 kDa. The results indicated differences in the lactose, protein, ash, and dry matter contents (% wt/wt) in the different Fresco-style cheese wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a "tea fungus" fermentation.

    PubMed

    Belloso-Morales, Genette; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Kombucha is a sour beverage reported to have potential health effects prepared from the fermentation of black tea and sugar with a "tea fungus", a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Although black tea is the preferred substrate for Kombucha fermentation, other beverages have also been tested as substrates with fair results. Cheese whey is a by-product with a good amount of fermentable lactose that has been used before in the production of beverages, so the objective of this study was to test three types of whey (fresh sweet, fresh acid and reconstituted sweet) in the elaboration of a fermented beverage using a kombucha culture as inoculum. The isolation and identification of bacteria and yeasts from the fermented tea and wheys was done along with the study of the rates of change in sugar consumption, acid production and pH decrease. Several species of acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius, subsp. oxydans and Gluconoacetobacter xylinus) were isolated from the different kombuchas along with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Brettanomyces bruxelensis. The main metabolic products in the fermented wheys included ethanol, lactic and acetic acids. A good growth was obtained in both sweet wheys in which a pH of 3.3 and a total acid content (mainly lactic and acetic acids) of 0.07 mol/l was reached after 96 h. The sweet whey fermented beverages contained a relatively low lactose concentration (< 12 g/l). The final ethanol content was low (5 g/l) in all the fermented wheys. The whey products were strongly sour and salty non sparkling beverages.

  3. Inhibitory activity of cheese whey fermented with kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Londero, A; Quinta, R; Abraham, A G; Sereno, R; De Antoni, G; Garrote, G L

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the chemical and microbiological compositions of three types of whey to be used for kefir fermentation as well as the inhibitory capacity of their subsequent fermentation products against 100 Salmonella sp. and 100 Escherichia coli pathogenic isolates. All the wheys after fermentation with 10% (wt/vol) kefir grains showed inhibition against all 200 isolates. The content of lactic acid bacteria in fermented whey ranged from 1.04 × 10(7) to 1.17 × 10(7) CFU/ml and the level of yeasts from 2.05 × 10(6) to 4.23 × 10(6) CFU/ml. The main changes in the chemical composition during fermentation were a decrease in lactose content by 41 to 48% along with a corresponding lactic acid production to a final level of 0.84 to 1.20% of the total reaction products. The MIC was a 30% dilution of the fermentation products for most of the isolates, while the MBC varied between 40 and 70%, depending on the isolate. The pathogenic isolates Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 2713 and E. coli 2710 in the fermented whey lost their viability after 2 to 7 h of incubation. When pathogens were deliberately inoculated into whey before fermentation, the CFU were reduced by 2 log cycles for E. coli and 4 log cycles for Salmonella sp. after 24 h of incubation. The inhibition was mainly related to lactic acid production. This work demonstrated the possibility of using kefir grains to ferment an industrial by-product in order to obtain a natural acidic preparation with strong bacterial inhibitory properties that also contains potentially probiotic microorganisms.

  4. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  5. Inhibition of bacterial growth in sweet cheese whey by carbon dioxide as determined by culture-independent community profiling.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raquel; Xue, Tian; Weeks, Mike; Turner, Mark S; Bansal, Nidhi

    2016-01-18

    Whey is a valuable co-product from cheese making that serves as a raw material for a wide range of products. Its rich nutritional content lends itself to rapid spoilage, thus it typically needs to be pasteurised and refrigerated promptly. Despite the extensive literature on milk spoilage bacteria, little is known about the spoilage bacteria of whey. The utility of carbon dioxide (CO2) to extend the shelf-life of raw milk and cottage cheese has been well established, but its application in whey preservation has not yet been explored. This study aims to characterise the microbial populations of fresh and spoiled sweet whey by culture-independent community profiling using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and to determine whether carbonation is effective in inhibiting bacterial growth in sweet whey. The microbiota of raw Cheddar and Mozzarella whey was dominated by cheese starter bacteria. After pasteurisation, two out of the three samples studied became dominated by diverse environmental bacteria from various phyla, with Proteobacteria being the most dominant. Diverse microbial profiles were maintained until spoilage occurred, when the entire population was dominated by just one or two genera. Whey spoilage bacteria were found to be similar to those of milk. Pasteurised Cheddar and Mozzarella whey was spoiled by Bacillus sp. or Pseudomonas sp., and raw Mozzarella whey was spoiled by Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp., and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. CO2 was effective in inhibiting bacterial growth of pasteurised Cheddar and Mozzarella whey stored at 15°C and raw Mozzarella whey stored at 4°C. The spoilage bacteria of the carbonated samples were similar to those of the non-carbonated controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of Bakers' Yeast in Cheese Whey Ultrafiltrate †

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, C. P.; Goulet, J.; Lachance, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of bakers' yeast in whey ultrafiltrate (WU) is described. Lactose in WU was converted to lactic acid and galactose by fermentation. Streptococcus thermophilus was selected for this purpose. Preculturing of S. thermophilus in skim milk considerably reduced its lag. Lactic fermentation in 2.3×-concentrated WU was delayed compared with that in unconcentrated whey, and fermentation could not be completed within 60 h. The growth rate of bakers' yeast in fermented WU differed among strains. The rate of galactose utilization was similar for all strains, but differences in lactic acid utilization occurred. Optimal pH ranges for galactose and lactic acid utilization were 5.5 to 6.0 and 5.0 to 5.5, respectively. The addition of 4 g of corn steep liquor per liter to fermented WU increased cell yields. Two sources of nitrogen were available for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: amino acids (corn steep liquor) and ammonium (added during the lactic acid fermentation). Ammonium was mostly assimilated during growth on lactic acid. This process could permit the substitution of molasses by WU for the industrial production of bakers' yeast. PMID:16348117

  7. Whey permeate fermented with kefir grains shows antifungal effect against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; De Antoni, Graciela; Peláez, Angela León

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the work reported here was to study the antifungal capability of cell-free supernatants obtained from whey permeates after fermentation by the kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 against Fusarium graminearum growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production. The assays were performed in order to study the conidial germination inhibition -in liquid media- and the effect on fungal growth rate and the Latency phase -in solid media. We observed that fermented supernatants of pH 3·5 produced the highest percentages of inhibition of conidial germination. The dilution and, particularly, alkalinisation of them led to the gradual loss of antifungal activity. In the fungal inhibition assays on plates we found that only the highest proportion of supernatant within solid medium had significant antifungal activity, which was determined as fungicidal. There was no ZEA biosynthesis in the medium with the highest proportion of supernatant, whereas at lower concentrations, the mycotoxin production was strain-dependent. From the results obtained we concluded that kefir supernatants had antifungal activity on the F. graminearum strains investigated and inhibited mycotoxin production as well, but in a strain-dependent fashion. The present work constitutes the first report of the effect of the products obtained from the kefir-grain fermentation of whey permeates - a readily available by-product of the dairy industry - on F. graminearum germination, growth, and toxin production.

  8. Optimization of pH, temperature and CaCl2 concentrations for Ricotta cheese production from Buffalo cheese whey using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Abdul Ahid; Huma, Nuzhat; Zahoor, Tahir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The recovery of milk constituents from cheese whey is affected by various processing conditions followed during production of Ricotta cheese. The objective of the present investigation was to optimize the temperature (60-90 °C), pH (3-7) and CaCl2 concentration (2·0-6·0 mm) for maximum yield/recovery of milk constituents. The research work was carried out in two phases. In 1st phase, the influence of these processing conditions was evaluated through 20 experiments formulated by central composite design (CCD) keeping the yield as response factor. The results obtained from these experiments were used to optimize processing conditions for maximum yield using response surface methodology (RSM). The three best combinations of processing conditions (90 °C, pH 7, CaCl2 6 mm), (100 °C, pH 5, CaCl2 4 mm) and (75 °C, pH 8·4, CaCl2 4 mm) were exploited in the next phase for Ricotta cheese production from a mixture of Buffalo cheese whey and skim milk (9 : 1) to determine the influence of optimized conditions on the cheese composition. Ricotta cheeses were analyzed for various physicochemical (moisture, fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH and acidity indicated) parameters during storage of 60 d at 4 ± 2 °C after every 15 d interval. Ricotta cheese prepared at 90 °C, pH 7 and CaCl2 6 mm exhibited the highest cheese yield, proteins and total solids, while high fat content was recorded for cheese processed at 100 °C, pH 5 and 4 mm CaCl2 concentration. A significant storage-related increase in acidity and NPN was recorded for all cheese samples.

  9. Characteristic of Fermented Drink from Whey Cheese with Addition of Mango (Mangifera x odorata) Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnilasari, D.; Kumalasari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Whey cheese could be utilized become product such as fermented drink which is added by mango kweni juice to improve their acceptance. The aim of this research was to characterized physicochemical, sensory, and microbiology of fermented drink based on whey cheese with addition different concentration mango kweni juice of (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) by Lactobacillus casei. Color scale, viscosity, pH, total soluble solid, total free acid, fat, protein, total L. casei and sensory evaluation from panelist were examined after 24 hour of fermentation. Result showed that addition mango juice significantly affects the color scale, viscosity, pH, protein and number of L. casei of the product. The color of the product becomes more dark, red, and yellow. The product becomes more viscous. pH of the product become more acid and reduces protein content. Respectively total number of L. casei of the product increased 1 log. But addition of mango juice significantly did not affect sensory acceptance, total soluble solid, total free acid, and fat of the product. Sensory acceptance of the product range in dislike slightly and slightly like score that means formulation of the product need to be improved again.

  10. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentationmore » time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.« less

  11. Continuous electrocoagulation of cheese whey wastewater: an application of Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Kandemir, Ayse; Erginel, Nihal; Ocal, S Eren

    2014-12-15

    In this study, treatment of cheese whey wastewater was performed using a uniquely-designed continuous electrocoagulation reactor, not previously encountered in the literature. An iron horizontal rotating screw type anode was used in the continuous mode. An empirical model, in terms of effective operational factors, such as current density (40, 50, 60 mA/cm(2)), pH (3, 5, 7) and retention time (20, 40, 60 min), was developed through Response Surface Methodology. An optimal region characterized by low values of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was determined. As a result of experiments, a linear effect in the removal efficiency of COD was obtained for current density and retention time, while the initial pH of the wastewater was found to have a quadratic effect in the removal efficiency of COD. The best fit nonlinear mathematical model, with a coefficient of determination value (R(2)) of 85%, was defined. An initial COD concentration of 15.500 mg/L was reduced to 2112 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 86.4%. In conclusion, it can be said that electrocoagulation was successfully applied for the treatment of cheese whey wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  13. A Multi-Omics Approach to Evaluate the Quality of Milk Whey Used in Ricotta Cheese Production

    PubMed Central

    Sattin, Eleonora; Andreani, Nadia A.; Carraro, Lisa; Lucchini, Rosaria; Fasolato, Luca; Telatin, Andrea; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Simionati, Barbara; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the past, milk whey was only a by-product of cheese production, but currently, it has a high commercial value for use in the food industries. However, the regulation of whey management (i.e., storage and hygienic properties) has not been updated, and as a consequence, its microbiological quality is very challenging for food safety. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique was applied to several whey samples used for Ricotta production to evaluate the microbial community composition in depth using both RNA and DNA as templates for NGS library construction. Whey samples demonstrating a high microbial and aerobic spore load contained mostly Firmicutes; although variable, some samples contained a relevant amount of Gammaproteobacteria. Several lots of whey acquired as raw material for Ricotta production presented defective organoleptic properties. To define the volatile compounds in normal and defective whey samples, a headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was conducted. The statistical analysis demonstrated that different microbial communities resulted from DNA or cDNA library sequencing, and distinguishable microbiota composed the communities contained in the organoleptic-defective whey samples. PMID:27582735

  14. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    PubMed Central

    Tunick, Michael H.; Iandola, Susan K.; Van Hekken, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min) of warming at lower temperature (40 °C) without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times. PMID:28239136

  15. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey: Energetic and nutritional potential for the dairy sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Escalante, H; Castro, L; Amaya, M P; Jaimes, L; Jaimes-Estévez, J

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated. Second, biomethane and struvite potentials were assessed using cattle slurry as inoculum. The organic matter in CW varied from 40 to 65gVS/kg, 65 to 140g COD/L, and 2 to 10g/L for VFAs depending on the sampling time and type of sample. The pH of the CW samples ranged from 3 to 6.5. In the anaerobic biodegradability analysis, methane yields reached 0.51 to 0.60L CH 4 /g VS added , which represented electrical and caloric potentials of 54 and 108kWh/m 3 for CW, respectively. Organic matter removal in all experiments was above 83%. Moreover, anaerobic digestates presented NH 4 + /PO 4 3- molar ratios between 2.6 and 4.0, which are adequate for struvite precipitation with potential production of 8.5-10.4g struvite/L CW. Finally, the use of biogas as energetic supplement and struvite as soil fertilizer, represents economics saves of US$ 6.91/m 3 CW and US$ 5.75/m 3 CW in therms of electricity and fertilizer use, respectively. The energetic, agricultural and economic potentials, evidence that AD process is a feasible alternative for cheese whey treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  17. Phage Biodiversity in Artisanal Cheese Wheys Reflects the Complexity of the Fermentation Process

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Jennifer; Moscarelli, Angelo; Kelleher, Philip; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Ventura, Marco; Settanni, Luca; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-01-01

    Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect “breeding ground” for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments. The complete genomes of 18 representative phage isolates were sequenced, allowing the identification of 10 lactococcal 949 group phages, six P087 group phages, and two members of the 936 group phages. The genetic diversity of these isolates was examined using phylogenetic analysis as well as a focused analysis of the receptor binding proteins, which dictate specific interactions with the host-encoded receptor. Thermal treatments at 63 °C and 83 °C indicate that the 949 phages are particularly sensitive to thermal treatments, followed by the P087 and 936 isolates, which were shown to be much less sensitive to such treatments. This difference may explain the relatively low frequency of isolation of the so-called “rare” 949 and P087 group phages in modern fermentations. PMID:28300778

  18. Effect of pH and lactose concentration on solvent production from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.

    1987-02-20

    A study was performed to optimize the production of solvents from whey permeate in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Fermentations performed at relatively low pH values resulted in high solvent yields and productivities, but lactose utilization was incomplete. At higher pH values, lactose-utilization was improved but acid production dominated over solvent production. When operating at the higher pH values, an increase in the initial lactose concentration of the whey permeate resulted in lower rates of lactose utilization, and this was accompanied by increased solvent production and decreased acid production. Analysis of data from several experiments revealed a strong inversemore » relationship between solvent yield and lactose utilization rate. Thus, conditions which minimize the lactose utilization rate such as low culture pH values or high initial lactose concentrations, favor solventogenesis at the expense of acid production. 12 references.« less

  19. Heterotrophic growth and lipid accumulation of Chlorella protothecoides in whey permeate, a dairy by-product stream, for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gonzalez, Isabel; Parashar, Archana; Bressler, David C

    2014-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for the utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, as the feedstock for the biomass and lipid production of the microalgae Chlorella protothecoides. Glucose and galactose from the pre-hydrolyzed whey permeate were used as main carbon sources in a base mineral media for establishing batch and fed batch cultures. Batch cultures reached a biomass production of 9.1±0.2g/L with a total lipid accumulation of 42.0±6.6% (dry weight basis), while in the fed batch cultures 17.2±1.3g/L of biomass with 20.5±0.3% lipid accumulation (dry weight basis) were obtained. A third strategy for the direct utilization of whey permeate was investigated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), wherein, 7.3±1.3g/L of biomass with 49.9±3.3% lipid accumulation (dry weight basis) was obtained in batch mode using immobilized enzyme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of bacterial communities belonging to natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese by length heterogeneity-PCR.

    PubMed

    Lazzi, C; Rossetti, L; Zago, M; Neviani, E; Giraffa, G

    2004-01-01

    To detect bacteria present in controlled dairy ecosystems with defined composition by length-heterogeneity (LH)-PCR. LH-PCR allows to distinguish different organisms on the basis of natural variations in the length of 16S rRNA gene sequences. LH-PCR was applied to depict population structure of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species recoverable from Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Typical bacterial species present in the LAB community were evidenced and well discriminated. Small differences in species composition, e.g. the frequent finding of Streptococcus thermophilus and the constant presence of thermophilic lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus, Lact. delbrueckii subsp. lactis/bulgaricus and Lact. fermentum) were reliably highlighted. Specificity of LH-PCR was confirmed by species-specific PCR from total DNA of the cultures. LH-PCR is a useful tool to monitor microbial composition and population dynamics in dairy starter cultures. When present, non-dominant bacterial species present in the whey starters, such as Strep. thermophilus, can easily be visualized and characterized without isolating and cultivating single strains. A similar approach can be applied to more complex dairy ecosystems such as milk or cheese curd. Community members and differences in population structure of controlled dairy ecosystems such as whey starters for hard cheeses can be evaluated and compared in a relative easy, fast, reliable and highly reproducible way.

  1. Effect of nutrient supplements addition on ethanol production from cheese whey using Candida psuedotropicalis under batch condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-05-01

    Candida psuedotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected among nine strains of lactose fermenting yeast for the production of ethanol from cheese whey. The effects of three nutrients (ammonium sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, yeast extract, and combination of them) on the ethanol yield from cheese whey were investigated. The results indicated that no addition of nutrient supplement is necessary to achieve complete lactose utilization during the cheese whey ethanol fermentation. However, addition of a small concentration (0.005% w/v) of these supplements reduced the lag period and the total fermentation time and increased the specific growthmore » rate of the yeast. Higher concentrations (0.01 and 0.015% w/v) of ammonium sulfate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate inhibited the cell growth rate of the yeast. The highest ethanol (21.7% g/L) was achieved using yeast extract at a concentration of 0.01% w/v, given a conversion efficiency of 98.3%. No indication of alcohol inhibition was observed in this study. 60 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  2. An efficient process for obtaining prebiotic oligosaccharides derived from lactulose using isomerized and purified whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Olano, Agustín; Prodanov, Marin; Montilla, Antonia; Corzo, Nieves

    2017-12-01

    One of the most promising uses of whey permeate (WP) is the synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Herein, commercial WP was submitted to chemical isomerization catalysed by sodium borate at an alkaline pH and subsequent purification using anion-exchange resins to remove boron. Subsequently, purified mixtures were used to synthesize prebiotic oligosaccharides using β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. Isomerization of concentrated WP (200 g L -1 lactose) gave rise to levels of lactulose up to 155.5 g L -1 after 30 min of reaction (molar ratio of boron/lactose, 1/1; pH 12; 70 °C). Boron was removed from the isomerized WP (IWP) using the combination of a strong acid (IR-120, H + ) and a weak base (IRA-743) anion-exchange resins, reducing its level to <1 ppm, without loss of lactulose. During the transglycosylation reaction of purified IWP (lactose/lactulose ratio, 1/2.4) maximum content of prebiotic compounds was achieved, i.e. 690 g kg -1 WP after 3 h of reaction. This study shows that combined chemical-enzymatic reactions together with the purification of IWP results in an efficient synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Optimized batch fermentation of cheese whey. Supplemented feedlot waste filtrate to produce a nitrogen-rich feed supplement for ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Reddy, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been shown to be valuable as nitrogenous feed supplements for ruminants. The utilization of substrate carbohydrate at pH 7.0 and 43 degrees Cmore » was greater than 94% within 8 h, and the crude protein (total N X 6.25) content of the product was 70 to 78% (dry weight basis). About 66 to 69% of the crude protein was in the form of ammonia nitrogen. Lactate and acetate were the predominant acids during the first 6 to 8 hours of fermentation, but after 24 hours, appreciable levels of propionate and butyrate were also present. The rate of fermentation and the crude protein content of the product were optimal at pH 7.0 and decreased at a lower pH. For example, fermentation did not go to completion even after 24 hours at pH 4.5. Fermentation proceeded optimally at 43 degrees C, less so at 37 degrees C, and considerably more slowly at 23 and 50 degrees C. Concentrations of up to 15 g of cheese whey per 100 ml of feedlot waste filtrate were fermented efficiently. Fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate obtained from animals fed low silage-high grain, high silage-low grain, or dairy rations resulted in similar products in terms of total nitrogen and organic acid composition.« less

  4. Ecological risk assessment of cheese whey effluents along a medium-sized river in southwest Greece.

    PubMed

    Karadima, Constantina; Theodoropoulos, Chris; Rouvalis, Angela; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Joan

    2010-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment of cheese whey effluents was applied in three critical sampling sites located in Vouraikos river (southwest Greece), while ecological classification using Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU criteria allowed a direct comparison of toxicological and ecological data. Two invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and the zebra fish Danio rerio were used for toxicological analyses, while the aquatic risk was calculated on the basis of the risk quotient (RQ = PEC/PNEC). Chemical classification of sites was carried out using the Nutrient Classification System, while benthic invertebrates were collected and analyzed for biological classification. Toxicological results revealed the heavy pollution load of the two sites, nearest to the point pollution source, as the PEC/PNEC ratio exceeded 1.0, while unexpectedly, no risk was detected for the most downstream site, due to the consequent interference of the riparian flora. These toxicological results were in agreement with the ecological analysis: the ecological quality of the two heavily impacted sites ranged from moderate to bad, whereas it was found good for the most downstream site. The results of the study indicate major ecological risk for almost 15 km downstream of the point pollution source and the potentiality of the water quality remediation by the riparian vegetation, proving the significance of its maintenance.

  5. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L(-1)): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4 · 7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4 · H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L(-1)). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  6. Sustainable treatment of different high-strength cheese whey wastewaters: an innovative approach for atmospheric CO2 mitigation and fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier; Paulo, Úrsula; Ruas, Filipa; Carvalho, Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Raw cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been treated by means of FeCl3 coagulation-flocculation, NaOH precipitation, and Ca(OH)2 precipitation. Three different types of CWW were considered: without cheese whey recovery (CWW0), 60 % cheese whey recovery (CWW60), and 80 % cheese whey recovery (CWW80). Cheese whey recovery significantly influenced the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated: organic matter, solids, turbidity, conductivity, sodium, chloride, calcium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Initial organic load was reduced to values in the interval of 60-70 %. Application of FeCl3, NaOH, or Ca(OH)2 involved additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) depletions regardless of the CWW used. Under optimum conditions, the combination of 80 % cheese whey recovery and lime application led to 90 % reduction in COD. Turbidity (99.8%), total suspended solids (TSS) (98-99 %), oils and fats (82-96 %), phosphorus (98-99 %), potassium (96-97 %), and total coliforms (100 %) were also reduced. Sludge generated in the latter process showed excellent settling properties. This solid after filtration and natural evaporation can be used as fertilizer with limitations due to its saline nature. In an innovative, low-cost, and environmentally friendly technology, supernatant coming from the Ca(OH)2 addition was naturally neutralized in 4-6 days by atmospheric CO2 absorption without reagent addition. Consequently, a final aerobic biodegradation step can be applied for effluent polishing. This technology also allows for some atmospheric CO2 mitigation. Time requirement for the natural carbonation depends on the effluent characteristics. A precipitate rich in organic matter and nutrients and depletions of solids, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, Kjeldahl, and ammoniacal nitrogen were also achieved during the natural carbonation.

  7. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Bassan, Juliana C.; Goulart, Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S.; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey. PMID:26465145

  8. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  9. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conversion of beet molasses and cheese whey into fatty acid methyl esters by the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Naoya; Saito, Katsuichi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one yeast isolates from raw milk were surveyed for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Only one species, identified as Cryptococcus curvatus, produced FAME at a detectable level. Cr. curvatus TYC-19 produced more FAME from beet molasses and cheese whey medium than other strains of the same species. In both media, the major FAME produced were linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA indicated that TYC-19 diverged from the same species.

  11. Dynamics of yeast immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors systems in ethanol fermentation from lactose-hydrolyzed whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Klein, Manuela P; Rech, Rosane; Hertz, Plinho F; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ethanol production on lactose-hydrolyzed whey (LHW) and lactose-hydrolyzed whey permeate (LHWP) in batch fluidized-bed bioreactors using single and co-cultures of immobilized cells of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-industrial strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Although the co-culture of S. cerevisiae CAT-1 and K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced two- to fourfold the ethanol productivity of single cultures of S. cerevisiae, the single cultures of the K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced the best results in both media (Y EtOH/S = 0.47-0.49 g g(-1) and Q P = 1.39-1.68 g L(-1) h(-1), in LHW and LHWP, respectively). Ethanol production on concentrated LHWP (180 g L(-1)) reached 79.1 g L(-1), with yields of 0.46 g g(-1) for K. marxianus CCT 4086 cultures. Repeated batches of fluidized-bed bioreactor on concentrated LHWP led to increased ethanol productivity, reaching 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1).

  12. Immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells in carboxymethyl cellulose for production of ethanol from cheese whey: experimental and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Roohina, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Maedeh; Najafpour, Ghasem D

    2016-09-01

    Cheese whey fermentation to ethanol using immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells was investigated in batch and continuous operation. In batch fermentation, the yeast cells were immobilized in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymer and also synthesized graft copolymer of CMC with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, denoted as CMC-g-PVP, and the efficiency of the two developed cell entrapped beads for lactose fermentation to ethanol was examined. The yeast cells immobilized in CMC-g-PVP performed slightly better than CMC with ethanol production yields of 0.52 and 0.49 g ethanol/g lactose, respectively. The effect of supplementation of cheese whey with lactose (42, 70, 100 and 150 g/l) on fermentative performance of K. marxianus immobilized in CMC beads was considered and the results were used for kinetic studies. The first order reaction model was suitable to describe the kinetics of substrate utilization and modified Gompertz model was quite successful to predict the ethanol production. For continuous ethanol fermentation, a packed-bed immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was operated at several hydraulic retention times; HRTs of 11, 15 and 30 h. At the HRT of 30 h, the ethanol production yield using CMC beads was 0.49 g/g which implies that 91.07 % of the theoretical yield was achieved.

  13. Inhibitory substances production by Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa cultured in hydrolyzed cheese whey supplemented with soybean flour and their antimicrobial efficiency as biopreservatives on fresh chicken meat.

    PubMed

    da Silva Sabo, Sabrina; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José Manuel; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro

    2017-09-01

    Cheese whey, the main byproduct of the dairy industry, is one of the most worrisome types of industrial waste, not only because of its abundant annual global production but also because it is a notable source of environmental pollution. However, cheese whey can serve as a raw material for the production of biocomposites. In this context, in this study, we assayed the production of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) and lactate by culturing Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa in hydrolyzed fresh cheese whey. The process was improved by studying the enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey as well as its supplementation with soybean flour under microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions. Thus, the highest values of BLIS (7367.23 arbitrary units [AU]/mL) and lactate yield (Y lactate/lactose =1.39g/g) were achieved after addition of 10g/L soybean flour in microaerophilia. These conditions were successfully scaled up in a bioreactor because during complete anaerobiosis at 150rpm, L. plantarum ST16Pa attained considerable cell growth (3.14g/L), lactate concentration (14.33g/L), and BLIS activity (8082.56AU/mL). In addition, the cell-free supernatant resulting from this bioprocess showed high biopreservative efficiency in chicken breast fillets artificially contaminated with Enterococcus faecium 711 during 7days of refrigerated storage, thus indicating the potential use of this BLIS as a biopreservative in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A sustainable use of Ricotta Cheese Whey for microbial biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Carota, Eleonora; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Gallo, Anna Maria; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2017-04-15

    The increasing demand of plant oils for biodiesel production has highlighted the need for alternative strategies based either on non-food crops or agro-industrial wastes that do not compete with food and feed production. In this context, the combined use of wastewater and oleaginous microorganisms could be a valuable production option. Ricotta cheese whey (RCW), one of the major byproducts of the dairy industry, is produced in very high and steadily increasing amounts and, due to its high organic load, its disposal is cost-prohibitive. In the present study, in order to assess the adequacy of RCW as a growth medium for lipid production, 18 strains of oleaginous yeasts were investigated in shaken flask for their growth and lipid-producing capabilities on this substrate. Among them, Cryptococcus curvatus NRRL Y-1511 and Cryptococcus laurentii UCD 68-201 adequately grew therein producing substantial amounts of lipids (6.8 and 5.1gL -1 , respectively). A high similarity between the percent fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) composition of lipids from the former and the latter strain was found with a predominance of oleic acid (52.8 vs. 48.7%) and of total saturated fatty acids (37.9 vs. 40.8%). The subsequent scale transfer of the C. laurentii UCD 68-201 lipid production process on RCW to a 3-L STR led to significantly improved biomass and total lipid productions (14.4 and 9.9gL -1 , respectively) with the biodiesel yield amounting to 32.6%. Although the C. laurentii FAME profile was modified upon process transfer, it resembled that of the Jatropha oil, a well established feedstock for biodiesel production. In conclusion, C. laurentii UCD 68-201, for which there is very limited amount of available information, turned out to be a very promising candidate for biodiesel production and wide margins of process improvement might be envisaged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial edible coatings from a whey protein isolate base to improve the shelf life of cheese.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ó L; Pereira, J O; Silva, S I; Fernandes, J C; Franco, M I; Lopes-da-Silva, J A; Pintado, M E; Malcata, F X

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial edible coatings to wrap cheeses, throughout 60 d of storage, as an alternative to commercial nonedible coatings. Coatings were prepared using whey protein isolate, glycerol, guar gum, sunflower oil, and Tween 20 as a base matrix, together with several combinations of antimicrobial compounds-natamycin and lactic acid, natamycin and chitooligosaccharides (COS), and natamycin, lactic acid, and COS. Application of coating on cheese decreased water loss (~10%, wt/wt), hardness, and color change; however, salt and fat contents were not significantly affected. Moreover, the antimicrobial edible coatings did not permit growth of pathogenic or contaminant microorganisms, while allowing regular growth of lactic acid bacteria throughout storage. Commercial nonedible coatings inhibited only yeasts and molds. The antimicrobial edible coating containing natamycin and lactic acid was the best in sensory terms. Because these antimicrobial coatings are manufactured from food-grade materials, they can be consumed as an integral part of cheese, which represents a competitive advantage over nonedible coatings. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dominance of rumen microorganisms during cheese whey acidification: acidogenesis can be governed by a rare Selenomonas lacticifex-type fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tsiamis, George; Soultani, Despoina; Melidis, Paraschos

    2015-11-01

    The microbial basis of acidification process during spontaneous cheese whey wastewater fermentation was decrypted by implementing both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Lac tobacillus and Bifidobacterium were the predominant taxa among the microbiota growing on MRS (deMan, Rogosa, and Sharpe), while Kazachstania unispora and Dekkera anomala yeast species were also isolated. Almost all Lactobacillus isolates were heterofermentative that could ferment glucose and lactose, with most of them being related to Lactobacillus hilgardii (99.0-100 % similarity). By employing fluorescence techniques, the dominance of long crescent-shaped bacteria in the acidogenic sludge was observed. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), clone library, and next-generation sequencing techniques revealed the dominance of Selenomonas lacticifex. Based on Illumina data, Selenomonas in the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) represented 70.13 ± 4.64 % of the bacterial reads, while other Veillonellaceae taxa (Megasphaera and Pectinatus) represented a notable proportion (6.54 %). Prevotella was only detected by Illumina sequencing as an important constituent of the microbial population (14.97 ± 1.71 %). Budding yeasts represented 97 % of the fungal population in the CSTR, with Yarrowia strains representing 88.85 ± 5.52 % of the fungal reads. Spontaneous cheese whey acidification can favor the dominance of rumen bacteria and here was driven by the rarely reported S. lacticifex-type fermentation, which should be taken into consideration during evaluation of acidogenesis in process simulation and modelling. Moreover, the important nervonic acid content detected indicates that acidogenic sludge can be used as a source for the production of high value-added biomedical substrates.

  17. Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry waste or cattle dung - a study of effect of temperature and retention time

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Madamwar, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ratio of 1:1, both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process performance.more » 16 refs., 3 figs.« less

  18. Homo-fermentative production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus sp. employing casein whey permeate as a raw feed-stock.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saurav; Srikanth, Katla; Limaye, Anil M; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2014-06-01

    Casein whey permeate (CWP), a lactose-enriched dairy waste effluent, is a viable feed stock for the production of value-added products. Two lactic acid bacteria were cultivated in a synthetic casein whey permeate medium with or without pH control. Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 4797 produced D-lactic acid (DLA) at 12.5 g l(-1) in a bioreactor. The values of Leudking-Piret model parameters suggested that lactate was a growth-associated product. Batch fermentation was also performed employing CWP (35 g lactose l(-1)) with casein hydrolysate as a nitrogen supplement in a bioreactor. After 40 h, L. lactis produced 24.3 g lactic acid l(-1) with an optical purity >98 %. Thus CWP may be regarded as a potential feed-stock for DLA production.

  19. Including whey protein and whey permeate in ready-to-use supplementary food improves recovery rates in children with moderate acute malnutrition: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stobaugh, Heather C; Ryan, Kelsey N; Kennedy, Julie A; Grise, Jennifer B; Crocker, Audrey H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Litkowski, Patricia E; Maleta, Kenneth M; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2016-03-01

    The utility of dairy ingredients in the supplementary foods used in the treatment of childhood moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) remains unsettled. We evaluated the effectiveness of a peanut-based ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) with soy protein compared with a novel RUSF containing dairy ingredients in the form of whey permeate and whey protein concentrate in the treatment of children with MAM. We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical effectiveness trial involving rural Malawian and Mozambican children 6-59 mo of age with MAM treated with either soy RUSF or a novel whey RUSF treatment of ~75 kcal · kg(-1) · d(-1) for up to 12 wk. The proportion of children that recovered from MAM was significantly higher in the group that received whey RUSF (960 of 1144; 83.9%) than in the group that received soy RUSF (874 of 1086; 80.5%; P < 0.04; risk difference 3.4%, 95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%). Children who consumed whey RUSF also demonstrated better growth markers, with a higher mean midupper arm circumference (MUAC) at the time of discharge (P < 0.009), greater MUAC gain during the course of treatment (P < 0.003), higher mean weight-for-height z score at discharge (P < 0.008), and greater weight gain (P < 0.05). No significant differences were identified in length gain or time to recovery between the 2 groups. This study highlights the importance of milk protein in the treatment of MAM, because the use of a novel whey RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates and improved growth than did soy RUSF, although the whey RUSF supplement provided less total protein and energy than the soy RUSF. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01790048. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Detection of fraudulent addition of bovine whey in water buffalo ricotta cheese by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Fuselli, Fabio; Deluca, Anna; Montepeloso, Emanuela A; Ibba, Giulia; Tidona, Flavio; Longo, Lucia; Marianella, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Prevention of food fraud in the dairy field is a difficult issue for researchers, industries and policy makers, both for commercial and health reasons. Currently, no analytical method allows detection of the addition of bovine whey to water buffalo ricotta, so this fraudulent practice cannot be prevented. The authors' aim was to develop such a method. The conditions for extraction and purification of denatured ricotta whey proteins, which are unfolded and coagulated by heating during the production process, were optimized. The optimal composition of the polyacrylamide gel (pH range, type and concentration of chemical separator) was first evaluated and then the best conditions to perform the separation by isoelectric focusing were established. The performance of the method (precision, selectivity, robustness, sensibility) was determined. The method was shown to be reliable and robust for detection of the presence of bovine whey added to water buffalo Ricotta at percentages above 5% (v/v). The results suggest that the differences observed between bovine and water buffalo electrophoretic profiles are due to bovine β-lactoglobulin isoform A, which is never detected in water buffalo samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrolysates of sheep cheese whey as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Fontoura, Roberta; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Segalin, Jeferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis may be employed to release bioactive peptides, which have been investigated for potential benefits from both technological and human health perspectives. In this study, sheep cheese whey (SCW) was hydrolyzed with a protease preparation from Bacillus sp. P7, and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Soluble protein and free amino acids increased during hydrolysis of SCW for up to 4h. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates, evaluated by the 2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging method, increased 3.2-fold from 0 h (15.9%) to 6h of hydrolysis (51.3%). Maximum Fe(2+) chelation was reached in 3h hydrolysates, and the reducing power peaked at 1h of hydrolysis, representing 6.2 and 2.1-fold increase, respectively, when compared to that of non-hydrolyzed SCW. ACE inhibition by SCW (12%) was improved through hydrolysis, reaching maximal values (55% inhibition) in 4h, although 42% inhibition was already observed after 1h hydrolysis. The peptide LAFNPTQLEGQCHV, derived from β-lactoglobulin, was identified from 4-h hydrolysates. Such a biotechnological approach might be an interesting strategy for SCW processing, potentially contributing to the management and valorization of this abundant dairy byproduct. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organic loading rate effect on the acidogenesis of cheese whey: a comparison between UASB and SBR reactors.

    PubMed

    Calero, R; Iglesias-Iglesias, R; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2017-09-16

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and degree of acidification (DA) were investigated in the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey by comparison of two processes: a continuous process using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a discontinuous process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The main purpose of this work was to study the organic loading rate (OLR) effect on the yield of VFA in two kinds of reactors. The predominant products in the acidogenic process in both reactors were: acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate. The maximum DA obtained was 98% in an SBR at OLR of 2.7 g COD L -1 d -1 , and 97% in the UASB at OLR at 15.1 g COD L -1 d -1 . The results revealed that the UASB reactor was more efficient at a medium OLR with a higher VFA yield, while with the SBR reactor, the maximum acidification was obtained at a lower OLR with changes in the VFA profile at different OLRs applied.

  4. Improving EGSB reactor performance for simultaneous bioenergy and organic acid production from cheese whey via continuous biological H2 production.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Lucas Rodrigues; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and cheese whey (CW) substrate concentration (15 and 25 g lactose l -1 ) on the performance of EGSB reactors (R15 and R25, respectively) for H 2 production. A decrease in the HRT from 8 to 4 h favored the H 2 yield and H 2 production rate (HPR) in R15, with maximum values of 0.86 ± 0.11 mmol H 2 g COD -1 and 0.23 ± 0.024 l H 2 h -1 l -1 , respectively. H 2 production in R25 was also favored at a HRT of 4 h, with maximum yield and HPR values of 0.64 ± 0.023 mmol H 2 g COD -1 and 0.31 ± 0.032 l H 2 h -1 l -1 , respectively. The main metabolites produced were butyric, acetic and lactic acids. The EGSB reactor was evaluated as a viable acidogenic step in the two-stage anaerobic treatment of CW for the increase of COD removal efficiency and biomethane production.

  5. Evaluation of various cheese whey treatment scenarios in single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells for improved biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Isaac; Bakonyi, Péter; Cuautle-Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Buitrón, Germán

    2017-05-01

    In this study single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were applied to treat cheese whey (CW), an industrial by-product, and recover H 2 gas. Firstly, this substrate was fed directly to the MEC to get the initial feedback about its H 2 generation potential. The results indicated that the direct application of CW requires an adequate pH control to realize bioelectrohydrogenesis and avoid operational failure due to the loss of bioanode activity. In the second part of the study, the effluents of anaerobic (methanogenic) digester and hydrogenogenic (dark fermentative H 2 -producing) reactor utilizing the CW were tested in the MEC process (representing the concept of a two-stage technology). It turned out that the residue of the methanogenic reactor - with its relatively lower carbohydrate- and higher volatile fatty acid contents - was more suitable to produce hydrogen bioelectrochemically. The MEC operated with the dark fermentation effluent, containing a high portion of carbohydrates and low amount of organic acids, produced significant amount of undesired methane simultaneously with H 2 . Overall, the best MEC behavior was attained using the effluent of the methanogenic reactor and therefore, considering a two-stage system, methanogenesis is an advisable pretreatment step for the acidic CW to enhance the H 2 formation in complementary microbial electrohydrogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conversion of cheese whey into a fucose- and glucuronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide by Enterobacter A47.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-09-20

    Cheese whey was used as the sole substrate for the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by Enterobacter A47. An EPS concentration of 6.40 g L(-1) was reached within 3.2 days of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 2.00 g L(-1) d(-1). The produced EPS was mainly composed of glucuronic acid (29 mol%) and fucose (29 mol%), with lower contents of glucose and galactose (21 mol% each) and a total acyl groups content of 32 wt.%. The polymer had an average molecular weight of 1.8×10(6) Da, with a polydispersity index of 1.2, and an intrinsic viscosity of 8.0 dL g(-1). EPS aqueous solutions (1.0 wt.% in 0.01 M NaCl, at pH 8.0) presented a shear thinning behavior with a viscosity of the first Newtonian plateau approaching 0.1 Pas. This novel glucuronic acid-rich polymer possesses interesting rheological properties, which, together with its high content of glucuronic acid and fucose, two bioactive sugar monomers, confers it a great potential for use in high-value applications, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  8. Modeling lactose hydrolysis for efficiency and selectivity: Toward the preservation of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum whey permeate.

    PubMed

    de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Aquino, Leticia F M C; Liu, Yan; Cohen, Joshua L; Lee, Hyeyoung; de Melo Silva, Vitor L; Rodrigues, Maria I; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose has been shown to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of bioactive oligosaccharides. Achieving maximum lactose hydrolysis requires intrinsic process optimization for each specific substrate, but the effects of those processing conditions on the target oligosaccharides are not well understood. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH (3.25-8.25), temperature (35-55°C), reaction time (6 to 58 min), and amount of enzyme (0.05-0.25%) on the efficiency of lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase and on the preservation of biologically important sialyloligosaccharides (3'-siallylactose, 6'-siallylactose, and 6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine) naturally present in bovine colostrum whey permeate. A central composite rotatable design was used. In general, β-galactosidase activity was favored at pH values ranging from 3.25 to 5.75, with other operational parameters having a less pronounced effect. A pH of 4.5 allowed for the use of a shorter reaction time (19 min), lower temperature (40°C), and reduced amount of enzyme (0.1%), but complete hydrolysis at a higher pH (5.75) required greater values for these operational parameters. The total amount of sialyloligosaccharides was not significantly altered by the reaction parameters evaluated, suggesting specificity of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae toward lactose as well as the stability of the oligosaccharides at pH, temperature, and reaction time evaluated. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of using a blend of rennet casein and whey protein concentrate as protein source on the quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    PubMed

    Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D

    2017-03-01

    The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.

  10. Vitamin B12 determination in milk, whey and different by-products of ricotta cheese production by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Repossi, Adele; Zironi, Elisa; Gazzotti, Teresa; Serraino, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a metal complex composed of a central cobalt ion bonded to six ligands. It is essential for major biological functions such as protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, the maintenance of the central nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. Since mammals cannot synthesize cobalamin, dietary intake represents the only natural source for humans. Dairy products can provide significant levels of cobalamin; moreover, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) panel has set the recommended intake at 4 μg/day for adults. Vitamin B12 content was determined in milk and several matrices related to the process of transformation of the residual whey from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese-making to obtain ricotta cheese. In addition, vitamin B12 degradation during ricotta cheese shelf-life was studied. The analyses were performed using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that vitamin B12 amount in ricotta from dairy and experimental cheese-making brings respectively 1/8 to 1/4 of the adequate intake in adults established by EFSA. In addition, shelf-life experiment shows that cobalamine is fairly rapidly degraded in ricotta: light effect seems to be significant, even if the light exposure is short. The use of photoprotective packaging material increases B12 shelf-life in the early stage of storage. PMID:29564230

  11. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial β-Galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial β-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55°C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37°C) β-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9 U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10°C, the K. lactis β-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis β-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55°C), at the end of a 12 h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9 U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of β-galactosidases in the food industry. PMID:26587283

  12. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial β-Galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial β-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55°C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37°C) β-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9 U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10°C, the K. lactis β-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis β-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55°C), at the end of a 12 h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9 U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of β-galactosidases in the food industry.

  13. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching.

  14. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Otter, Don E.; Barile, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  15. Review: elimination of bacteriophages in whey and whey products

    PubMed Central

    Atamer, Zeynep; Samtlebe, Meike; Neve, Horst; J. Heller, Knut; Hinrichs, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 109 phages mL-1. When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favored – rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent phage accumulations

  16. Exploitation of dark fermented effluent of cheese whey by co-culture of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Bacillus firmus for photo-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Pandey, A

    2017-07-31

    In this study photo-hydrogen production from cheese whey dark fermentation (DF) effluent by the co-culture of Rhodobacter sphaeroides -NMBL-01 and Bacillus firmus - NMBL-03 has been reported. The effect of pH, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the concentration effect of FeSO4.7H2O on photo-hydrogen production have been investigated. The end products of dark fermentation effluent of cheese whey were mainly comprised of soluble organic acids, i.e. butyric acid and lactic acid. The batch process was carried out under light intensity of 2.5 kLux at 32 ± 2oC without any addition of extra carbon and nitrogen source. The single parameter optimization studies revealed optimum pH 6.5, initial COD 4.71 g/L and supplementation of Fe2+ concentration 100 mg/L. The maximum cumulative hydrogen production and yield were found to be 469 ± 45.8 ml H2/L and 146.56 ± 14.31 ml H2/g COD reduced (67.9% reduction in COD) respectively. The mutual interactions among the process parameters were also investigated by three factorial Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. The optimized experimental values were found concurrent with the calculated values obtained from the theoretical model.

  17. 7 CFR 58.717 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey. 58.717 Section 58.717 Agriculture Regulations of....717 Whey. Whey used in cheese products should meet the requirements equivalent to USDA Extra Grade except that the moisture requirement for dry whey may be waived. ...

  18. Utilization of Cheese Whey Using Synergistic Immobilization of β-Galactosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells in Dual Matrices.

    PubMed

    Kokkiligadda, Anusha; Beniwal, Arun; Saini, Priyanka; Vij, Shilpa

    2016-08-01

    Whey is a byproduct of the dairy industry, which has prospects of using as a source for production of various valuable compounds. The lactose present in whey is considered as an environmental pollutant and its utilization for enzyme and fuel production, may be effective for whey bioremediation. The dairy yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus have the ability to utilize lactose sharply as the major carbon source for the production of the enzyme. Five strains were tested for the production of the β-galactosidase using whey. The maximum β-galactosidase activity of 1.74 IU/mg dry weight was achieved in whey using K. marxianus MTCC 1389. The biocatalyst was further immobilized on chitosan macroparticles and exhibited excellent functional activity at 35 °C. Almost 89 % lactose hydrolysis was attained for concentrated whey (100 g/L) and retained 89 % catalytic activity after 15 cycles of reuse. Finally, β-galactosidase was immobilized on chitosan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on calcium alginate, and both were used together for the production of ethanol from concentrated whey. Maximal ethanol titer of 28.9 g/L was achieved during fermentation at 35 °C. The conclusions generated by employing two different matrices will be beneficial for the future modeling using engineered S. cerevisiae in scale-up studies.

  19. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José António; de Almeida Silva, João Batista; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2010-11-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed distribution of yeasts in macro-clusters among the grain's matrix essentially composed of polysaccharides (kefiran) and bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis displayed communities included yeast affiliated to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kazachatania unispora, bacteria affiliated to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefiranofaciens and an uncultured bacterium also related to the genus Lactobacillus. A steady structure and dominant microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, was detected in the analyzed kefir beverages and grains. This robustness is determinant for future implementation of whey-based kefir beverages.

  20. Use of saline waste water from demineralization of cheese whey for cultivation of Schizochytrium limacinum PA-968 and Japonochytrium marinum AN-4.

    PubMed

    Humhal, Tomas; Kastanek, Petr; Jezkova, Zuzana; Cadkova, Anna; Kohoutkova, Jana; Branyik, Tomas

    2017-03-01

    Saline waste water from demineralization of cheese whey was used as the main component of waste saline medium (WSM) for cultivation of thraustochytrids. The suitability of WSM for cultivation of Schizochytrium limacinum PA-968 and Japonochytrium marinum AN-4 was evaluated by comparison with cultivation on nutrient medium (NM) in shake flask and fermenter cultures. Biomass productivities achieved in WSM for the thraustochytrids were comparable with those in NM for both shake flask and fermenter cultures. The maximum total lipid content (56.71% dry cell weight) and docosahexaenoic acid productivity (0.86 g/L/day) were achieved by J. marinum AN-4 grown on WSM in shake flask and fermenter cultures, respectively. A cost estimate of WSM suggests that this medium could result in lower production costs for thraustochytrid biomass and lipids and contribute to the effective reduction in saline diary process waste water.

  1. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli.

  2. The 9-MilCA method as a rapid, partly automated protocol for simultaneously recording milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Stocco, G; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and test a new laboratory cheesemaking procedure [9-mL milk cheesemaking assessment (9-MilCA)], which records 15 traits related to milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss. This procedure involves instruments found in many laboratories (i.e., heaters and lacto-dynamographs), with an easy modification of the sample rack for the insertion of 10-mL glass tubes. Four trials were carried out to test the 9-MilCA procedure. The first trial compared 8 coagulation and curd firming traits obtained using regular or modified sample racks to process milk samples from 60 cows belonging to 5 breeds and 3 farms (480 tests). The obtained patterns exhibited significant but irrelevant between-procedure differences, with better repeatability seen for 9-MilCA. The second trial tested the reproducibility and repeatability of the 7 cheesemaking traits obtained using the 9-MilCA procedure on individual samples from 60 cows tested in duplicate in 2 instruments (232 tests). The method yielded very repeatable outcomes for all 7 tested cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits (repeatability >98%), with the exception of the fresh cheese yield (84%), which was affected by the lower repeatability (67%) of the water retained in the curd. In the third trial (96 tests), we found that using centrifugation in place of curd cooking and draining (as adopted in several published studies) reduced the efficiency of whey separation, overestimated all traits, and worsened the repeatability. The fourth trial compared 9-MilCA with a more complex model cheese-manufacturing process that mimics industry practices, using 1,500-mL milk samples (72 cows, 216 tests). The average results obtained from 9-MilCA were similar to those obtained from the model cheeses, with between-method correlations ranging from 78 to 99%, except for the water retained in the curd (r=54%). Our results indicate that new 9-MilCA method is a

  3. Acceptable low-phenylalanine foods and beverages can be made with glycomacropeptide from cheese whey for individuals with PKU

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyungwha; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Nelson, Kathryn L.; Gleason, Sally T.; Ney, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a whey protein that contains no aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine (phe). The objective of this study was to make a variety of palatable, low-phe foods and beverages with GMP and to assess their acceptability by conducting consumer sensory studies in individuals with PKU. Results demonstrate acceptability of products made with GMP. GMP supplemented with limiting indispensable amino acids could provide an alternative protein source for individuals with PKU. PMID:17644019

  4. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW. © 2013

  5. Anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure in a two-stage CSTR system: Effect of hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production using a two-stage anaerobic process. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were used under mesophilic conditions (37°C) in order to enhance acidogenesis and methanogenesis. A mixture of pretreated ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (55:40:5, v/v/v) was used. The acidogenic reactor was operated at six different HRTs of 5, 3, 2, 1, 0.75 and 0.5d, under controlled pH5.5, whereas the methanogenic reactor was operated at three HRTs of 24, 16 and 12d. The maximum H2 productivity (2.14L/LRd) and maximum H2 yield (0.70mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed) were observed at 0.5d HRT. On the other hand, the maximum CH4 production rate of 0.90L/LRd was achieved at HRT of 16d, whereas at lower HRT the process appeared to be inhibited and/or overloaded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and cheese whey for bio-plastic precursors recovery - Effects of process conditions during batch tests.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-12-01

    The problem of fossil fuels dependency is being addressed through sustainable bio-fuels and bio-products production worldwide. At the base of this bio-based economy there is the efficient use of biomass as non-virgin feedstock. Through acidogenic fermentation, organic waste can be valorised in order to obtain several precursors to be used for bio-plastic production. Some investigations have been done but there is still a lack of knowledge that must be filled before moving to effective full scale plants. Acidogenic fermentation batch tests were performed using food waste (FW) and cheese whey (CW) as substrates. Effects of nine different combinations of substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio (2, 4, and 6) and initial pH (5, 7, and 9) were investigated for metabolites (acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, lactate, and ethanol) productions. Results showed that the most abundant metabolites deriving from FW fermentation were butyrate and acetate, mainly influenced by the S/I ratio (acetate and butyrate maximum productions of 21.4 and 34.5g/L, respectively, at S/I=6). Instead, when dealing with CW, lactate was the dominant metabolite significantly correlated with pH (lactate maximum production of 15.7g/L at pH = 9). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of addition of skimmed milk on the characteristics of Myzithra cheeses.

    PubMed

    Kaminarides, S; Ilias-Dimopoulos, E; Zoidou, E; Moatsou, G

    2015-08-01

    Myzithra cheese is a traditional Greek whey cheese. Three types of Myzithra cheese were produced from A: 100% whey; B: 90% whey+10% ovine milk and C: 90% whey+10% skimmed ovine milk and were evaluated. The addition of skimmed milk to whey resulted in a new dietary product, containing 9.24% fat, with good quality, a harder texture and higher levels of ash, Ca, Mg and K than those of experimental cheeses A and B. Electrophoretic patterns and HPLC chromatograms of the proteins of Myzithra cheeses revealed the presence or not of αs-CN to the whey cheeses. In addition, SDS-electrophoresis of proteins under special preparation of samples permitted for first time the separation of whey-cheese protein (WP) components that had been denatured during cooking of the whey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part II. The application of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) to produce high biomass of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792.

    PubMed

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-07-03

    This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system using the application of an experimental design via central composite design (CCD). The acidic whey obtained from lactic acid fermentation by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum sp. TISTR 2265 was fed into the bioreactor of the aerobic SBR in an appropriate ratio between acidic whey and cheese whey to produce an acidic environment below 4.5 and then was used to support the growth of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 by inhibiting bacterial contamination. At the optimal condition for a high yield of biomass production, the system was run with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, a solid retention time (SRT) of 8.22 days, and an acidic whey concentration of 80% feeding. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 25,230 mg/L to 6,928 mg/L, which represented a COD removal of 72.15%. The yield of biomass production and lactose utilization by Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 were 13.14 g/L and 33.36%, respectively, with a long run of up to 180 cycles and the pH values of effluent were rose up to 8.32 without any pH adjustment.

  9. Dynamic change of pH in acidogenic fermentation of cheese whey towards polyhydroxyalkanoates production: Impact on performance and microbial population.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Ana R; Freitas, Elisabete B; Galinha, Cláudia F; Carvalho, Gilda; Duque, Anouk F; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-07-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics that can be obtained from industrial wastes/by-products using mixed microbial cultures (MMC). MMC PHA production is commonly carried out in a 3-stage process of acidogenesis, PHA culture selection and accumulation. This research focused on the possibility of tailoring PHA by controlling the acidogenic reactor operating conditions, namely pH, using cheese whey as model feedstock. The objective was to investigate the impact that dynamically varying the acidogenic pH, when targeting different PHA monomer profiles, had on the performance and microbial community profile of the anaerobic reactor. To accomplish this, an anaerobic reactor was continuously operated under dynamic pH changes, ranging from pH 4 to 7, turning to pH 6 after each change of pH. At pH 6, lactate and acetate were the dominant products (41-48% gCOD basis and 22-44% gCOD basis, respectively). At low pH, lactate production was higher while at high pH acetate production was favoured. Despite the dynamic change of pH, the fermentation product composition at pH 6 was always similar, showing the resilience of the process, i.e. when the same pH value was imposed, the culture produced the same metabolic products independently of the history of changes occurring in the system. The different fermentation product fractions led to PHAs of different compositions. The microbial community, analysed by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, was dominated by Lactobacillus, but varied markedly when subjected to the highest and lowest pH values of the tested range (4 and 7), with increase in the abundance of Lactococcus and a member of the Candidate Division TM7. Different bacterial profiles obtained at pH 6 during this dynamic operation were able to produce a consistent profile of fermentation products (and consequently a constant PHA composition), demonstrating the community's functional redundancy. Copyright

  10. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  11. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  12. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  13. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P < 0.05). Cottage cheese WPI was more heat stable at pH 7 (P < 0.05) than other WPI in 4% protein solutions, and was the only WPI to not gel at 10% protein. Cottage cheese WPI was less soluble at pH 4.6 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05) and also exhibited higher turbidity loss at pH 3 to 7 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05). This study suggests that WPI produced from nontraditional whey sources could be used in new applications due to distinct functional and flavor characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Development of a pentaplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermentum in whey starter for Grana Padano cheese.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Paola; Vanoni, Laura; Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Castiglioni, Bianca; Brasca, Milena

    2011-03-30

    A pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid, selective and simultaneous detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. fermentum, was developed. The target sequences were a group of genes coding for beta-galactosidase production (S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), for cell-enveloped associated proteinase synthesis (L. helveticus), for dipeptide transport system production (L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and for arginine-ornithine antiporter protein production (L. fermentum). The analytical specificity of the assay was evaluated with 5 reference strains and 140 lactic acid bacterial strains derived from raw milk cheeses and belonging to the Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus genera. The identification limit for each target strain was 10(3)CFU/ml. This new molecular assay was used to investigate the LAB population by direct extraction of DNA from the 12 whey cultures for Grana Padano. The pentaplex PCR assay revealed a good correspondence with microbiological analyses and allowed to identify even minor LAB community members which, can be out-competed in vitro by numerically more abundant microbial species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous anaerobic co-digestion of Ulva biomass and cheese whey at varying substrate mixing ratios: Different responses in two reactors with different operating regimes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of Ulva with whey was investigated at varying substrate mixing ratios in two continuous reactors run with increasing and decreasing proportions of Ulva, respectively. Co-digestion with whey proved beneficial to the biomethanation of Ulva, with the methane yield being greater by up to 1.6-fold in co-digestion phases than in the Ulva mono-digestion phases. The experimental reactors responded differently, in terms of process performance and community structure, to the changes in the substrate mixing ratio. This can be attributed to the different operating regimes between two reactors, which may have caused the microbial communities to develop in different ways to acclimate. Methanosaeta-related populations were the predominant methanogens responsible for the production of methane regardless of different substrate mixing ratios in both reactors. Considering the methane recovery and the Ulva treatment capacity, the optimal fraction of Ulva in the substrate mixture is suggested to be 50-75%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  17. Pyroglutamic acid in cheese: presence, origin, and correlation with ripening time of Grana Padano cheese.

    PubMed

    Mucchetti, G; Locci, F; Gatti, M; Neviani, E; Addeo, F; Dossena, A; Marchelli, R

    2000-04-01

    Pyroglutamic acid is present in many cheese varieties and particularly in high amounts (0.5 g/100 g of cheese) in extensively ripened Italian cheeses (Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano) that are produced with thermophilic lactic acid bacteria as starters. The mechanism of pyroglutamic acid formation in cheese seems to be mostly enzymatic, as demonstrated by the presence of only L-pyroglutamic acid enantiomer. Thermophilic lactobacilli are involved in pyroglutamic acid production, as suggested by the low pyroglutamic acid content found in Bagos, a ripened Italian mountain cheese produced without addition of starter. Because milk pasteurization did not influence the pyroglutamic acid content in the ripened Grana Padano cheese, the formation of pyroglutamic acid mainly depends on the whey starter microflora rather than that of raw milk. Pyroglutamic acid concentration is linearly correlated (R2 = 0.94) with the age of Grana Padano cheese.

  18. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (<40°C) and harder at high temperatures (>50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical note: Vitamin D-fortified Cheddar type cheese produced from concentrated milk.

    PubMed

    Boivin-Piché, Jonathan; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; St-Gelais, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The technological challenge related to cheese fortification with vitamin D is the loss of a large proportion of vitamin D during the wheying-off step. The use of ultrafiltration (UF) to concentrate the milk before vitamin D enrichment and cheese manufacturing could be a way to reduce the volume of whey and consequently the vitamin D losses in cheese whey. Control (1.0×) and concentrated milks (1.4× and 1.8×) were fortified with vitamin D at a concentration of 450 IU per gram of milk. The 1.8× cheese milk concentration reduced slightly the vitamin D loss during the draining step (19.8%) compared with the control cheese (25.5%) and vitamin D remained stable during Cheddar cheese processing and ripening. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous hydrolysis and co-fermentation of whey lactose with wheat for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiqiong; Parashar, Archana; Mason, Beth; Bressler, David C

    2016-12-01

    Whey permeate was used as a co-substrate to replace part of the wheat for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was achieved with β-galactosidase added at the onset of the fermentation to promote whey lactose hydrolysis. Aspergillus oryzae and Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidases were two enzymes selected and used in the co-fermentation of wheat and whey permeate for the comparison of their effectiveness on lactose hydrolysis. The possibility of co-fermentations in both STARGEN and jet cooking systems was investigated in 5L bioreactors. Ethanol yields from the co-fermentations of wheat and whey permeate were evaluated. It was found that A. oryzae β-galactosidase was more efficient for lactose hydrolysis during the co-fermentation and that whey permeate supplementation can contribute to ethanol yield in co-fermentations with wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of sodium in the salty taste of permeate.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, K M; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2014-09-01

    Many food companies are trying to limit the amount of sodium in their products. Permeate, the liquid remaining after whey or milk is ultrafiltered, has been suggested as a salt substitute. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory and compositional properties of permeates and to determine if elements other than sodium contribute to the salty taste of permeate. Eighteen whey (n=14) and reduced-lactose (n=4) permeates were obtained in duplicate from commercial facilities. Proximate analyses, specific mineral content, and nonprotein nitrogen were determined. Organic acids and nucleotides were extracted followed by HPLC. Aromatic volatiles were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Descriptive analysis of permeates and model solutions was conducted using a trained sensory panel. Whey permeates were characterized by cooked/milky and brothy flavors, sweet taste, and low salty taste. Permeates with lactose removed were distinctly salty. The organic acids with the highest concentration in permeates were lactic and citric acids. Volatiles included aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, and diacetyl. Sensory tests with sodium chloride solutions confirmed that the salty taste of reduced-lactose permeates was not solely due to the sodium present. Permeate models were created with NaCl, KCl, lactic acid, citric acid, hippuric acid, uric acid, orotic acid, and urea; in addition to NaCl, KCl, lactic acid, and orotic acid were contributors to the salty taste. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Artisanal cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  3. The influence of bleaching agent and temperature on bleaching efficacy and volatile components of fluid whey and whey retentate.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J; Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2013-10-01

    Fluid whey or retentate are often bleached to remove residual annatto Cheddar cheese colorant, and this process causes off-flavors in dried whey proteins. This study determined the impact of temperature and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and volatile components in fluid whey and fluid whey retentate. Freshly manufactured liquid whey (6.7% solids) or concentrated whey protein (retentate) (12% solids, 80% protein) were bleached using benzoyl peroxide (BP) at 100 mg/kg (w/w) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) at 250 mg/kg (w/w) at 5 °C for 16 h or 50 °CC for 1 h. Unbleached controls were subjected to a similar temperature profile. The experiment was replicated three times. Annatto destruction (bleaching efficacy) among treatments was compared, and volatile compounds were extracted and separated using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Bleaching efficacy of BP was higher than HP (P < 0.05) for fluid whey at both 5 and 50 °C. HP bleaching efficacy was increased in retentate compared to liquid whey (P < 0.05). In whey retentate, there was no difference between bleaching with HP or BP at 50 or 5 °C (P > 0.05). Retentate bleached with HP at either temperature had higher relative abundances of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal than BP bleached retentate (P < 0.05). Liquid wheys generally had lower concentrations of selected volatiles compared to retentates. These results suggest that the highest bleaching efficacy (within the parameters evaluated) in liquid whey is achieved using BP at 5 or 50 °C and at 50 °C with HP or BP in whey protein retentate. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  5. Probiotic cheese production using Lactobacillus casei cells immobilized on fruit pieces.

    PubMed

    Kourkoutas, Y; Bosnea, L; Taboukos, S; Baras, C; Lambrou, D; Kanellaki, M

    2006-05-01

    Lactobacillus casei cells were immobilized on fruit (apple and pear) pieces and the immobilized biocatalysts were used separately as adjuncts in probiotic cheese making. In parallel, cheese with free L. casei cells and cheese only from renneted milk were prepared. The produced cheeses were ripened at 4 to 6 degrees C and the effect of salting and ripening time on lactose, lactic acid, ethanol concentration, pH, and lactic acid bacteria viable counts were investigated. Fat, protein, and moisture contents were in the range of usual levels of commercial cheeses. Reactivation in whey of L. casei cells immobilized on fruit pieces after 7 mo of ripening showed a higher rate of pH decrease and lower final pH value compared with reactivation of samples withdrawn from the remaining mass of the cheese without fruit pieces, from cheese with free L. casei, and rennet cheese. Preliminary sensory evaluation revealed the fruity taste of the cheeses containing immobilized L. casei cells on fruit pieces. Commercial Feta cheese was characterized by a more sour taste, whereas no significant differences concerning cheese flavor were reported by the panel between cheese containing free L. casei and rennet cheese. Salted cheeses scored similar values to commercial Feta cheese, whereas unsalted cheese scores were significantly lower, but still acceptable to the sensory panelists.

  6. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    PubMed

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was <100%; the mean was 99.51% (N × 6.31). The mean predicted yield was only 99.17% as a percentage of actual yields (PY%AY); PY%AY is a useful term for comparisons of yields among vats. The PY%AY correlated positively with the sum of components (SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction

  7. Enrichment and purification of casein glycomacropeptide from whey protein isolate using supercritical carbon dioxide processing and membrane filtration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), which are dried, concentrated forms of cheese whey, are comprised mainly of beta–lactoglobulin (beta-LG), a–lactalbumin (a-LA), and glycomacropeptide (GLY), and are added to foods to boost their nutritional and functional properties. In previous st...

  8. Effect of skim milk treated with high hydrostatic pressure on permeate flux and fouling during ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Leu, Mathilde; Marciniak, Alice; Chamberland, Julien; Pouliot, Yves; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is largely used in the dairy industry to generate milk and whey protein concentrate for standardization of milk or production of dairy ingredients. Recently, it was demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extended the shelf life of milk and improved rennet coagulation and cheese yield. Pressurization also modified casein micelle size distribution and promoted aggregation of whey proteins. These changes are likely to affect UF performance. Consequently, this study determined the effect of skim milk pressurization (300 and 600 MPa, 5 min) on UF performance in terms of permeate flux decline and fouling. The effect of HHP on milk proteins was first studied and UF was performed in total recycle mode at different transmembrane pressures to determine optimal UF operational parameters and to evaluate the effect of pressurization on critical and limiting fluxes. Ultrafiltration was also performed in concentration mode at a transmembrane pressure of 345 kPa for 130 or 140 min to evaluate the decline of permeate flux and to determine fouling resistances. It was observed that average casein micelle size decreased by 32 and 38%, whereas β-lactoglobulin denaturation reached 30 and 70% at 300 and 600 MPa, respectively. These results were directly related to UF performance because initial permeate fluxes in total recycle mode decreased by 25% at 300 and 600 MPa compared with nonpressurized milk, critical flux, and limiting flux, which were lower during UF of milk treated with HHP. During UF in concentration mode, initial permeate fluxes were 30% lower at 300 and 600 MPa compared with the control, but the total flux decline was higher for nonpressurized milk (62%) compared with pressure-treated milk (30%). Fouling resistances were similar, whatever the treatment, except at 600 MPa where irreversible fouling was higher. Characterization of the fouling layer showed that caseins and β-lactoglobulin were mainly involved in membrane fouling after UF of

  9. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  10. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Lydia; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. PMID:28239117

  11. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  12. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  13. The impact of iron on the bleaching efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in liquid whey systems.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Suzanne M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2013-02-01

    Whey is a value-added product that is utilized in many food and beverage applications for its nutritional and functional properties. Whey and whey products are generally utilized in dried ingredient applications. One of the primary sources of whey is from colored Cheddar cheese manufacture that contains the pigment annatto resulting in a characteristic yellow colored Cheddar cheese. The colorant is also present in the liquid cheese whey and must be bleached so that it can be used in ingredient applications without imparting a color. Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are 2 commercially approved chemical bleaching agents for liquid whey. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have been previously reported for whey bleached with hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how bleaching can impact flavor and functionality of dried ingredients. Currently, the precise mechanisms of off-flavor development and functionality changes are not entirely understood. Iron reactions in a bleached liquid whey system may play a key role. Reactions between iron and hydrogen peroxide have been widely studied since the reaction between these 2 relatively stable species can cause great destruction in biological and chemical systems. The actual mechanism of the reaction of iron with hydrogen peroxide has been a controversy in the chemistry and biological community. The precise mechanism for a given reaction can vary greatly based upon the concentration of reactants, temperature, pH, and addition of biological material. In this review, some hypotheses for the mechanisms of iron reactions that may occur in fluid whey that may impact bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and changes in functionality are presented. Cheese whey is bleached to remove residual carotenoid cheese colorant. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have

  14. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic strain in Swiss- and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products.

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Aljewicz, Marek; Nalepa, Beata

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products (milk fat is substituted by stearin fraction of palm fat) during manufacture, ripening, and storage. The use of the probiotic L. rhamnosus HN001 in Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products significantly (P = 0.1) changed their chemical composition (protein and fat content) and an insignificant increase (approximately 1.6% in cheese-like products and approximately 0.3% in cheese) in yield. L. rhamnosus HN001 did not affect the rate of changes in the pH of ripened cheese and cheese-like products. A minor increase in probiotic counts was observed in initial stages of production and were partially removed with whey. Ripened cheese and cheese-like products were characterized by high survival rates of probiotic bacteria which exceeded 8 log CFU/g after ripening. An insignificant reduction in the number of viable probiotic cells was noted during storage of Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese, whereas a significant increase in probiotic cell counts was observed in cheese-like products during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of temperature and bleaching agent on bleaching of liquid Cheddar whey.

    PubMed

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Barbano, D M; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2012-01-01

    The use of whey protein as an ingredient in foods and beverages is increasing, and thus demand for colorless and mild-tasting whey protein is rising. Bleaching is commonly applied to fluid colored cheese whey to decrease color, and different temperatures and bleach concentrations are used. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of hot and cold bleaching, the point of bleaching (before or after fat separation), and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and volatile components of liquid colored and uncolored Cheddar whey. First, Cheddar whey was manufactured, pasteurized, fat-separated, and subjected to one of a number of hot (68°C) or cold (4°C) bleaching applications [hydrogen peroxide (HP) 50 to 500 mg/kg; benzoyl peroxide (BP) 25 to 100 mg/kg] followed by measurement of residual norbixin and color by reflectance. Bleaching agent concentrations were then selected for the second trial. Liquid colored Cheddar whey was manufactured in triplicate and pasteurized. Part of the whey was collected (no separation, NSE) and the rest was subjected to fat separation (FSE). The NSE and FSE wheys were then subdivided and bleaching treatments (BP 50 or 100 mg/kg and HP 250 or 500 mg/kg) at 68°C for 30 min or 4°C for 16 h were applied. Control NSE and FSE with no added bleach were also subjected to each time-temperature combination. Volatile compounds from wheys were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and norbixin (annatto) was extracted and quantified to compare bleaching efficacy. Proximate analysis, including total solids, protein, and fat contents, was also conducted. Liquid whey subjected to hot bleaching at both concentrations of HP or at 100mg/kg BP had greater lipid oxidation products (aldehydes) compared with unbleached wheys, 50mg/kg BP hot-bleached whey, or cold-bleached wheys. No effect was detected between NSE and FSE liquid Cheddar whey on the relative abundance of volatile lipid oxidation products. Wheys bleached with BP had

  18. Acid whey powder modification of gari from cassava

    SciTech Connect

    Okezie, B.O.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Gari, a staple food consumed in Nigeria, is made from peeled and ground cassava tubers. The ground material is pressed with a stone slab for 2-4 days to remove moisture, and the partially fermented product is then baked over an open fire. Since gari mainly contributes energy to the diet, attempts were made to develop a more nutritious product without altering organoleptic and textural properties. In laboratory tests, ground cassava was fermented in stainless steel cheese vats for 4 days (to produce gari flavour) and then partially dehydrated by pressing in cheese cloth. A reduction in HCN content from 6.2more » to 3.4 mg/100 g resulted. Various combinations of spray-dried acid whey, soya protein and freeze-dried Candida tropicalis were added to the fermented cassava, which was then pressure-cooked for 10 minutes at 121 degrees Celcius, dried and ground in a hammer mill. Product (i), made with gari fortified with 15% soya concentrate and 5% dried acid whey, was as acceptable as traditional gari and had a protein score of 75.8 vs. 9.91 for traditional gari. Product (ii), gari fortified with 20% yeast and 10% dried acid whey, had significantly lower scores for flavour and texture than traditional gari and the protein score was only 29.45. Supplementing gari with relatively inexpensive whey concentrates appears to be a means of overcoming protein energy malnutrition in children.« less

  19. Influence of storage, heat treatment, and solids composition on the bleaching of whey with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Campbell, Rachel E; Fox, Aaron J; Gerard, Patrick D; Drake, MaryAnne

    2012-07-01

    The residual annatto colorant in liquid whey is bleached to provide a desired neutral color in dried whey ingredients. This study evaluated the influence of starter culture, whey solids and composition, and spray drying on bleaching efficacy. Cheddar cheese whey with annatto was manufactured with starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was ultrafiltered (retentate) and spray dried to 34% whey protein concentrate (WPC34). Aliquots were bleached at 60 °C for 1 h (hydrogen peroxide, 250 ppm), before pasteurization, after pasteurization, after storage at 3 °C and after freezing at -20 °C. Aliquots of retentate were bleached analogously immediately and after storage at 3 or -20 °C. Freshly spray dried WPC34 was rehydrated to 9% (w/w) solids and bleached. In a final experiment, pasteurized fat-separated whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried to WPC34 and WPC80. The WPC34 and WPC80 retentates were diluted to 7 or 9% solids (w/w) and bleached at 50 °C for 1 h. Freshly spray-dried WPC34 and WPC80 were rehydrated to 9 or 12% solids and bleached. Bleaching efficacy was measured by extraction and quantification of norbixin. Each experiment was replicated 3 times. Starter culture, fat separation, or pasteurization did not impact bleaching efficacy (P > 0.05) while cold or frozen storage decreased bleaching efficacy (P < 0.05). Bleaching efficacy of 80% (w/w) protein liquid retentate was higher than liquid whey or 34% (w/w) protein liquid retentate (P < 0.05). Processing steps, particularly holding times and solids composition, influence bleaching efficacy of whey. Optimization of whey bleaching conditions is important to reduce the negative effects of bleaching on the flavor of dried whey ingredients. This study established that liquid storage and whey composition are critical processing points that influence bleaching efficacy. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. 133.155... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.155 Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  1. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  2. Calibrated permeation standards

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Reese, Matthew O.; Kempe, Michael D.

    2017-11-21

    A permeation standard is provided. The permeation standard may include a substrate that is impermeable to an analyte, an orifice disposed in the substrate, and a permeable material filling the orifice. The orifice and the permeable material are configured to provide a predetermined transmission rate of the analyte through the permeation standard. Also provided herein are methods for forming the permeation standard.

  3. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  4. Morphological, molecular, and mycotoxigenic identification of dominant filamentous fungi from moldy civil cheese.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Songul; Cetin, Bulent; Gurses, Mustafa; Dagdemir, Elif; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2012-11-01

    Moldy Civil is a mold-ripened variety of cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. This cheese is produced with Civil cheese and whey curd cheese (Lor). Civil cheese has had a geographical presence since 2009 and is manufactured with skim milk. In the production of Moldy Civil cheese, Civil cheese or a mixture of Civil and Lor cheese is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and ripened for 3 months or longer. During the ripening period, natural contaminating molds grow on the surface of and inside the cheese. In this study, 186 mold strains were isolated from 41 samples of Moldy Civil cheese, and 165 of these strains were identified as Penicillium roqueforti. Identification and mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using morphotypic and molecular methods. PCR amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region were subjected to sequence analysis. This research is the first using molecular methods on Moldy Civil cheese. Mycotoxicologic analyses were conducted using thin-layer chromatography, and random amplified polymorphic DNA genotypes were determined using the ari1 primer. Of 165 isolates, only 28 produced no penicillic acid, P. roqueforti toxin, or roquefortine.

  5. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A qualified presumption of safety approach for the safety assessment of Grana Padano whey starters.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Lia; Carminati, Domenico; Zago, Miriam; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2009-03-15

    A Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach was applied to dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Thirty-two strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, and representing the overall genotypic LAB diversity associated with 24 previously collected whey starters [Rossetti, L., Fornasari, M.E., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Neviani, E., Giraffa, G., 2008. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution. International Journal of Food Microbiology 127, 168-171], were analyzed. All L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus isolates were susceptible to four (i.e. vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin) of the clinically most relevant antibiotics. One L. fermentum strain displayed phenotypic resistance to tetracycline (Tet(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml, and gentamycin (Gm(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml. PCR was applied to this strain to test the presence of genes tet(L), tet(M), tet(S), and aac(6')-aph(2')-Ia, which are involved in horizontal transfer of Tet(R) and Gm(R), respectively but no detectable amplification products were observed. According to QPS criteria, we conclude that Grana cheese whey starters do not present particular safety concerns.

  7. Whey protein: The “whey” forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Mignone, Linda E; Wu, Tongzhi; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    A cost-effective nutritional approach to improve postprandial glycaemia is attractive considering the rising burden of diabetes throughout the world. Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating postprandial glycaemic excursions. The function of the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, particularly during the postprandial period, and this review will discuss the mechanisms by which whey protein slows gastric emptying and stimulates release of gut peptides, including the incretins. Whey protein is also a rich source of amino acids, and these can directly stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin, which contributes to the reduction in postprandial glycaemia. Appetite is suppressed with consumption of whey, due to its effects on the gut-brain axis and the hypothalamus. These properties of whey protein suggest its potential in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, the optimal dose and timing of whey protein ingestion are yet to be defined, and studies are required to examine the long-term benefits of whey consumption for overall glycaemic control. PMID:26516411

  8. Characteristic of Fermented Whey Beverage with Addition of Tomato Juice (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nursiwi, A.; Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Sari, A. M.; Laksono, P. W.; Aprilia, E. N.

    2017-04-01

    Whey is the liquid resulting from the coagulation of milk from cheese manufacture. The availability of lactose in whey and presence of other essential nutrients for the growth of microorganisms makes it one of the potential substrate for the production of different bio-products through fermentation process. Lactic acid production through fermentation from lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative processing route for whey lactose utilization. However, a problem with such approaches is the low total solids content. Sucrose and tomato juice added to increases the total solids content. The aim of this work was to study the characteristic of fermented whey beverage with different tomato juice concentration (5, 10, 15%) using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactic acid content, pH, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of fermented whey beverage samples were examined after 18hours fermentation. Fermented whey beverage with 5% tomato juice obtained the highest scores for color, aroma, flavor, texture and overall attributes. The lactic acid content and pH of fermented whey beverage ranged from 0.326 to 0.437% and from 4.13 to 4.64, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity (9.073%) was found in sample with 15% tomato juice concentration. The best formulation is the sample with 5% of tomato juice concentration.

  9. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    Off-flavors in whey protein negatively influence consumer acceptance of whey protein ingredient applications. Clear acidic beverages are a common application of whey protein, and recent studies have demonstrated that beverage processing steps, including acidification, enhance off-flavor production from whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preacidification of liquid ultrafiltered whey protein concentrate (WPC) before spray drying on flavor of dried WPC. Two experiments were performed to achieve the objective. In both experiments, Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 mg/kg of hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain liquid WPC that was 13% solids (wt/wt) and 80% protein on a solids basis. In experiment 1, the liquid retentate was then acidified using a blend of phosphoric and citric acids to the following pH values: no acidification (control; pH 6.5), pH 5.5, or pH 3.5. The UF permeate was used to normalize the protein concentration of each treatment. The retentates were then spray dried. In experiment 2, 150 μg/kg of deuterated hexanal (D₁₂-hexanal) was added to each treatment, followed by acidification and spray drying. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Flavor properties of the spray-dried WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses in experiment 1 and by instrumental analysis in experiment 2. Preacidification to pH 3.5 resulted in decreased cardboard flavor and aroma intensities and an increase in soapy flavor, with decreased concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide compared with spray drying at pH 6.5 or 5.5. Adjustment to pH 5.5 before spray drying increased cabbage flavor and increased concentrations of nonanal at evaluation pH values of 3.5 and 5.5 and dimethyl trisulfide at all evaluation pH values. In general, the flavor effects of preacidification were consistent regardless of the pH to

  10. Whey utilization in furrow irrigation: effects on aggregate stability and erosion.

    PubMed

    Lehrsch, Gary A; Robbins, Charles W; Brown, Melvin J

    2008-11-01

    Improving soil structure often reduces furrow erosion and maintains adequate infiltration. Cottage cheese whey, the liquid byproduct from cottage cheese manufacture, was utilized to stabilize soil aggregates and reduce sediment losses from furrow irrigation. We applied either 2.4 or 1.9L of whey per meter of furrow (3.15 or 2.49Lm(-2), respectively) by gravity flow without incorporation to two fields of Portneuf silt loam (Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcid) near Kimberly, ID. Furrows were irrigated with water beginning four days later. We measured sediment losses with furrow flumes during each irrigation and measured aggregate stability by wet sieving about 10 days after the last irrigation. Overall, whey significantly increased aggregate stability 25% at the 0-15mm depth and 14% at 15-30mm, compared to controls. On average, whey reduced sediment losses by 75% from furrows sloped at 2.4%. Whey increased the aggregate stability of structurally degraded calcareous soil in irrigation furrows.

  11. Evaluation of genetic polymorphism among Lactobacillus rhamnosus non-starter Parmigiano Reggiano cheese strains.

    PubMed

    Bove, Claudio Giorgio; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Lazzi, Camilla; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo

    2011-01-05

    Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) is an Italian cooked, long-ripened cheese made with unheated cow's milk and natural whey starter. The microflora is involved in the manufacturing of this cheese, arising from the natural whey starter, the raw milk and the environment. Molecular studies have shown that mesophilic non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) are the dominant microflora present during the ripening of PR. In this study, a characterisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from a single PR manufacturing and ripening process is reported, using a combination of genotypic fingerprinting techniques (RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR). The intraspecies heterogeneity evidenced for 66 strains is correlated to their abilities to adapt to specific environmental and technological conditions. The detection of biotypes that correlate with specific moments in cheese ripening or differential development throughout this process suggests that these strains may have specific roles closely linked to their peculiar technological properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Kevin-Voigt Model in Quantifying Whey Protein Adsorption on Polyethersulfone Using QCM-D

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study of protein adsorption on the membrane surface is of great importance to cheese-making processors that use polymeric membrane-based processes to recover whey protein from the process waste streams. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) is a lab-scale, fast analytical techniq...

  13. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  14. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  15. The science of cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  16. How cheese is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This column continues the theme of "How Is It Processed?" with a focus on cheese. A fun fact is that it takes 10 pounds of milk to make one pound of cheese. Production of cheese is described in this column, as well as the effects of processing on the final properties of this popular food....

  17. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for...

  18. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for...

  19. Impact of flavor attributes on consumer liking of Swiss cheese.

    PubMed

    Liggett, R E; Drake, M A; Delwiche, J F

    2008-02-01

    Although Swiss cheese is growing in popularity, no research has examined what flavor characteristics consumers desire in Swiss cheese, which was the main objective of this study. To this end, a large group of commercially available Swiss-type cheeses (10 domestic Swiss cheeses, 4 domestic Baby Swiss cheeses, and one imported Swiss Emmenthal) were assessed both by 12 trained panelists for flavor and feeling factors and by 101 consumers for overall liking. In addition, a separate panel of 24 consumers rated the same cheeses for dissimilarity. On the basis of liking ratings, the 101 consumers were segmented by cluster analysis into 2 groups: nondistinguishers (n = 40) and varying responders (n = 61). Partial least squares regression, a statistical modeling technique that relates 2 data sets (in this case, a set of descriptive analysis data and a set of consumer liking data), was used to determine which flavor attributes assessed by the trained panel were important variables in overall liking of the cheeses for the varying responders. The model explained 93% of the liking variance on 3 normally distributed components and had 49% predictability. Diacetyl, whey, milk fat, and umami were found to be drivers of liking, whereas cabbage, cooked, and vinegar were drivers of disliking. Nutty flavor was not particularly important to liking and it was present in only 2 of the cheeses. The dissimilarity ratings were combined with the liking ratings of both segments and analyzed by probabilistic multidimensional scaling. The ideals of each segment completely overlapped, with the variance of the varying responders being smaller than the variance of the non-distinguishers. This model indicated that the Baby Swiss cheeses were closer to the consumers' ideals than were the other cheeses. Taken together, the 2 models suggest that the partial least squares regression failed to capture one or more attributes that contribute to consumer acceptance, although the descriptive analysis of

  20. Persistence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis during Manufacture and Ripening of Cheddar Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Donaghy, J. A.; Totton, N. L.; Rowe, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Model Cheddar cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk artificially contaminated with high 104 to 105 CFU/ml) and low (101 to 102 CFU/ml) inocula of three different Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains. A reference strain, NCTC 8578, and two strains (806PSS and 796PSS) previously isolated from pasteurized milk for retail sale were investigated in this study. The manufactured Cheddar cheeses were similar in pH, salt, moisture, and fat composition to commercial Cheddar. The survival of M. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a 27-week ripening period by plating homogenized cheese samples onto HEYM agar medium supplemented with the antibiotics vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid without a decontamination step. A concentration effect was observed in M. paratuberculosis numbers between the inoculated milk and the 1-day old cheeses for each strain. For all manufactured cheeses, a slow gradual decrease in M. paratuberculosis CFU in cheese was observed over the ripening period. In all cases where high levels (>3.6 log10) of M. paratuberculosis were present in 1-day cheeses, the organism was culturable after the 27-week ripening period. The D values calculated for strains 806PSS, 796PSS, and NCTC 8578 were 107, 96, and 90 days, respectively. At low levels of contamination, M. paratuberculosis was only culturable from 27-week-old cheese spiked with strain 806PSS. M. paratuberculosis was recovered from the whey fraction in 10 of the 12 manufactured cheeses. Up to 4% of the initial M. paratuberculosis load was recovered in the culture-positive whey fractions at either the high or low initial inoculum. PMID:15294829

  1. Distribution and stability of aflatoxin M1 during processing, ripening and storage of Telemes cheese.

    PubMed

    Govaris, A; Roussi, V; Koidis, P A; Botsoglou, N A

    2001-05-01

    Telemes cheeses were produced using milk that was artificially-contaminated with aflatoxin M1 at the levels of 0.050 and 0.100 microg/l. The cheeses produced in the two cheese-making trials were allowed to ripen for 2 months and stored for an additional 4 months to simulate commercial production of Telemes cheese. Concentrations of aflatoxin M1 in whey, curd, brine, and the produced cheeses were determined at intervals by liquid chromatography and fluorometric detection coupled with immunoaffinity column extraction. Concentrations of aflatoxin M1 in the produced curds were found to be 3.9 and 4.4 times higher than those in milk, whereas concentrations in whey were lower than those in curd and milk. Aflatoxin M1 was present in cheese at higher concentrations at the beginning than at the end of the ripening/storage period, and it declined to concentrations 2.7 and 3.4 times higher than those initially present in milk by the end of the sixth month of storage. Concentrations of aflatoxin M1 in brine started low and increased by the end of the ripening/storage period but only a portion of the amounts of aflatoxin M1 lost from cheese was found in the brine. Results showed that Telemes cheeses produced from milk containing aflatoxin M1 at a concentration close to either the maximum acceptable level of 0.05 microg/l set by the European union (EU) or at double this value, will contain the toxin at a level that is much lower or slightly higher, respectively, than the maximum acceptable level of 0.250 microg of aflatoxin M1/kg cheese set by some countries.

  2. Intensified recovery of valuable products from whey by use of ultrasound in processing steps - A review.

    PubMed

    Gajendragadkar, Chinmay N; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-09-01

    The current review focuses on the analysis of different aspects related to intensified recovery of possible valuable products from cheese whey using ultrasound. Ultrasound can be used for process intensification in processing steps such as pre-treatment, ultrafiltration, spray drying and crystallization. The combination of low-frequency, high intensity ultrasound with the pre-heat treatment minimizes the thickening or gelling of protein containing whey solutions. These characteristics of whey after the ultrasound assisted pretreatment helps in improving the efficacy of ultrafiltration used for separation and also helps in preventing the blockage of orifice of spray dryer atomizing device. Further, the heat stability of whey proteins is increased. In the subsequent processing step, use of ultrasound assisted atomization helps to reduce the treatment times as well as yield better quality whey protein concentrate (WPC) powder. After the removal of proteins from the whey, lactose is a major constituent remaining in the solution which can be efficiently recovered by sonocrystallization based on the use of anti-solvent as ethanol. The scale-up parameters to be considered during designing the process for large scale applications are also discussed along with analysis of various reactor designs. Overall, it appears that use of ultrasound can give significant process intensification benefits that can be harnessed even at commercial scale applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2015-09-01

    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  4. Time course and specificity of lipolysis in Swiss cheese.

    PubMed

    Dherbécourt, Julien; Bourlieu, Claire; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Aubert-Frogerais, Lydie; Richoux, Romain; Thierry, Anne

    2010-11-24

    Controlling lipolysis in cheese is necessary to ensure the formation of desirable flavor. To get a better understanding of the mechanism of lipolysis in Swiss cheese, cheeses were manufactured with and without (control) the addition of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Products of lipolysis were quantified throughout ripening. Half of the free fatty acids (FFA) released in milk (3.66 mg/g fat), in particular the short-chain FFA, were lost in the whey during curd drainage, whereas diglycerides and monoglycerides were retained within the curd. P. freudenreichii was responsible for the release of most FFA during ripening (10.84 and 0.39 mg/g fat in propionibacteria-containing and control cheeses, respectively). Indices of lipolysis displayed low specificity. All types of FFA were released, but butyric and palmitic acids more significantly, which could be due to a low sn-1,3 regioselectivity. All glycerides were hydrolyzed in the following order: monoglycerides>diglycerides>triglycerides. The results of this study show the quantitative and qualitative contributions of the different lipolytic agents to Swiss cheese lipolysis.

  5. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  6. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  7. Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-09-01

    In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using β-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

  8. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon

    PubMed Central

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  9. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spiced cheeses. 133.190 Section 133.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.190 Spiced cheeses. (a) Description. (1) Spiced cheeses are cheeses for which specifically...

  10. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by...

  11. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing cottage...

  12. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing cottage...

  13. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by...

  14. 7 CFR 58.808 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey. 58.808 Section 58.808 Agriculture Regulations of....808 Whey. Whey for processing shall be fresh and originate from the processing of products made from... by the Food and Drug Administration may be added to the whey for processing, except when restricted...

  15. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for Plants...

  16. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2013-03-01

    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  17. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  18. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  19. Encapsulated whey-native yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus as a feed additive for animal production.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vergara, Ladislao; Pereyra, Carina Maricel; Montenegro, Mariana; Pena, Gabriela Alejandra; Aminahuel, Carla Ayelen; Cavaglieri, Lilia R

    2017-05-01

    Whey is the main byproduct of the cheese industry. While the composition is variable, it retains up to 55% of milk nutrients. The beneficial features of whey indicates a promising source of new potentially probiotic strains for the development of food additives destined for animal production. The aim of this study was to identify Kluyveromyces spp. isolated from whey, to study some probiotic properties and to select the best strain to be encapsulated using derivatised chitosan. Kluyveromyces marxianus strains (VM003, VM004 and VM005) were isolated from whey and identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. These three yeast strains were able to survive under gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, they exhibited weak auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp., Serratia sp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). In general the K. marxianus strains had a strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The potential probiotic K. marxianus VM004 strain was selected for derivatised-chitosan encapsulation. Material treated with native chitosan exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity of K. marxianus, showing a total growth inhibition at 10 min exposure. However, derivatised-chitosan encapsulation showed a reduced antimicrobial activity. This is the first study to show some probiotic properties of whey-native K. marxianus, in vitro. An encapsulation strategy was applied using derivatised chitosan.

  20. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Drake, M A; Courtney, P D

    2008-08-01

    The effect of nonstarter Lactobacillus adjunct cultures on the microbial, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured using the "kosher make procedure" was investigated. The kosher make procedure, which uses a lower cooking temperature than traditional Swiss cheese making, is used by many American cheese manufacturers to allow for kosher-certified whey. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 non-starter Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from Swiss cheeses, Lactobacillus casei A26, L. casei B21, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus H2, as an adjunct. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. Cheeses were analyzed during ripening for microbial and chemical composition. Adjunct strain L. casei A26, which utilized citrate most readily in laboratory medium, dominated the Lactobacillus population within 30 d, faster than the other adjunct cultures. There were no significant differences in Propionibacterium counts, Streptococcus thermophilus counts, protein, fat, moisture, salt, and pH among the cheeses. Free amino acid concentration ranged from 5 to 7 mmol/100 g of cheese at 90 d of ripening and was adjunct strain dependent. Lactic, acetic, and propionic acid concentrations were not significantly different among the cheeses after a 90-d ripening period; however differences in propionic acid concentrations were apparent at 60 d, with the cheeses made with L. casei adjuncts containing less propionic acid. Citric acid was depleted by the end of warm room ripening in cheeses manufactured with adjunct L. casei strains, but not with adjunct L. rhamnosus. Cheeses made with L. casei A26 were most similar to the control cheeses in diacetyl and butyric/isobutyric acid abundance as evaluated by electronic nose during the first 3 mo of ripening. The 4 cheese types differed in their descriptive sensory profiles at 8 mo of age, indicating an adjunct strain-dependent effect on particular flavor attributes. Adjunct

  1. Standardization of milk using cold ultrafiltration retentates for the manufacture of Swiss cheese: effect of altering coagulation conditions on yield and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-06-01

    milks. Cheese composition did not differ except for fat content, which was lower in the control compared with the UF-fortified cheeses. No residual lactose or galactose remained in the cheeses after 2 mo of ripening. Fat recoveries were similar in control, UFHT, and UFLTL but lower in UFLT cheeses. Significantly higher N recoveries were obtained in the UF-fortified cheeses compared with control cheese. Because of higher fat and CN contents, cheese yield was significantly higher in UF-fortified cheeses (∼11.0 to 11.2%) compared with control cheese (∼8.5%). A significant reduction was observed in volume of whey produced from cheese made from UF-fortified milk and in these wheys, the protein was a higher proportion of the solids. During ripening, the pH values and 12% trichloroacetic acid-soluble N levels were similar for all cheeses. No differences were observed in the sensory properties of the cheeses. The use of UF retentates improved cheese yield with no significant effect on ripening or sensory quality. The faster coagulation and gel firming can be decreased by altering the renneting conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    PubMed

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  3. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  4. Production and partial purification of proteases from Aspergillus oryzae grown in a medium based on whey protein as an exclusive nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Kumura, H; Ishido, T; Shimazaki, K

    2011-02-01

    Several attempts have been made to incorporate whey proteins into curd to increase cheese yield. For some types of cheese, degradation of whey proteins that have been incorporated into the curd would be required to obtain acceptable flavor and texture. On the basis of the high potential for protease synthesis in Aspergillus oryzae, sodium nitrate as a nitrogen source in a minimal medium for fungi, known as Czapek-Dox medium, was replaced with whey protein isolate to induce the protease to hydrolyze whey protein using A. oryzae AHU7146. A solid-phase medium adjusted to pH 6 was suitable for this purpose when incubation was carried out at 25°C for 2 wk. The application of column chromatography enabled the resolution of 3 proteolytic components (1, 2, and 3). With respect to optimal temperature and zymographic analysis, component 1 was similar to component 3. In contrast, component 2 was less abundant than the other components and exhibited activity in the alkaline pH region. The degradation of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in whey protein isolate solution by the crude enzyme was primarily attributed to the action of components 1 and 3, based on HPLC analysis and the N-terminal amino acid sequences; however, zymography demonstrated evident proteolysis due to component 2. Because heat-denatured whey protein aggregates were digestible by the crude enzyme, the proteolytic system from A. oryzae has the potential as an additive to stimulate the ripening of cheese enriched with whey protein. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese. 133.108 Section 133.108 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.108 Brick cheese. (a) Description. (1) Brick cheese is the food prepared from dairy...

  6. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  7. 21 CFR 133.138 - Edam cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Edam cheese. 133.138 Section 133.138 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.138 Edam cheese. (a) Description. (1) Edam cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  8. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared by...

  9. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limburger cheese. 133.152 Section 133.152 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.152 Limburger cheese. (a) Description. (1) Limburger cheese is the food prepared by one of...

  10. 21 CFR 133.150 - Hard cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hard cheeses. 133.150 Section 133.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.150 Hard cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity are...

  11. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gorgonzola cheese. 133.141 Section 133.141 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.141 Gorgonzola cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gorgonzola cheese is the food prepared...

  12. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese. 133.108 Section 133.108 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.108 Brick cheese. (a) Description. (1) Brick cheese is the food prepared from dairy...

  13. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese. (a) Description. (1) Neufchatel cheese is the soft uncured...

  14. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Samsoe cheese. 133.185 Section 133.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.185 Samsoe cheese. (a) Description. (1) Samsoe cheese is the food prepared by the procedure...

  15. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Semisoft cheeses. 133.187 Section 133.187 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.187 Semisoft cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity are...

  16. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limburger cheese. 133.152 Section 133.152 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.152 Limburger cheese. (a) Description. (1) Limburger cheese is the food prepared by one of...

  17. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cheddar cheese. 133.113 Section 133.113 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.113 Cheddar cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cheddar cheese is the food prepared by the...

  18. 21 CFR 133.149 - Gruyere cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gruyere cheese. 133.149 Section 133.149 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.149 Gruyere cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gruyere cheese is the food prepared by the...

  19. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuworld cheese. 133.164 Section 133.164 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.164 Nuworld cheese. (a) Description. (1) Nuworld cheese is the food prepared by the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  1. 21 CFR 133.149 - Gruyere cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gruyere cheese. 133.149 Section 133.149 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.149 Gruyere cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gruyere cheese is the food prepared by the...

  2. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  3. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colby cheese. 133.118 Section 133.118 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.118 Colby cheese. (a) Colby cheese is the food prepared from milk and other ingredients...

  4. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samsoe cheese. 133.185 Section 133.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.185 Samsoe cheese. (a) Description. (1) Samsoe cheese is the food prepared by the procedure...

  5. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  6. 21 CFR 133.138 - Edam cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Edam cheese. 133.138 Section 133.138 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.138 Edam cheese. (a) Description. (1) Edam cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  7. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  8. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese. 133.113 Section 133.113 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.113 Cheddar cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cheddar cheese is the food prepared by the...

  9. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  10. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gorgonzola cheese. 133.141 Section 133.141 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.141 Gorgonzola cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gorgonzola cheese is the food prepared...

  11. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or...

  12. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese. (a) Description. (1) Neufchatel cheese is the soft uncured...

  13. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuworld cheese. 133.164 Section 133.164 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.164 Nuworld cheese. (a) Description. (1) Nuworld cheese is the food prepared by the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. 133.153... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.153 Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. (a) Description...

  15. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. 133.153... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.153 Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. (a) Description...

  16. Relationship between mozzarella yield and milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents.

    PubMed

    Sales, D C; Rangel, A H N; Urbano, S A; Freitas, Alfredo R; Tonhati, Humberto; Novaes, L P; Pereira, M I B; Borba, L H F

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to identify the relationship between mozzarella cheese yield and buffalo milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents. A production of 30 batches of mozzarella cheese at a dairy industry in northeast Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte) was monitored between March and November 2015. Mozzarella yield and 32 other variables were observed for each batch, and divided into 3 groups: milk composition variables (12); variables involved in the cheesemaking process (14); and variables for recovery of whey constituents (6). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and principal component analysis. Most of the correlations between milk composition variables and between the variables of the manufacturing processes were not significant. Significant correlations were mostly observed between variables for recovery of whey constituents. Yield only showed significant correlation with time elapsed between curd cuttings and age of the starter culture, and it showed greater association with age of the starter culture, time elapsed between curd cuttings, and during stretching, as well as with milk pH and density. Thus, processing factors and milk characteristics are closely related to dairy efficiency in mozzarella manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Affinity chromatography matrices for depletion and purification of casein glycomacropeptide from bovine whey.

    PubMed

    Baieli, María F; Urtasun, Nicolás; Martinez, María J; Hirsch, Daniela B; Pilosof, Ana M R; Miranda, María V; Cascone, Osvaldo; Wolman, Federico J

    2017-01-01

    Casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) is a 64- amino acid peptide found in cheese whey, which is released after κ-casein specific cleavage by chymosin. CMP lacks aromatic amino acids, a characteristic that makes it usable as a nutritional supplement for people with phenylketonuria. CMP consists of two nonglycosylated isoforms (aCMP A and aCMP B) and its different glycosylated forms (gCMP A and gCMP B). The most predominant carbohydrate of gCMP is N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). Here, we developed a CMP purification process based on the affinity of sialic acid for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). After formation of chitosan beads and adsorption of WGA, the agglutinin was covalently attached with glutaraldehyde. Two matrices with different WGA density were assayed for CMP adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacities were calculated according to the Langmuir model from adsorption isotherms developed at pH 7.0, being 137.0 mg/g for the matrix with the best performance. In CMP reduction from whey, maximum removal percentage was 79% (specifically 33.7% of gCMP A and B, 75.8% of aCMP A, and 93.9% of aCMP B). The CMP was recovered as an aggregate with an overall yield of 64%. Therefore, the matrices developed are promising for CMP purification from cheese whey. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:171-180, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. The effect of bleaching agents on the degradation of vitamins and carotenoids in spray-dried whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Stout, M A; Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has shown that bleaching affects flavor and functionality of whey proteins. The role of different bleaching agents on vitamin and carotenoid degradation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of bleaching whey with traditional annatto (norbixin) by hydrogen peroxide (HP), benzoyl peroxide (BP), or native lactoperoxidase (LP) on vitamin and carotenoid degradation in spray-dried whey protein concentrate 80% protein (WPC80). An alternative colorant was also evaluated. Cheddar whey colored with annatto (15 mL/454 L of milk) was manufactured, pasteurized, and fat separated and then assigned to bleaching treatments of 250 mg/kg HP, 50 mg/kg BP, or 20 mg/kg HP (LP system) at 50°C for 1 h. In addition to a control (whey with norbixin, whey from cheese milk with an alternative colorant (AltC) was evaluated. The control and AltC wheys were also heated to 50°C for 1 h. Wheys were concentrated to 80% protein by ultrafiltration and spray dried. The experiment was replicated in triplicate. Samples were taken after initial milk pasteurization, initial whey formation, after fat separation, after whey pasteurization, after bleaching, and after spray drying for vitamin and carotenoid analyses. Concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol, water-soluble vitamins, norbixin, and other carotenoids were determined by HPLC, and volatile compounds were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensory attributes of the rehydrated WPC80 were documented by a trained panel. After chemical or enzymatic bleaching, WPC80 displayed 7.0 to 33.3% reductions in retinol, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol. The WPC80 bleached with BP contained significantly less of these compounds than the HP- or LP-bleached WPC80. Riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, and cobalamin concentrations in fluid whey were not affected by bleaching. Fat-soluble vitamins were reduced in all wheys by more than 90

  19. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    PubMed

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  20. [Appearance of aflatoxin M1 during the manufacture of Camembert cheese].

    PubMed

    Frémy, J M; Roiland, J C

    1979-01-01

    Several classic cheese making of camembert are made from raw milk spiked with Aflatoxin M1. Three Aflatoxin levels 7.5 microgram/l, 3 microgram/l are used. In respective curds 35.6, 47.1 and 57.7% of Aflatoxin M1 are recovered and 64.4, 52.9 and 42.3% in respective whey. During the first 15 days of storage the Aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decrease respectively 25, 55, 75%. A similar experience is made with a milk contamined in Aflatoxin M1 C14 labelled. Same results are recovered, except about behaviour of Aflatoxin M1 in cheese: a same C14 activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  1. Behavior of 14C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making.

    PubMed

    Fremy, J M; Roiland, J C; Gaymard, A

    1990-01-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with 14C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  2. Behavior of sup 14 C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making

    SciTech Connect

    Fremy, J.M.; Roiland, J.C.; Gaymard, A.

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with {sup 14}C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recoveredmore » during storage for 30 days.« less

  3. Dentinal permeation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunina, Natalia; Derbov, Vladimir; Tuchin, Valery; Altshuler, Gregory

    2008-06-01

    Dentinal permeation is of interest in a wide context of tooth care and treatment, in particular, tooth color improvement using combination of chemical whitening agents and light activation. A simple model of dentinal permeation accounting for the morphology of human tooth dentine and including dentinal tubules, more dense and homogeneous peritubular dentine, and less dense and less homogeneous intertubular dentin is proposed. Calculation of permeability of dentine layer is carried out for H IIO and H IIO II versus the tubule diameter and tubule density taken from the microphotograph analysis. This opens the possibility to calculate the distribution of permeability over the tooth surface taking into account the variations of tubule diameter and density as well as those of the diffusion coefficients and layer thickness

  4. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  5. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  6. Whey protein fractionation using supercritical carbon dioxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet whey, a coproduct of the cheesemaking process, can be concentrated using ultrafiltration and ion-exchange to produce whey protein isolates (WPI). WPI contains approximately 32% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 61% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), plus a small amount of minor whey proteins. Whil...

  7. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development of...

  8. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  9. Differences between Cheddar cheese manufactured by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods using different commercial starters.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-ur-Rehman; Drake, M A; Farkye, N Y

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, Cheddar cheese is made by the milled-curd method. However, because of the mechanization of cheese making and time constraints, the stirred-curd method is more commonly used by many large-scale commercial manufacturers. This study was undertaken to evaluate quality differences during ripening (at 2 and 8 degrees C) of Cheddar cheese made by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods, using 4 different commercial starters. Twenty-four vats (4 starters x 2 methods x 3 replicates) were made, with approximately 625 kg of pasteurized (72 degrees C x 16 s) whole milk in each vat. Fat, protein, and salt contents of the cheeses were not affected by the starter. Starter cell densities in cheese were not affected by the method of manufacture. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria counts at 90, 180, and 270 d were influenced by the manufacturing method, with a higher trend in milled-curd cheeses. Proteolysis in cheese (percentage of water-soluble N) was influenced by the starter and manufacturing method (270 d). Sensory analysis by a trained descriptive panel (n = 8) revealed differences in cooked, whey, sulfur, brothy, milk fat, umami, and bitter attributes caused by the starter, whereas only brothy flavor was influenced by storage temperature. The method of manufacture influenced diacetyl, sour, and salty flavors.

  10. Sequencing of the Cheese Microbiome and Its Relevance to Industry.

    PubMed

    Yeluri Jonnala, Bhagya R; McSweeney, Paul L H; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; Cotter, Paul D

    2018-01-01

    The microbiota of cheese plays a key role in determining its organoleptic and other physico-chemical properties. It is essential to understand the various contributions, positive or negative, of these microbial components in order to promote the growth of desirable taxa and, thus, characteristics. The recent application of high throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) facilitates an even more accurate identification of these microbes, and their functional properties, and has the potential to reveal those microbes, and associated pathways, responsible for favorable or unfavorable characteristics. This technology also facilitates a detailed analysis of the composition and functional potential of the microbiota of milk, curd, whey, mixed starters, processing environments, and how these contribute to the final cheese microbiota, and associated characteristics. Ultimately, this information can be harnessed by producers to optimize the quality, safety, and commercial value of their products. In this review we highlight a number of key studies in which HTS was employed to study the cheese microbiota, and pay particular attention to those of greatest relevance to industry.

  11. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  12. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  13. Genetic parameters of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is an important technological trait in the dairy industry, and the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of cheese yield in a dairy cattle population using an individual model-cheese production procedure. A total of 1,167 Brown Swiss cows belonging to 85 herds were sampled once (a maximum of 15 cows were sampled per herd on a single test day, 1 or 2 herds per week). From each cow, 1,500 mL of milk was processed according to the following steps: milk sampling and heating, culture addition, rennet addition, gelation-time recording, curd cutting, whey draining and sampling, wheel formation, pressing, salting in brine, weighing, and cheese sampling. The compositions of individual milk, whey, and curd samples were determined. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), which represented the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding nutrient in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese versus that in the milk. For statistical analysis, a Bayesian animal model was implemented via Gibbs sampling. The effects of parity (1 to ≥4), days in milk (6 classes), and laboratory vat (15 vats) were assigned flat priors; those of herd-test-date, animal, and residual were given Gaussian prior distributions. Intra-herd heritability estimates of %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER) ranged from 0.224 to 0.267; these were larger than the estimates obtained for milk yield (0.182) and milk fat

  14. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Provolone cheese. 133.181 Section 133.181 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.181 Provolone cheese. (a) Description. (1) Provolone, a pasta filata or stretched curd-type...

  15. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provolone cheese. 133.181 Section 133.181 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.181 Provolone cheese. (a) Description. (1) Provolone, a pasta filata or stretched curd-type...

  16. Brucella melitensis survival during manufacture of ripened goat cheese at two temperatures.

    PubMed

    Méndez-González, Karla Y; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Monroy, Jorge F; López-Merino, Ahide; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the current work was to assess the influence of two temperatures, 4°C and 24°C, on pH and water activity and their association with Brucella melitensis survival during the traditional manufacture of ripened goat cheese. Raw milk from a brucellosis-free goat herd was used for the manufacture of ripened cheese. The cheese was inoculated with 5×10(9) of the B. melitensis 16M strain during the tempering stage. The cheeses were matured for 5, 20, and 50 days at both temperatures. To assess Brucella survival, the pH and a(w) were recorded at each stage of the process (curd cutting, draining whey, immersion in brine, ripening I, ripening II, and ripening III). B. melitensis was detected at ripening stage III (1×10(3) colony-forming unit [CFU]/mL) from cheeses matured at 4°C with a pH of 5.0 and a(w) of 0.90, and at a ripening stage II (1×10(4) CFU/mL) from cheeses ripened at 24°C with a pH of 4.0 and a(w) of 0.89. The remaining stages were free from the inoculated pathogen. In addition, viable B. melitensis was recovered in significant amounts (1-2×10(6) CFU/mL) from the whey fractions of both types of cheese ripened at 24°C and 4°C. These results revealed the effects of high temperature (24°C vs. 4°C) on the low pH (4) and a(w) (0.89) that appeared to be associated with the suppression of B. melitensis at the early stages of cheese ripening. In the ripened goat cheeses, B. melitensis survived under a precise combination of temperature during maturation, ripening time, and a(w) in the manufacturing process.

  17. Lipids in cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  18. Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Matteo; Bittante, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA. Compared with morning milk, evening milk had fewer de novo synthetised FA. The detailed FA profile of partially skimmed milk differed little from that of evening whole milk before skimming, but the cream obtained differed from partially skimmed milk and from fresh cheese in about half the FA, due mainly to higher contents of all de novo FA, and lower contents of n-3 and n-6 FA. Fresh cheese and whey had similar FA profiles. The ricotta manufacturing process affected the partition of FA between ricotta and scotta, the FA profile of the latter differing in terms of groups and individual FA from the former, whereas ricotta and fresh cheese had similar composition of FA. In general, there was an increase in medium-chain saturated FA, and a decrease in many polyunsaturated FA during the first 6 months of ripening, but not during the second 6 months. Two-dimensional GC yielded a very detailed and informative FA profile on all the 11 dairy products and by-products analysed.

  19. 40 CFR 405.110 - Applicability; description of the condensed whey subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... condensed whey subcategory. 405.110 Section 405.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.110 Applicability; description of the condensed whey subcategory. The... whey and condensed acid whey. ...

  20. Novel Functional Whey-Based Drinks with Great Potential in the Dairy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos; Gomes, David; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea; de Antoni, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the production of liquid whey protein concentrates by ultrafiltration followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization of the ultrafiltrated concentrate, as well as on the production of ultrafiltrated permeates concentrated by reverse osmosis. Kefir grains (fresh and thawed) and/or commercial probiotic bacteria were inoculated in both liquid whey protein concentrates and concentrated ultrafiltrated permeates and grown at 25 °C for 24 h for the manufacture of fermented drinks. The physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, and content of total solids, ash, fat and proteins) of the obtained drinks was then assessed and compared. Enumeration of viable microorganisms was carried out immediately after inoculation (at 0 h), during the fermentation period (at 12 and 24 h) and during refrigerated storage (at 48, 168 and 336 h). The fermented drinks showed acceptable physicochemical and sensorial properties, and contained above 7 log CFU/mL of lactococci and lactobacilli and 6 log CFU/mL of yeasts after 14 days of refrigerated storage, which is in agreement with the standards required by international organizations like European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for products containing probiotics. In summary, the strategy developed in this work contributes to the expansion of the applications of products derived from whey fractionation for the design of novel functional foods. PMID:27904362

  1. Novel Functional Whey-Based Drinks with Great Potential in the Dairy Industry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos; Henriques, Marta; Gomes, David; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea; de Antoni, Graciela

    2015-09-01

    This work focuses on the production of liquid whey protein concentrates by ultrafiltration followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization of the ultrafiltrated concentrate, as well as on the production of ultrafiltrated permeates concentrated by reverse osmosis. Kefir grains (fresh and thawed) and/or commercial probiotic bacteria were inoculated in both liquid whey protein concentrates and concentrated ultrafiltrated permeates and grown at 25 °C for 24 h for the manufacture of fermented drinks. The physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, and content of total solids, ash, fat and proteins) of the obtained drinks was then assessed and compared. Enumeration of viable microorganisms was carried out immediately after inoculation (at 0 h), during the fermentation period (at 12 and 24 h) and during refrigerated storage (at 48, 168 and 336 h). The fermented drinks showed acceptable physicochemical and sensorial properties, and contained above 7 log CFU/mL of lactococci and lactobacilli and 6 log CFU/mL of yeasts after 14 days of refrigerated storage, which is in agreement with the standards required by international organizations like European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for products containing probiotics. In summary, the strategy developed in this work contributes to the expansion of the applications of products derived from whey fractionation for the design of novel functional foods.

  2. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and aging of Gouda and stirred-curd Cheddar cheeses manufactured from raw milk.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Dennis J; Druart, Marc J; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and aging of Gouda and stirred-curd Cheddar cheeses made from raw milk. Cheeses were manufactured from unpasteurized milk experimentally contaminated with one of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 at an approximate population level of 20 CFU/ml. Samples of milk, whey, curd, and cheese were collected for enumeration of bacteria throughout the manufacturing and aging process. Overall, bacterial counts in both cheese types increased almost 10-fold from initial inoculation levels in milk to approximately 145 CFU/g found in cheeses on day 1. From this point, counts dropped significantly over 60 days to mean levels of 25 and 5 CFU/g in Cheddar and Gouda, respectively. Levels of E. coli O157:H7 fell and stayed below 5 CFU/g after an average of 94 and 108 days in Gouda and Cheddar, respectively, yet remained detectable after selective enrichment for more than 270 days in both cheese types. Changes in pathogen levels observed throughout manufacture and aging did not significantly differ by cheese type. In agreement with results of previous studies, our results suggest that the 60-day aging requirement alone is insufficient to completely eliminate levels of viable E. coli O157:H7 in Gouda or stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufactured from raw milk contaminated with low levels of this pathogen.

  3. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. From by-product to valuable components: Efficient enzymatic conversion of lactose in whey using β-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Barbara; Nguyen, Hoang-Minh; Wenig, Stefanie; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Lorenz, Cindy; Kittl, Roman; Mathiesen, Geir; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2016-12-15

    β-Galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus was overexpressed in a food-grade organism, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Laboratory cultivations yielded 11,000 U of β-galactosidase activity per liter of culture corresponding to approximately 170 mg of enzyme. Crude cell-free enzyme extracts obtained by cell disruption and subsequent removal of cell debris showed high stability and were used for conversion of lactose in whey permeate. The enzyme showed high transgalactosylation activity. When using an initial concentration of whey permeate corresponding to 205 g L -1 lactose, the maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) obtained at 50°C reached approximately 50% of total sugar at 90% lactose conversion, meaning that efficient valorization of the whey lactose was obtained. GOS are of great interest for both human and animal nutrition; thus, efficient conversion of lactose in whey into GOS using an enzymatic approach will not only decrease the environmental impact of whey disposal, but also create additional value.

  5. 21 CFR 133.165 - Parmesan and reggiano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parmesan and reggiano cheese. 133.165 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.165 Parmesan and reggiano cheese. (a) Parmesan cheese, reggiano cheese...

  6. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and complies with the requirements for label declaration of ingredients prescribed for edam cheese by § 133.138...

  7. Short communication: Development of a novel method for the extraction of norbixin from whey and its subsequent quantification via high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Boogers, I A L A; Drake, M A

    2014-03-01

    Norbixin is the primary carotenoid in annatto coloring, which imparts the desired orange color in Cheddar cheese. However, a portion of the colorant remains in the cheese whey and is undesirable; therefore, a bleaching step is often applied. Restrictions exist for norbixin concentrations in products destined for infant formula. As such, evaluation of norbixin concentrations in whey and whey ingredients is desirable. Current extraction methods are laborious and require solvents that are banned in many countries. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and inexpensive norbixin extraction and quantitation technique using approved solvents with similar sensitivity to current established methods. Instead of solvent extraction and column purification, acetonitrile was added directly to fluid wheys, retentates, and rehydrated whey protein concentrates. An isocratic mobile phase [70% acetonitrile and 30% water with 0.1% (wt/vol) formic acid] was used and, to increase sensitivity, a large volume (50 μL) was injected onto the column. The column used was a C18 column with a particle size of 2.6 μm and column length of 10 cm. The column inner diameter was 4.6mm and the pore size was 100 Ǻ. All of the previously described conditions allowed the run time to be only 4 min. The sample was sent through a photodiode array detector and quantified at 482 nm. Norbixin was quantified using external standard curves. The developed method had a >90% norbixin recovery in both milk and whey (9.39 μg/L-2.35 mg/L). The limit of detection of norbixin in fluid whey was 2.7 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was 3.5 μg/kg, both of which are significantly lower than in previously described methods. The extracts were stable over 30 min at 21°C and stable over 24h at 4°C. Repeatability and precision of the method had relative standard deviations of less than 13%. The developed method provides time and cost savings for evaluation of norbixin concentration in whey and whey products

  8. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating... objectionable odors. (b) Whey or whey products intended for human food shall at all times be handled in a...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lactose is converted to lactic acid, or from the curd formation by direct acidification of milk, is known... lactic acid is known as sweet whey. Sweet whey has a maximum titratable acidity of not more than 0.16 percent, calculated as lactic acid, and an alkalinity of ash of not more than 225 milliliters of 0.1N...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a significant amount of lactose is converted to lactic acid, or from the curd formation by direct... conversion of lactose to lactic acid is known as sweet whey. Sweet whey has a maximum titratable acidity of not more than 0.16 percent, calculated as lactic acid, and an alkalinity of ash of not more than 225...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a significant amount of lactose is converted to lactic acid, or from the curd formation by direct... conversion of lactose to lactic acid is known as sweet whey. Sweet whey has a maximum titratable acidity of not more than 0.16 percent, calculated as lactic acid, and an alkalinity of ash of not more than 225...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a significant amount of lactose is converted to lactic acid, or from the curd formation by direct... conversion of lactose to lactic acid is known as sweet whey. Sweet whey has a maximum titratable acidity of...” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose content, 61 to 75 percent...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a significant amount of lactose is converted to lactic acid, or from the curd formation by direct... conversion of lactose to lactic acid is known as sweet whey. Sweet whey has a maximum titratable acidity of...” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose content, 61 to 75 percent...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section 184.1979a... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979a Reduced lactose whey. (a) Reduced lactose whey is the substance obtained by the removal of lactose from whey. The lactose content of the finished...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section 184.1979a... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979a Reduced lactose whey. (a) Reduced lactose whey is the substance obtained by the removal of lactose from whey. The lactose content of the finished...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced minerals whey is the substance obtained by the removal of a portion of the minerals from whey. The dry product...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced minerals whey is the substance obtained by the removal of a portion of the minerals from whey. The dry product...

  18. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: manufacture and composition.

    PubMed

    Upreti, P; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Eight Cheddar cheeses with 2 levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) were manufactured. All cheeses were made using a stirred-curd procedure and were replicated 3 times. Treatments with a high level of Ca and P were produced by setting the milk and drawing the whey at a higher pH (6.6 and 6.3, respectively) compared with the treatments with a low level of Ca and P (pH of 6.2 and 5.7, respectively). The lactose content in the cheeses was varied by adding lactose (2.5% by weight of milk) to the milk for high lactose cheeses, and washing the curd for low lactose cheeses. The difference in S/M was obtained by dividing the curds into halves, weighing each half, and salting at 3.5 and 2.25% of the weight of the curd for high and low S/M, respectively. All cheeses were salted at a pH of 5.4. Modifications in cheese-making protocols produced cheeses with desired differences in Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M. Average Ca and P in the high Ca and P cheeses was 0.68 and 0.48%, respectively, vs. 0.53 and 0.41% for the low Ca and P cheeses. Average lactose content of the high lactose treatments at d 1 was 1.48% compared with 0.30% for the low lactose treatments. The S/M for the high and low S/M cheeses was 6.68 and 4.77%, respectively. Mean moisture, fat, and protein content of the cheeses ranged from 32.07 to 37.57%, 33.32 to 35.93%, and 24.46 to 26.40%, respectively. The moisture content differed among the treatments, whereas fat and protein content on dry basis was similar.

  19. Contribution to the production of lactulose-rich whey by in situ electro-isomerization of lactose and effect on whey proteins after electro-activation as confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kareb, Ourdia; Champagne, Claude P; Aïder, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Cheese-whey, a major co-product of the dairy industry, has recently been the subject of many technological applications. We studied the bioconversion of whey into valuable bio-products such as a potential lactulose prebiotic and compounds with antioxidant properties. This paper examines efficiency, safety, and economics of electro-activation as an eco-friendly technology for a maximum valorization of whey. Thus, a bottom-up approach was therefore addressed. The effect of 4 experimental parameters--low working temperatures (0, 10, and 25 °C), current intensities (400, 600, and 800 mA), volume conditions (100, 200, and 300 mL), and feed concentrations [7, 14, and 28% (wt/vol)]--on lactose-whey isomerization to lactulose under electro-activation process were studied. Structural characteristics of whey proteins and antioxidant functionality were also investigated. The results showed a compromise to be reached between both parameters. Therefore, the maximum yield of 35% of lactulose was achieved after 40 min of reaction at the working temperature of 10 °C under 400 mA electric current field and 100-mL volume conditions with using feed solution at 7% (wt/vol). The isomerization of lactose to lactulose is accomplished by subsequent degradation to galactose, but only at a very small amount. Additionally, whey electro-activation showed significantly elevated antioxidant capacity compared with the untreated samples. The enhancement of antioxidant functionality of whey electro-activation resulted from the synergistic effect of its partial hydrolysis and the formation of antioxidant components that were able to scavenge free radicals. In conclusion, the findings of this study reveal that the whey treated by the safety electro-activation technology has both lactulose-prebiotic and antioxidant properties and could have a substantial application in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  20. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of

  1. Hyperconcentrated Sweet Whey, a New Culture Medium That Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Rabah, Houem; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Parayre, Sandrine; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Le Loir, Yves; Chen, Xiao Dong; Schuck, Pierre; Jeantet, Romain; Jan, Gwénaël

    2016-08-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a cheese-ripening starter and as a probiotic. Its reported physiological effects at the gut level, including modulation of bifidobacteria, colon epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and intestinal inflammation, rely on active metabolism in situ Survival and activity are thus key factors determining its efficacy, creating stress adaptation and tolerance bottlenecks for probiotic applications. Growth media and growth conditions determine tolerance acquisition. We investigated the possibility of using sweet whey, a dairy by-product, to sustain P. freudenreichii growth. It was used at different concentrations (dry matter) as a culture medium. Using hyperconcentrated sweet whey led to enhanced multistress tolerance acquisition, overexpression of key stress proteins, and accumulation of intracellular storage molecules and compatible solutes, as well as enhanced survival upon spray drying. A simplified process from growth to spray drying of propionibacteria was developed using sweet whey as a 2-in-1 medium to both culture P. freudenreichii and protect it from heat and osmotic injury without harvesting and washing steps. As spray drying is far cheaper and more energy efficient than freeze-drying, this work opens new perspectives for the sustainable development of new starter and probiotic preparations with enhanced robustness. In this study, we demonstrate that sweet whey, a dairy industry by-product, not only allows the growth of probiotic dairy propionibacteria, but also triggers a multitolerance response through osmoadaptation and general stress response. We also show that propionibacteria accumulate compatible solutes under these culture conditions, which might account for the limited loss of viability after spray drying. This work opens new perspectives for more energy-efficient production of dairy starters and probiotics. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Hyperconcentrated Sweet Whey, a New Culture Medium That Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Rabah, Houem; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Parayre, Sandrine; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Le Loir, Yves; Schuck, Pierre; Jeantet, Romain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a cheese-ripening starter and as a probiotic. Its reported physiological effects at the gut level, including modulation of bifidobacteria, colon epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and intestinal inflammation, rely on active metabolism in situ. Survival and activity are thus key factors determining its efficacy, creating stress adaptation and tolerance bottlenecks for probiotic applications. Growth media and growth conditions determine tolerance acquisition. We investigated the possibility of using sweet whey, a dairy by-product, to sustain P. freudenreichii growth. It was used at different concentrations (dry matter) as a culture medium. Using hyperconcentrated sweet whey led to enhanced multistress tolerance acquisition, overexpression of key stress proteins, and accumulation of intracellular storage molecules and compatible solutes, as well as enhanced survival upon spray drying. A simplified process from growth to spray drying of propionibacteria was developed using sweet whey as a 2-in-1 medium to both culture P. freudenreichii and protect it from heat and osmotic injury without harvesting and washing steps. As spray drying is far cheaper and more energy efficient than freeze-drying, this work opens new perspectives for the sustainable development of new starter and probiotic preparations with enhanced robustness. IMPORTANCE In this study, we demonstrate that sweet whey, a dairy industry by-product, not only allows the growth of probiotic dairy propionibacteria, but also triggers a multitolerance response through osmoadaptation and general stress response. We also show that propionibacteria accumulate compatible solutes under these culture conditions, which might account for the limited loss of viability after spray drying. This work opens new perspectives for more energy-efficient production of dairy starters and probiotics. PMID:27235433

  3. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  4. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    PubMed

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  5. Sensory and Functionality Differences of Whey Protein Isolate Bleached by Hydrogen or Benzoyl Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tucker J; Foegeding, E Allen; Drake, MaryAnne

    2015-10-01

    Whey protein is a highly functional food ingredient used in a wide variety of applications. A large portion of fluid whey produced in the United States is derived from Cheddar cheese manufacture and contains annatto (norbixin), and therefore must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare sensory and functionality differences between whey protein isolate (WPI) bleached by benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP). HP and BP bleached WPI and unbleached controls were manufactured in triplicate. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were conducted to determine flavor differences between treatments. Functionality differences were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, protein solubility, SDS-PAGE, and effect of NaCl concentration on gelation relative to an unbleached control. HP bleached WPI had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation and sulfur containing volatile compounds than both BP and unbleached WPI (P < 0.05). HP bleached WPI was characterized by high aroma intensity, cardboard, cabbage, and fatty flavors, while BP bleached WPI was differentiated by low bitter taste. Overrun and yield stress were not different among WPI (P < 0.05). Soluble protein loss at pH 4.6 of WPI decreased by bleaching with either hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide (P < 0.05), and the heat stability of WPI was also distinct among WPI (P < 0.05). SDS PAGE results suggested that bleaching of whey with either BP or HP resulted in protein degradation, which likely contributed to functionality differences. These results demonstrate that bleaching has flavor effects as well as effects on many of the functionality characteristics of whey proteins. Whey protein isolate (WPI) is often used for its functional properties, but the effect of oxidative bleaching chemicals on the functional properties of WPI is not known. This study identifies the effects of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide on functional and flavor characteristics of WPI

  6. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for...

  7. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for...

  8. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.147 Grated American cheese food. (a)(1) Grated American cheese food is...

  9. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to...

  10. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  11. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for...

  12. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food...

  13. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of...

  14. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is...

  15. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for...

  16. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for...

  17. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with...

  18. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  19. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  20. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the...

  1. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  2. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to the...

  3. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss and emmentaler cheese. 133.195 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese. (a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese...

  4. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese. 133.160 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.160 Muenster and munster cheese. (a) Description. (1) Muenster cheese...

  5. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with...

  6. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Semisoft part-skim cheeses. 133.188 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.188 Semisoft part-skim cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions...

  7. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food...

  8. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese. 133.160 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.160 Muenster and munster cheese. (a) Description. (1) Muenster cheese...

  9. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Caciocavallo siciliano cheese. 133.111 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.111 Caciocavallo siciliano cheese. (a) Caciocavallo siciliano cheese is...

  10. 21 CFR 133.129 - Dry curd cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry curd cottage cheese. 133.129 Section 133.129... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.129 Dry curd cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese dry curd is the soft...

  11. 21 CFR 133.182 - Soft ripened cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Soft ripened cheeses. 133.182 Section 133.182 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.182 Soft ripened cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of...

  12. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for...

  13. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for...

  14. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.147 Grated American cheese food. (a)(1) Grated American cheese food is...

  15. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for...

  16. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for...

  17. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to...

  18. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cook cheese, koch kaese. 133.127 Section 133.127... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.127 Cook cheese, koch kaese. (a) Description. (1) Cook cheese, koch...

  19. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food...

  1. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for...

  2. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of...

  3. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for...

  4. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for...

  5. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for...

  6. 21 CFR 133.148 - Hard grating cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hard grating cheeses. 133.148 Section 133.148 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.148 Hard grating cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of...

  7. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  8. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food...

  9. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to the...

  10. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss and emmentaler cheese. 133.195 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese. (a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese...

  11. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cook cheese, koch kaese. 133.127 Section 133.127... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.127 Cook cheese, koch kaese. (a) Description. (1) Cook cheese, koch...

  12. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  13. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  14. Hydrogen-isotope permeation barrier

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Van Deventer, Erven H.

    1977-01-01

    A composite including a plurality of metal layers has a Cu-Al-Fe bronze layer and at least one outer layer of a heat and corrosion resistant metal alloy. The bronze layer is ordinarily intermediate two outer layers of metal such as austenitic stainless steel, nickel alloys or alloys of the refractory metals. The composite provides a barrier to hydrogen isotopes, particularly tritium that can reduce permeation by at least about 30 fold and possibly more below permeation through equal thicknesses of the outer layer material.

  15. Factors regulating astringency of whey protein beverages.

    PubMed

    Beecher, J W; Drake, M A; Luck, P J; Foegeding, E A

    2008-07-01

    A rapidly growing area of whey protein use is in beverages. There are 2 types of whey protein-containing beverages: those at neutral pH and those at low pH. Astringency is very pronounced at low pH. Astringency is thought to be caused by compounds in foods that bind with and precipitate salivary proteins; however, the mechanism of astringency of whey proteins is not understood. The effect of viscosity and pH on the astringency of a model beverage containing whey protein isolate was investigated. Trained sensory panelists (n = 8) evaluated the viscosity and pH effects on astringency and basic tastes of whey protein beverages containing 6% wt/vol protein. Unlike what has been shown for alum and polyphenols, increasing viscosity (1.6 to 7.7 mPa.s) did not decrease the perception of astringency. In contrast, the pH of the whey protein solution had a major effect on astringency. A pH 6.8 whey protein beverage had a maximum astringency intensity of 1.2 (15-point scale), whereas that of a pH 3.4 beverage was 8.8 (15-point scale). Astringency decreased between pH 3.4 and 2.6, coinciding with an increase in sourness. Decreases in astringency corresponded to decreases in protein aggregation as observed by turbidity. We propose that astringency is related to interactions between positively charged whey proteins and negatively charged saliva proteins. As the pH decreased between 3.4 and 2.6, the negative charge on the saliva proteins decreased, causing the interactions with whey proteins to decrease.

  16. Martian "Swiss Cheese"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as "dry ice." On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice. No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the "swiss cheese" and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6°S, 74.4°W at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02367

  17. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Milk-Derived microRNAs and Microbiota during the Manufacturing and Ripening of Soft Cheese.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangnam; Park, Mi-Ri; Ryu, Sangdon; Maburutse, Brighton; Kim, Ji-Uk; Kim, Younghoon

    2017-09-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant in bovine milk and milk derived from other livestock, and they have functional roles in infants and in the secretion process of mammary glands. However, few studies have evaluated miRNAs in dairy processes, such as during cheese making and ripening. Thus, we investigated the characteristics of milk-derived miRNAs during the manufacturing and ripening of Camembert cheese as well as the microbiota present using the quantitative reverse transcription polymer chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, respectively. Pyrosequencing showed that the cheese microbiota changed dramatically during cheese processing, including during the pasteurization, starter culture, and ripening stages. Our results indicated that the RNA contents per 200 mg/200 μl of the sample increased significantly during cheese-making and ripening. The inner cheese fractions had higher RNA contents than the surfaces after 12 and 22 days of ripening in a timedependent manner (21.9 and 13.2 times higher in the inner and surface fractions than raw milk, respectively). We performed a comparative analysis of the miRNAs in each fraction by RT-qPCR. Large amounts of miRNAs ( miR-93, miR-106a, miR-130, miR-155, miR-181a , and miR- 223 ) correlated with immune responses and mammary glands were present in aged cheese, with the exception of miR-223 , which was not present on the surface. Considerable amounts of miRNAs were also detected in whey, which is usually disposed of during the cheese-making process. Unexpectedly, there were no significant correlations between immune-related miRNAs and the microbial populations during cheese processing. Taken together, these results show that various functional miRNAs are present in cheese during its manufacture and that they are dramatically increased in amount in ripened Camembert cheese, with differences according to depth.

  19. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.

  20. Gas Permeation Computations with Mathematica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binous, Housam

    2006-01-01

    We show a new approach, based on the utilization of Mathematica, to solve gas permeation problems using membranes. We start with the design of a membrane unit for the separation of a multicomponent mixture. The built-in Mathematica function, FindRoot, allows one to solve seven simultaneous equations instead of using the iterative approach of…

  1. Antibacterial Activities of Nisin Z Encapsulated in Liposomes or Produced In Situ by Mixed Culture during Cheddar Cheese Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Benech, R.-O.; Kheadr, E. E.; Lacroix, C.; Fliss, I.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated both the activity of nisin Z, either encapsulated in liposomes or produced in situ by a mixed starter, against Listeria innocua, Lactococcus spp., and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and the distribution of nisin Z in a Cheddar cheese matrix. Nisin Z molecules were visualized using gold-labeled anti-nisin Z monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (immune-TEM). Experimental Cheddar cheeses were made using a nisinogenic mixed starter culture, containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL 719 as the nisin producer and two nisin-tolerant lactococcal strains and L. casei subsp. casei as secondary flora, and ripened at 7°C for 6 months. In some trials, L. innocua was added to cheese milk at 105 to 106 CFU/ml. In 6-month-old cheeses, 90% of the initial activity of encapsulated nisin (280 ± 14 IU/g) was recovered, in contrast to only 12% for initial nisin activity produced in situ by the nisinogenic starter (300 ± 15 IU/g). During ripening, immune-TEM observations showed that encapsulated nisin was located mainly at the fat/casein interface and/or embedded in whey pockets while nisin produced by biovar diacetylactis UL 719 was uniformly distributed in the fresh cheese matrix but concentrated in the fat area as the cheeses aged. Cell membrane in lactococci appeared to be the main nisin target, while in L. casei subsp. casei and L. innocua, nisin was more commonly observed in the cytoplasm. Cell wall disruption and digestion and lysis vesicle formation were common observations among strains exposed to nisin. Immune-TEM observations suggest several modes of action for nisin Z, which may be genus and/or species specific and may include intracellular target-specific activity. It was concluded that nisin-containing liposomes can provide a powerful tool to improve nisin stability and availability in the cheese matrix. PMID:12406756

  2. Cold enzymatic bleaching of fluid whey.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical bleaching of fluid whey and retentate with hydrogen peroxide (HP) alone requires high concentrations (100-500 mg of HP/kg) and recent studies have demonstrated that off-flavors are generated during chemical bleaching that carry through to spray-dried whey proteins. Bleaching of fluid whey and retentate with enzymes such as naturally present lactoperoxidase or an exogenous commercial peroxidase (EP) at cold temperatures (4°C) may be a viable alternative to traditional chemical bleaching of whey. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum level of HP for enzymatic bleaching (both lactoperoxidase and EP) at 4°C and to compare bleaching efficacy and sensory characteristics to HP chemical bleaching at 4°C. Selected treatments were subsequently applied for whey protein concentrate with 80% protein (WPC80) manufacture. Fluid Cheddar whey and retentate (80% protein) were manufactured in triplicate from pasteurized whole milk. The optimum concentration of HP (0 to 250 mg/kg) to activate enzymatic bleaching at 4°C was determined by quantifying the loss of norbixin. In subsequent experiments, bleaching efficacy, descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile compounds were monitored at selected time points. A control with no bleaching was also evaluated. Enzymatic bleaching of fluid whey and retentate at 4°C resulted in faster bleaching and higher bleaching efficacy (color loss) than bleaching with HP alone at 250 mg/kg. Due to concentrated levels of naturally present lactoperoxidase, retentate bleached to completion (>80% norbixin destruction in 30 min) faster than fluid whey at 4°C (>80% norbixin destruction in 12h). In fluid whey, the addition of EP decreased bleaching time. Spray-dried WPC80 from bleached wheys, regardless of bleaching treatment, were characterized by a lack of sweet aromatic and buttery flavors, and the presence of cardboard flavor concurrent with higher relative abundance of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one. Among enzymatically

  3. Permeation study through bacterial cellulose membrane.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengdong; Murtaza, Ghulam; Yameen, Muhammad Arfat; Aamir, Muhammad Naeem; Akhtar, Muhammad; Zhao, Yuhao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this study was to fabricate topical formulations of diclofenac diethylamine (DD) using isopropyl myristate (IPM) and isopropyl palmitate (IPP) as permeation enhancers. Franz cell and bacterial cellulose were used as analytical instrument and diffusion membrane, respectively. Permeation enhancers exhibited significant effect on the permeation characteristics of DD. It was concluded from the results that improved permeation of DD was observed when IPP was used as enhancer.

  4. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability to...

  5. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability to...

  6. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: (1) The word “milk” means cow's milk, which may be adjusted by separating part of the fat therefrom... Products § 133.118 Colby cheese. (a) Colby cheese is the food prepared from milk and other ingredients... the methods prescribed in § 133.5 (a), (b), and (d). If the milk used is not pasteurized, the cheese...

  7. Performance assessment of membrane distillation for skim milk and whey processing.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Kulozik, Ulrich; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging membrane process based on evaporation of a volatile solvent. One of its often stated advantages is the low flux sensitivity toward concentration of the processed fluid, in contrast to reverse osmosis. In the present paper, we looked at 2 high-solids applications of the dairy industry: skim milk and whey. Performance was assessed under various hydrodynamic conditions to investigate the feasibility of fouling mitigation by changing the operating parameters and to compare performance to widespread membrane filtration processes. Whereas filtration processes are hydraulic pressure driven, membrane distillation uses vapor pressure from heat to drive separation and, therefore, operating parameters have a different bearing on the process. Experimental and calculated results identified factors influencing heat and mass transfer under various operating conditions using polytetrafluoroethylene flat-sheet membranes. Linear velocity was found to influence performance during skim milk processing but not during whey processing. Lower feed and higher permeate temperature was found to reduce fouling in the processing of both dairy solutions. Concentration of skim milk and whey by membrane distillation has potential, as it showed high rejection (>99%) of all dairy components and can operate using low electrical energy and pressures (<10 kPa). At higher cross-flow velocities (around 0.141 m/s), fluxes were comparable to those found with reverse osmosis, achieving a sustainable flux of approximately 12 kg/h·m(2) for skim milk of 20% dry matter concentration and approximately 20 kg/h·m(2) after 18 h of operation with whey at 20% dry matter concentration. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Water permeation through organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, D. H.; West, I. A.

    1981-09-01

    Atmospheric moisture is routinely excluded from weapon systems by the use of elastomer seals at assembly joints and electrical feedthroughs while internal moisture is minimized by relying on desiccants and on pre-dried components assembled in special low humidity assembly rooms. Published values of the water permeation coefficient for ethylene-propylene rubber and other o-ring materials are subject to some variability and the effects of aging on water permability are unknown. We have thus devised a new and extremely sensitive method for measuring moisture permeation coefficients in organic materials. This method uses dilute tritiated water as a tracer and it is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than other methods. We are therefore able to make measurements on materials under STS temperature and humidity conditions. Rate data showing the approach to equilibrium and water permeability values for a variety of elastomers are presented. The test apparatus is also described.

  9. More South Polar "Swiss Cheese"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the "swiss cheese" pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap. This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2, 1999. It is located near 84.8°S, 71.8°W, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02368

  10. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced minerals whey is the substance obtained by the removal of a portion of the minerals from whey. The dry product shall not contain more than 7 percent ash...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... the following specifications: (1) The analysis of whey protein concentrate, on a dry product basis.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (3) The whey protein concentrate shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... whey protein concentrate meets the following specifications: (1) The analysis of whey protein... the heading “Protein—Official Final Action.” (ii) Fat content, 1 to 10 percent—as determined by the...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... whey protein concentrate meets the following specifications: (1) The analysis of whey protein... the heading “Protein—Official Final Action.” (ii) Fat content, 1 to 10 percent—as determined by the...

  14. Effect of high-pressure treatment at various temperatures on indigenous proteolytic enzymes and whey protein denaturation in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Moatsou, Golfo; Bakopanos, Constantinos; Katharios, Dimitis; Katsaros, George; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Taoukis, Petros; Politis, Ioannis

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of high pressure (HP) processing (200, 450 and 650 MPa) at various temperatures (20, 40 and 55 degrees C) on the total plasmin plus plasminogen-derived activity (PL), plasminogen activator(s) (PA) and cathepsin D activities and on denaturation of major whey proteins in bovine milk. Data indicated that transfer of both PL and PA from the casein micelles to milk serum occurred at all pressures utilized at room temperature (20 degrees C). In addition to the transfer of PL and PA from micelles, there were reductions in activities of PL (16-18%) and PA (38-62%) for the pressures 450 and 650 MPa, at room temperature. There were synergistic negative effects between pressure and temperature on residual PL activity at 450 and 650 MPa and on residual PA activity only at 450 MPa. Cathepsin D activity in the acid whey from HP-treated milk was in general baroresistant at room temperature. The residual activity of cathepsin D decreased significantly at 650 MPa and 40 degrees C and at the pressures 450 and 650 MPa at 55 degrees C. Synergistic negative effects on the amount of native beta-lactoglobulin were observed at 450 and 650 MPa and on the amount of native alpha-lactalbumin at 650 MPa. There were significant correlations between enzymatic activities (PL, PA and cathepsin D) and the residual native beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin in bovine milk. In conclusion, HP significantly affected the activity of indigenous proteolytic enzymes and whey protein denaturation in bovine milk. Reduction in activity of indigenous enzymes (PL, PA and cathepsin D) and transfer of PL and PA from the casein to milk serum induced by HP is expected to have a profound effect on cheese yield, proteolysis during cheese ripening and quality of UHT milk during storage.

  15. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized process...

  17. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular and stirred curd cheese. 133.144 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.144 Granular and stirred curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  18. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.173 Pasteurized process cheese food. (a)(1) A pasteurized...

  19. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized process...

  20. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread. 133.179 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread. (a)(1) Pasteurized...

  1. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular and stirred curd cheese. 133.144 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.144 Granular and stirred curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  2. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except as...

  3. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by § 133.195...

  4. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by § 133.195...

  5. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by § 133.195...

  6. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to... ingredients, prescribed for pasteurized process cheese by § 133.169, except that: (a) In mixtures of two or...

  7. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food... statement of ingredients, prescribed for pasteurized process cheese spread by § 133.179, except that no...

  8. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  9. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  10. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by § 133.108...

  11. Efficient production of lactulose from whey powder by cellobiose 2-epimerase in an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Cen; Li, Sha; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the gene encoding cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CsCE) was successfully expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB800. After the fermentation medium optimization, the activity of recombinant strain was 4.5-fold higher than the original medium in a 7.5L fermentor. The optimal catalytic pH and temperature of crude CsCE were 7.0 and 80°C, respectively. An enzymatic synthesis of lactulose was developed using cheese-whey lactose as its substrate. The maximum conversion rate of whey powder obtained was 58.5% using 7.5 U/mL CsCE. The enzymatic membrane reactor system exhibited a great operational stability, confirmed with the higher lactose conversion (42.4%) after 10 batches. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of lactulose synthesis in food grade strain, which improve the food safety, and we not only realize the biological production of lactulose, but also make good use of industrial waste, which have positive impact on environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functionality of extrusion--texturized whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I; Konstance, R P; Cooke, P H; Farrell, H M

    2003-11-01

    Whey, a byproduct of the cheesemaking process, is concentrated by processors to make whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI). Only 50% of whey proteins are used in foods. In order to increase their usage, texturizing WPC, WPI, and whey albumin is proposed to create ingredients with new functionality. Extrusion processing texturizes globular proteins by shearing and stretching them into aligned or entangled fibrous bundles. In this study, WPC, WPI, and whey albumin were extruded in a twin screw extruder at approximately 38% moisture content (15.2 ml/min, feed rate 25 g/min) and, at different extrusion cook temperatures, at the same temperature for the last four zones before the die (35, 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, respectively). Protein solubility, gelation, foaming, and digestibility were determined in extrudates. Degree of extrusion-induced insolubility (denaturation) or texturization, determined by lack of solubility at pH 7 for WPI, increased from 30 to 60, 85, and 95% for the four temperature conditions 35, 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, respectively. Gel strength of extruded isolates increased initially 115% (35 degrees C) and 145% (50 degrees C), but gel strength was lost at 75 and 100 degrees C. Denaturation at these melt temperatures had minimal effect on foaming and digestibility. Varying extrusion cook temperature allowed a new controlled rate of denaturation, indicating that a texturized ingredient with a predetermined functionality based on degree of denaturation can be created.

  13. Heavy metals in cow's milk and cheese produced in areas irrigated with waste water in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Numa Pompilio; Calderón-Sánchez, Francisco; Castro de Jesús, Jair; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Tamariz-Flores, José V; Pérez-Sato, Marcos; Soní-Guillermo, Eutiquio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As levels in raw milk and Oaxaca and ranchero type cheeses, produced in areas irrigated with waste water from Puebla in Mexico. Milk results showed a mean Pb level of 0.03 mg kg -1 , which is above the maximum limit as set by Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission standards. For As a mean value of 0.12 mg kg -1 in milk was obtained. Mean As and Pb levels in milk were below the Mexican standard. Milk whey and ranchero cheese had mean Pb levels of 0.07 and 0.11 mg kg -1 , respectively. As was higher in Oaxaca and ranchero cheese at 0.17 and 0.16 mg kg -1 , respectively. It was concluded that cheeses made from cow's milk from areas irrigated with waste water are contaminated with Pb and As, which may represent a health risk.

  14. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    PubMed

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  15. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivitymore » was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.« less

  16. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  17. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or more cheeses containing cream cheese or neufchatel cheese, the moisture content is not more than the arithmetical average of the maximum moisture contents prescribed by the definitions and standards...

  18. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  19. Water permeation through anion exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Wright, Andrew; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

  20. Survival kinetics of Mycobacterium bovis during manufacture and ripening of raw milk Cheddar and Caerphilly cheese produced on a laboratory-scale.

    PubMed

    Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

    2016-11-01

    Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis was investigated in UK raw milk cheeses. Replicating traditional cheese production methods under stringent CL3 containment conditions, Cheddar and Caerphilly cheeses were produced with Myco. bovis inoculated raw milk. High-inoculum investigations used three Myco. bovis genotypes; later low-inoculum investigations used only Myco. bovis AF2122/97. High-inoculum Cheddar (n = 9) and Caerphilly (n = 9) were matured for a minimum of 12 and 4 months respectively; maturation of low-inoculum Cheddar (n = 3) and Caerphilly (n = 3) was up to 11 weeks. Survival of Myco. bovis was monitored by enumeration at different points throughout cheese manufacture and ripening. D values were calculated as follows: 57 and 59 days in high-inoculum Cheddar and Caerphilly, respectively, and 41 and 24 days in low-inoculum Cheddar and Caerphilly respectively. Mycobacterium bovis is concentrated in cheese curd and a proportion lost with the whey. Reduction in viability during manufacturing is limited, while significant Myco. bovis inactivation occurs during maturation. Inactivation was improved, during Caerphilly ripening, when acid development was enhanced by increasing the proportion of starter culture. Mycobacterium bovis inactivation data obtained could be used to inform assessment of the risk posed to consumers by raw milk dairy products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Idiazabal cheese.

    PubMed

    Arrese, E; Arroyo-Izaga, M

    2012-01-01

    Raw-milk cheese has been identified in risk assessment as a food of greater concern to public health due to listeriosis. To determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in semi-hard Idiazabal cheese manufactured by different producers in the Basque Country at consumer level. A total of 51 Idiazabal cheese samples were obtained from 10 separate retail establishments, chosen by stratified random sampling. Samples were tested using the official standard ISO procedure 11290-1 for detection and enumeration methods. All cheese samples tested negative for L. monocytogenes. However, 9.8% tested positive for Listeria spp., different from L. monocytogenes. Positive samples came from two brands, two were natural and three were smoked. The presence of Listeria spss. suggests that the cheese making process and the hygiene whether at milking or during cheese making could be insufficient.

  2. [Formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].

    PubMed

    Klein, D; Keshavarz, A; Lafont, P; Hardy, J; Debry, G

    1980-01-01

    Several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. The concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. The results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of Penicillium camemberti, which favors very much the synthesis of nitrosamines. The amount of nitrosodimethylamine formed in this cheese increases from 5 to 20 ppb during ripening. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of formation is outlined.

  3. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Vânia F.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella. PMID:22438717

  4. Environmental impact of cheese production: A case study of a small-scale factory in southern Europe and global overview of carbon footprint.

    PubMed

    Canellada, Fernando; Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2018-09-01

    The environmental performance of a small-scale cheese factory sited in a NW Spanish region has been analysed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as representative of numerous cheese traditional factories that are scattered through the European Union, especially in the southern countries. Inventory data were directly obtained from this facility corresponding to one-year operation, and the main subsystems involved in cheese production were included, i.e. raw materials, water, electricity, energy, cleaning products, packaging materials, transports, solid and liquid wastes and gas emissions. Results indicated that the environmental impacts derived from cheese making were mainly originated from raw milk production and the natural land transformation was the most affected of the considered categories. On the contrary, the manufacturing of packaging material and other non-dairy ingredients barely influenced on the total impact. Additionally, an average carbon footprint of the cheeses produced in the analysed facility has also been calculated, resulting milk production and pellet boiler emissions the most contributing subsystems. Furthermore, it was notable the positive environmental effect that entailed the direct use of whey as animal feed, which was considered in this study as avoided fodder. Finally, a revision of published works regarding the environmental performance of cheese production worldwide was provided and compared to results found in the present work. According to the analysed data, it is clear that the content of fat and dry extract are determinant factors for the carbon footprint of cheeses, whereas the cheesemaking scale and the geographical area have a very low effect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    PubMed

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. More South Polar 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the 'swiss cheese' pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap.

    This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2,1999. It is located near 84.8oS, 71.8oW, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  7. Comparison of methods for determining volatile compounds in milk, cheese, and whey powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted for optimal SPME release while not generating new compounds that are abs...

  8. Comparison of methods for determining volatile compounds in cheese, milk, and whey powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but selecting the proper procedures presents challenges. Heat is applied to drive volatiles from the samp...

  9. Growth kinetics and physiological behavior of co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, fermenting carob sugars extracted with whey.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E; Constantino, A; Raposo, S; Felizardo, C; Gonçalves, D; Fernandes, T; Dionísio, L; Peinado, J M

    2016-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of carob waste sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) extracted with cheese whey, by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis has been analyzed. Growth and fermentation of S. cerevisiae in the carob-whey medium showed an inhibition of about 30% in comparison with water-extracted carob. The inhibition of K. lactis on carob-whey was greater (70%) when compared with the whey medium alone, due to osmolarity problems. Oxygen availability was a very important factor for K. lactis, influencing its fermentation performance. When K. lactis was grown alone on carob-whey medium, lactose was always consumed first, and glucose and fructose were consumed afterwards, only at high aeration conditions. In co-culture with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis was completely inhibited and, at low aeration, died after 3 days; at high aeration this culture could survive but growth and lactose fermentation were only recovered after S. cerevisiae became stationary. To overcome the osmolarity and K. lactis' oxygen problems, the medium had to be diluted and a sequential fermentative process was designed in a STR-3l reactor. K. lactis was inoculated first and, with low aeration (0.13vvm), consumed all the lactose in 48h. Then S. cerevisiae was inoculated, consuming the total of the carob sugars, and producing ethanol in a fed-batch regime. The established co-culture with K. lactis increased S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerance. This fermentation process produced ethanol with good efficiency (80g/l final concentration and a conversion factor of 0.4g ethanol/g sugar), eliminating all the sugars of the mixed waste. These efficient fermentative results pointed to a new joint treatment of agro-industrial wastes which may be implemented successfully, with economic and environmental sustainability for a bioethanol industrial proposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese, is...

  11. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

  12. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

  13. Contribution of natural milk culture to microbiota, safety and hygiene of raw milk cheese produced in alpine malga

    PubMed Central

    Lucchini, Rosaria; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Negrinotti, Michele; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca; Fasoli, Franco; Farina, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Processing of alpine milk in malga farms is carried out under conditions that can favor contamination by coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, or pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With the aim to improve the hygienic characteristics and safety of cheese produced in four malga farms the use of lyophilized Natural Milk Culture prepared with selected strains was tested.. Two cheesemaking tests were carried out in the same day always starting from the same milk: in the first case following the malga recipe that uses either Natural Whey Culture or without the addition of a starter, in the second one using a Natural Milk Culture. Cheesemaking were carried out in four malga farms located in the west area of Trentino region within the same week. For hygienic and safety evaluation, aerobic colony count, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Escherichia coli, staphylococcal toxins, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp, pH and awwere determined in raw milk from evening and morning milking, curd in vat, curd after extraction and two months-ripened cheese. Pathogens or toxins, high values of coagulase- positive staphylococci and E. coli were not found in cheese samples. However, in the curd coagulase-positive staphylococci reached values almost of 5 Log CFU/g in the two malga without starter cultures. The use of Natural Milk Culture reduced E. coli counts. In addition, DNA was extracted from cheese samples and from Natural Milk Culture and the composition of the microbial community determined by Next Generation Sequencing method. The determination of cheese microbial communities demonstrated that the use of Natural Milk Culture exerted different effects in the different malga, in any case preserving bacterial biodiversity. PMID:29732331

  14. Contribution of natural milk culture to microbiota, safety and hygiene of raw milk cheese produced in alpine malga.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Rosaria; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Negrinotti, Michele; Balzan, Stefania; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca; Fasoli, Franco; Farina, Giovanni

    2018-03-31

    Processing of alpine milk in malga farms is carried out under conditions that can favor contamination by coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, or pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes . With the aim to improve the hygienic characteristics and safety of cheese produced in four malga farms the use of lyophilized Natural Milk Culture prepared with selected strains was tested.. Two cheesemaking tests were carried out in the same day always starting from the same milk: in the first case following the malga recipe that uses either Natural Whey Culture or without the addition of a starter, in the second one using a Natural Milk Culture. Cheesemaking were carried out in four malga farms located in the west area of Trentino region within the same week. For hygienic and safety evaluation, aerobic colony count, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Escherichia coli , staphylococcal toxins, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella spp, pH and a w were determined in raw milk from evening and morning milking, curd in vat, curd after extraction and two months-ripened cheese. Pathogens or toxins, high values of coagulase- positive staphylococci and E. coli were not found in cheese samples. However, in the curd coagulase-positive staphylococci reached values almost of 5 Log CFU/g in the two malga without starter cultures. The use of Natural Milk Culture reduced E. coli counts. In addition, DNA was extracted from cheese samples and from Natural Milk Culture and the composition of the microbial community determined by Next Generation Sequencing method. The determination of cheese microbial communities demonstrated that the use of Natural Milk Culture exerted different effects in the different malga , in any case preserving bacterial biodiversity.

  15. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milk and nonfat goat's milk”, “milkfat from sheep's milk and nonfat sheep's milk”, etc., as appropriate..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either made from pasteurized milk or held at a temperature of not less than 35 °F for at least 60 days. Moisture...

  16. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or... purposes of this section, the word “milk” means cow's milk or goat's milk or sheep's milk or mixtures of... of sheep's milk) the corresponding products from sheep's milk; water in a quantity sufficient to...

  17. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milk and nonfat goat's milk”, “milkfat from sheep's milk and nonfat sheep's milk”, etc., as appropriate..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either made from pasteurized milk or held at a temperature of not less than 35 °F for at least 60 days. Moisture...

  18. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... milk and nonfat goat's milk”, “milkfat from sheep's milk and nonfat sheep's milk”, etc., as appropriate..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either made from pasteurized milk or held at a temperature of not less than 35 °F for at least 60 days. Moisture...

  19. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or... purposes of this section, the word “milk” means cow's milk or goat's milk or sheep's milk or mixtures of... of sheep's milk) the corresponding products from sheep's milk; water in a quantity sufficient to...

  20. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or... purposes of this section, the word “milk” means cow's milk or goat's milk or sheep's milk or mixtures of... of sheep's milk) the corresponding products from sheep's milk; water in a quantity sufficient to...

  1. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  2. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains spices, in a minimum amount of 0.015 ounce per pound of cheese, and may contain spice oils. If the..., spices are added so as to be evenly distributed throughout the finished cheese. One or more of the other..., used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Salt. (iv) Spice oils which do not, alone or in combination with other...

  3. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added thereto. Harmless artificial... the methods prescribed in § 133.5 (a), (b), and (d). If the milk used is not pasteurized, the cheese.../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added...

  4. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added thereto. Harmless artificial... the methods prescribed in § 133.5 (a), (b), and (d). If the milk used is not pasteurized, the cheese.../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added...

  5. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added thereto. Harmless artificial... the methods prescribed in § 133.5 (a), (b), and (d). If the milk used is not pasteurized, the cheese.../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added...

  6. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or... purposes of this section, the word “milk” means cow's milk or goat's milk or sheep's milk or mixtures of... of cow's milk) by adding one or more of the following: Cream, skim milk, concentrated skim milk...

  7. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should be...

  8. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other conditions...

  9. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should be...

  10. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other conditions...

  11. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated... pasteurization. Cheese made from unpasteurized milk shall be cured for a period of 60 days at a temperature not...

  12. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated... pasteurization. Cheese made from unpasteurized milk shall be cured for a period of 60 days at a temperature not...

  13. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  14. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  15. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  16. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate is...

  17. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate is...

  18. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section 133.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for...

  1. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section 133.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for...

  2. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section 133.119 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for...

  3. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137 Section 133.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for...

  4. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (d) For the purposes of this section, “skim milk” means cow's milk from which the milk fat has been... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for...

  5. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    PubMed

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (p<0,05) with oral feeding. Thus

  6. Soil microbial activities in a constructed soil reed-bed under cheese-dairy farm effluents.

    PubMed

    Farnet, A M; Prudent, P; Cigna, M; Gros, R

    2008-09-01

    Soil microbial activities in a reed-bed used for effluent purification of a small cheese-dairy farm under a Mediterranean climate were described and studied. This work aims to demonstrate (i) whether certain enzyme activities used as bioindicators of dairy waste degradation (beta-galactosidase and protease) vary over time, which might influence organic matter degradation and (ii) whether specific microbial communities are selected through contact with the discarded effluent using community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs). beta-galactosidase and protease activities were followed in a 14-month monitoring experiment. These enzyme activities were strongly expressed during the whey-discarding period from February to May. CLCPs using Biolog Ecoplate showed great microbial diversity, as described by Shannon-Weaver index, and no difference was observed in microbial diversity between areas at the receiving end of the reed-bed (where effluent was discarded) and those at the opposite end. This may be explained by successive environmental factors which made enzyme activities vary: whey discarded from February to May and Mediterranean climate conditions (drying-rewetting effects on summer). Microbial enumeration using epifluorescence microscopy also showed a pattern linked to Mediterranean conditions with a drastic decrease in biomass during summer drought. These results on functional biodiversity were correlated with high purification yields: the minimum decrease in Biological Demand in Oxygen was 84% and that in suspended solids was 75%.

  7. Composition of Ragusano cheese during aging.

    PubMed

    Licitra, G; Campo, P; Manenti, M; Portelli, G; Scuderi, S; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M

    2000-03-01

    Ragusano cheese is a brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Composition changes during 12 mo of aging were determined. Historically, Ragusano cheese has been aged in caves at 14 to 16 degrees C with about 80 to 90% relative humidity. Cheeses (n = 132) included in our study of block-to-block variation were produced by 20 farmhouse cheese makers in the Hyblean plain region of the Province of Ragusa in Sicily. Mean initial cheese block weight was about 14 kg. The freshly formed blocks of cheese before brine salting contained about 45.35% moisture, 25.3% protein, and 25.4% fat, with a pH of 5.25. As result of the brining and aging process, a natural rind forms. After 12 mo of aging, the cheese contained about 33.6% moisture, 29.2% protein, 30.0% fat, and 4.4% salt with a pH of 5.54, but block-to-block variation was large. Both soluble nitrogen content and free fatty acid (FFA) content increased with age. The pH 4.6 acetate buffer and 12% TCA-soluble nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen were 16 and 10.7%, respectively, whereas the FFA content was about 643 mg/100 g of cheese at 180 d. Five blocks of cheese were selected at 180 d for a study of variation within block. Composition variation within block was large; the center had higher moisture and lower salt in moisture content than did the outside. Composition variation within blocks favored more proteolysis and softer texture in the center.

  8. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-12-27

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation. The invention also relates to the fabrication of protective clothing materials. 13 figures.

  9. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed.

  10. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  11. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  12. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  13. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  14. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE...

  15. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE...

  16. Quality Improvement of Cheese Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-25

    is a popular component used in the U.S. military feeding program in Meal , Ready to-Eat (MRE) rations. Currently, the military requires a 3-yr shelf...Rations, Cheese Spread, CORANET, Meal , Ready-to-Eat (MRE), Operational Rations, Unclassified U U U U 33 Lana Zivanovic 865-974-0844 ii Table of...program in Meal , Ready- to-Eat (MRE) rations. Currently, the military requires a 3-yr shelf life if stored at 80°F. However, due to product deployment

  17. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to the... prescribed for spiced cheeses by § 133.190, except that their solids contain less than 50 percent, but not...

  18. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than 44...

  19. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than 44...

  20. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than 44...

  1. Biochemical patterns in ovine cheese: influence of probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Trani, A; Faccia, M

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of lamb rennet paste containing probiotic strains on proteolysis, lipolysis, and glycolysis of ovine cheese manufactured with starter cultures. Cheeses included control cheese made with rennet paste, cheese made with rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus culture (LA-5), and cheese made with rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis (BB-12) and Bifidobacterium longum (BB-46). Cheeses were sampled at 1, 7, 15, and 30 d of ripening. Starter cultures coupled with probiotics strains contained in rennet paste affected the acidification and coagulation phases leading to the lowest pH in curd and cheese containing probiotics during ripening. As consequence, maturing cheese profiles were different among cheese treatments. Cheeses produced using rennet paste containing probiotics displayed higher percentages of alpha(S1)-I-casein fraction than traditional cheese up to 15 d of ripening. This result could be an outcome of the greater hydrolysis of alpha-casein fraction, attributed to higher activity of the residual chymosin. Further evidence for this trend is available in chromatograms of water-soluble nitrogen fractions, which indicated a more complex profile in cheeses made using lamb paste containing probiotics versus traditional cheese. Differences can be observed for the peaks eluted in the highly hydrophobic zone being higher in cheeses containing probiotics. The proteolytic activity of probiotic bacteria led to increased accumulation of free amino acids. Their concentrations in cheese made with rennet paste containing Lb. acidophilus culture and cheese made with rennet paste containing a mix of B. lactis and B. longum were approximately 2.5 and 3.0 times higher, respectively, than in traditional cheese. Principal component analysis showed a more intense lipolysis in terms of both free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid content in probiotic cheeses; in particular, the lipolytic pattern of

  2. Functional properties of Mozzarella cheese for its end use application.

    PubMed

    Ah, Jana; Tagalpallewar, Govind P

    2017-11-01

    Cheese is an extremely versatile food product that has a wide range of flavor, textures and end uses. The vast majority of cheese is eaten not by itself, but as part of another food. As an ingredient in foods, cheese is required to exhibit functional characteristics in the raw as well as cooked forms. Melting, stretching, free-oil formation, elasticity and browning are the functional properties considered to be significant for Mozzarella cheese. When a cheese is destined for its end use, some of its unique characteristics play a significant role in the products acceptability. For instance pH of cheese determines the cheese structure which in turn decides the cheese shredability and meltability properties. The residual galactose content in cheese mass determines the propensity of cheese to brown during baking. Development of 'tailor-made cheese' involves focusing on manipulation of such unique traits of cheese in order to obtain the desired characteristics for its end use application suiting the varied consumer's whims and wishes. This comprehensive review paper will provide an insight to the cheese maker regarding the factors determining the functional properties of cheese and also for the pizza manufacturers to decide which age of cheese to be used which will perform well in baking applications.

  3. Flooded Cell Permeation Testing of Elastomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    cured hydrin (EC) elastomer 3. oxide cured neoprene (CR) 4. sulphur cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) 5. sulphur cured nitrile rubber ( NBR ) 6. cured...Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the meeting of the American Chemical Society, Rubber Division, Orlando, Florida, 26 Oct...6 2. Permeation rate-time curve for DMSO through natural rubber ............................... 6 3. Permeation rate-time curve for DMSO through

  4. Proton permeation of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Deamer, D W

    1987-10-01

    Proton permeation of the lipid bilayer barrier has two unique features. First, permeability coefficients measured at neutral pH ranges are six to seven orders of magnitude greater than expected from knowledge of other monovalent cations. Second, proton conductance across planar lipid bilayers varies at most by a factor of 10 when pH is varied from near 1 to near 11. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this anomalous behavior: proton conductance related to contaminants of lipid bilayers, and proton translocation along transient hydrogen-bonded chains (tHBC) of associated water molecules in the membrane. The weight of evidence suggests that trace contaminants may contribute to proton conductance across planar lipid membranes at certain pH ranges, but cannot account for the anomalous proton flux in liposome systems. Two new results will be reported here which were designed to test the tHBC model. These include measurements of relative proton/potassium permeability in the gramicidin channel, and plots of proton flux against the magnitude of pH gradients. (1) The relative permeabilities of protons and potassium through the gramicidin channel, which contains a single strand of hydrogen-bonded water molecules, were found to differ by at least four orders of magnitude when measured at neutral pH ranges. This result demonstrates that a hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules can provide substantial discrimination between protons and other cations. It was also possible to calculate that if approximately 7% of bilayer water was present in a transient configuration similar to that of the gramicidin channel, it could account for the measured proton flux. (2) The plot of proton conductance against pH gradient across liposome membranes was superlinear, a result that is consistent with one of three alternative tHBC models for proton conductance described by Nagle elsewhere in this volume.

  5. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  6. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P < 0.05) during the processing of Cocido cheese. Salmonella spp. were not found during the production process, and both Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were absent in the final cheeses. This study provides more information on one of the most popular artisanal cheeses with high cultural value and economic impact in northwestern Mexico. In view of the foregoing, good manufacturing practices need to be implemented for the manufacture of Cocido cheese. Also, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the heat treatment applied for cooking the curd ensures a phosphatase-negative test, otherwise it would be necessary to pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  8. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  9. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  10. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of the...

  11. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “blue cheese.” (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the...

  12. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “blue cheese.” (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture...) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “blue cheese.” (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the...

  14. The use of permeation tube device and the development of empirical formula for accurate permeation rate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the accuracy of permeation tube (PT) devices using a calibration gas generator system to measure permeation rate (PR) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration gas standards of benzene, toluene, and m-xylene (BTX) were produced from...

  15. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. 133.102... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.102 Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. (a) Asiago fresh cheese...

  16. Biodiversity among Lactobacillus helveticus Strains Isolated from Different Natural Whey Starter Cultures as Revealed by Classification Trees

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Monica; Trivisano, Carlo; Fabrizi, Enrico; Neviani, Erasmo; Gardini, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a homofermentative thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used extensively for manufacturing Swiss type and aged Italian cheese. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of strains isolated from different natural dairy starter cultures used for Grana Padano, Parmigiano Reggiano, and Provolone cheeses was investigated by a classification tree technique. A data set was used that consists of 119 L. helveticus strains, each of which was studied for its physiological characters, as well as surface protein profiles and hybridization with a species-specific DNA probe. The methodology employed in this work allowed the strains to be grouped into terminal nodes without difficult and subjective interpretation. In particular, good discrimination was obtained between L. helveticus strains isolated, respectively, from Grana Padano and from Provolone natural whey starter cultures. The method used in this work allowed identification of the main characteristics that permit discrimination of biotypes. In order to understand what kind of genes could code for phenotypes of technological relevance, evidence that specific DNA sequences are present only in particular biotypes may be of great interest. PMID:14711641

  17. Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Steele, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the manufacture of cheese and for production of bioactive peptides from milk proteins. We present the complete genome sequence for L. helveticus CNRZ 32, a strain particularly recognized for its ability to reduce bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese. PMID:23969047

  18. Deuterium permeation through EPDM rubber compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The permeation of deuterium through a specially formulated compound of ethylene propylene diene rubber was measured in the temperature range of 26/degree/C to 120/degree/C. The results were similar to permeation through two commercial compounds of this elastomer. Permeation was reduced after gamma irradiation (in the presence of hydrogen gas to simulate a tritium exposure). However the reduction was smaller than that experienced by the two commercial compounds. Radiation damage is apparently less severe in the special compound. It is possible that mechanical properties such as compression set may be influenced less by ionizing radiation in this compound as compared withmore » the commercial compounds. 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  19. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  20. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  1. Biogenic Amines in Italian Pecorino Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes’ milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA’s in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100

  2. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  3. Permeation of Comite through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hanaa; Que Hee, Shane S

    2006-09-01

    The goal of the study was to assess how protective disposable (Safeskin) and chemical protective (Sol-Vex) nitrile gloves were against Comite emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing propargite (PROP) as active pesticidal ingredient, because there were no explicit recommendations for the gloves that should be worn for hand protection. The glove material was exposed in ASTM-type I-PTC-600 permeation cells at 30.0+/-0.5 degrees C, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry used for PROP analysis. Aqueous solutions of Comite at 40.4 mg/mL permeated both Safeskin and Sol-Vex nitrile by 8h. Safeskin showed a mean PROP mass permeated of 176+/-27 microg after 8h compared with a mean mass permeated for Sol-Vex of 3.17+/-4.08 microg. Thus, Sol-Vex was about 56 times more protective than Safeskin for an 8-h exposure. However, the kinetics of the permeation revealed that Safeskin can be worn for at least 200 min before disposal. When undiluted Comite challenged both types of nitrile, much faster permeation was observed. Safeskin gloves showed two steady state periods. The first had lag times (t(l)) values of about 1h, although normalized breakthrough times (t(b)) were < 10 min. The second steady state rate (P(s)) was on average four times the rate of the first period, and the second steady state period t(l) was about three times as long as that of the first steady state period, and about the same t(l) as for the aqueous solution. Sol-Vex gloves exposed continuously to undiluted Comite permeated above the normalized breakthrough threshold beyond 2.7h. A risk assessment revealed that the PROP skin permeation rate of 7.1 ng cm(-2)h(-1) was much slower than the first steady state Safeskin glove P(s) of 62,000 ng cm(-2)h(-1). Infrared analysis showed that the glove surfaces were not degraded by the Comite challenge. The chemically protective Sol-Vex gloves protected adequately against undiluted formulation for about 2.7h, whereas they provided protection for nearly 8h when

  4. Immobilization of Trypsin in Lignocellulosic Waste Material to Produce Peptides with Bioactive Potential from Whey Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bassan, Juliana Cristina; de Souza Bezerra, Thaís Milena; Peixoto, Guilherme; da Cruz, Clariana Zanutto Paulino; Galán, Julián Paul Martínez; Vaz, Aline Buda dos Santos; Garrido, Saulo Santesso; Filice, Marco; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    In this study, trypsin (Enzyme Comission 3.4.21.4) was immobilized in a low cost, lignocellulosic support (corn cob powder—CCP) with the goal of obtaining peptides with bioactive potential from cheese whey. The pretreated support was activated with glyoxyl groups, glutaraldehyde and IDA-glyoxyl. The immobilization yields of the derivatives were higher than 83%, and the retention of catalytic activity was higher than 74%. The trypsin-glyoxyl-CCP derivative was thermally stable at 65 °C, a value that was 1090-fold higher than that obtained with the free enzyme. The trypsin-IDA-glyoxyl-CCP and trypsin-glutaraldehyde-CCP derivatives had thermal stabilities that were 883- and five-fold higher, respectively, then those obtained with the free enzyme. In the batch experiments, trypsin-IDA-glyoxyl-CCP retained 91% of its activity and had a degree of hydrolysis of 12.49%, while the values for trypsin-glyoxyl-CCP were 87% and 15.46%, respectively. The stabilized derivative trypsin-glyoxyl-CCP was also tested in an upflow packed-bed reactor. The hydrodynamic characterization of this reactor was a plug flow pattern, and the kinetics of this system provided a relative activity of 3.04 ± 0.01 U·g−1 and an average degree of hydrolysis of 23%, which were suitable for the production of potentially bioactive peptides. PMID:28773482

  5. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  6. Swiss cheese striatum: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Melinda S; Witte, Robert J; Ahlskog, J Eric

    2014-06-01

    Markedly enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces throughout the striatum appear occasionally on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the elderly, and this type of striatum is known as the Swiss cheese striatum (SCS); however, its clinical impact is unknown. To determine the clinical features associated with SCS detected on MRI scans. A blinded, retrospective case-control study using medical records from 2000 to 2007 obtained from an MRI database at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, of residents 40 years of age or older of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had extensive Mayo Clinic medical records and MRI reports suggestive of SCS. Cases with a severe form of SCS (n = 27) were randomly selected for comparison with age-, sex-, and examination year-matched controls (n = 52) with a minimal form of SCS or no SCS. Magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of clinical and imaging features with the presence of a severe form of SCS. Medical records were reviewed for clinical features such as parkinsonism, dementia, and vascular risk factors. The MRI scans were visually scored for degree of leukoaraiosis, central atrophy, and cortical atrophy. No significant differences were found between those with a severe form of SCS and controls in rates of parkinsonism (19% vs 17%; odds ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.28-4.16]) or dementia of any type (30% vs 21%; odds ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 0.48-5.13]). Vascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. Swiss cheese striatum correlated with degree of leukoaraiosis (P < .001). Potential associations with visualized cortical atrophy (P = .01), nonobstructive urinary incontinence (18.5% vs 3.9%; P = .04), and syncope (37% vs 9.6%; P = .01) did not hold up after correction for the false discovery rate. Our study suggests that marked cribriform change in the striatum was not associated with the development of extrapyramidal clinical disorders, including parkinsonism. The association of SCS with leukoaraiosis

  7. Permeating the Culture of a State Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the four years since Courageous Journey was launched, the impact has permeated the Michigan Association of School Administrators (MASA). Already, 16 of 47 council and executive board members have joined a cohort. The Courageous Journey's Seven Points of Learning (or seven major superintendent responsibilities) help frame the organization's…

  8. Inner clot diffusion and permeation during fibrinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, S L; Anand, S

    1993-01-01

    A model of fibrinolysis was developed using multicomponent convection-diffusion equations with homogeneous reaction and heterogeneous adsorption and reaction. Fibrin is the dissolving stationary phase and plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase (uPA), and plasmin are the soluble mobile species. The model is based on an accurate molecular description of the fibrin fiber and protofibril structure and contains no adjustable parameters and one phenomenological parameter estimated from experiment. The model can predict lysis fronts moving across fibrin clots (fine or coarse fibers) of various densities under different administration regimes using uPA and tPA. We predict that pressure-driven permeation is the major mode of transport that allows for kinetically significant thrombolysis during clinical situations. Without permeation, clot lysis would be severely diffusion limited and would require hundreds of minutes. Adsorption of tPA to fibrin under conditions of permeation was a nonequilibrium process that tended to front load clots with tPA. Protein engineering efforts to design optimal thrombolytics will likely be affected by the permeation processes that occur during thrombolysis. PMID:8312497

  9. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When...

  10. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth...

  11. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  12. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  13. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be...

  14. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  15. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  16. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth...

  17. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  18. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When...

  20. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  1. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  2. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  3. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  4. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  5. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  6. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  7. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  8. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  9. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  10. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  11. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  12. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  13. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  14. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  15. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and is subject to the requirements for label statement of ingredients prescribed by § 133.102 for...

  16. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193 Section 133.193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except as...

  17. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171 Section 133.171 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized process...

  18. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  19. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  20. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  1. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    PubMed

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  2. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  3. Cheese milk low homogenization enhanced early lipolysis and volatiles compounds production in hard cooked cheeses.

    PubMed

    Vélez, María A; Hynes, Erica R; Meinardi, Carlos A; Wolf, Verónica I; Perotti, María C

    2017-06-01

    Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis. An acceleration of the lipolysis reaction was clearly noticed in cheeses made with homogenized milk at the beginning of ripening, while both type of cheeses reached similar levels at 90days. We found the level of several compounds derived from fatty acid catabolism were noticeably influenced by the treatment applied: straight-chain aldehydes such as hexanal, heptanal and nonanal and methylketones from C 5 to C 9 were preferentially formed in experimental cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-02

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in

  5. [Microbiological rationale for using whey on salting salmon caviar].

    PubMed

    Kim, I N; Shtan'ko, T I

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for the use of whey to salt salmon fishes instead of traditional preservatives, including those exported from low industrial potential countries, which do not undergo comprehensive sanitary and hygienic tests. On the basis of the performed studies, the authors recommend to use whey to salt salmon caviar, which ensures the ecological purity of the product containing the minimum amount of preservatives and other substances that fail to affect its organoleptic properties.

  6. Minimising generation of acid whey during Greek yoghurt manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Uduwerella, Gangani; Chandrapala, Jayani; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-08-01

    Greek yoghurt, a popular dairy product, generates large amounts of acid whey as a by-product during manufacturing. Post-processing treatment of this stream presents one of the main concerns for the industry. The objective of this study was to manipulate initial milk total solids content (15, 20 or 23 g/100 g) by addition of milk protein concentrate, thus reducing whey expulsion. Such an adjustment was investigated from the technological standpoint including starter culture performance, chemical and physical properties of manufactured Greek yoghurt and generated acid whey. A comparison was made to commercially available products. Increasing protein content in regular yoghurt reduced the amount of acid whey during whey draining. This protein fortification also enhanced the Lb. bulgaricus growth rate and proteolytic activity. Best structural properties including higher gel strength and lower syneresis were observed in the Greek yoghurt produced with 20 g/100 g initial milk total solid compared to manufactured or commercially available products, while acid whey generation was lowered due to lower drainage requirement.

  7. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  8. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    PubMed

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  9. Fungal growth and the presence of sterigmatocystin in hard cheese.

    PubMed

    Northolt, M D; van Egmond, H P; Soentoro, P; Deijll, E

    1980-01-01

    Molds isolated from visibly molded cheeses in shops, households, and warehouses have been identified. Mold flora of cheeses in shops and households consisted mainly of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. On cheeses ripening in warehouses, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus repens, and Enicillium verrucosum var. verrucosum were the dominant mold species. Cheese ripening in warehouses and molded with A. versicolor were examined for sterigmatocystin. Nine of 39 cheese samples contained sterigmatocystin in the surface layer in concentrations ranging from 5 to 600 micrograms/kg.

  10. The effect of storage temperature on blue cheese mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Joyner Melito, Helen S; Francis, Dorothy; Luzzi, Brooke; Johnson, John R

    2018-06-01

    Blue cheese is commonly aged for 60 days at 10°C after curing. However, some manufacturers store blue cheese at 4°C and the effect of lower storage temperature on blue cheese final properties is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature and time on blue cheese mechanical behaviors. Blue cheeses were stored at 4 or 10°C for 77 days after production. Composition and small- and large-strain rheological behaviors were evaluated every 2 weeks of storage. Storage time had significant impact on blue cheese rheological behaviors; storage temperature did not. Large-strain compressive force and viscoelastic moduli decreased with storage time, and the extent of nonlinear viscoelastic behavior increased. These results indicated that sample microstructure likely weakened and was more easily deformed as storage time increased. Overall, blue cheese can be stored at 4-10°C without significant changes to its composition or mechanical behavior. The results of this work can be used by blue cheese manufacturers to better understand the impact of storage time and temperature on blue cheese end quality. Manufacturers can take advantage of the effects of storage time on blue cheese mechanical behaviors to determine how long to age blue cheese to achieve the desired texture. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sensory Profile and Consumers’ Liking of Functional Ovine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Santillo, Antonella; Albenzio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the sensory profile and consumers’ liking of functional ovine cheese containing probiotic cultures. Ovine cheese was made from ewe’s milk by animals reared in extensive conditions; cheesemaking trials were performed by using rennet paste containing probiotic cells. Experimental cheeses were denoted: cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste without probiotic (C), cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium longum (BB), and cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA). Ovine cheese containing probiotic strains highlighted a more intense proteolysis and a greater level of short chain free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid due to the metabolic activity of the adjunct microflora. The sensorial profile of ovine cheese showed lower humidity and gumminess in cheeses containing probiotics as a consequence of differences in the maturing process; furthermore, probiotic cheeses scored higher ratings for salty and pungent attributes. An interaction effect of probiotic, gender, and age of the consumers was detected in the perceived and the expected liking. The higher rate of expected liking in all experimental cheeses is attributed to the information given, regarding not only the presence of probiotic strains but also the farming conditions and cheesemaking technology. PMID:28231229

  12. Characteristics of Kwark Cheese Supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Woon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of addition of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 on the chemical and sensory properties of Kwark cheese produced using CHN-11 as a cheese starter were investigated. The addition of B. longum KACC 91563 to Kwark cheese did not change the composition or pH value of the cheese, compared with control. B. longum KACC 91563 survived at a level of 7.58 Log CFU/g and did not have any negative effect on survival of the cheese starter. A sensory panel commented that the addition of B. longum KACC 91563 made Kwark cheese more desirable to consumers, and that the probiotic supplementation had no effect on perceived taste. Thus, B. longum KACC 91563 can be used for inclusion of probiotic bacteria in cheese. PMID:29147101

  13. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  14. Modeling and experiments on tritium permeation in fusion reactor blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, D. F.; Longhurst, G. R.

    The determination of tritium loss from helium-cooled fusion breeding blankets are discussed. The issues are: (1) applicability of present models to permeation at low tritium pressures; (2) effectiveness of oxide layers in reducing permeation; (3) effectiveness of hydrogen addition as a means to lower tritium permeation; and (4) effectiveness of conversion to tritiated water and subsequent trapping to reduce permeation. Theoretical models applicable to these issues are discussed, and results of experiments in two areas are presented; permeation of mixtures of hydrogen isotopes and conversion to tritiated water.

  15. Gas Permeation in Thin Glassy Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Donald

    2011-03-01

    The development of asymmetric and composite membranes with very thin dense ``skins'' needed to achieve high gas fluxes enabled the commercial use of membranes for molecular level separations. It has been generally assumed that these thin skins, with thicknesses of the order of 100 nm, have the same permeation characteristics as films with thicknesses of 25 microns or more. Thick films are easily made in the laboratory and have been used extensively for measuring permeation characteristics to evaluate the potential of new polymers for membrane applications. There is now evidence that this assumption can be in very significant error, and use of thick film data to select membrane materials or predict performance should be done with caution. This presentation will summarize our work on preparing films of glassy polymers as thin as 20 nm and characterizing their behavior by gas permeation, ellipsometry and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Some of the most important polymers used commercially as gas separation membranes, i.e., Matrimid polyimide, polysulfone (PSF) and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO), have been made into well-defined thin films in our laboratories by spin casting techniques and their properties studied using the techniques we have developed. These thin films densify (or physically age) much faster than thicker films, and, as result, the permeability decreases, sometimes by several-fold over weeks or months for thin films. This means that the properties of these thin films can be very different from bulk films. The techniques, interpretations and implications of these observations will be discussed. In a broader sense, gas permeation measurements can be a powerful way of developing a better understanding of the effects of polymer chain confinement and/or surface mobility on the behavior of thin films.

  16. Effect Of Water On Permeation By Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, William A.; Hulligan, David

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor in working fluid equilibrates with permeability-reducing oxides in metal parts. Report describes study of effects of water on permeation of heater-head tubes by hydrogen in Stirling engine. Experiments performed to determine minimum concentration of oxygen and/or oxygen-bearing gas maintaining oxide coverage adequate for low permeability. Tests showed 750 ppm or more of water effective in maintaining stable, low permeability.

  17. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    PubMed

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  18. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    PubMed

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. Part-skim...

  20. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.176 Pasteurized cheese spread with...