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Sample records for chemcam science objectives

  1. ChemCam Science Objectives for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R.; Maurice, S.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Cremers, D.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kirkland, L.; Mangold, N.; Manhes, G.; Mauchien, P.

    2005-01-01

    ChemCam consists of two remote sensing instruments. One, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument provides rapid elemental composition data on rocks and soils within 13 m of the rover. By using laser pulses, it can remove dust or profile through weathering layers remotely. The other instrument, the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), provides the highest resolution images between 2 m and infinity. At approximately 80 Rad field of view, its resolution exceeds that of MER Pancam by at least a factor of four. The ChemCam instruments are described in a companion paper by Maurice et al. Here we present the science objectives for the ChemCam instrument package.

  2. ChemCam Science Objectives for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R.; Maurice, S.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Cremers, D.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kirkland, L.; Mangold, N.; Manhes, G.; Mauchien, P.

    2005-01-01

    ChemCam consists of two remote sensing instruments. One, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument provides rapid elemental composition data on rocks and soils within 13 m of the rover. By using laser pulses, it can remove dust or profile through weathering layers remotely. The other instrument, the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), provides the highest resolution images between 2 m and infinity. At approximately 80 Rad field of view, its resolution exceeds that of MER Pancam by at least a factor of four. The ChemCam instruments are described in a companion paper by Maurice et al. [1]. Here we present the science objectives for the ChemCam instrument package.

  3. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, H. E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J. J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M. J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-09-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  4. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  5. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2010-09-03

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  6. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  7. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  8. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-03-24

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  9. Ceramic ChemCam Calibration Targets on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D.; Dyar, M. D.; Wiens, R.; Ollila, A.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Rhodes, J. M.; Clegg, S.; Newsom, H.

    2012-09-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity will use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze major and minor element chemistry from sub-millimeter spot sizes, at ranges of ˜1.5-7 m. To interpret the emission spectra obtained, ten calibration standards will be carried on the rover deck. Graphite, Ti metal, and four glasses of igneous composition provide primary, homogeneous calibration targets for the laser. Four granular ceramic targets have been added to provide compositions closer to soils and sedimentary materials like those expected at the Gale Crater field site on Mars. Components used in making these ceramics include basalt, evaporite, and phyllosilicate materials that approximate the chemical compositions of detrital and authigenic constituents of clastic and evaporite sediments, including the elevated sulfate contents present in many Mars sediments and soils. Powdered components were sintered at low temperature (800 °C) with a small amount (9 wt.%) of lithium tetraborate flux to produce ceramics that retain volatile sulfur yet are durable enough for the mission. The ceramic targets are more heterogeneous than the pure element and homogenous glass standards but they provide standards with compositions more similar to the sedimentary rocks that will be Curiosity's prime targets at Gale Crater.

  10. ChemCam on MSL 2009: first laser induced breakdown spectrometer for space science

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C

    2008-01-01

    ChemCam is one of the 10 instrument suites on the Mars Science Laboratory, a martian rover being built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for the next NASA mission to Mars (MSL 2009). ChemCam is an instrument package consisting of two remote sensing instruments: a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). LIBS provides elemental compositions of rocks and soils, while the RMI places the LIBS analyses in their geomorphologic context. Both instruments rely on an autofocus capability to precisely focus on the chosen target, located at distances from the rover comprised between 1 and 9 m for LIBS, and 2 m and infinity for RMI. ChemCam will help determine which samples, within the vicinity of the MSL rover, are of sufficient interest to use the contact and in-situ instruments for further characterization. It will provide valuable analyses of samples that are inaccessible to contact and in-situ instruments, and of a much larger number of samples than can be done with this kind of instrument. ChemCam also has a capability to provide passive spectroscopy data of rocks and soils on Mars. ChemCam hardware consists of a Mast Unit (MU), provided by France, and a Body Unit (BU) built and tested in the USA. The Flight Model of the MU is assembled, tested and now available in the USA, while the BU is currently being assembled and tested. Both will be connected by the end of year '08 for end-to-end functional and performance tests, before delivery to JPL and assembly on the MSL rover. Launch is scheduled for October 09. After describing the concept of ChemCam, this presentation focuses on its French part, Mast Unit. The results presented show that Mast Unit is able to generate a plasma and collect its light, over the full applicable ranges of distances and temperatures on Mars.

  11. ChemCam Targeted Science at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Clark, B. C.; Bridges, N. T.; Clegg, S. M.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P. C.; Dromart, G.; Barraclough, B. L.; Lasue, J.

    2011-12-01

    The MSL rover, Curiosity, uses a novel remote-sensing instrument, ChemCam, which combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a high resolution remote micro-imager (RMI). ChemCam uses a focused, pulsed laser beam at targets up to 7 m away to excite a light-emitting plasma. Spectral analysis identifies elements present and provides rapid semi-quantitative analyses. Repeated laser pulses remove dust and weathering coatings from rock samples to depths >0.5 mm and ~0.4 mm in diameter. The RMI, with ~20x20 mrad field of view, provides a broad-band image with 100 μm resolution. LIBS yields abundances of H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zr, Rb, Sr, As, Ba, and Pb. Interference from atmospheric constituents raises the detection limits of C, N, and O (e.g., >2% wt for C). LIBS is very sensitive to alkali and alkali earth elements, with some detection limits to ~1 ppm at close range. Conversely, LIBS is insensitive to F, Cl, S, P, and N, with detection limits of several wt. %. Pointing accuracy is ~3 mrad, however relative pointing accuracy is better, so line scans and rasters will enable analyses of targeted features to ~1 mm. At Gale Crater, determination of elements not previously analyzed in-situ, i.e., H, Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba, along with other elements will constrain aqueous, hydrothermal and vapor geochemical transport processes. Initial analyses after landing will characterize air fall dust and weathering coatings on local rocks, and profile the soil and surfacial materials including bedforms to investigate compositional differences in near-surface layers. Targets within the landing ellipse include fan and inverted channel deposits derived from the crater rim, which may contain alteration minerals produced by impact hydrothermal processes. Enigmatic deposits with bright fracture fill could represent lake sediments modified by injection of deposits from groundwater. During the drive to the Gale mound, ChemCam will

  12. ChemCam for Mars Science Laboratory rover, undergoing pre-flight testing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and partners developed a laser instrument, ChemCam, that will ride on the elevated mast of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. The system allows Curiosity to "zap" rocks from a distance, reading their chemical composition through spectroscopic analysis. In this video, laboratory shaker-table testing of the instrument ensures that all of its components are solidly attached and resistant to damage from the rigors of launch, travel and landing.

  13. ChemCam for Mars Science Laboratory rover, undergoing pre-flight testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and partners developed a laser instrument, ChemCam, that will ride on the elevated mast of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. The system allows Curiosity to "zap" rocks from a distance, reading their chemical composition through spectroscopic analysis. In this video, laboratory shaker-table testing of the instrument ensures that all of its components are solidly attached and resistant to damage from the rigors of launch, travel and landing.

  14. Fabrication of Sulfate-bearing Ceramic Calibration Targets for the ChemCam Laser Spectroscopy Instrument, Mars Science Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Clegg, S.; Lanza, N.; Newsom, H.; Wiens, R. C.; Chemcam Team

    2009-03-01

    A need for sulfur-bearing calibration targets for LIBS analysis by ChemCam on the Mars Science Lander required development of low-fire ceramics. A range of sulfur contents can be obtained that mimic soil or rock at the potential landing sites.

  15. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    DOE PAGES

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; ...

    2016-12-24

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides, have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with amore » calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was previously significantly over-estimated, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. Here, the uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.« less

  16. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payré, Valérie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2016-12-24

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides, have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was previously significantly over-estimated, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. Here, the uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  17. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payré, Valérie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-03-01

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was significantly over-estimated by the previous model, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. The uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  18. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  19. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-02-15

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  20. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  1. Modeling of low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the ChemCam diagnostic tool on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James

    2016-05-01

    We report on efforts to model the low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a minimally invasive technique that can quickly and efficiently determine the elemental composition of a target and is employed in an extremely wide range of applications due to its ease of use and fast turnaround. In particular, LIBS is the diagnostic tool used by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In this talk, we report on the use of the Los Alamos plasma modeling code ATOMIC to simulate LIBS plasmas, which are typically at temperatures of order 1 eV and electron densities of order 10 16 - 17 cm-3. At such conditions, these plasmas are usually in local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and normally contain neutral and singly ionized species only, which then requires that modeling must use accurate atomic structure data for the element under investigation. Since LIBS devices are often employed in a very wide range of applications, it is therefore desirable to have accurate data for most of the elements in the periodic table, ideally including actinides. Here, we discuss some recent applications of our modeling using ATOMIC that have explored the plasma physics aspects of LIBS generated plasmas, and in particular discuss the modeling of a plasma formed from a basalt sample used as a ChemCam standard1. We also highlight some of the more general atomic physics challenges that are encountered when attempting to model low-temperature plasmas. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396. Work performed in conjunction with D. P. Kilcrease, H. M. Johns, E. J. Judge, J. E. Barefield, R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg.

  2. Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) Spectroscopy of Altered Basalts with Application to the ChemCam Library for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadnott, B.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of Fe, Mg, and Al clays on Mars using VNIR spectroscopy from orbit indicates past low temperature/pressure hydrothermal and weathering environments. Laboratory analysis of Mars-analog rocks from these settings on Earth was used to build the ChemCam sample library for Mars Science Laboratory, permitting for more accurate compositional analysis of Martian samples, improved linkages between VNIR's mineralogic and ChemCam's elemental data, and improved recognition of different environmental settings for aqueous alteration. VNIR spectroscopy was used to analyze 4 suites of altered basaltic rocks—one from San Carlos, AZ and three from various locations in Iceland. Continuum shape and absorption features were found to vary, depending on the environment and extent of alteration. Relatively unaltered rocks had electronic absorptions related to ferrous iron. The strength of the 1.9- μm (μm = microns) H2O absorption correlated with the degree of aqueous alteration. Samples with strong 1.9- μm absorptions often exhibited absorption bands at 1.4, 2.2, and 2.3 μm indicating the presence of clay minerals and/or features at 0.5-0.8 μm indicative of ferric iron oxides. Diagnostic absorption features and continuum slopes have been used to identify a representative subset of rocks from each suite for further analysis for the ChemCam library. Noteworthy spectral features for all suites included variation of absorption bands from 2.0-2.5 μm. Most samples contained an absorption band near 2.21 μm, indicating the presence of Si-OH or Al-OH; a 2.3 μm band is also present in some samples, indicating the presence of Mg-OH and Fe-OH, with subtle shifts between 2.29 and 2.35 μm indicating the major cation and constituent phase (e.g. amorphous phase, smectite or chlorite). Overall continuum slope correlated with the degree of alteration. Flat slopes contained weak 1.9 μm bands (little alteration) and sometimes ferrous iron absorptions of primary minerals. Negative

  3. ChemCam video footage

    NASA Video Gallery

    ChemCam is a rock-zapping laser instrument that can hit rocks with a laser then observes the flash through a telescope and analyzes the spectrum of light to identify the chemical elements in the ta...

  4. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  5. "Objective" Science at Auction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhiber, Russell

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a report published by the Center for Public Integrity (CPI) entitled Toxic Deception: How the Chemical Industry Manipulates Science, Bends the Law, and Endangers Your Health. Voices concerns that the federal regulatory system receives favors from the chemical industry that create bias. (PVD)

  6. ARTEMIS Science Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Eastwood, J. P.; Farrell, W. M.; Grimm, R. E.; Halekas, J. S.; Hasegawa, H.; Hellinger, P.; Khurana, K. K.; Lillis, R. J.; Oieroset, M.; Phan, T.-D.; Raeder, J.; Russell, C. T.; Schriver, D.; Slavin, J. A.; Travnicel, P. M.; Weygand, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's two spacecraft ARTEMIS mission will address both heliospheric and planetary research questions, first while in orbit about the Earth with the Moon and subsequently while in orbit about the Moon. Heliospheric topics include the structure of the Earth's magnetotail; reconnection, particle acceleration, and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere, at the bow shock, and in the solar wind; and the formation and structure of the lunar wake. Planetary topics include the lunar exosphere and its relationship to the composition of the lunar surface, the effects of electric fields on dust in the exosphere, internal structure of the Moon, and the lunar crustal magnetic field. This paper describes the expected contributions of ARTEMIS to these baseline scientific objectives.

  7. Matrix evaluation of science objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.

  8. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (<0.5nm) and spatial (0.65mrad) resolution. In active LIBS mode, light emitted from a laser-generated plasma is dispersed onto these spectrometers and used to detect elemental emission lines. Typical observations include 3 msec-exposure 'dark' spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the

  9. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (<2-3 microns) composition is analyzed on the first shot of each Mars target. It is reproducible over time and present a composition characteristic of the global martian fine dust, which covers the entire planet and contributes to the local geology analyzed by MSL. Its composition can also be retrieved on the ChemCam Calibration Targets (CCCT) by subtraction of the well characterized CCCT spectra. The CCCT include eight glasses and ceramics that have been generated to simulate Martian rocks of interest and two targets of a single element (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely

  10. Calibrating the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Nina L.; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Humphries, Seth D.; Newsom, Horton E.; Barefield, James E.

    2010-05-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite onboard the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover includes the first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment to better understand the LIBS signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between different types of carbonate materials on Mars.

  11. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C; Clegg, Samuel M; Ollila, Ann M; Barefield, James E; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  12. Calcium Sulfate Characterized by Chemcam/Curiousity at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachon, M.; Clegg, S. M.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Ollila, A.; Johnson, J. R; Oehler, D. Z.; Bridges, J. C.; LeMouelic, S.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D. L.; Bell, J. F., III; Clark, B.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Ehlmann, B.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Lasue, J.; Stack, K.

    2014-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of : (1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of the targets and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), for the imaging context of laser analysis. Within the Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing through the Rocknest region and into Yellowknife Bay (YB). In the latter, abundant light-toned fracture-fill material occur. ChemCam analysis demonstrates that those fracture fills consist of calcium sulfates.[

  13. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  14. Curiosity ChemCam Finds High-Silica Mars Rocks

    ScienceCinema

    Frydenvang, Jens

    2016-07-12

    A team of scientists, including one from Los Alamos National Laboratory, has found much higher concentrations of silica at some sites the Curiosity rover has investigated in the past seven months than anywhere else it has visited since landing on Mars 40 months ago. The first discovery was as Curiosity approached the area “Marias Pass,” where a lower geological unit contacts an overlying one. ChemCam, the rover’s laser-firing instrument for checking rock composition from a distance, detected bountiful silica in some targets the rover passed along the way to the contact zone. The ChemCam instrument was developed at Los Alamos in partnership with the French IRAP laboratory in Toulouse and the French Space Agency. “The high silica was a surprise,” said Jens Frydenvang of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Copenhagen, also a Curiosity science team member. “While we’re still working with multiple hypotheses on how the silica got so enriched, these hypotheses all require considerable water activity, and on Earth high silica deposits are often associated with environments that provide excellent support for microbial life. Because of this, the science team agreed to make a rare backtrack to investigate it more.”

  15. Curiosity ChemCam Finds High-Silica Mars Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenvang, Jens

    2015-12-17

    A team of scientists, including one from Los Alamos National Laboratory, has found much higher concentrations of silica at some sites the Curiosity rover has investigated in the past seven months than anywhere else it has visited since landing on Mars 40 months ago. The first discovery was as Curiosity approached the area “Marias Pass,” where a lower geological unit contacts an overlying one. ChemCam, the rover’s laser-firing instrument for checking rock composition from a distance, detected bountiful silica in some targets the rover passed along the way to the contact zone. The ChemCam instrument was developed at Los Alamos in partnership with the French IRAP laboratory in Toulouse and the French Space Agency. “The high silica was a surprise,” said Jens Frydenvang of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Copenhagen, also a Curiosity science team member. “While we’re still working with multiple hypotheses on how the silica got so enriched, these hypotheses all require considerable water activity, and on Earth high silica deposits are often associated with environments that provide excellent support for microbial life. Because of this, the science team agreed to make a rare backtrack to investigate it more.”

  16. The Martian O2 and H2O cycles observed with ChemCam Passive Sky Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; Bender, S. C.; Wolff, M. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L. P.; Harri, A. M.; Kemppinen, O.; Genzer, M.; Moores, J.; Wong, M. H.; Trainer, M. G.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Franz, H.; Barraclough, B. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) ChemCam spectrometer, designed primarily for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, has proven to also be every effective as a passive spectrometer. We will describe measurements O2, H2O, and aerosols from ChemCam passive sky observations. We will then discuss the evidence they provide for a seasonally active Martian O2 cycle as well as their implications for the Martian water cycle. ChemCam passive sky observations proceed by acquiring spectra of scattered light from the atmosphere at two different elevation angles, constructing a ratio spectrum to eliminate the solar spectrum and instrument response uncertainties, and then fitting a discrete ordinates multiple scattering radiative transfer model. O2 was thought to have a long, greater than 10 Martian year, photochemical lifetime (e. g. Krasnopolsky 2010, Icarus 207) and thus was expected to show a seasonal behavior identical to other non-condensable inert gases. ChemCam measurements demonstrate that this is not the case, showing that O2 decreases rapidly relative to SAM-QMS-measured Ar and CRISM-measured CO during the Ls = 350° to Ls = 30° period and then doubles its mixing ratio relative to those gases during the Ls = 50° to Ls = 130° period. SAM-QMS O2 measurements confirm the ChemCam results, showing essentially identical O2 mixing ratios and seasonal variations. The ChemCam water vapor measurements, when combined with the in-situ sampling of the REMS humidity sensor and with global scale orbiter data sets, provide information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and yield insights into the local and regional scale dynamics in the vicinity of Gale Crater. We observe a close match between mixing ratios inferred from REMS humidity sensor measurements and column average mixing ratios inferred from ChemCam in some seasons, but significant differences in other seasons, suggesting seasonal variations in vertical mixing processes.

  17. Science Objectives, 1985-86 Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1985-86, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) will undertake the fifth national assessment of science knowledge, skills, and attitudes in 9-, 13-, and 17-year old Americans. The science objectives have been developed and reviewed by committees of scientists and educators. The objectives presented in this document are grouped…

  18. Science. Elementary and Middle School Curriculum Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Public Schools, MA.

    This document lists science objectives for Boston elementary and middle school students. All objectives are presented in two columns. The left-hand column states each objective in general terms and gives an idea of its scope. The right-hand column, giving a specific example of what students should be able to do when the objective is achieved,…

  19. A CNES remote operations center for the MSL ChemCam instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorgny, Eric; Baroukh, Julien; Gaboriaud, Alain; Saccoccio, Muriel; Perez, Rene; Gasnault, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a CNES remote operations center in Toulouse will be involved in the tactical operations of a Martian rover in order to operate the ChemCam science instrument in the framework of the NASA MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) mission in 2012. CNES/CESR and LANL have developed and delivered to JPL the ChemCam (Chemistry Camera) instrument located on the top of mast and in the body of the rover. This instrument incorporates a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) for determining elemental compositions of rock targets or soil samples at remote distances from the rover (2-7 m). An agreement has been achieved for operating ChemCam, alternatively, from Toulouse (FR) and Los Alamos (NM, USA), through the JPL ground data system in Pasadena (CA, USA) for a complete Martian year (2 years on Earth). After a brief overview of the MSL mission, this paper presents the instrument, the mission operational system and JPL organization requirements for the scientific investigators (PI and Co-Is). This paper emphasizes innovations applied on the ground segment components and on the operational approach to satisfy the requirements and constraints due to these shared and distributed operations over the world.

  20. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  1. Exploration of Mars with the ChemCam LIBS Instrument and the Curiosity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Horton E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed on Mars in August 2012, and has been exploring the planet ever since. Dr. Horton E. Newsom will discuss the MSL's design and main goal, which is to characterize past environments that may have been conducive to the evolution and sustainability of life. He will also discuss Curiosity's science payload, and remote sensing, analytical capabilities, and direct discoveries of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, which is the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to operate on another planetary surface and determine the chemistry of the rocks and soils.

  2. One year of chemical diversity seen by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, Olivier; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Forni, Olivier; Leveillé, Richard; Bridges, Nathan; Lasue, Jérémie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine

    2014-05-01

    evidences are provided by the discovery with ChemCam of three rocks with Mn-enriched coatings [11]. There are also some indications through the measurement of lithium abundance for a low level aqueous alteration pulling the alkalis out to the surface [12]. The influx of subsurface water must have been limited though otherwise the Li concentration in the soils should be higher than what ChemCam measured (first detection on Mars [12]). References: [1] Meslin et al. (2013) Science, 341, doi:10.1126/science.1238670 ; [2] Schröder et al. (2013) Europ. Planet. Sci. Congress, 120 ; [3] Cousin et al. (2014) Lunar Planet. Conf., 1278; [4] Sautter et al. (2014) J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2013JE004472; [5] Grotzinger et al. (2013) Science, doi:10.1126/science.1242777; [6] McLennan et al. (2013) Science, doi:10.1126/science.1244734; [7] Vaniman et al. (2013) Science, doi:10.1126/science.1243480; [8] Siebach et al. (2013) Am. Geophys. Union Assembly, P13D-07; [9] Leveillé et al. (2013) Am. Geophys. Union Assembly, P13D-08; [10] Nachon et al. (2014) Lunar Planet. Conf.; [11] Lanza et al. (2014) Lunar Planet. Conf.; [12] Ollila et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2013JE004517.

  3. Objective styles in northern field science.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Social studies of science have often treated natural field sites as extensions of the laboratory. But this overlooks the unique specificities of field sites. While lab sites are usually private spaces with carefully controlled borders, field sites are more typically public spaces with fluid boundaries and diverse inhabitants. Field scientists must therefore often adapt their work to the demands and interests of local agents. I propose to address the difference between lab and field in sociological terms, as a difference in style. A field style treats epistemic alterity as a resource rather than an obstacle for objective knowledge production. A sociological stylistics of the field should thus explain how objective science can co-exist with radical conceptual difference. I discuss examples from the Canadian North, focussing on collaborations between state wildlife biologists and managers, on the one hand, and local Aboriginal Elders and hunters, on the other. I argue that a sociological stylistics of the field can help us to better understand how radically diverse agents may collaborate across cultures in the successful production of reliable natural knowledge.

  4. Examining natural rock varnish and weathering rinds with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for application to ChemCam on Mars.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Nina L; Clegg, Samuel M; Wiens, Roger C; McInroy, Rhonda E; Newsom, Horton E; Deans, Matthew D

    2012-03-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument is traveling to Mars as part of ChemCam on the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Martian rocks have weathered exteriors that obscure their bulk compositions. We examine weathered rocks with LIBS in a martian atmosphere to improve interpretations of ChemCam rock analyses on Mars. Profile data are analyzed using principal component analysis, and coatings and rinds are examined using scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Our results show that LIBS is sensitive to minor compositional changes with depth and correctly identifies rock type even if the series of laser pulses does not penetrate to unweathered material.

  5. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  6. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  7. Science News Stories as Boundary Objects Affecting Engagement with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.; Hope, Jennifer M. G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how participating in a program spanning an informal science institution and multiple school sites engaged youth with science in a different way. In particular, teens in the program selected and researched science topics of personal interest, and then authored, revised, and published science news stories about those topics in an…

  8. ChemCam passive reflectance spectroscopy of surface materials at the Curiosity landing site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bell, J. F.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Cloutis, E.; DeFlores, L.; Ehlmann, B.; Gasnault, O.; Gondet, B.; Kinch, K.; Lemmon, M.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; Rice, M.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-03-01

    The spectrometers on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ChemCam instrument were used in passive mode to record visible/near-infrared (400-840 nm) radiance from the martian surface. Using the onboard ChemCam calibration targets' housing as a reflectance standard, we developed methods to collect, calibrate, and reduce radiance observations to relative reflectance. Such measurements accurately reproduce the known reflectance spectra of other calibration targets on the rover, and represent the highest spatial resolution (0.65 mrad) and spectral sampling (<1 nm) visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra from a landed platform on Mars. Relative reflectance spectra of surface rocks and soils match those from orbital observations and multispectral data from the MSL Mastcam camera. Preliminary analyses of the band depths, spectral slopes, and reflectance ratios of the more than 2000 spectra taken during the first year of MSL operations demonstrate at least six spectral classes of materials distinguished by variations in ferrous and ferric components. Initial comparisons of ChemCam spectra to laboratory spectra of minerals and Mars analog materials demonstrate similarities with palagonitic soils and indications of orthopyroxene in some dark rocks. Magnesium-rich "raised ridges" tend to exhibit distinct near-infrared slopes. The ferric absorption downturn typically found for martian materials at <600 nm is greatly subdued in brushed rocks and drill tailings, consistent with their more ferrous nature. Calcium-sulfate veins exhibit the highest relative reflectances observed, but are still relatively red owing to the effects of residual dust. Such dust is overall less prominent on rocks sampled within the "blast zone" immediately surrounding the landing site. These samples were likely affected by the landing thrusters, which partially removed the ubiquitous dust coatings. Increased dust coatings on the calibration targets during the first year of the mission were documented by

  9. The ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager at Gale crater: Review of the first year of operations on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, S.; Gasnault, O.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, N. T.; Langevin, Y.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Pinet, P.; Newsom, H. E.; Deen, R. G.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Rapin, W.; Barraclough, B.; Blaney, D. L.; Deflores, L.; Maki, J.; Malin, M. C.; Pérez, R.; Saccoccio, M.

    2015-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, "Curiosity" landed near the base of a 5 km-high mound of layered material in Gale crater. Mounted on the rover mast, the ChemCam instrument is designed to remotely determine the composition of soils and rocks located a few meters from the rover, using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) coupled to a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). We provide an overview of the diverse imaging investigations that were carried out by ChemCam's RMI during the first year of operation on Mars. 1182 individual panchromatic RMI images were acquired from Sol 10 to Sol 360 to document the ChemCam LIBS measurements and to characterize soils, rocks and rover hardware. We show several types of derived imaging products, including mosaics of images taken before and after laser shots, difference images to enhance the most subtle laser pits, merges with color Mastcam-100 images, micro-topography using the Z-stack technique, and time lapse movies. The very high spatial resolution of RMI is able to resolve rock textures at sub-mm scales, which provides clues regarding the origin (igneous versus sedimentary) of rocks, and to reveal information about their diagenetic and weathering evolution. In addition to its scientific value over the range accessible by LIBS (1-7 m), we also show that RMI can also serve as a powerful long distance reconnaissance tool to characterize the landscape at distances up to several kilometers from the rover.

  10. ORES - Objective Referenced Evaluation in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Terry

    Science process skills considered important in making decisions and solving problems include: observing, classifying, measuring, using numbers, using space/time relationships, communicating, predicting, inferring, manipulating variables, making operational definitions, forming hypotheses, interpreting data, and experimenting. This 60-item test,…

  11. The potassic sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by ChemCam Onboard Curiosity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Cousin, Agnes; Lasue, Jeremie; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fabre, Cecile; Stack, Katherine M.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Dromart, Gilles; Fisk, Martin; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Lanza, Nina; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton E.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Rice, Melissa; Sautter, Violaine; Treiman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system. From ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than 5 times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e., mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater, are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  12. Overview Of 100 Sols Of Chemcam Operations At Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Sylvestre; Wiens, Roger; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The Curiosity rover carries the ChemCam instrument suite, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument that can analyze the chemical composition of geological samples at distances up to 7 meters from the rover, and a high resolution camera for context imaging (RMI). In the first 100 sols after landing, ChemCam performed 343 single point measurements on approximately 50 different rocks or soil areas, for over 12,000 laser shots. Each time at least two RMI images are acquired before and after the laser shots to visualize the area of investigation and the geological context. LIBS lines are identified using primarily a martian dedicated database; to date, ChemCam has detected unambiguously major elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, O), minor/trace elements of interest (Li, Cr, Mn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ti, S, C, H). These observations allow a qualitative/quantitative assessment of the presence of dust (first few shots), the sample surface composition and chemical heterogeneity with depth. Several techniques have been developed to analyze ChemCam's data: (1) Univariate analysis refers to peak height studies of well-chosen LIBS lines and a training dataset to build calibration curves. Peak ratios K/Si, Na/Si, Al/Si, Fe+Mg/Si, or Mg/Mg+Fe have been calculated from the onboard calibration targets. The technique also applies to minor and trace elements which yield low intensity emission lines, such as Lin, Rb, H, C. (2) Multivariate methods give better results in terms of elemental composition, since they examine simultaneously and statistically several peaks of the same elements. A Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression algorithm is used for rapid major-element abundance determination. (3) Composition trends, clusters and end-members can also be identified using component analysis methods. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) identifies components that are directly related to Chemical elements: Al, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, Na, O, Si, Ti, but also mixture like a "soil" component

  13. Overview of ChemCam Activities and Discoveries During 4 Years at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Cousin, A.

    2016-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on NASA’s MSL rover has been successfully analyzing materials on the martian surface since the rover’s landing in August 2012. Since then, the rover drove more than 13km and over 330.000 ChemCam LIBS spectra were recorded.

  14. Comparison of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Martian Meteorite NWA 7034 to ChemCam Observations at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Agee, C. B.; Santos, A. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Sautter, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze rock and soil targets on Mars from up to 7 m away. The Nd:KGW laser can shoot up to 1000 shots at one location and profile up to 1 mm depth into a rock. Identical LIBS instrumentation is located at Los Alamos National Laboratory and was used to analyze martian meteorite NWA 7034, a non-SNC basaltic breccia whose bulk composition matches the martian surface. Initial LIBS analysis of NWA 7034 included observations on two basaltic clasts in the meteorite. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) was performed on the two clasts for comparison with elemental compositions measured using LIBS. The two instruments give similar compositions of major oxides within the error of both techniques. EPMA analysis was also completed on three light-toned clasts and a dark-toned clast in the meteorite. The light-toned clasts have Al/Si vs. (Fe+Mg)/Si compositions ranging from felsic to mafic, and the dark-toned clast shows a mafic composition. A Sammon's map was created to compare LIBS data for NWA 7034 and ChemCam targets Stark, Crestaurum, Link, Portage, Jake_M, Mara, Thor_Lake, Coronation, Pearson, and Prebble. This nonlinear statistical mapping technique is used for clustering assessment of LIBS data in two dimensions. The map shows NWA 7034 clustering in its own location, and the closest similar ChemCam rock targets are La_Reine and Ashuamipi, which are both coarse grained targets that have a mafic component consistent with augite. The most similar ChemCam soil targets are the Crestaurum and Portage. Creation of maps with a greater number of targets will show more of the similarities between NWA 7034 and ChemCam target rocks and soils. Further analysis will compare NWA 7034 LIBS data, data from the paired meteorite NWA 7533, and a variety of ChemCam targets that are similar in morphology and texture.

  15. Beyond Objectivity and Subjectivity: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Science.

    PubMed

    Mascolo, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.

  16. The potassic sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by ChemCam on board Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Lasue, J.; Schröder, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Sumner, D.; Fabre, C.; Stack, K. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D.; Clegg, S.; Dromart, G.; Fisk, M.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Lanza, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; McLennan, S. M.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H.; Payré, V.; Rapin, W.; Rice, M.; Sautter, V.; Treiman, A. H.

    2016-05-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system. From ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than 5 times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e., mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater, are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  17. Is the science of positive intentional change a science of objective moral values?

    PubMed

    Rottschaefer, William Andrew

    2014-08-01

    I examine whether Wilson et al.'s argument for a science of positive intentional change constitutes an argument for a science of objective moral values. Drawing from their discussion, I present four reasons for thinking that it may be and some considerations on why it may not be. Concluding, I seek help from the authors.

  18. Hydrogen detection with ChemCam at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Dyar, M. D.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Clegg, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Pinet, P.; Sautter, V.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main advantages of ChemCam's LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is its potential to detect light elements such as hydrogen at fine scales, which has never been achieved on Mars. Hydrogen lines are detected in most of the data obtained within the first 320 sols of the mission at Gale crater, Mars. This work is a description of the hydrogen signal and its variability in the ChemCam LIBS spectra; it discusses the challenges of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data acquisition and processing steps are investigated and optimized for the detection of hydrogen on Mars. Subtraction of an appropriate dark spectrum and the deconvolution of the superimposed emission of carbon from the low-pressure CO2-dominated atmosphere are particularly important. Because the intensities of hydrogen are also affected by matrix effects, the hydrogen signal was investigated within groups of targets sharing common chemical features and similar matrices. The different groups cover a variety of rock and soil compositions encountered along the traverse (calcium sulfate veins, mafic soils, felsic, Mg-rich and Fe-rich rocks) including data from both drill holes and their tailings. Almost all these targets were found to be hydrated to variable extents. Soils have systematically higher hydrogen signals than rocks and pebbles, probably as a result of their alteration. The results from rocks suggest that various alteration processes leading to their hydration have taken place, which is consistent with the fluvial lacustrine context, the diagenetic features, and the mineralogy observed by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay.

  19. The EJSM Jupiter-Europa Orbiter: Science Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Europa is believed to shelter an ocean between its geodynamically active icy shell and its rocky mantle, where the conditions for habitability may be fulfilled. With a warm, salty, water ocean and plausible chemical energy sources, Europa is the astrobiological archetype for icy satellite habitability. It is also a geophysical wonderland of interrelated ice shell processes that are intimately related to the ocean and tides, and of complex interactions among its interior, surface, atmosphere, and magnetospheric environments. The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). We focus here on the science objectives and heritage of JEO.

  20. An Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo; Smith, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs lie at the intersection of science, space exploration, and civil defense. We propose here a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs to derive their diameters and albedos. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 11, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters to unprecedented accuracy, resolving a current controversy. We will also derive, through our albedo measurements, the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. This catalog will enable many other science investigations to be pursued by us and other researchers. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

  1. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  2. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  3. ChemCam results from the Shaler Outcrop in Gale Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Ryan Bradley; Edgar, L.; Bridges, J.C.; Williams, A.; Williams, J.; Ollila, A.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Lanza, N.; Sautter, V.; Gupta, S.; Blaney, D.; Clark, B.; Clegg, G.; Dromart, G.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin, E.; Lewis, K.; Maurice, S.; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Wiens, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The "Shaler" outcrop in Gale crater is approximately 0.7 m thick and >20 m long, and exhibits multiple well-exposed platy and cross-stratified facies [1] interpreted to be primarily fluvial sandstone deposits. The outcrop is a part of the upper Glenelg member in the Yellowknife Bay (YKB) stratigraphic section [2]. Curiosity first encountered the "Shaler" outcrop on sol 121 of the mission, and returned to the outcrop on sols 309- 324. The rugged nature of the outcrop and short time available for analysis limited opportunities for contact science, but ChemCam’s ability to remotely collect compositional and textural observations resulted in a large data set from Shaler. ChemCam conducted analyses of 29 non-soil targets at Shaler, 26 of which used laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for a total of 9,180 spectra. Three observations used only the remote micro-imager (RMI). Each of the 26 LIBS targets were analyzed at between 5 and 25 points, providing a measure of the target homogeneity and in some cases transecting fine strata. 

  4. Synergy of SAM and ChemCam instruments (Curiosity Rover) to Search for Organic Matter at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequaire, T.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Maurice, S.; Mangold, N.

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes to determine ChemCam capabilities to detect organic molecules in the martian rocks, by coupling LIBS and passive spectroscopy using the ChemCam testbed (IRAP) in order to select at best the samples analyzed by the SAM instrument.

  5. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schroder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.L.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, Ryan Bradley; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; ,; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M. R.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; ,; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  6. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    Meslin, P-Y; Gasnault, O; Forni, O; Schröder, S; Cousin, A; Berger, G; Clegg, S M; Lasue, J; Maurice, S; Sautter, V; Le Mouélic, S; Wiens, R C; Fabre, C; Goetz, W; Bish, D; Mangold, N; Ehlmann, B; Lanza, N; Harri, A-M; Anderson, R; Rampe, E; McConnochie, T H; Pinet, P; Blaney, D; Léveillé, R; Archer, D; Barraclough, B; Bender, S; Blake, D; Blank, J G; Bridges, N; Clark, B C; DeFlores, L; Delapp, D; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Fisk, M; Gondet, B; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Johnson, J; Lacour, J-L; Langevin, Y; Leshin, L; Lewin, E; Madsen, M B; Melikechi, N; Mezzacappa, A; Mischna, M A; Moores, J E; Newsom, H; Ollila, A; Perez, R; Renno, N; Sirven, J-B; Tokar, R; de la Torre, M; d'Uston, L; Vaniman, D; Yingst, A

    2013-09-27

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  7. ChemCam investigation of the John Klein and Cumberland drill holes and tailings, Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. S.; Wiens, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Beegle, L.; Gasnault, O.; Newsom, H. E.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Schröder, S.; Williams, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover analyzed the rock surface, drill hole walls, tailings, and unprocessed and sieved dump piles to investigate chemical variations with depth in the first two martian drill holes and possible fractionation or segregation effects of the drilling and sample processing. The drill sites are both in Sheepbed Mudstone, the lowest exposed member of the Yellowknife Bay formation. Yellowknife Bay is composed of detrital basaltic materials in addition to clay minerals and an amorphous component. The drill tailings are a mixture of basaltic sediments and diagenetic material like calcium sulfate veins, while the shots on the drill site surface and walls of the drill holes are closer to those pure end members. The sediment dumped from the sample acquisition, processing, and handling subsystem is of similar composition to the tailings; however, due to the specifics of the drilling process the tailings and dump piles come from different depths within the hole. This allows the ChemCam instrument to analyze samples representing the bulk composition from different depths. On the pre-drill surfaces, the Cumberland site has a greater amount of CaO and evidence for calcium sulfate veins, than the John Klein site. However, John Klein has a greater amount of calcium sulfate veins below the surface, as seen in mapping, drill hole wall analysis, and observations in the drill tailings and dump pile. In addition, the Cumberland site does not have any evidence of variations in bulk composition with depth down the drill hole, while the John Klein site has evidence for a greater amount of CaO (calcium sulfates) in the top portion of the hole compared to the middle section of the hole, where the drill sample was collected.

  8. SuperCam Remote Sensing on the Mars 2020 Rover: Science Goals and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Rull, F.; SuperCam Team

    2016-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT) report emphasized the importance of fine-scale measurements, suggesting that the numerous pin-point observations made at remote distances by ChemCam was a very desirable capability.

  9. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of

  10. Essential Performance Objectives for Science Education. Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Guidance for the development, assessment and/or improvement of science education programs in Michigan is provided in this handbook for teachers, administrators, and parents. It provides a philosophical foundation and curricular framework from which educators could construct comprehensive local science education programs. The nature of science is…

  11. From Witnessing to Recording--Material Objects and the Epistemic Configuration of Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehl, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on concepts developed in actor-network theory and postphenomenology this article shows how material objects in the science classroom become part of epistemic configurations and thus co-shape science education. An ethnographic study on epistemic objects in science education is the basis for the analysis of two of these objects: experimental…

  12. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  13. Science Integrating Learning Objectives: A Cooperative Learning Group Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The integration of agricultural and science curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for secondary agricultural educators. The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives…

  14. Feldspars Detected by ChemCam in Gale Crater with Implications for Future Martian Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, P. J.; Carlson, E.; Wiens, R. C.; Bridges, J.; Sautter, V.; Cousin, A.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Clegg, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Feldspar is a common igneous mineral that can shed light on parent magma temperatures, pressures, and compositions. During the first 801 sols of the NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission, we have detected 125 possible feldspar grains using the ChemCam LIBS instrument. We analyzed spectra from successive laser shots at the same location and approximate whole rock compositions for each target. Feldspar-containing targets range from tephrite-basanite to trachyandesite. The most common feldspar type is andesine; no targets are >An60. Over 30% are anorthoclase, and ~10% have potassium contents up to Or60. Individual shot measurements in a single spot suggest some feldspars are zoned. Most of these rocks are either float or incorporated into conglomerates, and thus we do not know their provenance. Many of the samples may originate from the Gale crater walls, indicative of Southern Highland ancient crust. Some may also be flung from further away (e.g., emplaced by impact processes). Hence, these rocks may give us a general clue to the variety of evolved igneous materials on Mars. The ubiquity of feldspars at Gale suggests that they have been significantly underestimated for the Southern Highlands, if not for the whole of Mars. For example, significant abundance of andesitic feldspars in both the southern highland and northern lowlands of Mars would imply that Martian volcanism has produced a greater extent of evolved igneous materials to a greater degree than previously thought. Remote sensing instruments are insensitive to plagioclase due to dust cover, lack of exposures, or low feldspar FeO content. However, the Mars 2020 rover will be equipped with 3 new instruments, the arm-mounted SHERLOC Raman, PIXL μXRF, and the mast-mounted SuperCam combined Raman-LIBS instruments, which should help characterize Martian feldspars. Additionally, the SuperCam instrument plans to include three feldspars in its suite of 20+ onboard standards to improve feldspar chemical analysis.

  15. Rocknest, Bradbury Plateau, and Kimberly: Iron Cemented Sediments Observed in Gale Crater with ChemCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Kahn, L. C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Gerger, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Cousin, A.; Clark, B.; Dyar, M. D.; King, P. L.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P. Y.; Newsom, H.; Schröder, S.; Rowland, S.; Johnson, J.; Edgar, L.; Forni, O.; Schmidt, M.; Goetz, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D.; Fisk, M.; Maden, M. B.; Tokar, R.; MSL Science Team

    2014-07-01

    Numerous locations with Fe-rich cements were identified at Gale Crater with ChemCam. This indicates that Fe-rich waters were widespread in the area explored. Rocks also experienced different diagenetic histories involving Mg loss, sulfates, and CaF.

  16. Research objectives, opportunities, and facilities for microgravity science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuzick, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity Science in the U.S.A. involves research in fluids science, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The purpose is to achieve a thorough understanding of the effects of gravitational body forces on physical phenomena relevant to those disciplines. This includes the study of phenomena which are usually overwhelmed by the presence of gravitational body forces and, therefore, chiefly manifested when gravitational forces are weak. In the pragmatic sense, the research involves gravity level as an experimental parameter. Calendar year 1992 is a landmark year for research opportunities in low earth orbit for Microgravity Science. For the first time ever, three Spacelab flights will fly in a single year: IML-1 was launched on January 22; USML-1 was launched on June 25; and, in September, SL-J will be launched. A separate flight involving two cargo bay carriers, USMP-1, will be launched in October. From the beginning of 1993 up to and including the Space Station era (1997), nine flights involving either Spacelab or USMP carriers will be flown. This will be augmented by a number of middeck payloads and get away specials flying on various flights. All of this activity sets the stage for experimentation on Space Station Freedom. Beginning in 1997, experiments in Microgravity Science will be conducted on the Space Station. Facilities for doing experiments in protein crystal growth, solidification, and biotechnology will all be available. These will be joined by middeck-class payloads and the microgravity glove box for conducting additional experiments. In 1998, a new generation protein crystal growth facility and a facility for conducting combustion research will arrive. A fluids science facility and additional capability for conducting research in solidification, as well as an ability to handle small payloads on a quick response basis, will be added in 1999. The year 2000 will see upgrades in the protein crystal growth and

  17. The Object(s) of Culture: Bruno Latour and the Relationship between Science and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.; Petrina, Stephen

    This paper begins by describing the type of newspaper stories about global warming, AIDS vaccines, and frozen embryos that are neither pure science nor pure politics. The paper states that the French sociologist and commentator on cultural trends, Bruno Latour, calls such stories "hybrid articles." It suggests that the purity of the…

  18. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  19. Exploring the Impact of Learning Objects in Middle School Mathematics and Science Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2008-01-01

    The current study offers a formative analysis of the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Five reliable and valid measures of effectiveness were used to examine the impact of learning objects from the perspective of 262 students and 8 teachers (14 classrooms) in science or mathematics. The results…

  20. The Development of Behavioral Objectives for the Undergraduate Science Program for Elementary Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinerman, Charles O.

    In this study, a set of behavioral objectives was developed and validated for an undergraduate science program for elementary teachers. The behavioral objectives contain both inquiry and content items which were based on analyses of the COPES, SAPA, IDP, SCIS, ESS, and MINNEMAST elementary school science programs. Some measure of validity of the…

  1. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject…

  2. Oil and Floating Objects. Science in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite density differences, oil and water get along just fine when it comes to these experiments. This article explores the relationship between oil and water and provides brief experiments (including materials needed; procedure instructions; and evaluative questions) relating to: making layers with liquids; dropping a few objects in a tall glass…

  3. Art to science: Tools for greater objectivity in resource monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The earliest inventories of western US rangelands were “ocular” estimates. Now, objective data consistent with formal scientific inquiry is needed to support management decisions that sustain the resource while balancing numerous competing land uses and sometimes-vociferous stakeholders. Yet, the co...

  4. The ISPM Mission - Science objectives and mission overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Smith, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) will, for the first time, allow exploration of the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes. The prime mission objective is to study, as a function of solar latitude, the properties of the interplanetary medium and solar corona. The scientific instrumentation is designed to explore, in the third heliospheric dimension, the properties of the solar wind, the sun/wind interface, the heliospheric magnetic field, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, solar X-rays, solar and galactic cosmic rays, and interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. ISPM will also detect cosmic gamma-ray bursts and search for gravitational waves. ISPM is a cooperative mission carried out jointly by ESA and NASA, to be launched in May 1986 and utilising a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve a high-solar-latitude trajectory.

  5. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Bennett, Matthew; Basilio, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    maps of 100km by 100km could be gathered in the Amazon or key agricultural regions. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) and GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation), which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis.

  6. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    maps of 100km by 100km could be gathered in the Amazon or key agricultural regions. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS and GEDI, which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology

  7. Preservice Elementary Teachers Increase Descriptive Science Vocabulary by Making Descriptive Adjective Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Crisafulli, Sherry; DeCare, Heather; DeLeo, Tonya; Eastman, Keri; Farrell, Liz; Geblein, Jennifer; Gioia, Chelsea; Joyce, Ashley; Killian, Kali; Knoop, Kelly; LaRocca, Alison; Meyer, Katie; Miller, Julianne; Roth, Vicki; Throo, Julie; Van Arsdale, Jim; Walker, Malissa

    2007-01-01

    Descriptive vocabulary is needed for communication and mental processing of science observations. Elementary preservice teachers in a science methods class at a mid-sized public college in central New York State increased their descriptive vocabularies through a course assignment of making a descriptive adjective object box. This teaching material…

  8. Everyday objects of learning about health and healing and implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitari, Wanja

    2006-02-01

    The role of science education in rural development is of great interest to science educators. In this study I investigated how residents of rural Kirumi, Kenya, approach health and healing, through discussions and semistructured and in-depth interviews with 150 residents, 3 local herbalists, and 2 medical researchers over a period of 6 months. I constructed objects of learning by looking for similarities and differences within interpretive themes. Objects of learning found comprise four types of personal learning tools, three types of relational learning tools, three genres of moral obligation, and five genres of knowledge guarding. Findings show that rural people use (among other learning tools) inner sensing to engage thought processes that lead to health and healing knowledge. The sociocultural context is also an important component in learning. Inner sensing and residents' sociocultural context are not presently emphasized in Kenyan science teaching. I discuss the potential use of rural objects of learning in school science, with specific reference to a health topic in the Kenyan science curriculum. In addition, the findings add to the literature in the Science, Technology, Society, and Environment (STSE) approach to science education, and cross-cultural and global science education.

  9. Capital Middle Schools Science Department, Preliminary List of Behavioral/Performance Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Mod System, Dover, DE.

    This monograph provides basic behavioral objectives designed for a middle school science curriculum. Emphasis is placed on the study of the living environment for students in grade five. This includes the study of plants, animals, the human body, and the use of the microscope, classification and the scientific method. Objectives for grade six are…

  10. Igneous mineralogy at Bradbury Rise: The first ChemCam campaign at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Ollila, A. M.; Meslin, P. Y.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Baratoux, D.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Gasnault, O.; Berger, G.; Lasue, J.; Anderson, R. A.; Lewin, E.; Schmidt, M.; Dyar, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Bridges, J.; Clark, B.; Pinet, P.

    2014-01-01

    and compositional analyses using Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) remote microimager and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) have been performed on five float rocks and coarse gravels along the first 100 m of the Curiosity traverse at Bradbury Rise. ChemCam, the first LIBS instrument sent to another planet, offers the opportunity to assess mineralogic diversity at grain-size scales (~ 100 µm) and, from this, lithologic diversity. Depth profiling indicates that targets are relatively free of surface coatings. One type of igneous rock is volcanic and includes both aphanitic (Coronation) and porphyritic (Mara) samples. The porphyritic sample shows dark grains that are likely pyroxene megacrysts in a fine-grained mesostasis containing andesine needles. Both types have magnesium-poor basaltic compositions and in this respect are similar to the evolved Jake Matijevic rock analyzed further along the Curiosity traverse both with Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer and ChemCam instruments. The second rock type encountered is a coarse-grained intrusive rock (Thor Lake) showing equigranular texture with millimeter size crystals of feldspars and Fe-Ti oxides. Such a rock is not unique at Gale as the surrounding coarse gravels (such as Beaulieu) and the conglomerate Link are dominated by feldspathic (andesine-bytownite) clasts. Finally, alkali feldspar compositions associated with a silica polymorph have been analyzed in fractured filling material of Preble rock and in Stark, a putative pumice or an impact melt. These observations document magmatic diversity at Gale and describe the first fragments of feldspar-rich lithologies (possibly an anorthosite) that may be ancient crust transported from the crater rim and now forming float rocks, coarse gravel, or conglomerate clasts.

  11. Application of distance correction to ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, A.; Melikechi, N.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Tokar, R.; Bender, S.; Lanza, N. L.; Maurice, S.; Berger, G.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Dyar, M. D.; Boucher, T.; Lewin, E.; Fabre, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides chemical information from atomic, ionic, and molecular emissions from which geochemical composition can be deciphered. Analysis of LIBS spectra in cases where targets are observed at different distances, as is the case for the ChemCam instrument on the Mars rover Curiosity, which performs analyses at distances between 2 and 7.4 m is not a simple task. In our previous work we showed that spectral distance correction based on a proxy spectroscopic standard created from first-shot dust observations on Mars targets ameliorates the distance bias in multivariate-based elemental-composition predictions of laboratory data. In this work, we correct an expanded set of neutral and ionic spectral emissions for distance bias in the ChemCam data set. By using and testing different selection criteria to generate multiple proxy standards, we find a correction that minimizes the difference in spectral intensity measured at two different distances and increases spectral reproducibility. When the quantitative performance of distance correction is assessed, there is improvement for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeOT, Na2O, K2O, that is, for most of the major rock forming elements, and for the total major-element weight percent predicted. However, for MgO the method does not provide improvements while for TiO2, it yields inconsistent results. In addition, we have observed that many emission lines do not behave consistently with distance, evidenced from laboratory analogue measurements and ChemCam data. This limits the effectiveness of the method.

  12. ChemCam Depth Profiles at Gale Crater to Assess Coating and Alteration Distribution and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Lanza, N.; Bridges, N.

    2014-12-01

    Coating and rock alteration formation on Mars is constrained by both the availability of water and rock composition. Detection of these materials depends on the both formation rate and the rate of abrasion that these alteration products and coatings experience. ChemCam on the Curiosity rover can investigate coating/alteration formation and preservation by looking at chemical composition as a function of depth into the rock. ChemCam LIBS works by firing a laser focused to a 350 - 550 mm diameter spot that produces plasma from the rock. Spectra of elemental emission lines are recorded from 240-850 nm and used to determine the elemental composition of the rock. A chemical composition is generated from each individual spectrum. Each laser firing penetrates deeper into the rock allowing for a composition as a function of depth to be determined. By comparing geochemical trends from the beginning and end of the observations evidence for coatings and alteration can be assessed by geologic setting and rock type. Previous ChemCam work has identified Li variations (Ollila et al 2014) and MnO coatings (Lanza et al 2014) on a few rocks with high abundances of these elements. However this work is the first systematic assessment of alteration and coatings in the entire data set. From landing until Sol 583 there were 2,610 good quality ChemCam rock and outcrop observations. These measurements were assessed for internal elemental composition variability by the calculation of heterogeneity index. Only 7% (178) had positive internal heterogeneity. However, internal heterogeneity can be due to other factors besides coatings and alteration. Thick soil coverage and differential sampling of materials in coarse-grained rocks also produce positive heterogeneity indexes. The actual number of potential coatings at Gale is significantly lower. For most of Gale, current geochemical alteration rates are slower the rate of abrasion. This result is consistent with limited availability of water in

  13. ChemCam First Discovery of High Silica Sediments in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydenvang, J.; Gasda, P. J.; Wiens, R. C.; Newsom, H. E.; Bridges, J.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Cousin, A.; Payré, V.; Anderson, R. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Jun, I.; Rice, M. S.; Milliken, R.; Edwards, P.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.; Gellert, R.; Thompson, L. M.; Clark, B. C.; Hurowitz, J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fraeman, A.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Calef, F.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    On sol 991, The Curiosity rover ascended a steep slope to Marias Pass in Gale Crater. Close to the top, ChemCam analyzed the rock target Elk from an apparent bright unit. Utilizing the new elemental calibration implemented for ChemCam in the summer of 2015, four of five points on Elk were measured to contain 76-82 wt% SiO2 and >3 wt% TiO2, whereas the last point showed elevated CaSO4. The Elk target is identified to be part of the Murray formation, and hence related to the Pahrump area mudstones that were subjected to intensive studies by the Curiosity rover team over the sols 758-948. While the Murray formation west of Elk did show elevated SiO2 (~65 wt%) compared to the Pahrump area, no targets with similarly high SiO2 wt% as Elk were observed, thus prompting - together with detection of anomalously high DAN H signals in the same area - the Curiosity rover to return to the Elk target area for additional analyses. This return led to numerous additional high Si observations (targets Pistol, Mary, Shepard, Dublin Gulch and Frog) that all corroborated the initial high Si observation at Elk. Additionally, the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) analyzed the target Lamoose and found SiO2 content in excess of 72 wt% and moderately elevated TiO2. Considering the difference in footprint (1.7 cm for APXS vs ~400μm for ChemCam) and the fact that the target couldn't be brushed, this is considered a good corroboration of the very high Si observed with ChemCam. These targets suggest that the Elk-area targets represent an end-member of the Murray formation, but there are multiple working hypotheses for the origin of the high SiO2 and TiO2 in these: 1. primary precipitates from the water column of a lake, 2. a post-depositional leaching/weathering front and 3. a hydrothermal silica precipitate.

  14. Small Schools Science Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Learning objectives and suggested activities, monitoring procedures and resources for the Washington K-3 Small Schools Science Curriculum are based on the rationale that "young children need the opportunity to observe, classify, predict, test ideas again and again in a variety of contexts, ask questions, explain, discuss ideas, fail, and succeed.…

  15. Semantic Network Analysis of Earth ScienceTextbooks Focus on Learning Objectives in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how congruently the learning objectives of Earth Science textbooks match the 2009 revised Earth Science curriculum in Korea. For this purpose, we classified the learning objectives of curriculum and textbooks were into three factors including ability, cross-cutting concepts, and behavioral verbs. The text data were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. The learning objectives of textbooks with regard to ability factors mainly emphasized the cognitive and affective domain. In addition, the ability of inquiry performance was emphasized in the learning objective of the curriculum. The textbooks used various sub-frame of cross-cutting concepts in comparison with the curriculum. Both textbooks and curriculum used the term 'comprehension' the most as behavioral verbs. However, most behavioral verbs just remained at the level of cognitive system. Keywords: curriculum, textbook, learning objectives, semantic network analysis

  16. Secondary school science teaching, 1970--1992: Objectives as stated in periodical literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemby, Brian Franklin

    Purpose of the study. The major purpose of this study was to identify and classify objectives for teaching science in secondary schools in the United States during the period 1970--1992. These objectives were identified by objective statements in articles from selected professional periodicals. Procedure. The 1970--1992 period was divided into two subperiods on the basis of major historical events. Selected professional periodicals were searched for statements of objectives of secondary school science teaching. These statements were catalogued into Knowledge, Process, Attitude and Interest, or Cultural Awareness categories. The resulting data were classified within and across the two subperiods according to frequency of occurrence, category, authorship, and year. Findings. The major findings of this investigation included the following: (1) Authors in Higher Education produced the most articles, both research-oriented and nonresearch-oriented, and the most statements in each subperiod. Miscellaneous authors produced the least articles and statements. (2) Statements in the Process category were most frequent in the two subperiods. (3) The "most important" objectives for secondary school science teaching were Philosophical, sociological, and political aspects (from the Cultural Awareness category), Processes, skills, and techniques (from the Process category), and Major facts, principles, or fundamentals (from the Knowledge category). (4) Attitude and Interest objectives were consistently ranked as least important throughout the study. (5) The ranking of "most important" objectives in research-oriented articles generally agreed with the ranking in articles as a whole. Conclusions. Based on the findings of this investigation, the following conclusions were made: (1) The objectives for teaching secondary school science were influenced by historical events, especially the Vietnam War, the Cold War, the AIDS pandemic, and the publication of A Nation at Risk: The

  17. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  18. The Chemcam LIBS and Imaging Instrument Suite on the Curiosity Mars Rover, and Terrestrial Field Testing of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E., II; Maurice, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Curiosity rover that landed on Mars in 2012 includes an instrument suite consisting of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) and a remote micro-imager (RMI). The LIBS is effectively the first Mars microprobe, as its interrogation region is 0.35-0.5 mm in diameter; it can access targets up to 7 m from the rover. The LIBS pulsed laser excites atoms and ions from the target, creating a plasma that emits light at characteristic wavelengths. When calibrated, LIBS provides quantitative elemental abundances. The elements observed on Mars include H, Li, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba. The first few laser shots clear the surface of dust, allowing unobscured analyses of the targets. Within the first two years of operation ChemCam has returned > 150,000 spectra from > 4,000 locations along the rover traverse. The RMI is the highest resolution (0.04 mrad) remote imager on the rover and provides context before/after images of the LIBS targets as well as long-distance stand-alone imagery. The ChemCam LIBS instrument concept was developed based on laboratory LIBS instrumentation. For terrestrial field work ChemCam's design with its unshielded laser beam is an eye safety hazard. However, hand-held devices with closed laser-beam designs have been developed. In order to provide a realistic field test prior to the launch of the rover the ChemCam team fielded a backpack LIBS system featuring a shielded laser beam. The system was calibrated using the same 66 geological standards used by the ChemCam instrument prior to flight. During the field test, data was sent remotely to a team back at Los Alamos, effectively imitating operations on Mars and data analysis on the ground. The ground team successfully reported accurate results, identifying the site as rich in kaolinite clay soils.

  19. From object to subject: hybrid identities of indigenous women in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.

  20. Boundary objects in complementary and alternative medicine: acupuncture vs. Christian Science.

    PubMed

    Owens, Kellie

    2015-03-01

    Nearly four in ten American use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) each year. Even with a large number of patients, CAM practitioners face scrutiny from physicians and biomedical researchers who, in an era of evidence-based medicine, argue there is little evidence to support CAM treatments. Examining how CAM has or has not been integrated into American health care is crucial in understanding the contemporary boundaries of healthcare systems. An analytical tool from science and technology studies, boundary objects, can help scholars of medicine understand which practices become integrated into these systems. Using a comparative analysis based on archival and interview data, this paper examines the use of boundary objects in two alternative medical practices - acupuncture and Christian Science. While boundary objects alone cannot explain what health practices succeed or fail, juxtaposing the use of boundary objects by different CAM groups identifies the work boundary objects do to facilitate integration and the conditions under which they "work." I find that acupuncturists' use of sterile needles as a boundary objects assists in their effective integration into U.S. healthcare because needles are both a symbol of biomedical prowess and a potentially unsafe device requiring regulation. Christian Scientists' use of the placebo effect as a boundary object has not succeeded because they fail to acknowledge the different contextual definitions of the placebo effect in biomedical communities. This comparative analysis highlights how context affects which boundary objects "work" for CAM practices and theorizes why alternative health practices succeed or fail to become integrated into healthcare systems.

  1. Science Objectives and Site Selection Criteria for a Human Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, P. B.; Beaty, D. W.; Hays, L. E.; Bass, D.; Bell, M. S.; Bleacher, J. E.; Cabrol, N. A.; Conrad, P. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Hamilton, V. E.; Head, J. W., III; Kahre, M. A.; Levy, J. S.; Lyons, T. W.; Rafkin, S. C.; Rice, M. S.; Rice, J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA recently requested that MEPAG evaluate the scientific objectives and the science-related landing site criteria that could be used to support preliminary landing site evaluation for a human mission to Mars in the late 2030's. These requests were addressed by the Human Science Objectives Science Analysis Group, or HSO-SAG 2015, consisting of members of the Mars science and human exploration communities. A set of candidate scientific objectives was identified by the SAG considering intrinsic scientific merit, magnitude of the benefit of a proximal human, opportunities to make simultaneous observations from different vantage points, and opportunities to deliver scientific payloads of higher mass/complexity. These science objectives were then used to construct a set of landing site criteria that can be used to identify potential human landing sites on Mars with high potential for substantial scientific discovery. A future human landing site will lie in the center of a 100 km radius 'exploration zone' and scientific regions of interest within this exploration zone can be considered candidate sites for human exploration. HSO-SAG determined that potential landing sites on Mars should have access to the following: 1) deposits with a high preservation potential for evidence of past habitability and/or sites that are promising for present habitability; 2) Noachian and/or Hesperian rocks that can be used to understand past atmospheres; 3) exposures of at least two crustal units that are suitable for radiometric dating; 4) access to outcrops with signatures indicative of aqueous processes; 5) identifiable stratigraphic contacts and cross-cutting relationships from which relative ages can be determined. These criteria will be used along with other criteria developed from engineering and exploration objectives to help prioritize candidate landing sites for future human missions to Mars. The first landing site workshop will occur on October 27-30, 2015 in Houston, TX. Please

  2. Science objectives and performances of NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for the ExoMars TGO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neefs, E.; Drummond, R.; Thomas, I. R.; Daerden, F.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Rodriguez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Allen, M.; Altieri, F.; Bolsée, D.; Clancy, T.; Delanoye, S.; Depiesse, C.; Cloutis, E.; Fedorova, A.; Formisano, V.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Geminale, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Giuranna, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Kaminski, J.; Karatekin, O.; Lefèvre, F.; López-Puertas, M.; López-Valverde, M.; Mahieux, A.; McConnell, J.; Mumma, M.; Neary, L.; Renotte, E.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Smith, M.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Villanueva, G.; Whiteway, J.; Wilquet, V.; Wolff, M.

    2015-12-01

    The NOMAD spectrometer suite on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter will map the composition and distribution of Mars' atmospheric trace species in unprecedented detail, fulfilling many of the scientific objectives of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument is a combination of three channels, covering a spectral range from the UV to the IR, and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this paper, we present the science objectives of the instrument and how these objectives have influenced the design of the channels. We also discuss the expected performance of the instrument in terms of coverage and detection sensitivity.

  3. Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

  4. Evolution of hydrological sciences from dimensions of object, discipline and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L. L.; Gong, L. Y.; Yong, B.; Yuan, F.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, S. H.; Chen, T.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution routes and development stages in hydrological sciences are summarised from the following three dimensions: research object, discipline and methodology, by means of the descriptive-explanatory-humanistic ideology. Modern technical breakthroughs and socioeconomic developments have promoted hydrology from geographical hydrology, engineering or applied hydrology to water resources hydrology in terms of the focus of research objectives or problems. It has been observed from the point of view of methodology that hydrological sciences go through deterministic hydrology, stochastic hydrology, isotope hydrology, digital hydrology, etc. Hydrological sciences in the context of discipline dimensions can be divided into three main categories: physical hydrology, chemical/environmental hydrology, biological hydrology including eco-hydrology and socio-hydrology, although there are overlaps between these due to the complex and intertwined water-related challenges facing the hydrological community and other geosciences. Humans have played a significant role in changing land uses throughout the world and therefore, socio-hydrology is an increasingly significant branch of the hydrological sciences. It can be seen from analyses that biological hydrology is a new approach to cope with global change issues, and a new frontier direction in the field of hydrological sciences. It can also be seen from dialectical analysis of the different stages in the evolution of hydrology, that new frontiers or directions requiring investigation, scientific recognition and technical innovation will continue to be generated in the field of hydrology. The 3-dimensional diagram of evolution routes of hydrological sciences may provide some ideas for Panta Rhei, the new IAHS Science Initiative 2013-2022 for hydrological research under changing human and environmental systems in the real world.

  5. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  6. Research Objects for Sharing and Exchanging Research Data and Methods in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Pérez, José Manuel; Palma, Raul

    2016-04-01

    Scientists in data-intensive disciplines increasingly call for models that go beyond the publication of datasets, allowing systematic capture of the lifecycle of scientific investigations and providing a single entry point for accessing information about (to name a few) the hypotheses investigated, the datasets used, the computations, observations and experiments carried out, their outcomes and provenance, the conclusions and findings that were derived, and even the scientists involved in a particular investigation. In this scenario, Research Objects provide a structured means to encapsulate such information and the associated methods involved, along with essential metadata and annotations aimed at both humans and computers. Research objects are therefore portable units of scientific knowledge that enable the sharing, preservation, scholarly communication, validation, and re-use of scientific outcomes. In this presentation we will focus on the application of the Research Object concept in observational disciplines and particularly Earth Science. We will present the main concepts behind research objects and discuss the challenges involved in the extension and adaptation of existing practices, modelling vocabularies, middleware and tools for these disciplines. By deploying research object technologies in Earth Science, we aim to enhance the portability of scientific materials and methods, the collaboration capabilities within and between teams of earth scientists, the quality and long-term preservation capabilities of the methods, and the means to communicate, validate and measure the impact of scientific outcomes. This work is being conducted in the context of the Horizon2020 EVER-EST project, the main objective of which is the development of a research object-centric virtual research environment for Earth Science communities.

  7. Fetch, plug, and play: How secondary science instructors use digital learning objects in their classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looser, Theresa A.

    This mixed methods exploratory research study describes how United States science teachers who used digital learning objects in their secondary classrooms implemented them. The types of digital learning objects and frequency of use in addition to instructional strategies used with digital learning objects and instructors' reasons for using them were explored. An online survey and four interviews were conducted with instructors who used digital learning objects in traditional classrooms, and artifacts that included sample digital learning objects and lesson plans that integrate them in classrooms were collected and analyzed. Data from this exploratory research study indicates that digital learning objects shift the focus of education from the instructor to the learner. Participants talked and wrote about students' active engagement in their learning with instructors as facilitators providing scaffolding and support for student learning. Interactive digital learning objects providing immediate feedback opportunities allowed students to control the learning pace, manipulate and extend learning in new ways that are difficult to find in other learning activities. Models and visualizations extended and enriched learning, making abstract concepts more concrete by providing multiple perspectives that provoke learner reflection and restructuring of their knowledge leading to higher levels of learning. Digital learning objects were used to motivate students by gaining their attention, providing relevant content, encouraging learner confidence, and gaining learner satisfaction. This study may benefit secondary instructors by helping them build upon the experiences described by study participants. Results indicate that digital learning objects promoted learner-centered classrooms and exhibited instructional strategies consistent with constructivist learning theory.

  8. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  9. Assessments of Potential Rock Coatings at Rocknest, Gale Crater with ChemCam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Anderson, R.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Ehlman, B.; Goetz, W.; King, P.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many locations on Mars have low color contrast between the rocks and soils due to the rocks being "dusty"--basically having a surface that is spectrally similar to Martian soil. In general this has been interpreted as soil and/or dust clinging to the rock though either mechanical or electrostic processes. However, given the apparent mobility of thin films of water forming cemented soils on Mars and at Gale Crater, the possibility exists that some of these "dusty" surfaces may actually be coatings formed by thin films of water locally mobilizing soil/air fall material at the rock interface. This type of coating was observed by Spirit during an investigation of the rock Mazatzal which showed enhanced salts above "normal soil" and an enhancement of nano phase iron oxide that was 10 micronmeters thick. We decided to use ChemCam to investigate the possibility of similar rock coatings forming at the Rocknest site at Gale Crater.

  10. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  11. Chemistry of diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam at Pahrump Hills, Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nachon, Marion; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Kah, Linda C.; Cousin, Agnes; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Blank, Jen G.; Calef, Fred J.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, Martin R.; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Kronyak, Rachel; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Deit, Laetitia; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Oehler, D. Z.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Stack, Katherine M.; Sumner, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The Curiosity rover's campaign at Pahrump Hills provides the first analyses of lower Mount Sharp strata. Here we report ChemCam elemental composition of a diverse assemblage of post-depositional features embedded in, or cross-cutting, the host rock. ChemCam results demonstrate their compositional diversity, especially compared to the surrounding host rock: (i) Dendritic aggregates and relief enhanced features, characterized by a magnesium enhancement and sulfur detection, and interpreted as Mg-sulfates; (ii) A localized observation that displays iron enrichment associated with sulfur, interpreted as Fe-sulfate; (iii) Dark raised ridges with varying Mg- and Ca-enriched compositions compared to host rock; (iv) Several dark-toned veins with calcium enhancement associated with fluorine detection, interpreted as fluorite veins. (v) Light-toned veins with enhanced calcium associated with sulfur detection, and interpreted as Ca-sulfates. The diversity of the Pahrump Hills diagenetic assemblage suggests a complex post-depositional history for fine-grained sediments for which the origin has been interpreted as fluvial and lacustrine. Assessment of the spatial and relative temporal distribution of these features shows that the Mg-sulfate features are predominant in the lower part of the section, suggesting local modification of the sediments by early diagenetic fluids. In contrast, light-toned Ca-sulfate veins occur in the whole section and cross-cut all other features. A relatively late stage shift in geochemical conditions could explain this observation. The Pahrump Hills diagenetic features have no equivalent compared to targets analyzed in other locations at Gale crater. Only the light-toned Ca-sulfate veins are present elsewhere, along Curiosity's path, suggesting they formed through a common late-stage process that occurred at over a broad area.

  12. Sustainability Logistics Basing Science and Technology Objective. Demonstration #1 - 1000 Person Camp Demo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Logistics-Basing Science & Technology Objective – Demonstration (SLB-STO-D) at the Contingency Basing Integration and Technology Evaluation Center (CBITEC...of life at expeditionary base camps. The SLB-STO-D is using modeling and simulation, closely integrated with field demonstrations, to show fuel... INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY) U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN: RDNS- TSI 10 General Greene Avenue, Natick, MA

  13. RAVEN, a Multi-Object Adaptive Optics technology and science demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Dave; Blain, Célia; Bradley, Colin; Gamroth, Darryl; Ito, Meguru; Jackson, Kate; Lardière, Olivier; Nash, Reston; Oya, Shin; Pham, Laurie; Robertson, Dave; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-01

    The University of Victoria Adaptive Optics Laboratory, the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics and Subaru Observatory are undertaking a preliminary design study for a Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technology and science demonstrator called Raven. Raven will be mounted on the Subaru NIR Nasmyth platform and will feed the IRCS imager and spectrograph. The baseline design calls for three natural guide star (NGS) wavefront sensors (WFS), one on-axis laser guide star (LGS) WFS and two science pickoff arms that will patrol a 2 arcminute diameter field of regard (FOR). Sky coverage is an important consideration for a science demonstrator. End-to-end simulations of Raven show that a 10x10 subaperture adaptive optics (AO) system can meet the science requirements, i.e. 30% of the energy ensquared (EE) within a 140mas slit using three R<14 NGSs, and 40% EE with the addition of the central LGS. An overview of the Raven project is presented, including the top-level requirements, science cases, opto-mechanical design, calibration procedures and the hardware and software architecture.

  14. Science objectives and first results from the SMART-1/AMIE multicolour micro-camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Langevin, Y.; Barucci, M. A.; Plancke, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Sodnik, Z.; Mancuso, S.; Hofmann, B. A.; Muinonen, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Yu.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), on-board SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon, is an imaging system with scientific, technical and public outreach objectives. The science objectives are to image the lunar South Pole, permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient lunar non-mare volcanism, local spectrophotometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (South Pole Aitken basin). The technical objectives are to perform a Laserlink experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA/Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies and on-board autonomy navigation. The public outreach and educational objectives are to promote planetary exploration and space. We present here the first results obtained during the cruise phase.

  15. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  16. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  17. Unmanned surface traverses of Mars and Moon: Science objectives, payloads, operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Choate, R.

    1973-01-01

    Science objectives and properties to be measured are outlined for long surface traverse missions on Mars and the Moon, with remotely-controlled roving vehicles. A series of candidate rover payloads is proposed for each planet, varying in weight, cost, purpose, and development needed. The smallest weighs 35 kg; the largest almost 300 kg. A high degree of internal control will be needed on the Mars rover, including the ability to carry out complex science sequences. Decision-making by humans in the Mars mission includes supervisory control of rover operations and selection of features and samples of geological and biological interest. For the lunar mission, less control on the rover and more on earth is appropriate. Science portions of the rover mission profile are outlined, with timelines and mileage breakdowns. Operational problem areas for Mars include control, communications, data storage, night operations, and the mission operations system. For the moon, science data storage on the rover would be unnecessary and control much simpler.

  18. Aiming for long-term, objective-driven science communication in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Communicating science to wider lay audiences is an increasingly important part of a scientist's remit, and is something that many scientists are keen to embrace. However, based on surveys carried out amongst the UK public, as well as our own experiences in developing and delivering such activities, we believe that they are not always as effective at engaging members of the general public as they could be. In this opinion article we argue that in order to achieve more effective science communication, we need more objective-driven and long-term initiatives. As well as being implemented by the scientists themselves, funding organisations can play an important role in helping to drive such initiatives, and we suggest a list of actionable items that might allow for some of these ideas to be implemented. PMID:28163891

  19. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiative Heating Experiment, RHE, aboard the Aeroassist Flight Experiment, AFE, (now cancelled) was to make in-situ measurements of the stagnation region shock layer radiation during an aerobraking maneuver from geosynchronous to low earth orbit. The measurements were to provide a data base to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models. Although cancelled, much work was done to develop the science requirements and to successfully meet RHE technical challenges. This paper discusses the RHE scientific objectives and expected science performance of a small sapphire window for the RHE radiometers. The spectral range required was from 170 to 900 nm. The window size was based on radiometer sensitivity requirements including capability of on-orbit solar calibration.

  20. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called ‘generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full

  1. Calibration of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; Newsom, H.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Sautter, V.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the calibration of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS instrument, initiated

  2. Major-Element Compositional Diversity Observed by ChemCam Along the MSL Traverse: The First Three Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Clegg, S. M.; Gasda, P. J.; Frydenvang, J.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Lasue, J.; Lanza, N.; Anderson, R. B.; Sautter, V.; Bridges, J.; Le Deit, L.; Nachon, M.; Rapin, W.; Meslin, P. Y.; Newsom, H. E.; Clark, B. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bridges, N.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M. R.; Francis, R.; Leveille, R. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Melikechi, N.; Jackson, R.; Fabre, C.; Payré, V.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Crisp, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    ChemCam on Curiosity has used LIBS to obtain elemental compositions of >6000 target points at distances to 7.4 m from the rover. Observations include igneous clasts, sediments, diagenetic features, and other details often not accessible by the rover arm. A major re-calibration was recently completed using >350 standards. This significantly improved the accuracies of mineral end-members including plag-feldspars, hi-Si compositions, oxide grains, Mg-rich end-members (presumably Mg saponites; not yet confirmed by CheMin), and Mg and Ca sulfates. Here we draw conclusions from the overall compositional distributions observed in Gale crater from landing until the present using the new calibration. Observations from Bradbury Rise (sols 0-53, 326-520) show a scattering of compositions toward mineral end-members from igneous clasts and pebbles transported from the crater rim. In contrast, Sheepbed mudstones (first drill location; sols 126-300) form a tight cluster close to average Mars composition. The nearby Shaler fluvial sandstone outcrop (sols 306-325)--the first outcrop of potential deltaic foreset beds--shows K enrichment. This enrichment reaches a peak of 6 wt % K2O (sol 625) in the Mt. Remarkable member of the Kimberley formation, Kimberley being a drill location flanked by foreset beds 7 km SW of Shaler. The Pahrump outcrop (sols 753-919)—first observed material of the Murray formation at Mt. Sharp's base—shows lower Mg, higher Si, and much higher Al, consistent with stronger alteration. Further along the traverse ChemCam discovered an outcrop of light-toned Murray formation rock (sols 992 on) of nearly pure SiO2+TiO2. Overall, the ChemCam database points to a very strong diversity of inputs and alteration processes within a relatively short distance within Gale. Igneous compositions: while Jake Matijevic, a float analyzed early by APXS, appeared nepheline normative, no clear nepheline has been found by ChemCam. Additionally, despite the significant number of

  3. Alignment of Assessment Objectives with Instructional Objectives Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy--The Case for Food Science and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…

  4. Exploring Gusev Crater with Spirit: Review of science objectives and testable hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Grin, E.A.; Carr, M.H.; Sutter, B.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Farmer, J.D.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.O.; DesMarais, D.J.; Kramer, M.G.; Newsom, H.; Barber, C.; Thorsos, I.; Tanaka, K.L.; Barlow, N.G.; Fike, D.A.; Urquhart, M.L.; Grigsby, B.; Grant, F.D.; de Goursac, O.

    2003-01-01

    Gusev Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit mission. Located at the outlet of Ma'adim Vallis and 250 km south of the volcano Apollinaris Patera, Gusev is an outstanding site to achieve the goals of the MER mission. The crater could have collected sediments from a variety of sources during its 3.9 Ga history, including fluvial, lacustrine, volcanic, glacial, impact, regional and local aeolian, and global air falls. It is a unique site to investigate the past history of water on Mars, climate and geological changes, and the potential habitability of the planet, which are central science objectives of the MER mission. Because of its complex history and potential diversity, Gusev will allow the testing of a large spectrum of hypotheses with the complete suite of MER instruments. Evidence consistent with long-lived lake episodes exist in the landing ellipse area. They might offer a unique opportunity to study, for the first time, Martian aqueous sediments and minerals formed in situ in their geological context. We review the geological history and diversity of the landing site, the science hypotheses that can be tested during the MER mission, and the relevance of Gusev to the MER mission objectives and payload. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B.H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibek, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populationsof high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments,and specifically within Earths magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominallaunch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for atleast 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 5.8 RE, 10).The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales rangingfrom 0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the twospacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B),and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions.Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, providehistorical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples ofthe most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design ofthe RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation andmeasurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliverthese measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companionpapers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  6. The language of objects: Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's science of the past.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-03-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern "scientific" archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited themselves to histories of texts and therefore abandoned the earliest human history. Instead, he proposed a new history of objects, which included the entire history of humankind. Thomsen's work as director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Copenhagen was especially important for this renewal. The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences, such as geology and comparative anatomy. From the 1840s, Thomsen's museum became a model for how the study of human artifacts could deliver scientific insights into human nature and the laws of human development.

  7. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibeck, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2013-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populations of high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments, and specifically within Earth's magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominal launch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1×5.8 RE, 10∘). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales ranging from ˜0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields ( E and B), and wave distributions ( d E and d B) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, provide historical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples of the most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design of the RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation and measurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliver these measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companion papers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  8. ChemCam investigation of resistant fracture-fill cements at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveille, R. J.; Wiens, R. C.; Anderson, R. B.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J.; Clark, B. C.; Cousin, A.; Edgar, L. A.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kah, L. C.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouelic, S.; Leshin, L. A.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; McLennan, S. M.; Meslin, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Newsom, H. E.; Ollila, A.; Schröder, S.; Siebach, K. L.; Thompson, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument on the Curiosity rover and it is capable of providing rapid geochemical analyses of targets up to 7m away. It can also provide detailed, high spatial resolution (sub-mm), three-dimensional chemical data. Here, we describe Remote Microscopic Imager (RMI) mosaics and detailed LIBS analyses, including rasters and depth profiles of distinctive fracture-filling isopachous cements. In addition, APXS analyses and Mastcam colour images provide additional information and geological context. These resistant features generally appear as centimeter-thick, sub-parallel raised ridges, often sub-vertical and generally composed of two to four layers. Major, minor and trace element data reveal that the cements have a distinct composition compared to the host sedimentary rock and at least two generations of cements can be identified based on composition. At McGrath, a tilted, three-layer vein was investigated by performing a 20-point line raster across the exposed layers (on edge) as well as depth profiles by firing 150 laser shots at a single point. Both of these analyses show that the two outer layers have a similar composition, while the center layer is distinctly different, revealing a cement stratigraphy. In particular, the outer layers show elevated MgO (14-18 wt. %) and possibly elevated Li compared to the middle layer. These compositions suggest that two generations of cements formed from two fluids of different composition or that the precipitating fluid's composition evolved over time, and that Mg-rich phyllosilicates may occur in the cements. Additional rasters and depth profiles were also performed on similar targets. These vein-like features record aqueous processes likely related to early and shallow diagenesis in a habitable lacustrine/fluvial sedimentary environment in Yellowknife Bay. Diagenetic features, such as these Mg-rich veins, as well as Ca-sulfate veins, concretions, and nodules may be common on Mars, as they are found

  9. ChemCam results from the Shaler outcrop in Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bridges, J.C.; Williams, A.; Edgar, L.; Ollila, A.; Williams, J.; Nachon, Marion; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Schieber, J.; Gupta, S.; Dromart, G.; Wiens, R.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Forni, O.; Lanza, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Sautter, V.; Blaney, D.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin, E.; Lewis, K.W.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H.; Schwenzer, S.P.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ChemCam campaign at the fluvial sedimentary outcrop “Shaler” resulted in observations of 28 non-soil targets, 26 of which included active laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and all of which included Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) images. The Shaler outcrop can be divided into seven facies based on grain size, texture, color, resistance to erosion, and sedimentary structures. The ChemCam observations cover Facies 3 through 7. For all targets, the majority of the grains were below the limit of the RMI resolution, but many targets had a portion of resolvable grains coarser than ∼0.5 mm. The Shaler facies show significant scatter in LIBS spectra and compositions from point to point, but several key compositional trends are apparent, most notably in the average K2O content of the observed facies. Facies 3 is lower in K2O than the other facies and is similar in composition to the “snake,” a clastic dike that occurs lower in the Yellowknife Bay stratigraphic section. Facies 7 is enriched in K2O relative to the other facies and shows some compositional and textural similarities to float rocks near Yellowknife Bay. The remaining facies (4, 5, and 6) are similar in composition to the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake members, although the Shaler facies have slightly elevated K2O and FeOT. Several analysis points within Shaler suggest the presence of feldspars, though these points have excess FeOT which suggests the presence of Fe oxide cement or inclusions. The majority of LIBS analyses have compositions which indicate that they are mixtures of pyroxene and feldspar. The Shaler feldspathic compositions are more alkaline than typical feldspars from shergottites, suggesting an alkaline basaltic source region, particularly for the K2O-enriched Facies 7. Apart from possible iron-oxide cement, there is little evidence for chemical alteration at Shaler, although calcium-sulfate veins comparable to those observed lower in the stratigraphic section are present. The

  10. Formation Conditions of Basalts at Gale Crater, Mars from ChemCam Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiberto, J.; Bridges, J.; Dasgupta, R.; Edwards, P.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface igneous rocks shed light onto the chemistry, tectonic, and thermal state of planetary interiors. For the purpose of comparative planetology, therefore, it is critical to fully utilize the compositional diversity of igneous rocks for different terrestrial planets. For Mars, igneous float rocks and conglomerate clasts at Gale Crater, as analyzed by ChemCam [1] using a new calibration [2], have a larger range in chemistry than have been analyzed at any other landing site or within the Martian meteorite collection [3, 4]. These rocks may reflect different conditions of melting within the Martian interior than any previously analyzed basalts. Here we present new formation conditions for basaltic and trachybasalt/dioritic rocks at Gale Crater from ChemCam analyses following previous procedures [5, 6]. We then compare these estimates of basalt formation with previous estimates for rocks from the Noachian (Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and a clast in the NWA 7034 meteorite [5, 6]), Hesperian (surface volcanics [7]), and Amazonian (surface volcanics and shergottites [7-8]), to calculate an average mantle potential temperature for different Martian epochs and investigate how the interior of Mars has changed through time. Finally, we will compare Martian mantle potential temperatures with petrologic estimate of cooling for the Earth. Our calculated estimate for the mantle potential temperature (TP) of rocks at Gale Crater is 1450 ± 45 °C which is within error of previous estimates for Noachian aged rocks [5, 6]. The TP estimates for the Hesperian and Amazonian, based on orbital analyses of the crust [7], are lower in temperature than the estimates for the Noachian. Our results are consistent with simple convective cooling of the Martian interior. [1] Wiens R. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev 170. 167-227. [2] Anderson R. et al. (2015) LPSC. Abstract #7031. [3] Schmidt M.E. et al. (2014) JGRP 2013JE004481. [4] Sautter V. et al. (2014) JGRP 2013JE004472. [5] Filiberto J

  11. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Gnanamalar Sarojini Daniel, Esther

    2013-10-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second, using this list, ninth grade science textbooks and curriculum document contents were analyzed. Third, based on this content analysis, a possible list of 71 learning objectives for the integration of STS elements was prepared. This list of learning objectives was refined by using a two-round Delphi technique. The Delphi study was used to rate and to determine the consensus regarding which items (i.e. learning objectives for STS in the ninth grade science textbooks in Palestine) are to be accepted for inclusion. The results revealed that of the initial 71 objectives in round one, 59 objectives within round two had a mean score of 5.683 or higher, which indicated that the learning objectives could be included in the development of STS modules for ninth grade science in Palestine.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Behavioral Objectives on Class Performance and Retention in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert Charles; Lockard, J. David

    Presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) in April, 1972, in Chicago, this study compared the achievement and retention of ninth grade physical science classes receiving instruction with a prior knowledge of behavioral objectives with ninth grade classes taught the same material without…

  13. The SPEDE experiment on SMART-1: Instrument, mission, and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mälkki, A.; Schmidt, W.; Laakso, H.; Grard, R.; Escoubet, C. P.; Wahlund, J. E.; Blomberg, L.; Marklund, G.; Johlander, B.

    2003-04-01

    The SPEDE (Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment) experiment, consisting of two electric sensors and an electronics unit, will measure the electron flux and wave electric fields on the SMART-1 mission. The purpose of the SPEDE experiment is to monitor 1) the disturbances (electron flux, wave electric fields, and spacecraft potential variations) induced by the propulsion system, and 2) the variability of the electron density and wave electric fields first during the Earth spiraling phase and then during the Moon phase. The Moon has no magnetic field nor atmosphere, and therefore it is continuously exposed to the interplanetary space environment. The fast solar wind stream hits the dayside lunar surface and produces a tenuous wake. On a lunar orbit, the SPEDE observations are used for studying the solar wind moon interaction processes. The coupling of the solar wind with the surface produce disturbances at the edge of the wake region, which will be monitored with the SPEDE observations. When the Moon is immersed in the Earth’s magnetosphere, different kinds of interaction processes will occur. In this presentation we will introduce the SPEDE instrument and its capabilities, and discuss the science objectives and the science plan.

  14. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, S.; Vandaele, A. C.; Thomas, I.; Daerden, F.; Depiesse, C.; Drummond, R.; Neary, L.; Willame, Y.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.

    2015-10-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite is part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will probe the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3μm. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple channels and observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. We will present the instrument, its science objectives and the performances we expect based on simulations we have done so far.

  15. The Commons Science and Technology Committee inquiry into hybrid embryo research 2007: credible, reliable and objective?

    PubMed

    Gately, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the Government issued a white paper in which it proposed a ban on human-animal embryo research pending greater clarity on its potential. The Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology initiated an Inquiry and concluded that such research was necessary and should be permitted immediately. The Government agreed and this is reflected in revised legislation. The Government has issued guidelines on the gathering and use of scientific advice and evidence, designed to ensure that these are "credible, reliable and objective." This article tests the Committee's approach in the light of its remit and these, and other, relevant guidelines and concludes that it failed to meet these standards. Rather it effectively ceded to an interest group the regulation of its own activities. The article ends by suggesting alterations to the Committee's remit and composition designed to ensure that the public interest is better protected in future.

  16. Long-term Science Data Curation Using a Digital Object Model and Open-Source Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Lenhardt, W.; Wilson, B. E.; Palanisamy, G.; Cook, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific digital content, including Earth Science observations and model output, has become more heterogeneous in format and more distributed across the Internet. In addition, data and metadata are becoming necessarily linked internally and externally on the Web. As a result, such content has become more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, it is increasingly harder to deliver relevant metadata and data processing lineage information along with the actual content consistently. Readme files, data quality information, production provenance, and other descriptive metadata are often separated in the storage level as well as in the data search and retrieval interfaces available to a user. Critical archival metadata, such as auditing trails and integrity checks, are often even more difficult for users to access, if they exist at all. We investigate the use of several open-source software frameworks to address these challenges. We use Fedora Commons Framework and its digital object abstraction as the repository, Drupal CMS as the user-interface, and the Islandora module as the connector from Drupal to Fedora Repository. With the digital object model, metadata of data description and data provenance can be associated with data content in a formal manner, so are external references and other arbitrary auxiliary information. Changes are formally audited on an object, and digital contents are versioned and have checksums automatically computed. Further, relationships among objects are formally expressed with RDF triples. Data replication, recovery, metadata export are supported with standard protocols, such as OAI-PMH. We provide a tentative comparative analysis of the chosen software stack with the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model, along with our initial results with the existing terrestrial ecology data collections at NASA’s ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center for

  17. Science Objectives of the JEM EUSO Mission on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    JEM-EUSO space observatory is planned with a very large exposure factor which will exceed the critical exposure factor required for observing the most of the sources within the propagational horizon of about one hundred Mpc. The main science objective of JEM-EUSO is the source-identifying astronomy in particle channel with extremey-high-energy particles. Quasi-linear tracking of the source objects through galactic magnetic field should become feasible at energy > 10(exp 20) eV for all-sky. The individual GZK profile in high statistics experiments should differ from source to source due to different distance unless Lorentz invariance is somehow limited. hi addition, JEM-EUSO has three exploratory test observations: (i), extremely high energy neutrinos beginning at E > 10(exp 19) eV: neutrinos as being expected to have a slowly increasing cross section in the Standard Model, and in particular, hundreds of times more in the extra-dimension models. (ii). fundamental physics at extreme Super LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) energies with the hierarchical unified energy much below the GUT scale, and (iii). global atmospheric observation, including large-scale and local plasma discharges, night-glow, meteorites, and others..

  18. Overview of 3 years of ChemCam' chemical compositions along the Curiosity's traverse at Gale Crater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Agnès; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Curiosity rover has been in Gale crater for more than3 years now. It drove ~12 km from its landing point up to the Bagnold Dunes. The ChemCam instrument is widely used to assess the chemistry of rocks and soils at the submillimeter scale. As of sol 1200, ChemCam sampled >1000 targets, corresponding to >300000 laser shots, >6000 images, and many passive spectra. The Bradbury landing site, a plain located at a distal portion of the alluvial fan from Peace Vallis, exposed several float rocks presenting igneous compositions ranging from mafic up to a trachytic end-member. These observations provided an important clue concerning the diversity of early Mars magmatism that was not previously recognized. More igneous float rocks have been observed all along the traverse, being more felsic closer to the landing site, and more mafic near the cratered unit, after the Kimberley formation. The Sheepbed area is essentially composed of mudstones that show a very homogeneous composition, close to the average Martian crust, providing evidence of aqueous episodes with little alteration in this area. ChemCam showed that the bedrock host experienced other diagenetic events with Mg- and Fe-rich clays in erosion-resistant raised ridges on one hand, and calcium sulfate veins on the other hand. The nearby Shaler fluvial sandstone outcrop, the first outcrop of potential deltaic foreset beds, shows K enrichment. This enrichment is also observed at the Kimberley formation (another drill site flanked by foreset beds), located 7 km SW of Shaler, with up to 5.3 wt % at the Mount Remarkable member. Conglomerates have been analyzed in detail all along the traverse as they represent a link between the source rocks and the finer-grained sediments such as the sandstones and mudstones. They have shown an average composition that is enriched in alkalis, Al, and Si compared to the average Martian crust, with a clear enrichment in K2O in the vicinity of the Kimberley formation. Enrichment in K2O at

  19. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    SCIENCE BOARD FINAL REPORT November 2001 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ARMY (ACQUISITION, LOGISTICS AND TECHNOLOGY ) WASHINGTON...D.C. 20310-0103 VOLUME II THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burder...Soldier Team - Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  20. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  1. Chemo-stratigraphy in the Murray Formation Using ChemCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Anderson, R. B.; Bridges, N.; Bridges, J.; Calef, F. J., III; Clegg, S. M.; Le Deit, L.; Fisk, M. R.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Milliken, R.; Ming, D. W.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H. E.; Rapin, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity has completed a detailed chemo-stratigraphy analysis at the Pahrump exposure of the Murray formation. In total >570 chemical measurements and supporting remote micro images to classify texturally were collected. Chemical trends with both stratigraphic position and with texture were evaluated. From these data emerges a complex aqueous history where sediments have interacted with fluids with variable chemistry in distinct episodes. The ChemCam data collected at the nearby "Garden City" (GC) vein complex provides constraints on the chemical evolution of the Pahrump. GC is thought be stratigraphically above the Pahrump outcrop. Fluids producing the veins likely also migrated through the Pahrump sediments. Multiple episodes of fluids are evident at GC, forming distinct Ca sulfate, F-rich, enhanced MgO, and FeO-rich veins. These different fluid chemistries could be the result of distinct fluids migrating through the section from a distance with a pre-established chemical signature, fluids locally evolved from water rock interactions, or both. Texturally rocks have been classified into two distinct categories: fine grained or as cross-bedded sandstones. The sandstones have significantly lower SiO2, Al2O3, and K2O and higher FeO, and CaO. Fine grained rocks have further been sub-classified as resistant and recessive with other textural features such as laminations and pits noted.The strongest chemical trend in the fine-grained sandstones shows enhancements in MgO and FeO in erosion-resistant materials compared to fine grained recessive units, suggesting that increased abundance of Mg- and/or iron-rich cements may provide additional strength. The MgO and FeO variations with texture are independent of stratigraphic locations (e.g resistant material at both the bottom and top of the outcrop both are enhanced in MgO and FeO). The presence of the GC MgO and FeO rich veins provides additional evidence for fluids rich in these elements were present in the outcrop. Other

  2. Overview of the diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam onboard Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Blaney, D. L.; Wiens, R. C.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Clegg, S. M.; Cousin, A.; Fisk, M. R.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Le Deit, L.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P. Y.; Rapin, W.; Newsom, H. E.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Curiosity rover has encountered a variety of sedimentary rocks with significant variations in both texture and composition. Most of the sandstones and mudstones are interpreted as having been deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, as analyzed in details in the waypoints named Yellowknife Bay, Kimberley and Pahrump. All of these sediments have been crossed by diagenetic features of different composition. Light-toned Ca-sulfate veins observed initially at Yellowknife Bay were observed along the traverse, and in high density at the Pahrump location. As they appear in all sediments and show straight fractures, they correspond to late-stage diagenetic features, due to fluid circulation, with fractures probably due to hydraulic stress at depth. In contrast to light-toned veins, earlier-stage diagenetic features have shown variable composition in the three areas. At Yellowknife Bay, raised ridges display enriched Mg proportion, probably linked to Mg-clay whereas outcrops at Kimberley display fracture fills enriched in Mn and Zn. Pahrump displays a large variety of diagenetic features distinct from these previous examples. Mg-enriched concretions contain S and abundant Ni. Mg enrichments have also been observed in resistant zones along fractures and in resistant layers. Locally concretions also display high Fe, S-bearing material interpreted as Fe-sulfate, probably jarosite. A special location named Garden City at the top of the Parhump sequence displays a complex area with light-toned veins surrounded by darker veins. The latter display strong Ca signatures correlated with F, interpreted as fluorite. No C or S emissions were observed that could alternatively explain the high Ca abundance by carbonates or sulfates. The dark tone of the F-bearing minerals may be due to the presence of Fe. These specific dark veins could derive from the leaching of F-apatite, a mineral that has been observed both in the sandstones and in some of the igneous clasts analyzed by ChemCam

  3. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) -- Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while

  4. ChemCam at Gale Crater: Highlights and Discoveries from Three Years of Chemical Measurements on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Clegg, Samuel; Clark, Benton; Ehlmann, Bethany; Dyar, Melinda D.; Fisk, Martin; Francis, Raymond; Fabre, Cecile; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Johnson, Jeffery; Lanza, Nina; Leveille, Richard; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicholas; Melikechi, Noureddine; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Sautter, Violane; Vaniman, David; Grotzinger, John; Vasavad, Ashwin; Crisp, Joy

    2015-11-01

    ChemCam has undertaken a detailed chemical investigation of the rocks and soils at Gale crater over the last three years with over six thousand separate geochemical measurements. Recent recalibration of the ChemCam data using a new library of >350 geochemical standards has enabled increased elemental accuracies over a wider compositional range. The increased accuracy combined with ChemCam’s small spot size allows for the chemistry of mineral end members including feldspars, high silica, oxide rich grains to be identified. ChemCam has observed both sedimentary and igneous compositions. Igneous compositions are generally present in conglomerates and in float rocks. Compositions show a wide range of igneous chemistry ranging from basaltic to feldspar rich assemblages.Sedimentary rocks have a wide range of compositions reflecting both differences in chemical source regions and in depositional and diagenetic histories. The “Sheepbed” mudstones cluster around Martian average crustal compositions. The “Kimberley” outcrop showed enhanced potassium reaching concentrations up to ~6 wt% K2O. More recent observations in the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp reveal mudstones that are lower in magnesium and higher in silica and aluminum than the more basaltic mudstones previously investigated. Extremely high silica (75-85 wt%) deposits have also been identified. The high silica observations were associated with increased TiO2, While the Murray mudstones are generally low in magnesium, local enhancements in magnesium have also been noted associated with resistant facies in the outcrop. Chemical trends also indicate that iron oxide phases may also be present as cements. Sandstone facies with a mafic composition are also present. Veins in the unit also show a wide range of compositions indicating fluid chemistries rich in calcium sulfate, fluorine, magnesium and iron were present. Vein chemistry could be the result of distinct fluids migrating through from a

  5. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    PubMed

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement.

  6. Diversity of Rock Compositions at Gale Crater Observed by ChemCam and APXS on Curiosity, and Comparison to Meteorite and Orbital Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gellert, R.; Mangold, N.; Sautter, V.; Ollila, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Le Mouelic, S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Clegg, S. M.; Lanza, N.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Blaney, D. L.; Newsom, H. E.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Anderson, R. B.; D'Uston, L.; Bridges, N. T.; Fabre, C.; Meslin, P.; Johnson, J.; Vaniman, D.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, G.; Schmidt, M. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Gale crater was selected as the Curiosity landing site because of the apparent sedimentary spectral signatures seen from orbit. Sedimentary materials on Mars have to this point showed very little expression of major element mobility, so compositions of precursor igneous minerals play a strong role in the compositions of sediments. In addition, pebbles and float rocks on Bradbury Rise (sols 0-50, > 324) appear to be mostly igneous in origin, and are assumed to have been carried down from the crater rim. Overall in the first year on Mars ChemCam obtained >75,000 LIBS spectra on > 2,000 observation points, supported by > 1,000 RMI images, and APXS obtained a significant number of observations. These show surprisingly variable compositions. The mean ChemCam compositions for Bradbury Rise dust-free rocks and pebbles (62 locations) give SiO2 = 56%, FeOT = 16% and show high alkalis consistent with Jake Matijevic (sol ~47) APXS Na2O ~6.6 wt%. ChemCam observations on the conglomerate Link (sol 27) gave Rb > 150 ppm and Sr > 1500 ppm. These compositions imply the presence of abundant alkali feldspars in the material infilling the lower parts of Gale crater. They are generally consistent with the more feldspar-rich SNC meteorites but show a radical departure from larger scale orbital observations, e.g., GRS, raising the question of how widespread these compositions are outside of Gale crater. Sedimentary materials at Yellowknife Bay encompassing the Sheepbed (sols 125-300) and Shaler (sols 121, 311-324) units, potentially including Point Lake (sols 301-310) and Rocknest (sols 57-97), appear to have incorporated varying amounts of igneous source materials. Seven rocks investigated at Rocknest show significant additions of Fe, with mean FeOT = 25% (154 locations), suggesting that FeO was a cementing agent. ChemCam observations at Shaler show varying amounts of alkali feldspar (i.e., related to Bradbury Rise), Fe-rich material (Rocknest-like), and potassium-rich material

  7. OBJECTIVE TESTS IN SCIENCE FOR THIRD LEVEL N.S.W. HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CULL, R.G.; AND OTHERS

    CONTAINED ARE QUESTIONS AND TESTS TO EVALUATE ACHIEVEMENT IN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE THIRD LEVEL COURSE IN SCIENCE FOR THE HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE IN NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA. THE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE OFFICIAL SYLLABUS OF THE BOARD OF SENIOR SCHOOL STUDIES. THE QUESTIONS REFLECT THE LEVELS OF UNDERSTANDING AS DEVELOPED BY…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching Comfort Levels for Agricultural Science and Technology Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…

  9. Multiple Objectives Achieved with a Germination Experiment in a Science Education Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergwerff, Ken; Warners, David

    2007-01-01

    In our college course, "Life Science for Elementary School Teachers," our investigation assesses the germination success of an invasive plant, purple loosestrife, compared to native wildflowers. Topics addressed include the scientific method, experimental design, seed dormancy, plant competition, ethno-botany, and success of non-native plants. The…

  10. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building, and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 34 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers, and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  11. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.

    2004-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 3 - 4 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  12. Search for organic matter at Mars with combined measurements of the SAM and ChemCam instruments onboard the Curiosity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequaire, T.; Meslin, P. Y.; Rapin, W.; Jaber, M.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2012, he Curiosity rover on Mars seeks clues of habitability in Gale crater. One of these clues is the presence of organic matter. For the moment,only a few traces of organic matter was recently found with the SAM experiment. We propose here to evaluate the capabilities for the ChemCam experiment to detect organic molecules from its elemental analysis of the Mars regolith or rocks. The first results obtained in laboratory with the ChemCam spare model and different samples show that it is possible to detect organic signatures with LIBS,focusing on atomic carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen peaks,and on a C-N molecular peak when the samples areenriched in organic molecules(100-10 wt%). We currently work with Mars representative samples to determine the instrument detection limitfor organics, in order to determine if it can be used to guide Curiosity towards interesting outcrops.

  13. [Rationalities of knowledge production: on transformations of objects, technologies and information in biomedicine and the life sciences].

    PubMed

    Paul, Norbert W

    2009-09-01

    Since decades, scientific change has been interpreted in the light of paradigm shifts and scientific revolutions. The Kuhnian interpretation of scientific change however is now more and more confronted with non-disciplinary thinking in both, science and studies on science. This paper explores how research in biomedicine and the life sciences can be characterized by different rationalities, sometimes converging, sometimes contradictory, all present at the same time with varying ways of influence, impact, and visibility. In general, the rationality of objects is generated by fitting new objects and findings into a new experimental context. The rationality of hypotheses is a move towards the construction of novel explanatory tools and models. This is often inseparable meshing with the third, the technological rationality, in which a technology-driven, self-supporting and sometimes self-referential refinement of methods and technologies comes along with an extension into other fields. During the second and the third phase, the new and emerging fields tend to expand their explanatory reach not only across disciplinary boundaries but also into the social sphere, creating what has been characterized as "exceptionalism" (e.g. genetic exceptionalism or neuro-exceptionalism). Finally, recent biomedicine and life-sciences reach a level in which experimental work becomes more and more data-driven because the technologically constructed experimental systems generate a plethora of findings (data) which at some point start to blur the original hypotheses. For the rationality of information the materiality of research practices becomes secondary and research objects are more and more getting out of sight. Finally, the credibility of science as a practice becomes more and more dependent on consensus about the applicability and relevance of its results. The rationality of interest (and accountability) has become more and more characteristic for a research process which is no longer

  14. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  15. Obstacle Marking and Vehicle Guidance Science and Technology Objective (OMVG-STO) Augmented Reality for Enhanced Command and Control and Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    OBSTACLE MARKING AND VEHICLE GUIDANCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE (OMVG-STO) AUGMENTED REALITY FOR ENHANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL AND MOBILITY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Obstacle Marking and Vehicle Guidance Science and Technology Objective (OMVG-STO) Augmented Reality for Enhanced Command and Control

  16. The Art and Science of Student Learning Objectives: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachlan-Haché, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Student learning measures have rapidly become common in teacher evaluation systems across the United States. Over half of the country's states have required, recommended, or identified "student learning objectives" (SLOs) as a measure of student growth for use in educator evaluation. Although SLO-type measures vary significantly in terms…

  17. Values and Objectivity in Science: Value-Ladenness, Pluralism and the Epistemic Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Martin

    2013-01-01

    My intention is to cast light on the characteristics of epistemic or fundamental research (in contrast to application-oriented research). I contrast a Baconian notion of objectivity, expressing a correspondence of the views of scientists to the facts, with a pluralist notion, involving a critical debate between conflicting approaches. These…

  18. Science 101: Do Balances and Scales Determine an Object's Mass or Its Weight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The typical elementary-school explanation of the difference between mass and weight goes something like the following: Mass is the amount of matter contained in an object. If you travel to the Moon, another planet, or anywhere far away from Earth, your mass doesn't change. Weight is how hard Earth pulls on you. When you travel to the Moon or…

  19. Exploring Venus with high-altitude balloons: Science objectives and mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Zahnle, Kevin; Atreya, Sushil K.

    Following the trailblazing flights of the 1985 twin Soviet VEGA balloons, missions to fly in the high atmosphere of Venus near 55 km altitude have been proposed to both NASA's Discovery Program and ESA's Cosmic Vision. Such missions would address a variety of fundamental science issues highlighted in a variety of high-level NASA-authorized science documents in recent years, including the Decadal Study, various NASA roadmaps, and recommendations coming out of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Such missions would in particular address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state, including detailed measurements of (1) trace gases associated with Venus's active photoand thermo-chemistry and (2) measurements of vertical motions and local temperature which characterize convective and wave processes. As an example of what can be done with a small mission (less than 500M US dollars), the Venus Aerostatic-Lift Observatories for in-situ Research (VALOR) Discovery mission will be discussed. This mission would fly twin balloon-borne aerostats over temperate and polar latitudes, sampling rare gases, chemicals and dynamics in two distinct latitude regions for several days. A variety of scenarios for the origin, formation, and evolution of Venus would be tested by sampling all the noble gases and their isotopes, especially the heaviest elements never reliably measured previously: xenon and krypton. Riding the gravity and planetary waves of Venus, the VALOR balloons would sample the chemistry, meteorology and dynamics of Venus's sulfur-cloud region. Tracked by an array of Earth-based telescopes, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds would be measured with unprecedented precision. Such measurements would help to develop a fundamental understanding of (1) the circulation of Venus, especially its enigmatic super-rotation, (2) the nature of Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Venus formed and evolved over the aeons.

  20. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. J.; Puech, M.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Cuby, J.-G.; Guenther, E.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S. L.; Afonso, J.; Amram, P.; Aussel, H.; Basden, A.; Bastian, N.; Battaglia, G.; Biller, B.; Bouché, N.; Caffau, E.; Charlot, S.; Clénet, Y.; Combes, F.; Conselice, C.; Contini, T.; Dalton, G.; Davies, B.; Disseau, K.; Dunlop, J.; Fiore, F.; Flores, H.; Fusco, T.; Gadotti, D.; Gallazzi, A.; Giallongo, E.; Gonçalves, T.; Gratadour, D.; Hill, V.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ibata, R.; Larsen, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lemasle, B.; Maraston, C.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Östlin, G.; Paumard, T.; Pello, R.; Pentericci, L.; Petitjean, P.; Roth, M.; Rouan, D.; Schaerer, D.; Telles, E.; Trager, S.; Welikala, N.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (>=40 arcmin2) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode (`high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of >100 objects simultaneously. The second (`high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of >10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the toplevel requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process.

  1. Regional and global crustal context of soil and rock chemistry from ChemCam and APXS at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Gordon, S.; Jackson, R.; Agee, C. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Clegg, S. M.; Lanza, N.; Cousin, A.; Gasnault, O.; Meslin, P. Y.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S. M.; Mangold, N.; Sautter, V.; Clark, B. C.; Anderson, R. B.; Gellert, R.; Schmidt, M. E.; Ollila, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The chemistry of rocks and soils analyzed by Curiosity represent a diverse population including mafic and felsic compositions. The data from Gale Crater can be compared with the accumulated data for martian materials from other landing sites, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) experiment on the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft, and the data for martian meteorites. Variations in the CaO/Al2O3 ratio in primitive igneous rocks can provide a fundamental signature of crustal formation on Mars. Abundances of other elements like Fe in the surface rocks can reflect later differentiation effects. Comparing the chemistry of Gale samples with other martian data must take into account the different geochemical components in the samples. The most important distinction is between the volatile elements including H, C, Cl, S, and the lithophile elements including Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, Mg, etc. The large enrichments of the volatile elements SO3, Cl, and H2O in the soils may represent contributions from volcanic aerosols or other local sources of volatiles. Alteration and transport of fluid mobile major elements by aqueous or hydrothermal processes could complicate the estimation of crustal abundances of elements such as Ca but early results suggest little or no chemical fractionation attributable to alteration. Other clues to the role of fluids can come from the ChemCam data for the highly fluid mobile elements lithium and manganese. Regional comparisons of chemistry only make sense when considering the absolute abundances and elemental ratios within the different component classes. The use of elemental ratios avoids the problem of the correction required to get volatile-free abundance data for comparison of GRS data with meteorites and landing site rocks measured by the ChemCam Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). The huge size of the GRS footprint makes it especially difficult to make the required corrections. Eventually data

  2. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory: Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza

    2016-10-01

    In January 2015 we began a program of near-Earth object (NEO) astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our roughly 500 hours of annual observing time are split into 2 hour runs usually in the middle of every other night (see poster by K. Nault et al.), and frequent half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (this poster). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph instrument. As of June 22, 2016 we have obtained reflectance spectra of 129 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5 m to 6 km.Highlights of this work presented here include 106 spectra of (357439) 2004 BL86 spanning 3 hours 4.5 minutes, more than a full rotation, and spectra of 18 objects with diameters comparable to historical Earth impactors (e.g., Tunguska, Chelyabinsk and smaller bolides).This work is based on observations obtained with the APO 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by ARC. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  3. Marco Polo - A Mission to Return a Sample from a Near-Earth Object - Science Requirements and Operational Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Antonella; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; F. Green, Simon; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Jürgen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard; Agnolon, David; Romstedt, Jens

    Marco Polo is a mission to return a sample from a near-Earth object of primitive type (class C or D). It is foreseen as a collaborative effort between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Marco Polo is currently in a Phase-A study (status as of summer 2009). This paper focuses on the scientific requirements provided to the industrial study consortia in Europe as well as the possible mission scenario at the target object in order to achieve the overall mission science objectives. The main scientific reasons for going to a near-Earth object are to understand the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula, to understand how major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating) influence the history of planetesimals, whether primitive class objects contain presolar material, what the organics were in primitive materials, how organics could shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life, and what the role of impacts by NEOs would be in the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

  4. Mars2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2): Science Objectives and Instrument Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Karlgaard, Chris; Wright, Henry

    2015-01-01

    NASAs exploration and technology roadmaps call for capability advancements in Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems to enable increased landed mass, a higher landing precision, and a wider planetary access. It is also recognized that these ambitious EDL performance goals must be met while maintaining a low mission risk in order to pave the way for future human missions. As NASA is engaged in developing new EDL systems and technologies via testing at Earth, instrumentation of existing Mars missions is providing valuable engineering data for performance improvement, risk reduction, and an improved definition of entry loads and environment. The most notable recent example is the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) suite hosted by Mars Science Laboratory for its entry in Aug 2012. The MEDLI suite provided a comprehensive dataset for Mars entry aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and thermal protection system (TPS) performance. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, and transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has demonstrated extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. The presentation will introduce a follow-on MEDLI instrumentation suite (called MEDLI2) that is being developed for Mars-2020 mission. MEDLI2 has an enhanced scope that includes backshell instrumentation, a wider forebody coverage, and instruments that specifically target supersonic aerodynamics. Similar to MEDLI, MEDLI2 uses thermal plugs with embedded thermocouples and ports through the TPS to measure surface pressure. MEDLI2, however, also includes heat flux sensors in the backshell and a low range pressure transducer to measure afterbody pressure.

  5. The PanCam instrument for the ExoMars 2018 rover: science objectives and instrument characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Schmitz, N.; Josset, J. L.; Paar, G.; Barnes, D. P.

    2011-10-01

    The scientific objectives of the ExoMars 2018 rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for the mission. In this talk we will describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, atmospheric science and 3D vision. We will also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench and electrical interface is via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). We also discuss some results from PanCam testing during field trials.

  6. The PanCam instrument for the ExoMars 2018 rover: science objectives and instrument characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Schmitz, N.; Josset, J.-L.; Paar, G.; Barnes, D. P.; PanCam Team

    2013-09-01

    The scientific objectives of the ExoMars 2018 rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for the mission. Here, we will describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, atmospheric science and 3D vision. We will also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench and electrical interface is via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). We also discuss some results from PanCam testing during field trials.

  7. Investigation of Archean microfossil preservation for defining science objectives for Mars sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorber, K.; Czaja, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that Mars contains more potentially life-supporting habitats (either in the present or past), than once thought. The key to finding life on Mars, whether extinct or extant, is to first understand which biomarkers and biosignatures are strictly biogenic in origin. Studying ancient habitats and fossil organisms of the early Earth can help to characterize potential Martian habitats and preserved life. This study, which focuses on the preservation of fossil microorganisms from the Archean Eon, aims to help define in part the science methods needed for a Mars sample return mission, of which, the Mars 2020 rover mission is the first step.Here is reported variations in the geochemical and morphological preservation of filamentous fossil microorganisms (microfossils) collected from the 2.5-billion-year-old Gamohaan Formation of the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. Samples of carbonaceous chert were collected from outcrop and drill core within ~1 km of each other. Specimens from each location were located within thin sections and their biologic morphologies were confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Raman spectroscopic analyses documented the carbonaceous nature of the specimens and also revealed variations in the level of geochemical preservation of the kerogen that comprises the fossils. The geochemical preservation of kerogen is principally thought to be a function of thermal alteration, but the regional geology indicates all of the specimens experienced the same thermal history. It is hypothesized that the fossils contained within the outcrop samples were altered by surface weathering, whereas the drill core samples, buried to a depth of ~250 m, were not. This differential weathering is unusual for cherts that have extremely low porosities. Through morphological and geochemical characterization of the earliest known forms of fossilized life on the earth, a greater understanding of the origin of evolution of life on Earth is gained

  8. ICESat-2: An overview of science objectives, development status, expected performance, and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Anthony, M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2's (ICESat-2) mission objectives are to quantify polar ice sheet contributions to sea level change, quantify regional signatures of ice sheet changes to assess driving mechanisms, estimate sea ice thickness, and to enable measurements of canopy height as a basis for estimating large-scale biomass. With a scheduled launch date of October 2017 most of the flight hardware has been assembled and algorithm development for its standard geophysical products is well underway. The spacecraft, built by Orbital ATK, is completed and is undergoing testing. ICESat-2's single instrument, the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), is built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and by the time of the Fall Meeting will have completed optical alignment and integration, and will start with its final testing. At the same time, airborne laser altimeter data are being used for algorithm development. This talk will give an overview of the design of ICESat-2, of its hardware and software status, as well as examples of ICESat-2's coverage and what the data will look like.

  9. The Noucaplac-1 Survey, South Fiji Basin: an International Collaboration Combining UNCLOS and Science Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, W. R.; Herzer, R.; Barker, D. H.; Lafoy, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea allows coastal states to claim a legal continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical miles that constitutes the Exclusive Economic Zone. One of the opportunities presented by UNCLOS article 76 is to align essential - and expensive - data acquisition in poorly mapped shelf regions with scientific research interests, thus maximising data value. The Noucaplac-1 survey that took place in August 2004 in the South Fiji Basin is an example of collaboration between neighboring states aiming to address both UNCLOS article 76 requirements and scientific objectives. The Noucaplac-1 survey was designed by the French EXTRAPLAC (reasoned extension of the continental shelf) program to identify the natural prolongation of the New Caledonian territory along the Loyalty Ridge. At the same time, the environs of the potential extended continental shelf claim was identified by the New Zealand collaborators as a key region for study to improve understanding of the regional tectonic evolution and the survey scope was modified accordingly. This contribution describes the data acquired on board the French RV L'Atalante during the Noucaplac-1 cruise. In addition to the multibeam bathymetric data collected with the EM-12 multibeam echo sounder and showing basement tectonic fabric at the sea floor, high-speed seismic data are of particular interest, as they allow the interpretation of basement morphology in this area that is covered by relatively sparse sediments. Regional magnetic data provide additional evidence for distinct morphotectonic regions that may help a New Caledonian extended continental shelf claim

  10. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  11. Fluorine observations by ChemCam: A tracer of magmatic and hydrothermal processes in the martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Forni, O.; Toplis, M. J.; Wiens, R. C.; Gasnault, O.; Sautter, V.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam LIBS instrument on the Curiosity rover has observed fluorine in more than 60 locations along the traverse. These are the first fluorine detections on Mars, although the SNC meteorites contain moderate amounts of F, suggesting that is present in the Mars crust. The detection limit is < 0.4 wt % but requires the simultaneous presence of Ca in the LIBS plasma (Gaft et al., 2014). Approximately one fourth of the observations were made on conglomerate clasts in the Bradbury Rise area near the landing site, and another third were made in sediments in the Kimberley area (around sol 550). In these targets F was correlated with K, Al, and Si enrichments; in the Kimberley area they were also correlated with Li enrichments in the 10s of ppm. The most likely mineral host in these settings is muscovite and potentially also biotite. In other observations the fluorine is correlated with high Ca; P was observed above the relatively high LIBS detection limit in some targets, suggesting the presence of fluorapatites. Chlorine was not found in association with fluorine. A number of these observations were made in the rocks around the aeolian drift (around sol 60). The presence of the implied apatites and mica minerals has strong implications for the petrologic environment in which these phases were formed. We will discuss the origin and possible processes that led to the presence of these fluorine-bearing targets.

  12. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  13. X-ray Powder Diffraction in Conservation Science: Towards Routine Crystal Structure Determination of Corrosion Products on Heritage Art Objects.

    PubMed

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Fischer, Andrea; Eggert, Gerhard; Runčevski, Tomče; Wahlberg, Nanna

    2016-06-08

    The crystal structure determination and refinement process of corrosion products on historic art objects using laboratory high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is presented in detail via two case studies. The first material under investigation was sodium copper formate hydroxide oxide hydrate, Cu4Na4O(HCOO)8(OH)2∙4H2O (sample 1) which forms on soda glass/copper alloy composite historic objects (e.g., enamels) in museum collections, exposed to formaldehyde and formic acid emitted from wooden storage cabinets, adhesives, etc. This degradation phenomenon has recently been characterized as "glass induced metal corrosion". For the second case study, thecotrichite, Ca3(CH3COO)3Cl(NO3)2∙6H2O (sample 2), was chosen, which is an efflorescent salt forming needlelike crystallites on tiles and limestone objects which are stored in wooden cabinets and display cases. In this case, the wood acts as source for acetic acid which reacts with soluble chloride and nitrate salts from the artifact or its environment. The knowledge of the geometrical structure helps conservation science to better understand production and decay reactions and to allow for full quantitative analysis in the frequent case of mixtures.

  14. From boundary‐work to boundary object: how biology left and re‐entered the social sciences

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In an archaeological spirit this paper comes back to a founding event in the construction of the twentieth‐century episteme, the moment at which the life‐ and the social sciences parted ways and intense boundary‐work was carried out on the biology/society border, with significant benefits for both sides. Galton and Weismann for biology, and Alfred Kroeber for anthropology delimit this founding moment and I argue, expanding on an existing body of historical scholarship, for an implicit convergence of their views. After this excavation, I look at recent developments in the life sciences, which I have named the ‘social turn’ in biology (Meloni, 2014), and in particular at epigenetics with its promise to destabilize the social/biological border. I claim here that today a different account of ‘the biological’ to that established during the Galton–Kroeber period is emerging. Rather than being used to support a form of boundary‐work, biology has become a boundary object that crosses previously erected barriers, allowing different research communities to draw from it. PMID:27818538

  15. Possible alteration of rocks observed by Chemcam along the traverse to Glenelg in Gale crater on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Blaney, Diana; Bridges, John; Cousin, Agnès; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Mangold, Nicolas; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pinet, Patrick; d'Uston, Claude; Wiens, Roger C.; MSL ScienceTeam, The

    2013-04-01

    The possibility that the rocks and soils along the traverse during the 90 first SOLs have been altered is evaluated through the large number of ChemCam observations and through theoretical considerations on water-rock interactions. ChemCam [1,2] uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to produce atomic emission spectra of small (350-550 µm) observation points on rocks and soils within 7 m of the rover. In the first 90 sols, 359 such observations were made on Mars targets. LIBS peak ratios, normalized to silica, have been used as a first level quantification tool for the assessment of chemical input or output fluxes. The dust (1st laser shot on 30 to 50 per observation), and the soils and rocks (average of all shots excluding the first five) are evaluated separately. Alkali elements in rocks and soils display a trend towards enriched compositions, and the data do not suggest any sign of leaching of these labile elements. Alkaline earth elements have sporadic high Ca values, but are significantly depleted in rocks enriched in alkali elements. The peak ratios Al494+496/Si288 and (Fe438+Mg285)/Si288 have been converted to approximate element ratios and highlights the distinction between felsic and mafic mineral constituents. A felsic end-member having the composition of andesine has been identified. Rocks also display incursions towards either a silica-rich composition or a trend showing Fe+Mg enrichment, the latter may indicate a contribution of oxide phases. We also modeled the alteration of a mixture of olivine, andesine and pyroxene, with the addition of 10% K-feldspar as suggested by the K content encountered at Gale, by a numerical simulator with realistic kinetic constraints [3]. The alteration is assumed to be driven by fluids from acidic composition assuming a SO3-rich atmosphere. The results suggest sporadic evaporations of a Ca-enriched fluid in the soils, not an intensive alteration of the soils as suspected elsewhere on Mars [5]. For rocks, the

  16. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  17. The Effects of Performance Objectives on the Achievement Level of Selected Eighth-Grade Science Pupils in Four Predominantly Black Inner City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.

    Reported is a study to determine the effects of performance objectives on the achievement level of low achieving science pupils in four predominantly black inner city schools. Six teachers and 210 pupils were involved in the study. Three teachers were trained to develop and use performance objectives as an instructional technique. Pedagogical…

  18. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P < .001). Conclusions. Indoor air quality is an important indicator of the cumulative impact of outdoor emissions in fence-line communities. Policies based on outdoor monitoring alone add to environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  19. Science and technology objective (STO) to develop tests for detecting microbial and chemical contaminants in food and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knechtges, Paul L.; Gargan, Thomas P., II; Burrows, William D.

    2002-02-01

    The assurance of safe food and water is paramount to the health and performance of the warfighter. Any technology to assess the chemical and microbial purity of food and water under field conditions must meet rigorous criteria: it must be readily portable, provide timely results (no more than 4 hours), have adequate sensitivity (1 cfu/100 mL for potable water), be compatible with military power sources, and be of complexity appropriate for operation by a Preventive Medicine Specialist. The nomination of an Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) leads to assessment of existing technologies and commercial products; identification of users, regulators and developers; definition of essential capabilities; and consideration of potential obstructions. The U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research has identified a number of technologies for detecting microbial contaminants in food and water and has pursued development of the more promising examples. This paper examines developmental risks in the context of the STO and offers some insight and strategies to manage them.

  20. NEOSurvey 1: Initial Results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near-Earth Object Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  1. Asteroid Moon Micro-imager Experiment (amie) For Smart-1 Mission, Science Objectives and Devel- Opment Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Heather, D.; Dunkin, S.; Roussel, F.; Beauvivre, S.; Kraenhenbuehl, D.; Plancke, P.; Lange-Vin, Y.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M.-C.; Dillelis, A.; Sodnik, Z.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, A.; Hofmann, B.; Josset, M.; Muinonen, K.; Pironnen, J.; Ehrenfreud, P.; Shkuratov, Y.; Shevchenko, V.

    The Asteroid Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), which will be on board the first ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon (launch foreseen late 2002), is an imaging sys- tem with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives. The science objectives are to imagine the Lunar South Pole (Aitken basin), permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient Lunar Non- mare volcanism, local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (Fig. 1). The technical objectives are to perform a laser-link experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies, navigation aid (feasi- bility study), and on-board autonomy investigations. Figure 3: AMIE camera (< 0.5 kg) For better interpretation of the future imagery of the Moon by the instrument, laboratory measurements have been carried out by CSEM in Tampere (Finland), with support of the Observatory of Helsinki. The experimental set-up is composed of an optical system to image samples in verti- cal position, a light source and a photodiode to verify the stability of the incident flux. The optical system is com- posed of a lens to insure good focusing on the samples (focus with the camera is at distance > 100m) and a mirror to image downwards. The samples used were anorthosite from northern Finland, basalt from Antarctis, meteorites and other lunar analog materials. A spectralon panel has also been used to have flat fields references. The samples were imaged with dif- Figure 1: SMART-1 camera imaging the Moon (simulated view) ferent phase angles. Figure 4 shows images obtained with In order to have spectral information of the surface of the basalt and olivine samples, with different integration times Moon, the camera is equipped with a set of filters (Fig. 2), in order to have information in all areas. introduced between the CCD and the teleobjective. Bandpass

  2. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  3. Long distance observations with the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager: Eroded Mount Sharp deposits on Gale Crater floor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, Horton; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bridges, Nathan; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samantha; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's ChemCam includes a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) to provide context for the laser pits, to obtain long-range images, and for passive reflectance spectra (400-840 nm). Use of the RMI has been enhanced by a new autofocus algorithm using onboard analysis of RMI images. The RMI has the finest pixel scale on the rover with 19.6 μrad/pixel (1024x1024 grayscale), compared to Mastcam M100 color images (74 μrad/pixel). The pixel scale for RMI images is ~2 cm at 1 km, and ~26 cm at 12 km, beyond which HiRISE orbital resolution (25 cm/pixel) is better. Note: useful resolution of geological features requires 3-5 pixels. A major question for Gale Crater (age 3.6 BY), is whether the presently truncated deposits on Mt. Sharp originally extended across the crater floor, prior to the deposition of Peace Vallis and other fans at 3.2 BY? HiRISE imagery shows early, partly eroded deposits in the vicinity of the Peace Vallis fan, but the materials could have been impact related. Long distance RMI images of the deposits, however, confirm the presence of eroded buttes with at least 8-10 horizontal layers (0.8-1.6 m thick) in one example, consistent with a sedimentary origin. The layered buttes rise as much as 12 meters above the surrounding deposits. The later deposits embay the lower portions of the buttes and are probably a phase of the later Peace Vallis fan. The RMI images show the presence of blocks in this fan unit of about 50-80 cm, consistent with an enhanced retention of craters that has been noted for this unit. Another RMI observation just above the Peace Vallis channel shows an eroded bench or series of layered hills at the same level, that could also indicate early sediment deposits prior to Peace Vallis fan. Conclusions - The RMI images (and HiRISE images of other crater floor deposits) suggest at least some deposits possibly related to Mt. Sharp were present on the crater floor near the Peace Vallis fan and now are highly eroded, but their original thickness is

  4. Fostering Empathy in Undergraduate Health Science Majors through the Reconciliation of Objectivity and Subjectivity: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Robert L.; Nichols, Marcia D.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for empathetic health care practitioners requires an academic curriculum suited to that need. Here we describe a series of integrated activities that were designed to foster empathy in undergraduate health science majors. By combining content and pedagogical approaches from the humanities and sciences, we asked students to reconcile…

  5. Application of Digital Object Identifiers to data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, B.; Ostrenga, D.; Johnson, J. E.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Shen, S.; Teng, W. L.; Wei, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are applied to selected data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The DOI system provides an Internet resolution service for unique and persistent identifiers of digital objects. Products assigned DOIs include data from the NASA MEaSUREs Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and EOS Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). DOIs are acquired and registered through EZID, California Digital Library and DataCite. GES DISC hosts a data set landing page associated with each DOI containing information on and access to the data including a recommended data citation when using the product in research or applications. This work includes participation with the earth science community (e.g., Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation) and the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project to identify, establish and implement best practices for assigning DOIs and managing supporting information, including metadata, for earth science data sets. Future work includes (1) coordination with NASA mission Science Teams and other data providers on the assignment of DOIs for other GES DISC data holdings, particularly for future missions such as Orbiting Carbon Observatory -2 and -3 (OCO-2, OCO-3) and projects (MEaSUREs 2012), (2) construction of landing pages that are both human and machine readable, and (3) pursuing the linking of data and publications with tools such as the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index.

  6. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station Mission: Science Objectives and Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M. S.; Flittner, D. E.; McCormick, M. P.; Gasbarre, J. F.; Damadeo, R. P.; Hill, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) is a strategic climate continuity mission which was included in NASA's 2010 plan, "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space." SAGE III/ISS continues the long-term, global measurements of trace gases and aerosols begun in 1979 by SAGE I and continued by SAGE II and SAGE III on Meteor 3M. Using a well characterized occultation technique, the SAGE III instrument's spectrometer will measure vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases relevant to ozone chemistry. The mission will launch in 2016 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft.The primary objective of SAGE III/ISS is to monitor the vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere to enhance our understanding of ozone recovery and climate change processes in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. SAGE III/ISS will provide data necessary to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, extend the SAGE III aerosol measurement record that is needed by both climate models and ozone models, and gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense community scrutiny for accuracy and stability. SAGE ozone data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol.The ISS inclined orbit of 51.6 degrees is ideal for SAGE III measurements because the orbit permits solar occultation measurement coverage to approximately +/- 70 degrees of latitude. SAGE III/ISS will make measurements using the solar occultation measurement technique, lunar occultation measurement technique, and the limb scattering measurement technique. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III/ISS mission, its

  7. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  8. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S–1920S: “OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY”/“REFLEXOLOGY” AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20th century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled “objective psychology” and from the 1910s renamed “reflexology.” The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's “objective psychology” and “reflexology” occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20th century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that “objective psychology” and “reflexology” had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, “experimental pedagogy” in the pre‐revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet “pedology” during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned “objective psychology”/“reflexology” as a transformative scientific movement. PMID:26910603

  9. A Study of the Questioning Behavior of Teachers in the Science Curriculum Improvement Study Teaching the Unit on Material Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Allan Kiichi

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has identified two main types of lessons: invention lessons, where the teachers introduce concepts, and discovery lessons in which children apply the concepts to new situations. The transcripts of tape recordings of the same sequence of four lessons, two invention and two discovery, of four teachers in the…

  10. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 7-8: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 7 and 8. The objectives listed are correlated to the…

  11. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades K-3. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  12. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 4-6: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 4-6. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  13. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  14. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  15. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  16. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  17. Goals and Objectives of National Science Policy. Science Policy Study--Hearings Volume 1. Hearings before the Task Force on Science Policy of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (February 28; March 7, 21, 28; April 4, 1985). No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    These hearings, which focused on the goals and objectives of national science policy, include discussions, questions and answers for the record, and, when applicable, prepared statements. Individuals appearing during the hearings include: (1) George C. Pimentel; (2) Alex Roland; (3) John S. Foster, Jr.; (4) James B. Wyngaarden; and (5) Lewis M.…

  18. The Characteristics of Reusable Learning Objects That Enhance Learning: A Case-Study in Health-Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Richard J.; McCormick, Damion; Dandrea, Jennifer; Wharrad, Heather

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of reusable learning objects (RLOs) when delivered in a workshop or released for self-study with groups of student-nurses studying chemistry. Analysis of examination results showed that the proportion of students answering chemistry questions correctly increased significantly in both the workshop and self-study…

  19. Geometry as Objective Science in Elementary School Classrooms: Mathematics in the Flesh. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the origins of geometry in and out of the intuitively given everyday lifeworlds of children in a second-grade mathematics class. These lifeworlds, though pre-geometric, are not without model objects that denote and come to anchor geometric idealities that they will understand at later points in their lives. Roth's analyses…

  20. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  1. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - II. The very wide outflow driven by HBC 494

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Cieza, L. A.; Williams, J. P.; Tobin, J. J.; Hales, A.; Zhu, Z.; Mužić, K.; Principe, D.; Canovas, H.; Zurlo, A.; Casassus, S.; Perez, S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2017-04-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array Cycle-2 observations of the HBC 494 molecular outflow and envelope. HBC 494 is an FU Ori-like object embedded in the Orion A cloud and is associated with the reflection nebulae Re50 and Re50N. We use 12CO, 13CO and C18O spectral line data to independently describe the outflow and envelope structures associated with HBC 494. The moment-1 map of the 12CO emission shows the widest outflow cavities in a Class I object known to date (opening angle ∼150°). The morphology of the wide outflow is likely to be due to the interaction between winds originating in the inner disc and the surrounding envelope. The low-velocity blueshifted and redshifted 13CO and C18O emission trace the rotation and infall motion of the circumstellar envelope. Using molecular line data and adopting standard methods for correcting optical depth effects, we estimate its kinematic properties, including an outflow mass of the order of 10-1 M⊙. Considering the large estimated outflow mass for HBC 494, our results support recent theoretical work suggesting that wind-driven processes might dominate the evolution of protoplanetary discs via energetic outflows.

  2. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  3. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, Alice; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-02-01

    As part of an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimiter Array (ALMA) survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circum-stellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25 arcsec (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circum-stellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of 106 ± 2 mJy, characteristic radius of ˜30 au, inclination of 14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5} deg and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The 12CO emission is separated into distinct blue and redshifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line of sight. The 13CO emission displays similar structure to that of the 12CO, while the C18O line emission is very weak. We calculated the expansion velocities of the low- and medium-density material with respect to the disc to be of -2.85 (blue), 4.4 (red) and -1.35 and 1.15 km s-1 (for blue and red) and we derived the mass, momentum and kinetic energy of the expanding gas. The outflow has an hourglass shape where the cavities are not seen. We interpret the shapes that the gas traces as cavities excavated by an ancient outflow. We report a detection of line emission from the circumstellar disc and derive a lower limit of the gas mass of 3 MJup.

  4. Using Modern And Inexpensive Tools In the Classroom To Teach Spectroscopy And To Do Exciting Citizen Science On Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, T.

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.

  5. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat: instrument characterization techniques, instrument capabilities and solar science objectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in early 2016. MinXSS will utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 - 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV and a LASP developed X-ray photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder.The majority of previous solar X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broad band) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements of moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and their effects on Earth’s ionosphere. This presentation focuses on the science instrument characterization involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Detector spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  6. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: spectrometer characterization techniques, spectrometer capabilities, and solar science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Mason, James P.

    2016-07-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) are twin 3U CubeSats. The first of the twin CubeSats (MinXSS-1) launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in mid-2016. Both MinXSS CubeSats utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 to 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV, and a LASP-developed X-ray broadband photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The majority of previous solar soft X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broadband) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements with moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and the effects of solar soft X-ray emission on Earth's ionosphere. This paper focuses on the X-ray spectrometer instrument characterization techniques involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Spectrometer spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  7. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE DATA: PANCHROMATIC FAINT OBJECT COUNTS FOR 0.2-2 {mu}m WAVELENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matt; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Seibert, Mark; Ryan, Russell E. Jr; Yan Haojing; Baldry, Ivan K.; Driver, Simon P.; Hill, David T.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Frogel, Jay A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Straughn, Amber N.; Tuffs, Richard J.; Balick, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    We describe the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science (ERS) observations in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South field. The new WFC3 ERS data provide calibrated, drizzled mosaics in the UV filters F225W, F275W, and F336W, as well as in the near-IR filters F098M (Y{sub s} ), F125W (J), and F160W (H) with 1-2 HST orbits per filter. Together with the existing HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-South mosaics in the BViz filters, these panchromatic 10-band ERS data cover 40-50 arcmin{sup 2} at 0.2-1.7 {mu}m in wavelength at 0.''07-0.''15 FWHM resolution and 0.''090 Multidrizzled pixels to depths of AB {approx_equal} 26.0-27.0 mag (5{sigma}) for point sources, and AB {approx_equal} 25.5-26.5 mag for compact galaxies. In this paper, we describe (1) the scientific rationale, and the data taking plus reduction procedures of the panchromatic 10-band ERS mosaics, (2) the procedure of generating object catalogs across the 10 different ERS filters, and the specific star-galaxy separation techniques used, and (3) the reliability and completeness of the object catalogs from the WFC3 ERS mosaics. The excellent 0.''07-0.''15 FWHM resolution of HST/WFC3 and ACS makes star-galaxy separation straightforward over a factor of 10 in wavelength to AB {approx_equal} 25-26 mag from the UV to the near-IR, respectively. Our main results are: (1) proper motion of faint ERS stars is detected over 6 years at 3.06 {+-} 0.66 mas year{sup -1} (4.6{sigma}), consistent with Galactic structure models; (2) both the Galactic star counts and the galaxy counts show mild but significant trends of decreasing count slopes from the mid-UV to the near-IR over a factor of 10 in wavelength; (3) combining the 10-band ERS counts with the panchromatic Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey counts at the bright end (10 mag {approx}< AB {approx}< 20 mag) and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field counts in the BVizY{sub s}JH filters at the faint end (24 mag {approx

  8. A Model to Exhibit the Interdependence of the Cognitive and Affective Domains of Objectives for Use in Science and Technical Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a diagrammatic model connecting the cognitive and affective domains of educational objectives, abandoning Krathwohl's hierarchy of affective objectives for one based solely on arousal of interest as a positive dimension. A negative dimension for the hierarchy is also suggested and research evidence supporting the model is given.…

  9. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  10. Comprehension of Double-Object Constructions by Hard-of-Hearing Subjects. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Vol. 2., No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Robert J.; And Others

    Human beings who have been forced to acquire language through non-auditory modalities characteristically display an impoverished syntactic system. I.M. Schlessinger (1970) has shown, for example, that users of sign language have difficulty in communicating syntactic relations such as "subject of main verb,""object of the verb," and "indirect…

  11. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  12. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  13. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.

  14. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  15. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  16. Overnight Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)

  17. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The third of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 3 (grades 6-8), science areas include life science, earth science, and physical science (physics and chemistry). Conveniently listed are page locations for educational and instructional objectives, cross-referenced to science area (i.e., life science, animals, genetics)…

  18. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  19. Effects of cis-platinum chemotherapy on otoacoustic emissions: the development of an objective screening protocol. Third place--Resident Clinical Science Award 1998.

    PubMed

    Ress, B D; Sridhar, K S; Balkany, T J; Waxman, G M; Stagner, B B; Lonsbury-Martin, B L

    1999-12-01

    To develop an objective, fast, and simply performed screening protocol for cis -platinum (CP) ototoxicity, we compared the efficacy of screening with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) with the outcome of both conventional and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) audiometry. Baseline audiometric and DPOAE testing was performed in 66 patients, 33 of whom met criteria for inclusion in the final database. Comparisons were made between baseline measurements and those recorded before subsequent CP infusions. Outcomes were analyzed clinically and with paired repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicated that DPOAEs and UHF were better measures than conventional audiometry. Further, DPOAEs may be better suited for screening older patients receiving CP chemotherapy because DPOAEs are as sensitive as UHF and are present in a greater number of these patients. Screening with DPOAEs may be enhanced by testing only in the 3- to 5.2-kHz range, thus decreasing testing time. Higher time averages to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and use of this narrower bandwidth might also allow for accurate bedside testing.

  20. "Scientific" Racism: What Price Objectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Throughout history, attempts have been made to use "science" to justify white European and American domination of other racial/ethnic groups and inequities of gender and class. Points out the lack of science and objectivity in the research of Linnaeus, Agassiz, Morton, Broca, Jensen, and Lynn. Suggests implications for antiracist…

  1. Managing Permanent Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    sorage me hanism is the Chunk Management System ( CMS ). CMS provides a database-like interface for POMW. On first reference to a permanent object POMS...19] M.P. Atkinson, K.J. Chisholm, and W.P. Cockshott. CMS - A Chunk Management System . Technical Report CSR-110-82, Department of Computer Science...database manager . Creating and using emibedded systems is not always bad. In most large programming projets one ends up constructing and using some sort

  2. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science literacy is imperative for well informed civic and personal decision making, yet only a quarter of American adults are proficient enough in science to understand science stories reported in the popular press. Hands-on research increases confidence in and understanding of science. When guiding students in designing and conducting science fair projects, mentors can foster science literacy by helping students focus on three goals: (1) articulating hypotheses or questions, (2) designing feasible projects, and (3) learning to make and interpret graphs. These objectives introduce students to the methodological nature of scientific research and give them the tools to interpret scientific facts and data in order to make informed decisions for themselves and society.

  3. Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…

  4. Magnetospheric Multiscale Overview and Science Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft constellation mission launched on March 12, 2015, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth's magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. The most important goal of MMS is to conduct a definitive experiment to determine what causes magnetic field lines to reconnect in a collisionless plasma. The significance of the MMS results will extend far beyond the Earth's magnetosphere because reconnection is known to occur in interplanetary space and in the solar corona where it is responsible for solar flares and the disconnection events known as coronal mass ejections. Active research is also being conducted on reconnection in the laboratory and specifically in magnetic-confinement fusion devices in which it is a limiting factor in achieving and maintaining electron temperatures high enough to initiate fusion. Finally, reconnection is proposed as the cause of numerous phenomena throughout the universe such as comet-tail disconnection events, magnetar flares, supernova ejections, and dynamics of neutron-star accretion disks. The MMS mission design is focused on answering specific questions about reconnection at the Earth's magnetosphere. The prime focus of the mission is on determining the kinetic processes occurring in the electron diffusion region that are responsible for reconnection and that determine how it is initiated; but the mission will also place that physics into the context of the broad spectrum of physical processes associated with reconnection. Connections to other disciplines such as solar physics, astrophysics, and laboratory plasma physics are expected to be made through theory and modeling as informed by the MMS results.

  5. Exobiology science objectives at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, Donald L.; Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    Five general categories of experimentation on the moon are reviewed which would provide important scientific information about chemical evolution and the origin and early evolution of life. Attention is given to: (1) chemical analyses of samples for products of prebiotic evolution, (2) analysis of crater records and understanding the implications for the origin and evolution of life on earth, (3) exposure of microbes and organics to the space environment, (4) collection of cosmic dust particles and analysis of volatiles and organics, and (5) observations of planetary environments and the interstellar medium to determine the nature and extent of chemical evolution.

  6. DOI: Current Status and Outlook [and] The Virtual Naval Hospital: Lessons Learned in Creating and Operating a Digital Health Sciences Library for Nomadic Patrons [and] Interoperability for Digital Objects and Repositories: The Cornell/CNRI Experiments [and] Education for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskin, Norman; D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Payette, Dandra; Blanchi, Christophe; Lagoze, Carl; Overly, Edward A.; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the origin of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a persistent identifier for managing copyrighted materials and its development; creation of the U.S. Navy digital health sciences library for isolated primary care providers and their patients; Cornell and CNRI prototype architecture for interoperable digital objects and repositories;…

  7. Cell Science-02 Payload Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Sarah Diane

    2014-01-01

    The presentation provides an general overview of the Cell Science-02 science and payload operations to the NASA Payload Operations Integrated Working Group. The overview includes a description of the science objectives and specific aims, manifest status, and operations concept.

  8. Dome: Distributed Object Migration Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Best Available Copy AD-A281 134 Computer Science Dome: Distributed object migration environment Adam Beguelin Erik Seligman Michael Starkey May 1994...Beguelin Erik Seligman Michael Starkey May 1994 CMU-CS-94-153 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract Dome... Linda [4], Isis [2], and Express [6] allow a pro- grammer to treat a heterogeneous network of computers as a parallel machine. These tools allow the

  9. Mars Science Laboratory: Results From Bradbury Landing to Glenelg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, Dave; Crisp, Joy; Edgett, Ken; Gellert, Ralf; Gomez Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Don; Mahaffy, Paul; Malin, Mike; Mitrofanov, Igor; Meyer, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin; Wiens, Roger; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, analyzed rocks, soils, and the atmosphere between Bradbury Landing and the contact with a light-toned, fractured , high-thermal inertia unit ~500 meters to the east ("Glenelg"). A number of in-place outcrops were encountered along this traverse that allows a simple stratigraphy to be con-structed. A variety of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are present in the section, possibly also including minor basaltic volcanics. At several localities en route to Glenelg, Curiosity observed conglomeratic bedrock containing rounded pebbles ranging in size from 5-40 mm, forming beds at least 5 cm thick with locally well-developed planar stratification; this, plus grain-supported and imbricated clast fabrics suggest transport in aqueous flows with depths of 0.1-0.8 m, and velocities of 14-63 cm/sec. These conglomerates were likely derived from the Gale crater rim and transported down the Peace Vallis channel network; ChemCam data suggest the presence of feldspar and basaltic composition rock fragments as pebbles. APXS and ChemCam data show the out-of-place rock, "Jake Matijevic", to have an evolved, alkaline composi-tion similar to nepheline-normative muegerites, and suggestive of high pressure partial melting of the mantle. Other, stratigraphically in-place rocks show basanitic composition, with high K2O, low SiO2, and high FeO. Between Sols 56 and 110 Curiosity studied the "Rocknest" eolian deposit which was selected for scooping and eventual delivery to CheMin and SAM. The APXS composition of this deposit is consistent with average Mars soils encountered by previous missions (SO3 + Cl ~6 wt.%). Scooped samples delivered to CheMin reveal the presence of forsterite, pigeonite, augite, plagioclase, and several trace minerals including quartz, anhydrite, magnetite, hematite and illmenite. SAM analysis of the scooped soil yielded four different Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) experiments depending on the temperature at which evolved gases

  10. Science and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  11. The Early Years: Science Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Teachers can spark interest in a science topic by using "science tickets"--special objects offered to children as a way to transition to the science room or into a small group to do a science activity. Objects ranging from ordinary (shells, leaves, or sticks) to unusual (photos, crystals, or plastic worms) appeal to young children's curiosity and…

  12. Reversing the objective: Adding guinea pig pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2004-03-01

    This article explores objectification in science and science education, i.e., the way material is turned into an object of interest to scientists. Drawing on sociological and anthropological drama theory, it examines how objectification does and does not occur in classrooms and schools. To understand the role and relationship of the object to the scientist, I look at current literature from the social studies of science concerning human and nonhuman objects as well as my own ethnographic work on the activism of politicized human research subjects. The paper concludes by how and why a more self-conscious focus on the object of science is important for those concerned with equity in science education, suggesting that such guinea pig pedagogies restore missing historical and ethical dimensions to science education.

  13. Behavioral Objectives: Teacher Success through Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Paul D.

    The textbook provides a philosophical basis and offers practical suggestions for formulating behavioral objectives for students in grades 1-12 in the following subjects: English and literature, social science, mathematics, science, reading, art and music, and health. Definitions, uses, sources, and types of education objectives are discussed. The…

  14. Reversing the Objective: Adding Guinea Pig Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article explores objectification in science and science education, i.e., the way material is turned into an object of interest to scientists. Drawing on sociological and anthropological drama theory, it examines how objectification does and does not occur in classrooms and schools. To understand the role and relationship of the object to the…

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  16. Mars Science Laboratory with Arm Extended, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like in Martian terrain, from a side aft angle.

    The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments onto selected rocks or soil targets and also to collect samples for analysis by other instruments. Near the base of the arm is a sample preparation and handling system designed to grind samples, such as rock cores or small pebbles, and distribute the material to analytical instruments.

    The mast, rising to about 2.1 meters (6.9 feet) above ground level, supports two remote-sensing instruments: the Mast Camera for stereo color viewing of surrounding terrain and material collected by the arm, and the ChemCam for analyzing the types of atoms in material that laser pulses have vaporized from rocks or soil targets up to about 9 meters (30 feet) away.

  17. Environmental Science Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobbe, Maurice A.

    The objective of this manual is to provide a set of basic analytical procedures commonly used to determine environmental quality. Procedures are designed to be used in an introductory course in environmental science and are explicit enough to allow them to be performed by both the non-science or beginning science student. Stressing ecology and…

  18. Fundamentals of soil science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  19. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  20. Infants' Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Xu, Fei

    2001-01-01

    Examines evidence that the research community studying infants' object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention have been studying the same natural kind. Maintains that the discovery that the object representations of young infants are the same as the object files of mid-level visual cognition has implications for both…

  1. Excellence in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1985-01-01

    Lists objectives for excellence/exemplary programs in middle/junior high school science as perceived by a group of middle/junior high school science teachers. These objectives focus on: (1) goals; (2) curricula; (3) instruction; (4) teachers; and (5) evaluation. (JN)

  2. An outline of object-oriented philosophy.

    PubMed

    Harman, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises the principles of object-oriented philosophy and explains its similarities with, and differences from, the outlook of the natural sciences. Like science, the object-oriented position avoids the notion (quite common in philosophy) that the human-world relation is the ground of all others, such that scientific statements about the world would only be statements about the world as it is for humans. But unlike science, object-oriented metaphysics treats artificial, social, and fictional entities in the same way as natural ones, and also holds that the world can only be known allusively rather than directly.

  3. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  4. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  5. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  6. Science and Science Fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Robert

    2006-03-29

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  7. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  8. Scientists’ Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists’ report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public’s trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences. PMID:26913869

  9. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    PubMed

    Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  10. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  11. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  12. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  13. Teaching Object-Oriented Modelling Using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boberić-Krstićev, Danijela; Tešendić, Danijela

    2011-09-01

    The paper elaborates on experiences and lessons learned from the course on object-oriented analyses and design at the Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad. In the paper we identify a set of issues concerning teaching modeling and UML. It is described experience of teaching UML to students with and without previous knowledge of object-oriented programming.

  14. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  15. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  16. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  17. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  18. Mars Science Laboratory with Power Source and Extended Arm, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like in Martian terrain, from a side aft angle.

    The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments onto selected rocks or soil targets and also to collect samples for analysis by other instruments. Near the base of the arm is a sample preparation and handling system designed to grind samples, such as rock cores or small pebbles, and distribute the material to analytical instruments.

    The mast, rising to about 2.1 meters (6.9 feet) above ground level, supports two remote-sensing instruments: the Mast Camera for stereo color viewing of surrounding terrain and material collected by the arm, and the ChemCam for analyzing the types of atoms in material that laser pulses have vaporized from rocks or soil targets up to about 9 meters (30 feet) away.

  19. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  20. A Passion for Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkle, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    In the ongoing national conversation about science education in America, there is a new consensus that people have entered a time of crisis in their relationship to the international scientific and engineering community. When the science committee of the House of Representatives asked the National Academies, the nation's leading scientific…

  1. Behavioral Objectives?-No!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Bill L.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses his reasons for objecting to the use of behavioral objectives in education. Article is in response to Robert Blake's article on Behavioral Objectives and the Teaching of English" in English Education, Winter 1971. (RB)

  2. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  3. Physical Science Curriculum Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Carolyn C.; Brown, Tim; Harris, Jeff; Lovin, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    This document was developed in response to the expressed need of physical science teachers for materials designed to facilitate and enhance the teaching of the 1999 North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Physical Science. The materials provide a guide to translating the goals and objectives of the Physical Science curriculum into good…

  4. Mars Observer remote science operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Peter B.; Erickson, Kerry D.; Brooks, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives and the background of the Mars Observer mission are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the remote science operations portion of the mission. In particular, the discussion covers observational planning and instrument sequences, data retrieval, instrument health monitoring, and science analysis. Attention is also given to workstation technology utilization, science team, project data base, common data formats, and security.

  5. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  6. Cassini science planning process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  7. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  8. Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of Gagne's conception of science processes. Results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. Implications for science education are considered. (Author/JN)

  9. Kuiper Belt Objects Along the Pluto-Express Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The science objective of this work is to identify objects in the Kuiper Belt which will, in the 5 years following Pluto encounter, be close to the flight path of NASA's Pluto Express. Our hope is that we will find a Kuiper Belt object or objects close enough that a spacecraft flyby will be possible. If we find a suitable object, the science yield of Pluto Express will be substantially enhanced. The density of objects in the Kuiper Belt is such that we are reasonably likely to find an object close enough to the flight path that on-board gas thrusters can effect a close encounter.

  10. Selecting a reference object.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on reference object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the reference object. These findings challenge the common perspective that salience in and of itself dictates reference object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.

  11. Science Anxiety and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffrey V.; Greenburg, Sharon L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses origins and nature of science anxiety and describes the Science Anxiety Clinic, outlining techniques used at the clinic. Techniques include science skills training and psychological interventions. Comments on the connection between science anxiety and cognitive processes in science learning. (Author/JN)

  12. How Do Turkish Middle School Science Coursebooks Present the Science Process Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    An important objective in science education is the acquisition of science process skills (SPS) by the students. Therefore, science coursebooks, among the main resources of elementary science curricula, are to convey accurate SPS. This study is a qualitative study based on the content analysis of the science coursebooks used at middle schools. In…

  13. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  14. Soapy Science. Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

  15. [Historiography of medical objects].

    PubMed

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  16. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…

  17. Teachers and Behavioral Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey of 406 elementary, middle and secondary school teachers attending the 1973 summer session at Northern Illinois University was conducted to determine their familiarity with and exposure to behavioral objectives, their involvement in writing and using behavioral objectives, and their opinion of the effect of behavioral objectives on student…

  18. Behavioral Objectives for English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Robert

    1972-01-01

    A review-critique of On Writing Behavioral Objectives for English, by John Maxwell and Anthony Lovat, in which behavioral objectives theory is dominated by a stimulus-response rather than a stimulus-response-reinforcement psychology. The reviewer questions whether behavioral objectives can be applied accurately and without distortion of meanings,…

  19. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  20. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  1. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  2. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  3. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  4. Science Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

  5. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  6. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  8. Multi-Objective Optimization of Mixed Variable, Stochastic Systems Using Single-Objective Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University...found in the final population (2.793), with the exception of two combinations that came to 2.8. However, only four combinations managed to come close...of Objective 2, while FF(3), 120 with its abundance of runs, managed to do as well as Dopt(20) in Objective 2, but not in Objective 1. -0.2 0

  9. Reasoning about Function Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  10. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-08

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced.

  11. Towards a hermeneutic of technomedical objects.

    PubMed

    Rommetveit, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    In this article I consider some central aspects of the naturalist philosophy of science and science and technology studies in dealing with the contested status of technoscience in medicine. Focusing on the concepts of realism and representation, I argue that theories of science-as-practice in naturalist philosophy of science should expand their scope so as to reflect more thoroughly on the social and political context of technoscience. I develop a hermeneutic of technomedical objects in order to highlight the internal connectedness between social action, material agency, and the actions of scientific communities. The framework thus developed is used to re-consider the genomic turn in medicine. Pointing to the discrepancies between socially dominant representations of genomic technology and the actual interventions brought about through those technologies, I raise the question of how and where to address problems of theory and policy.

  12. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  13. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  14. A review of 1985 Volvo Award winner in clinical science: objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury: a prospective study with comparison group and 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rainville, James; Kim, Richard S; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2007-08-15

    It is now 2 decades since Mayer et al published their Volvo Award-winning paper entitled "Objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury: a prospective study with comparison group and one-year follow-up." Their landmark paper reported that return to work rates of patients that underwent a "functional restoration" treatment program were double that of a comparative group of patients that were denied treatment by their insurers. These results were considered extraordinary and inspired both debate and enthusiasm. Our goal is to review this landmark study, report on its strengths and weaknesses, and review the studies that have attempted to replicate this work in other settings. We also highlight its contribution to our current knowledge about the treatment of back pain and disability. The major weaknesses of the paper of Mayer et al are the possibility of selection bias in the development of their cohort of patients and the lack of a true randomized controlled study design. These factors may have inflated the rates of return to work. Regardless, their reported results were robust, and cannot be easily dismissed. During the last 20 years, this treatment model has received considerable study worldwide, and it is generally agreed that it is superior to standard care for reducing work absence in patients with chronic low back pain. Additionally, the concepts underlying functional restoration have been found to be highly relevant to patients with chronic low back pain, medical providers, and disability systems and continue to gain acceptance and integration into the care of patients throughout the industrialized world.

  15. Dissecting Student Objections: Responding to Student Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Suggests strategies for addressing cases of student conscientious objections to the use of animals or animal parts in science teaching. Advises departments to have a written policy and philosophical statement, to use an Animal Care and Use Committee and to explore student motives. (PR)

  16. Infants' Response to Pictures of Impossible Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuwairi, Sarah M.; Tran, Annie; DeLoache, Judy S.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that 4-month-olds can discriminate between two-dimensional (2D) depictions of structurally possible and impossible objects [S. M. Shuwairi (2009), "Journal of Experimental Child Psychology", 104, 115; S. M. Shuwairi, M. K. Albert, & S. P. Johnson (2007), "Psychological Science", 18, 303]. Here, we asked whether evidence of…

  17. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  18. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-05-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

  19. PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAGER, ROBERT F.

    THIS PROGRAMED TEXT INCLUDES A SELF-TEST OF ITS CONTENTS AND DEMONSTRATES HOW TO SPECIFY INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES BY BEHAVIOR OBSERVABLE IN A LEARNER, AND HOW TO WRITE OBJECTIVES, DEFINE DESIRED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, AND STATE CRITERIA OF SUCCESSFUL LEARNING. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FOR $1.75 FROM FEARON PUBLISHERS, INC., 2165 PARK BLVD., PALO…

  20. Images of Axial Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  1. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  2. Preparation of Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The material in this programed workbook is divided into three sections. Section one introduces the subject of learning objectives and explains their use and importance. Section two describes a U.S. Navy handbook on writing learning objectives and teaches the student how to use the handbook as a working reference guide. Section three provides the…

  3. A procedural, pragmatist account of ethical objectivity.

    PubMed

    Roth, Amanda

    2013-06-01

    This article offers a procedural, pragmatist account of objectivity in the domain of the good that is inspired by pragmatic and feminist critiques of objectivity in philosophy of science and epistemology. I begin by asking first what we want to capture--or ought to want to capture--with a notion of ethical objectivity and in answer to this question I identify four "points" to ethical objectivity: undergirding the possibility of mistakenness, making genuine disagreement possible, making sense of our appreciation of the ethical perspectives of others, and making possible a sense of ethical improvement or learning. I then lay out a process-based account of objectivity in ethics that makes good on the four points I have identified. Finally, I consider worries related to convergence, bias, and ontology and defend the procedural, pragmatist account in light of those potential objections.

  4. Topographic Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla; Gesch, Dean; Stoker, Jason M.; Queija, Vivian R.; Worstell, Bruce; Tyler, Dean J.; Danielson, Jeff; Bliss, Norman; Greenlee, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Topographic Science is to establish partnerships and conduct research and applications that facilitate the development and use of integrated national and global topographic datasets. Topographic Science includes a wide range of research and applications that result in improved seamless topographic datasets, advanced elevation technology, data integration and terrain visualization, new and improved elevation derivatives, and development of Web-based tools. In cooperation with our partners, Topographic Science is developing integrated-science applications for mapping, national natural resource initiatives, hazards, and global change science. http://topotools.cr.usgs.gov/.

  5. Writing in Science: Beyond the Lab Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallsworth, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of writing in learning science. Describes a science lesson designed as a part of an ocean unit using many genres of literature. Includes activity length, objectives, goals, and material for the lesson. (KHR)

  6. "Science and Society" in the Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Planetarium presentations at Ball State University have been integrated into a science and society course titled Colloquium in Science and Mathematics. A brief description and educational objectives for six of the presentations are provided. (JN)

  7. Searching for Meaning in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkheimer, Glenn D.; McLeod, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how science programs K-16 should be developed to meet the modern objectives of science education and restore its true meaning. The theories of Phenix and Ausubel are included in this discussion. (HM)

  8. In Situ Strategy of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory to Investigate the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    The ten science investigations of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover named "Curiosity" seek to provide a quantitative assessment of habitability through chemical and geological measurements from a highly capable robotic' platform. This mission seeks to understand if the conditions for life on ancient Mars are preserved in the near-surface geochemical record. These substantial payload resources enabled by MSL's new entry descent and landing (EDL) system have allowed the inclusion of instrument types nevv to the Mars surface including those that can accept delivered sample from rocks and soils and perform a wide range of chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical analyses. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) experiment that is located in the interior of the rover is a powder x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument that provides elemental and mineralogical information. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments complements this experiment by analyzing the volatile component of identically processed samples and by analyzing atmospheric composition. Other MSL payload tools such as the Mast Camera (Mastcam) and the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instruments are utilized to identify targets for interrogation first by the arm tools and subsequent ingestion into SAM and CheMin using the Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem. The arm tools include the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and the Chemistry and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXX). The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument provides subsurface identification of hydrogen such as that contained in hydrated minerals

  9. An Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Jandura, L.; Limonadi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), landed on Mars on August 5. The rover and a scientific payload are designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem is the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)). It is expected that the SA/SPaH system will have produced a scooped system and possibility a drilled sample in the first 90 sols of the mission. Results from these activities and the ongoing testing program will be presented.

  10. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  11. Simple Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    This brief article presents some quick and easy science experiments for those dreary winter days when classrooms need a pick-me-up. These seemingly easy science experiments will make a lasting impact on students.

  12. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 29 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include botany, genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, entomology, molecular structure, spreadsheets, chemistry, mechanics, astronomy, relativity, aeronautics, instrumentation, electrostatics, quantum mechanics, and laboratory interfacing. (CW)

  13. Science Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Sherril L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a two-day forensic science course that is offered to eighth grade students enrolled in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Magnet Schools. Provides sample student activity sheets for the course. (Author/RT)

  14. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  15. The Friendly Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Peter

    1969-01-01

    If buildings and cities are made as friendly objects, they will invite and precipitate participation. They will stimulate our creative powers, which are the basis of growth in all our activities. (CK)

  16. Radiation from hard objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    The inference of the diameter of hard objects is insensitive to radiation efficiency. Deductions of radiation efficiency from observations are very sensitive - possibly overly so. Inferences of the initial velocity and trajectory vary similarly, and hence are comparably sensitive.

  17. Quantum origins of objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, R.; Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.

    2015-03-01

    In spite of all of its successes, quantum mechanics leaves us with a central problem: How does nature create a bridge from fragile quanta to the objective world of everyday experience? Here we find that a basic structure within quantum mechanics that leads to the perceived objectivity is a so-called spectrum broadcast structure. We uncover this based on minimal assumptions, without referring to any dynamical details or a concrete model. More specifically, working formally within the decoherence theory setting with multiple environments (called quantum Darwinism), we show how a crucial for quantum mechanics notion of nondisturbance due to Bohr [N. Bohr, Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935), 10.1103/PhysRev.48.696] and a natural definition of objectivity lead to a canonical structure of a quantum system-environment state, reflecting objective information records about the system stored in the environment.

  18. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  19. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  20. Science First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jan Adkins

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's efforts to put science first in the classroom. Discusses changing the place of science on the schedule and presents an activity to engage student interest. Concludes that a difference in teacher attitude towards science motivates students to learn. (NB)

  1. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  2. Science Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.; Biehle, James T.; Motz, LaMoine L.; West, Sandra S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Research Council's "National Science Education Standards" call for science education to be "developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives, emphasize student understanding through inquiry, and be connected with other school subjects." This description captures the three major trends in science education…

  3. Sublime Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girod, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of the shortcomings in most efforts to integrate art and science is that many people have a shallow understanding of art, which inevitably leads to shallow connections between art and science. Coloring drawings of planets, building sculptures of volcanoes, and decorating scientific diagrams are fine activities, but they do not link science and…

  4. Sound Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  5. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    . Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world. The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks. The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However, an effective team

  6. Cohesion as a Constraint on Object Persistence in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheries, Erik W.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Wynn, Karen; Scholl, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    A critical challenge for visual perception is to represent objects as the same persisting individuals over time and motion. Across several areas of cognitive science, researchers have identified cohesion as among the most important theoretical principles of object persistence: An object must maintain a single bounded contour over time. Drawing…

  7. Objects of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Donald D.; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a “conscious agent.” We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  8. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  9. Science Teaching in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  10. Science Squared: Teaching Science Visually.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Olga; Savage, Karen; Judice, Michelle

    This paper describes a collection of novel ideas for bulletin board displays that would be useful in supplementing science classroom instruction. Information on women and minorities in science; science concepts in everyday activities such as nutrition, baseball, and ice cream-making; and various holidays and celebratory events is included. Each…

  11. Invariance and Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

  12. Scopophilia and object loss.

    PubMed

    Almansi, R J

    1979-10-01

    The study of a case of voyeuristic perversion and of some previously published cases of simple scopophilia suggests that fear of object loss early in life may be an important factor predisposing one to a propensity for voyeurism. The increased need to maintain visual contact with the object and to incorporate it visually leads to a hypercathexis of the visual function which is at the base of voyeurism. This need later becomes sexualized, while still retaining its pregenital connotations. Although object loss was apparently significant in the case of the patient described in this paper, it is not necessarily a factor in all cases of perverse voyeurism and, when present, may be considered as only one element in its pathogenesis.

  13. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  14. Teaching Science through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

  15. The truth in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Reinhard; Springer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Are natural scientists gaining an ever more complete picture of reality through their objective insights, or are the truths of the natural sciences no more than consensuses that change with time? The astrophysicist Jürgen Ehlers and the social scientist Rudolf Stichweh talk to Spektrum.

  16. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  17. Science through ARts (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Marycay; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Miller, Allan; Petersen, Ruth; Terrell, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is a free, international, cross-curricular program thematically aligned with "The Vision for Space Exploration," a framework of goals and objectives published by NASA in February 2004. Through the STAR program, students in grades 5 through 12 are encouraged to apply their knowledge in creative ways as they approach a…

  18. Science at Your Fingertips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, D. Craig

    1984-01-01

    Offers various strategies in which students use fingerprints to help sharpen their science process skills. Includes directions for making fingerprints using just ink and paper and suggestions for additional activities. These include making "prints" from other body parts and from such objects as automobile tires. (JN)

  19. [Human science and medicine].

    PubMed

    Caporale, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Objective of Human Science teaching is to develop Knowledge and ability for rational analysis of bio-medical problems. The relationship between doctor and patient must be founded on dialogue, cooperation, understanding, on respect of human rights: life, health, physical integrity, privacy, autonomy, freedom and liability to guide ethical choices in clinical experience and rediscover anthropological significance of Medicine.

  20. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 and 2 scientific research objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Schneider, Howard J.

    1987-01-01

    The pressurized Spacelab module was designed and built to allow investigators to conduct research in space in an environment approximating that of a ground-based laboratory. It is configured to allow multiple investigations employing both human and nonhuman subjects. This flexability is exemplified by the SLS-1, SLS-2, and SLS-3 experiment complement. A total of 21 experiments are scheduled for these missions; the areas to be investigated are renal/endocrine function, cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary function, hematology, immunology, metabolic activity of muscle, Ca metabolism, the vestibular system, and general biology. A plan for integration of measurements will allow each investigator to use data from other experiments. The experiments make up a scientifically balanced payload that addresses fundamental biomedical problems associated with space flight and provides the first opportunity to study the acute effects of weightlessness in a comprehensive, interrelated fashion.

  1. Science Objectives of EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levelt, P. F.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chance, K. V.; Leppelmeier, G. W.; Maelkki, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    OMI is a UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter spectrograph, which provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 x 24 sq km. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from the European satellite instruments GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI's unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will measure solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm and a spectral sampling of about 2-3 per FWHM. From these observations, total columns of O3, NO2, BrO and SO2 will be derived from the back-scattered solar radiance using differential absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The TOMS total ozone record will also be continued by employing the well established TOMS algorithm. Because of the high accuracy and spatial resolution of the measurements, a good estimate of tropospheric amounts of ozone and NO2 are expected. Ozone profiles will be derived using the optimal estimation method. The spectral aerosol optical depth will be determined from measurements between 340 and 500 nm. This will provide information on aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution and aerosol type. This wavelength range makes it possible to retrieve aerosol information over both land and sea. OMI observations will also allow retrievals of cloud coverage and cloud heights. From these products, the UV-B flux at the surface can then be derived with high spatial resolution.

  2. Defense Science and Technology RELIANCE. Defense Technology Objectives Success Stories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    turbomachines for oxygen liquefaction . The HP-MSOGS uses multiple molecular sieve beds to produce 30 gaseous liters/minute of >99% oxygen. The cryogenic...Detection Technology CB.08 Advanced Adsorbents for Protection Applications CB.09 Enzymatic Decontamination CB.19 Chemical Imaging Sensor CB.20

  3. Educational Objectives in Applied Science. Report to the Leverhulme Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boud, D. J.

    This project was directed towards exploring issues in undergraduate engineering education and presenting recommendations for future activities in engineering education at two universities. The report includes 14 recommendations pertaining to engineering education in areas such as: practical training, course structure and organization, teaching…

  4. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  5. Earth Science Geostationary Platform Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert L. (Editor); Campbell, Thomas G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to address problems in science and in four technology areas (large space antenna technology, microwave sensor technology, electromagnetics-phased array adaptive systems technology, and optical metrology technology) related to Earth Science Geostationary Platform missions.

  6. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  7. Designing Epistemologically Correct Science Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachin, Datt; Poovaiah, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In recent years use of narratives for teaching science at secondary school level has gained impetus. This paper deals with the problem of designing narratives for teaching scientific concept. The central issue of the problem of designing narratives for carrying scientific information is that science belongs to the domain of objective observation…

  8. The Forgotten Majority: Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, A. Miles, III

    1970-01-01

    Describes the objectives and content of an experience-oriented approach for 9th grade general science students. The emphasis is on the learning of science processes, through field studies and student investigations. Topic areas include measurement, landforms, weather, soil, plants and animals, population relationships, conservation, and pollution.…

  9. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  10. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  11. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  12. Optimizing Observation Scheduling Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Morris, Robert A.; Edgington, William R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that enables the automatic generation of high quality schedules, with respect to a given objective function. The approach involves the combination of two techniques: GenH, which automatically generates a search heuristic specialized to the given problem instance, and HBSS, which employs the generated heuristic as a bias within a stochastic sampling method.

  13. Differential Objective Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kino, Mary M.; And Others

    Item response theory (IRT) has been used extensively to study differential item functioning (dif) and to identify potentially biased items. The use of IRT for diagnostic purposes is less prevalent and has received comparatively less attention. This study addressed differential objective function (dof) to identify potentially biased content units.…

  14. Objectivity as Passionate Appropriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Philip

    Objectivity is frequently described as a model of "objectivism" or transparent observation of an unproblematically given external world conducted by a completely neutral observer. However desirable objectivism is in theory, the presuppositions it makes in favor of a disembodied and decontextualized cogito, and against the inclusion of the…

  15. Common Object Library Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be consistently applied across many projects, by many teams. The National Building Information ...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be... BIM standards and for future research projects. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), object

  16. Whose Literacy? Discursive Constructions of Life and Objectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendler, Lynn; Tuckey, Steven F.

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from literature in the social studies of science, this paper historicizes two pivotal concepts in science literacy: the definition of life and the assumption of objectivity. In this paper we suggest that an understanding of the historical, discursive production of scientific knowledge affects the meaning of scientific literacy in at least…

  17. 32 CFR 2400.39 - Responsibility and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibility and objectives. 2400.39 Section 2400.39 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  18. 32 CFR 2400.39 - Responsibility and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility and objectives. 2400.39 Section 2400.39 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  19. 32 CFR 2400.39 - Responsibility and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility and objectives. 2400.39 Section 2400.39 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  20. 32 CFR 2400.39 - Responsibility and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibility and objectives. 2400.39 Section 2400.39 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  1. 32 CFR 2400.39 - Responsibility and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibility and objectives. 2400.39 Section 2400.39 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  2. Learning by Creating and Exchanging Objects: The SCY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Ton; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Giemza, Adam; Girault, Isabelle; Hoppe, Ulrich; Kindermann, Jorg; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Vold, Vibeke; Weinberger, Armin; Weinbrenner, Stefan; Wichmann, Astrid; Anjewierden, Anjo; Bodin, Marjolaine; Bollen, Lars; D'Ham, Cedric; Dolonen, Jan; Engler, Jan; Geraedts, Caspar; Grosskreutz, Henrik; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; Lechner, Judith; Ludvigsen, Sten; Matteman, Yuri; Meistadt, Oyvind; Naess, Bjorge; Ney, Muriel; Pedaste, Margus; Perritano, Anthony; Rinket, Marieke; Von Schlanbusch, Henrik; Sarapuu, Tago; Schulz, Florian; Sikken, Jakob; Slotta, Jim; Toussaint, Jeremy; Verkade, Alex; Wajeman, Claire; Wasson, Barbara; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Van Der Zanden, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) is a project on learning in science and technology domains. SCY uses a pedagogical approach that centres around products, called "emerging learning objects" (ELOs) that are created by students. Students work individually and collaboratively in SCY-Lab (the general SCY learning environment) on "missions" that are guided…

  3. Objectives and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain a

  4. Objects Within Mercury's Orbit - Skylab Student Experiment ED-22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment Objects Within Mercury's Orbit, proposed by Daniel C. Bochsler of Silverton, Oregon. This experiment utilized Skylab's White Light Coronagraph telescope to identify any objects orbiting the Sun within the orbit of Mercury. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  5. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Dyar, Melinda D; Schafer, Martha W; Tucker, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  6. Deconstructing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  7. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  8. Objective assessment of acne.

    PubMed

    Becker, Markus; Wild, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C

    A precise and reliable assessment of acne severity is unarguably the most essential clinical method when it comes to monitoring and choosing optimal treatment in the daily practice. Since the early 1960s, different severity assessment systems have been described in the literature. The two commonly used concepts are global gradings and lesion counting. Both systems have been controversially discussed as to which is more reliable and providing an objective outcome measurement tool; however, both have some subjectivity involved. More objective methods for assessing the severity of acne vulgaris include photography, fluorescence photography, polarized light photography, video microscopy, and multispectral imaging. Such techniques have limitations such as high cost, complex and sophisticated apparatus, and a sometimes time-consuming imaging process. There are newly developed technologies that could avoid the problems of inter- and intrarater subjectivity.

  9. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  10. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  11. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  12. BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This grant has contributed to one of the original goals of the NAS/LTSA program, the goal of junior faculty development. Below I briefly summarize the following major results on BL Lacertae Objects that we have obtained. An invited talk on BL Lac Objects at IAU 175 "Extragalactic Radio Sources" at Bologna Italy in October 1995 summarized some of these results. A second invited talk in Oct 1998 at Green Bamk, WVA presented other BL Lac results at the conference entitled: "Highly Redshifted Radio Lines". We have used the EMSS sample to measure the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of BL Lacs. A new large sample of XBLs has been discovered.

  13. Object Signing in Bamboo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    maximum 200 words) The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, many...basis for ensuring secure transactions throughout the Internet . However, this technology is prohibitively expensive for the majority of users. Object...BLANK iv ABSTRACT The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, relying on e

  14. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains 31 activities and experiments from the biological and physical sciences. Addresses such areas as reproduction, biotechnology, ecology, proteins, nitrates, aerosols, metal crystallinity, circuit boards, and photoswitching. (ML)

  15. Time reversal interactive objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, Ros Ki; Quieffin, Nicolas; Catheline, Stefan; Fink, Mathias

    2001-05-01

    Time reversal has shown to be a fruitful concept in nondestructive testing in underwater acoustic or in ultrasonic imaging. In this paper this technique is adapted in the audible range to transform every day objects into tactile sensitive interfaces. A quick historical background is presented in the ultrasonic field and specially in chaotic cavity. In all time reversal experiments, it is demonstrated that a wave field spatially and temporally recorded is able to back propagate to its source. In other words, the field contains all the information on the location of the source. In the interactive experiments, it is shown that touching an object like a window, a table or a world globe generates an acoustic field easily detectable with one or two acoustic sensors. Using the concept of time reversal, the source location is deduced in real time. Then, touching objects at specific locations (virtual switches) is used to activate devices. Such devices are for example lights, stereo volume, or computer software. From a technical point of view, all these interactive experiments just use some computation easily performed with a standard personnel computer.

  16. Solid Freeform Fabrication of Aesthetic Objects

    ScienceCinema

    Hart, George [SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York, United States

    2016-07-12

    Solid Freeform Fabrication (aka. Rapid Prototyping) equipment can produce beautiful three-dimensional objects of exquisite intricacy. To use this technology to its full potential requires spatial visualization in the designer and new geometric algorithms as tools. As both a sculptor and a research professor in the Computer Science department at Stony Brook University, George Hart is exploring algorithms for the design of elaborate aesthetic objects. In this talk, he will describe this work, show many images, and bring many physical models to display.

  17. Space Science Enterprise Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy represents the efforts of hundreds of scientists, staff, and educators, as well as collaboration with the other NASA Enterprises. It reveals the progress we have made, our plans for the near future, and our opportunity to support the Agency's Mission to "explore the universe and search for life." Space science has made spectacular advances in the recent past, from the first baby pictures of the universe to the discovery of water ice on Mars. Each new discovery impels us to ask new questions or regard old ones in new ways. How did the universe begin? How did life arise? Are we alone? These questions continue to inspire all of us to keep exploring and searching. And, as we get closer to answers, we will continue to share our findings with the science community, educators, and the public as broadly and as rapidly as possible. In this Strategy, you will find science objectives that define NASA's quest for discovery. You will also find the framework of programs, such as flight missions and ground-based research, that will enable us to achieve these objectives. This Strategy is founded on recommendations from the community, as well as lessons learned from past programs, and maps the stepping-stones to the future of space science.

  18. Observations of Near Earth Objects with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven R.; Emery, Joshua P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard Alan

    2016-10-01

    We are carrying out an Exploration Science Warm Spitzer program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 550 Near Earth Objects in 710 hours of Spitzer time. For each object we use a thermal model to derive diameter and albedo. For each object we also derive a (partial) lightcurve; total elapsed observing times range from 15 minutes to 3.2 hours. This catalog of 500+ NEO lightcurves is a substantial increase over the number of NEO lightcurves presently known. In addition to creating a large catalog of NEO properties, we are also able to study the properties of individual NEOs, including those with low delta V values (i.e., accessible asteroids) and those that might be dead comets. The final observations in this program will be obtained by 30 Sept 2016, so at the DPS meeting we will present a first look at our entire catalog of results. All results are posted at nearearthobjects.nau.edu usually within days of the data being released by the Spitzer Science Center. This work was supported in part by funding from the Spitzer Science Center.

  19. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  20. The science in social science

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, H. Russell

    2012-01-01

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222

  1. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  2. Carnap on unified science.

    PubMed

    Klev, Ansten

    2016-10-01

    Unified science is a recurring theme in Carnap's work from the time of the Aufbau until the end of the 1930's. The theme is not constant, but knows several variations. I shall extract three quite precise formulations of the thesis of unified science from Carnap's work during this period: from the Aufbau, from Carnap's so-called syntactic period, and from Testability and Meaning and related papers. My main objective is to explain these formulations and to discuss their relation, both to each other and to other aspects of Carnap's work.

  3. Southeast Ecological Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlitz, Rachel J.

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems, from deep sea reefs and coastal marshes to freshwater springs and wetlands, are home to diverse assemblages of life. These commercially and ecologically important systems are part of our national heritage, and are often treasured places or refuges that protect rare or threatened species. In the water-rich Southeastern United States, managers face the challenge of understanding how water and land use affect the region's aquatic life. The Southeast Ecological Science Center (SESC) helps address that challenge by providing objective science that can be used to evaluate proposed actions and develop management strategies.

  4. Overview of imaging science.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, R N

    1993-01-01

    The traditional disciplines of science are grounded in the observation and measurement of object properties. Recent advances in digital computer technology have spawned numerous computer-based imaging systems that extend the range of observation and measurement into realms that would otherwise be inaccessible. More importantly, the same set of principles, concepts, strategies, and methods may be used to address the generic issues involved in the production and use of all digitized images. Recognition of this fact is giving rise to the new discipline of imaging science, with its own intellectual agenda. PMID:11607430

  5. The Laboratory for Information and Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Alton P.; Slamecka, Vladimir

    This document briefly explains the relationship between the School of Information Science and the Laboratory for Information and Computer Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The explicit purposes of the information science laboratory are spelled out as well as the specific objectives for the 1969/70, 1970/71, and 1971/72 school years.…

  6. Rhetoric of Science: Oxymoron or Tautology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, the notion of a "rhetoric of science" may have sounded oxymoronic. Traditional conceptions of science as the embodiment of disinterested, objective knowledge of nature, coupled with perceptions of rhetoric as empty verbiage, subterfuge, or stylistic embellishment, made science and rhetoric appear quite incompatible. However, recent…

  7. Poetry and Science: The Dynamic Duo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Martha H.; And Others

    Suggesting combining poetry and science learning, this collection of materials maintains that the natural intersection of science and poetry can be used to stimulate thinking, create interest, and explore new possibilities. The collection includes: (1) the South Carolina Basic Skills Assessment Program's Objectives Reading/Science Match; (2)…

  8. Eighth Grade Marine Science; Resource Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Edwin B.

    A resource unit on the marine sciences is described. Designed for eighth-grade students with some basic science background, the unit can be taught in a minimum of four weeks. Content includes emphasis on the biological, chemical, and physical sciences. Each lesson contains objectives, goals, materials, and follow-up activities (often an…

  9. An Integrated Science and Technology Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jackson E.

    The College of Integrated Science and Technology (CISAT) at James Madison University was founded to educate and graduate a well-rounded science student, one educated in science and technology but in a very different way than traditional programs. This document contains information about mission and objectives, curriculum, faculty, and students of…

  10. On the Validation of Computer Science Theories,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    We address normatively the demarcation problem for Computer Science : How can Computer Science research be conducted scientifically? First we attempt...to delimit the subject matter of Computer Science , and conclude that it is not computers but programs. Since programs are not physical objects, it is

  11. Modeling Physical Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    of the conference will be published by Oxford University Press . At the ASME Conference on Design Automation in Chicago. D. Dmtta and I presented... University Press , 1991. .1. Jung-Hong (’huang, "Surface Approximations in Geometric Modeling," PhD Diss., Dept. of ComIp. Sci., Purdue University: Rept. CER-90-37. September 1990. 3 ...utoination. Chicago, 1990: (with D. Dutta). 3. "How to Construct the Skeleton of CSG Objects," Proc. ,Ith JA1A Con!. Math. of Suifaces. Oxford

  12. DOLIB: Distributed object library

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) emulates global shared memory in distributed memory environments intended for scientific applications. Access to global arrays is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Use of DOLIB does not rely on language extension, compiler or operating system supports. Shared memory provided by DOLIB was also used by DONIO (Distributed Network I/O Library) as large disk caches that gave improvements of 15 to 30 fold on the Intel Paragon. DOLIB shared memory simplifies the parallelization of the CHAMMP Semi-Lagrangian Transport (SLT) code that has particle tracking as the kernel computation.

  13. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  14. The sciences of science communication.

    PubMed

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  15. The sciences of science communication

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication” brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs. PMID:23942125

  16. Personalizing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielowich, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers are aware of many social issues that intersect with science. These socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are "open-ended problems without clear-cut solutions [that] can be informed by scientific principles, theories, and data, but…cannot be fully determined by [them]" (Sadler 2011, p. 4). This article describes the SSI lessons…

  17. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  18. Science Alive!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally-Foos, Kay

    2005-01-01

    At the authors' school, as in many places, she struggles with making science a meaningful part of her students' lives. The teachers are working under state mandates to prepare students for reading and mathematics tests in third, fourth, and fifth grades. Often, this relegates science and social studies to a distant back burner. In an effort to…

  19. Talking Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwartz, Yael; Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Sutherland, LeeAnn; Merrit, Joi; Krajcik, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Science is a social process--one that involves particular ways of talking, reasoning, observing, analyzing, and writing, which often have meaning only when shared within the scientific community. Discussions are one of the best ways to help students learn to "talk science" and construct understanding in a social context. Since inquiry is an…

  20. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  1. Deconstructing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  2. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  3. Shrinking Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goates, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity based on shrinkable thermoplastics in which students explore the percentage of shrinkage of a plastic ruler when it is heated. Includes science content knowledge behind the shrink, national science education standards related to this activity, and a complete guide. (KHR)

  4. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, A. J. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents 31 science activities for use with high school or college science classes. Topics included are: chromatography, ecology, invertebrates, enzymes, genetics, botany, creep, crystals, diffusion, computer interfaces, acid rain, teaching techniques, chemical reactions, waves, electric fields, rainbows, electricity, magnetic fields, and a Pitot…

  5. Soundsational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

  6. Why Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Science Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents people from many walks of life, including some well-known names, who share their views about science. Adam Hart-Davis, who studied chemistry at university and is now an author, photographer, historian and broadcaster, explains why science cannot start too soon. Lis Nairn, Manager, Stratigraphy, with Fugro Robertson Ltd (Oil…

  7. The elementary level science methods course: Breeding ground of an apprehension toward science? a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Richard A.

    Ethnographic research methodologies were used to examine the training of elementary education majors in science in an attempt to gain insight on whether or not their training in science contributes to the apprehension elementary teachers have toward science. The field study consisted of 14 weeks of weekly observations in the elementary education majors science methods class. Interviews with the students and the instructors as well as survey instruments to assess students' preparation in science were used. Two different approaches to the study of science, one content oriented, the other process oriented, may contribute to the students' confusion, insecurity, and avoidance of science. The students' perception that science is learning content, an objective of introductory level science courses, and the science methods class's objectives of teaching science as a process sets up an antagonistic dilemma between the two. Such antagonistic dilemma may be manifest in the lack of instructional time accorded to science by elementary educators. The type of science experiences an individual encounters influences their perceptions. To offset student perceptions developed in science courses which stress principally content, the students need science experiences which truly represent science as inquiry. New strategies for the training of elementary education majors in science need to be examined.

  8. Object linking in repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  9. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  10. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. PMID:28008636

  11. Science teaching in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  12. Reflaxicon objectives for imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadorff, Georg; DeWitt, Frank

    2012-10-01

    We introduce a novel application of reflective axicon surfaces to high performance image-forming objectives. The reflective surfaces are arranged such that the optical and mechanical axes are collinear, yet have the potential to provide unobscured transmission. Offering the ability to compete with the performance of traditional diffraction-limited unobscured optical systems provides a design and fabrication alternative where demanding optical requirements must be met. There are four possible arrangements for construction, with the two outer reflectors always being concave and the two inner reflectors being either concave or convex. Multitudes of novel design forms are explored. We describe monolithic and two-piece solid, two- and three-piece reflective, and two-piece hollow-solid hybrids. We analyze the performance of such designs and compare to the performance of both refractive and reflective systems.

  13. Synergetic Paradigm of Geographical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbanyov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that in the last decades, geography has expanded so much, that it has lost its object of study. It was not clear, what the geographical science does, and, as a consequence, households have an extremely low level of geographical cultures and geographical education. Each geography is extremely isolated, has its own object of study.…

  14. Detectability of Oort Cloud Objects Using Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Nakar, Ehud

    2010-03-01

    The size distribution and total mass of objects in the Oort Cloud have important implications to the theory of planet formation, including the properties of, and the processes taking place in the early solar system. We discuss the potential of space missions, such as Kepler and CoRoT, designed to discover transiting exoplanets, to detect Oort Cloud, Kuiper Belt, and main belt objects by occultations of background stars. Relying on published dynamical estimates of the content of the Oort Cloud, we find that Kepler's main program is expected to detect between 0 and ~100 occultation events by deca-kilometer-sized Oort Cloud objects. The occultation rate depends on the mass of the Oort Cloud, the distance to its "inner edge," and the size distribution of its objects. In contrast, Kepler is unlikely to find occultations by Kuiper Belt or main belt asteroids, mainly due to the fact that it is observing a high ecliptic latitude field. Occultations by solar system objects will appear as a photometric deviation in a single measurement, implying that the information regarding the timescale and light-curve shape of each event is lost. We present statistical methods that have the potential to verify the authenticity of occultation events by solar system objects, to estimate the distance to the occulting population, and to constrain their size distribution. Our results are useful for planning of future space-based exoplanet searches in a way that will maximize the probability of detecting solar system objects, without hampering the main science goals.

  15. Science Indicators and Science Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses science/society interface and difficulties involved in developing realistic science indicators. Topics include: intrinsic vs. extrinsic indicators; four problems society faces as a result of technological activities (toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, auto safety, cancer); research and development (R&D) priorities; international…

  16. Science Policy: Pangs of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1978-01-01

    Presented is the prepared text of a public lecture given by the president of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Handler attempts to articulate the state of science today. He deals with such issues as nuclear power and genetic engineering. (MDR)

  17. Teaching Science. Ripping into Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how one activity can lead students to investigate and understand science concepts. Example provided involves ripping of a newspaper and the resultant discussions on saws, fabric, meat, and newsprint. Suggests that this activity can be a bridge to study in language arts, career education, graphic arts, mathematics, science, and…

  18. Science Instructors' Views of Science and Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how college science faculty who teach introductory level undergraduate science courses including the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, and earth science, understand and define science and nature of science (NOS). Participants were seventeen science instructors from five different institutions in the…

  19. Revolutionary Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  20. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  1. Revolutionary Science.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  2. Science K-12, Living Things in Continuous Change. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, general science, physical science, earth science) and grade level. In grades K-6, objectives for topics of science study include conditions for plants and animals to live, adaptation, conservation,…

  3. Galileo Science Writers' Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-08-01

    This NASA Kennedy video production presents Part 3 of a press conference held at JPL on August 8, 1989. The briefing in its entirety covers the Galileo Project's mission design from launch to completion in 1997 and is moderated by JPL Public Information Mgr. Robert Macmillan. Part 3 of the 3 part video series centers on the Galileo science goals, which are to explore not only Jupiter but the entire Jovian system, and the individual instruments that will make these objectives possible. Dr. Torrence V. Johnson (Project Scientist) introduces Dr. Richard Young (Probe Scientist (AMES)) and Dr. Clayne M. Yeates (Acting Science Mission Design Manager) who discuss the six main instruments included on the Probe and the Orbiter experiments and instrumentation, respectively. The video is rounded out by a period in which the Science Writer's are given an opportunity to ask questions of the seven member panel.

  4. KEPLER SCIENCE OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Steve T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Smith, Marcie; Sobeck, Charles K.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Stober, Jeremy

    2010-04-20

    Kepler's mission design includes a comprehensive plan for commissioning and science operations. The commissioning phase completed all critical tasks and accomplished all mission objectives within a week of the pre-launch plan. Since the start of science data collection, the nominal timeline has been interrupted by two safe-mode events, several losses of fine point, and some small pointing adjustments. The most important anomalies are understood and mitigated, so Kepler's technical performance has improved significantly over this period, and the prognosis for mission success is excellent. The Kepler data archive is established and hosting data for the science team, guest observers, and the public. The first data to become publicly available include the monthly full-frame images and the light curves for targets that are dropped from the exoplanet program or released after publication. Data are placed in the archive on a quarterly basis; the Kepler Results Catalog will be released annually starting in 2011.

  5. Setting up crowd science projects.

    PubMed

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making.

  6. Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

    One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning…

  7. A Survey of Object Oriented Languages in Programming Environments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Chairman. Depart fient of Computer Science Dean of Information and Policy .c$ 4iAI ABSTRACT This thesis addresses object oriented programming languages...5. Instances......................................... 55 6. Methods......................................... 5 C. INFORMATION HIDING...56 1. Definition ........................................ 56 2. Information Hiding in Object Oriented Languages .......... 56 D. DATA

  8. [Educational objectives in the new interdisciplinary subject "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Techniques" under the 9th Revision of the Licensing Regulations for Doctors--consensus recommendations of the German Society for Rehabilitative Sciences and the German Society for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mau, W; Gülich, M; Gutenbrunner, C; Lampe, B; Morfeld, M; Schwarzkopf, S R; Smolenski, U C

    2004-12-01

    In October 2003 the 9 (th) revision of the Federal Medical Training Regulations (Approbationsordnung) came into effect. The new compulsory interdisciplinary subject "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment" offers the opportunity to teach all students in comprehensive concepts of Rehabilitation such as the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the WHO and the new book 9 of the German Social Code (SGB 9), as well as Physical Medicine and Naturopathic Treatment. Since the content of this new subject has not been defined up to date a joint task force of the German Society of Rehabilitation Science and the German Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was founded in order to recommend teaching standards. As part of these teaching standards educational objectives are introduced in this article. They should guide the persons in charge of teaching the subject in the medical faculties. In some areas the students should acquire profound abilities and skills in addition to knowledge. The medical faculties may focus on different educational targets according to their individual teaching profile.

  9. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Poth, Christian H; Herwig, Arvid; Schneider, Werner X

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask). Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object's contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013). Postsaccadic object recognition is

  10. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  11. Live Information Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    options.  Indeed, one  group of students used Twitter to implement multicast as a  classroom  project.  That object was  slow… but it worked.    Notice...if connectivity  is  lost, they often crash.   (As an example: the  iPad   has  a map  application,  and  it  can  function  like  any GPS device...tracking  your  car  and  giving  driving instructions.  But if the  iPad  loses its network connection, the map vanishes and an error  box appears: not

  12. Data quality objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  13. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes 20 teaching activities and experiments appropriate for use with various secondary school science classes. Instructional activities include the study of catalase, raising bees, a game about equilibrium, spectrometers, lead iodide, resonance, graphing, and electromagnetic waves. (TW)

  14. Citizen Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing field in which scientific investigations are conducted by volunteers, which have been successful in expanding scientific knowledge, raising environmental awareness, and leveraging change.

  15. Science Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is one of the world’s leading environmental and human health research organizations. Science provides the foundation for Agency policies, actions, and decisions made on behalf of the American people.

  16. Dismal Science

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    “No prediction, no science.” By this standard, the past year has not been kind to the pretensions of “economic science,” Nobel prizes notwithstanding. The issue is more than semantic. As Neil Postman (1992) pointed out, sciences study natural processes that repeat themselves under constant conditions. The social disciplines study practices of human communities that are embedded in history. There are no constant conditions; it is impossible to step into the same river twice (Heraclitus). “Physics envy” has led mainstream economic theorists to attempt to understand their discipline through methods and models borrowed from the natural sciences. (By unfortunate coincidence, these have reinforced a certain class of ideological preconceptions and associated economic interests.) Today the results of this methodological mismatch speak for themselves. PMID:20436803

  17. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-two activities are presented. Topics include: acid rain, microcomputers, fish farming, school-industry research projects, enzymes, equilibrium, assessment, science equipment, logic, Archimedes principle, electronics, optics, and statistics. (CW)

  18. Science Weekly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the space classroom that would have been conducted by Christa McAuliffe during the space shuttle flight. Includes lab activities, word puzzles, vocabulary lists, and graph reading exercises for elementary science students. (ML)

  19. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents 23 experiments, activities, field projects and computer programs in the biological and physical sciences. Instructional procedures, experimental designs, materials, and background information are suggested. Topics include fluid mechanics, electricity, crystals, arthropods, limpets, acid neutralization, and software evaluation. (ML)

  20. Science Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehle, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how schools in Carroll County, Maryland; Toronto, Ontario; Durham, North Carolina; Englewood, Colorado; and Troy, New York, are renovating their vocational areas for inquiry-based, hands-on science learning. Includes sample floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  1. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  2. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  3. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Included are 30 science activities that include computer monitoring, fieldwork, enzyme activity, pH, drugs, calorimeters, Raoult's Law, food content, solubility, electrochemistry, titration, physical properties of materials, gel filtration, energy, concepts in physics, and electricity. (KR)

  4. Appliance Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, James

    1984-01-01

    Ordinary household appliances can be used in the classroom to inspire unusual research, artwork, and problem solving. Suggestions on how to organize and collect materials to develop an appliance science unit are offered. (DF)

  5. Scuba Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an integrated unit on scuba science. Studies oxygen in kinetic theory, Boyle's law, Charles's law, Dalton's law, human circulatory and respiratory systems, and diving dangers such as decompression sickness. (YDS)

  6. Communicating science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, Gaye S.

    2005-01-01

    For science to have an impact, it must be communicated and easily accessible. The USGS National Wetlands Research Center communicates its research findings through several ways: publishing, the Web, the library, and education and outreach.

  7. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Shirley; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes 36 science activities. Topics include: osmosis, fermentation, anhydrobiotic organisms, breathing monitors, trypsin, weeds, amyloplasts, electrolysis, polarimeters, ethene ripening of fruit, colorimetry, diffusion, redox reactions, equilibria, acid-base relationships, electricity, power, resonance, measurement, parallax, amplifiers,…

  8. Science of the Mind**

    PubMed Central

    Shamasundar, C.

    2012-01-01

    The popular concept and practice of science as an exclusively objective exercise ignores the study of rich and unavoidable subjective phenomena relating to mind. This article proposes that as a process of generating knowledge from perceptual experiences, science-skill is innate to man, which demands precision and effective management of bias, and relies on faith for communication. It manifests in man along two dimensions, one of precision and the other of need and interest. Two more dimensions influence its practice and communicability. This dimensionality accommodates scientific study of diverse human experiences, including religion and spirituality. Evolution of scientific study of mind requires complementing the existing objective techniques with development of techniques for investigating subjective and intuitive experiences. It would also benefit by borrowing concepts and methodologies from ancient Indian philosophies and spiritual practices. Swami Vivekananda's observations are presented in this connection. PMID:22654386

  9. Cosmic Dust Collection Facility: Scientific objectives and programmatic relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Fred (Editor); Brownlee, D. E.; Bunch, T. E.; Grounds, D.; Grun, E.; Rummel, Y.; Quaide, W. L.; Walker, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The science objectives are summarized for the Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) on Space Station Freedom and these objectives are related to ongoing science programs and mission planning within NASA. The purpose is to illustrate the potential of the CDCF project within the broad context of early solar system sciences that emphasize the study of primitive objects in state-of-the-art analytical and experimental laboratories on Earth. Current knowledge about the sources of cosmic dust and their associated orbital dynamics is examined, and the results are reviewed of modern microanalytical investigations of extraterrestrial dust particles collected on Earth. Major areas of scientific inquiry and uncertainty are identified and it is shown how CDCF will contribute to their solution. General facility and instrument concepts that need to be pursued are introduced, and the major development tasks that are needed to attain the scientific objectives of the CDCF project are identified.

  10. Learning Science Through Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2005-01-01

    In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.

  11. Musculoskeletal discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the musculoskeletal discipline must identify possible consequences of weightlessness on this system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers. The musculoskeletal system is highly plastic in that is possesses the inherent capability to adapt its structural and functional properties in accordance with the type and degree of stimuli imposed on it. Prolonged space travel is essentially a period of significant unloading of the musculoskeletal system. This results in adaptive responses in the structure and function of this system, placing it on the low end of a continuum from one of complete disuse to one of maximal use. There is a high probability that the musculoskeletal system is functionally impaired with increasing duration of weightlessness. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences division research and development activities in the area of musculoskeletal function. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines research opportunities, which encompass critical questions in the subdiscipline areas (e.g., muscle, bone, and other musculoskeletal connective tissues). These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  12. Science Education. Oryx Science Bibliographies, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Eileen E., Comp.; Tyckoson, David A., Ed.

    This bibliography provides 337 annotated references covering: science teaching at the preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and high school levels; science education as it relates to various science disciplines; science education for special populations; sexual stereotyping in science education; teacher education for science teachers; and how…

  13. Science teachers' interpretations of Islamic culture related to science education versus the Islamic epistemology and ontology of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-03-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and science comes next. I will argue that teachers' personal religious beliefs are among the major constructs that drive teachers' ways of thinking and interpretation of scientific issues related with religion. Then, I discuss how teachers' personal religious beliefs have been formed and influenced their pedagogical beliefs related to science and religion issues. Finally, I will argue, how we use the personal religious beliefs model as a framework of teaching/learning scientific issues related with religion within sociocultural (Islamic) context. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

  14. Infants' Ability To Use Object Kind Information for Object Individuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan; Welch, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    Adult and 10- and 12-month olds participated in two experiments to determine reliance of infants on object-kind information in solving problems of object individuation. Findings converge with those of object-first hypothesis of developmental course of object individuation. Findings suggest that young infants may represent one concept as criteria…

  15. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  16. Springtime Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Robert E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize nature hikes to develop students' understanding of environment-related issues, observation skills, and critical thinking skills. Activities include alphabetizing observed objects, identifying objects by smell, observing ants, and a scavenger hunt. (MDH)

  17. Student science enrichment training program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  18. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  19. Target-object integration, attention distribution, and object orientation interactively modulate object-based selection.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Shahd; Greenberg, Adam S

    2016-10-01

    The representational basis of attentional selection can be object-based. Various studies have suggested, however, that object-based selection is less robust than spatial selection across experimental paradigms. We sought to examine the manner by which the following factors might explain this variation: Target-Object Integration (targets 'on' vs. part 'of' an object), Attention Distribution (narrow vs. wide), and Object Orientation (horizontal vs. vertical). In Experiment 1, participants discriminated between two targets presented 'on' an object in one session, or presented as a change 'of' an object in another session. There was no spatial cue-thus, attention was initially focused widely-and the objects were horizontal or vertical. We found evidence of object-based selection only when targets constituted a change 'of' an object. Additionally, object orientation modulated the sign of object-based selection: We observed a same-object advantage for horizontal objects, but a same-object cost for vertical objects. In Experiment 2, an informative cue preceded a single target presented 'on' an object or as a change 'of' an object (thus, attention was initially focused narrowly). Unlike in Experiment 1, we found evidence of object-based selection independent of target-object integration. We again found that the sign of selection was modulated by the objects' orientation. This result may reflect a meridian effect, which emerged due to anisotropies in the cortical representations when attention is oriented endogenously. Experiment 3 revealed that object orientation did not modulate object-based selection when attention was oriented exogenously. Our findings suggest that target-object integration, attention distribution, and object orientation modulate object-based selection, but only in combination.

  20. As Science Evolves, How Can Science Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 16002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Getting science policy right is a core objective of government that bears on scientific advance, economic growth, health, and longevity. Yet the process of science is changing. As science advances and knowledge accumulates, ensuing generations of innovators spend longer in training and become more narrowly expert, shifting key innovations (i)…

  1. Mars Science and Telecommunications Orbiter: Report of the Science Analysis Group, March 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton Barney; Calvin, Wendy M.; Campbell, Bruce; Fox, Jane; Haberle, Bob; Kasting, Jim; Luhmann, Janet; Nagy, Andy; Allen, Mark; Winterhalter, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the findings of the Mars Science and Telecommunications Orbiter (MSTO) Science Advocacy Group (SAG), which was convened by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) and the Mars Exploration Office at JPL to identify and prioritize areas of Mars atmospheric and surface science objectives for Mars that can be accomplished from orbit on a MSTO like mission.

  2. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  3. What "Ideas-about-Science" Should Be Taught in School Science? A Chemistry Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to facilitate in-service chemistry teachers' understanding of nature of science and what "ideas-about-science" can be included in the classroom. The study is based on 17 in-service teachers who had registered for a 11-week course on "Epistemology of Science Teaching" as part of their Master's degree program. The…

  4. Science Fiction on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  5. The Pittsburgh Science Technology Society Project: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, George E., Ed.

    This final report on the inservice education of secondary science teachers for the teaching of science via Science Technology Society (STS) materials lists the major objectives of the project as: (1) write four instructional modules with a science, society and technology focus which address special concerns and needs of the underserved and…

  6. NEOCam: The Near-Earth Object Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy K.; NEOCam Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a Discovery mission in Phase A study designed to carry out a large-scale survey of the inner solar system's minor planets. Its primary science objectives are to understand the origins of the solar system's small bodies and the processes that evolved them into their present state. The mission will also characterize the impact hazard from near-Earth objects as well as rare populations such as Earth Trojans and interior-to-Earth objects. In the process, NEOCam can identify targets for future robotic or human exploration. Using a 50 cm telescope operating in two infrared wavelengths (4-5.2 and 6-10 um), the mission is expected to detect and characterize close to 100,000 NEOs and thousands of comets. By achieving high survey completeness in the main belt down to kilometer-scale objects, NEOCam-derived size and albedo distributions can be directly compared to those of the NEOs. The hypotheses that small, dark NEOs and comets are preferentially disrupted at low perihelia can be tested by searching for correlations between size, orbital elements, and albedos. NEOCam's Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point halo orbit enables a large instantaneous field of regard with a view of low solar elongations, high data rates, and a cold thermal environment. Like its predecessor, WISE/NEOWISE, candidate minor planet detections will be rapidly disseminated to the community via the Minor Planet Center. NEOCam images, source databases, and tables of derived physical properties will be delivered to the community via NASA's Infrared Science Archive and PDS.

  7. Islam and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  8. Lunar base objectives and open questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the NASA program for establishing a lunar base are described and examined. The scientific objectives of the program are the planetological investigation of the moon and the use of the moon as a base for astronomical observations. It is argued that the development of a lunar base will assist in the advancement of science, the development of lunar resources to support space activities, and the development of a permanently, self-supported human colony away from the earth. The technological and operational capabilities needed in order to establish a lunar base are discussed.

  9. Science aspects of a 1980 flyby of Comet Encke with a Pioneer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Elachi, C.; Giffin, C. E.; Huntress, W.; Newburn, R. L.; Parker, R. H.; Taylor, F. W.; Thorpe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the feasibility of a 1980 flyby of Comet Encke using a Pioneer class spacecraft. Specific areas studied include: science objectives and rationale; science observables; effects of encounter velocity; science encounter and targeting requirements; selection and description of science instruments; definition of a candidate science payload; engineering characteristics of suggested payload; value of a separable probe; science instruments for a separable probe; science payload integration problems; and science operations profile.

  10. Visual object recognition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  11. 4MOST: 4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depagne, Éric

    4MOST (4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a spectroscopic facility that will be installed on ESO's VISTA around 2020. The science rationale of this facility are to be found in the ASTRONET Science Vision for European Astronomy (de Zeeuw & Molster, (eds) A Science Vision for European Astronomy, Astronet 2007. ISBN 978-3-923524-62-4). Specifically fundamental contribution can be made to the Extreme Universe (Dark Energy & Dark Matter, Black holes), Galaxy Formation & Evolution, and the Origin of Stars science cases in the ASTRONET Science Vision. The unique capabilities of the 4MOST facility are due to by its large field-of-view, high multiplex, its broad optical spectral wavelength coverage

  12. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a slight advantage for categorizing animals. Infant object categorization appears to be robust to diversity in object-context relations. PMID:20031232

  14. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  15. Dimension Reduction for Object Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamishima, Toshihiro; Akaho, Shotaro

    Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results and bestseller lists. Techniques for processing such ordinal data are being developed, particularly methods for an object ranking task: i.e., learning functions used to sort objects from sample orders. In this article, we propose two dimension reduction methods specifically designed to improve prediction performance in an object ranking task.

  16. Science Opportunities with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, J. Anthony; Ivezic, Z.; Strauss, M.; LSST Science Collaborations

    2012-01-01

    The LSST design is driven by four science themes: dark energy and matter, Galactic structure, transient objects, and the Solar System inventory. These and many other science opportunities are described in the LSST Science Book: http://www.lsst.org/lsst/scibook The LSST will carry out a ten-year very deep imaging survey of 18,000 sq.deg. of the sky in six broad optical bands, with a deep stack reaching r 27.5 (5 sigma, point source). The LSST design, with an 8.4m (6.7m effective) primary mirror and a 9.6 square degree field of view, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be imaged to an effective depth of r=24.5 every three nights. Each patch of the sky will be visited over 800 times with pairs of 15 sec exposures, opening a new window on the universe: faint time-domain. The resulting petabytes of data will be made available to the US and Chilean communities for scientific investigations ranging from the properties of near-Earth asteroids, to characterizations of dark energy from strong and weak lensing, galaxy clustering, and distant supernovae. More information is available at http://www.lsst.org Eleven LSST Science Collaborations are actively laying the groundwork for first light: working on image analysis algorithms and database design, exploring cadence choices, developing commissioning plans, and outlining scientific opportunities. These Collaborations have over 200 members to date, with membership open to the US and Chilean communities via an application process administered by NOAO. Full end-to-end LSST image simulations are a useful resource for exploring science capability. LSST Science Collaborations: Supernovae Weak Lensing Stellar Populations Active Galactic Nuclei Solar System Galaxies Transients/variable stars Large-scale structure and baryon oscillations Milky Way and Local Volume Structure Strong Lensing Informatics and Statistics

  17. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  18. Insights Into the Mineralogic Diversity of Lower Mount Sharp Units from Mars Science Laboratory Mastcam Multispectral Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellington, D. F.; Bell, J. F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Kinch, K. M.; Rice, M. S.; Hardgrove, C. J.; Godber, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover has been exploring the environment of Gale Crater since it landed in August 2012. By September 2014 the rover had reached the basal units of the Mt. Sharp (Aeolis Mons) stratigraphy. The ongoing scientific investigation of these strata includes multispectral imaging acquired by the Mast Cameras (Mastcams), Bayer-patterned CCD cameras each equipped with a rotating filter wheel whose filter band centers span twelve unique wavelengths in the visible to near-infrared. This wavelength range (445-1013 nm) covers the locations of many broad spectral absorptions exhibited by a variety of iron-bearing minerals, including both primary igneous minerals such as pyroxenes and olivines as well as minerals such as oxides and sulfates that can form via water-rock interactions. Mastcam spectra acquired to date over the traverse have shown a great variety of spectra in outcrops, float rocks, drill tailings, and other material imaged by the camera. Comparisons with the results of other instruments, such as ChemCam or in the case of drill samples, CheMin, aid in the interpretation of spectral features. Recent results from the Mastcam multispectral investigation have shown that since reaching the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp, the spectral diversity observed by Mastcam has increased, including the appearance of distinct absorption features not previously observed in the mission. Much of this new diversity is seen to be variable over small spatial scales within an outcrop, sometimes in association with light-toned veins, suggesting alteration by fluids percolating through fractures in the rock. Follow-up analyses by other instruments further constrain the mineralogy that gives rise to these spectral features. The results are consistent with the interpretation that the alteration environment has shifted from that observed in Yellowknife Bay and the surrounding plains.

  19. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  20. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  1. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  2. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENT QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides assistance with systematic planning using measurement quality objectives to those working on research projects. These performance criteria are more familiar to researchers than data quality objectives because they are more closely associated with the measuremen...

  3. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Chris; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty science experiments are presented. Topics include recombinant DNA, physiology, nucleophiles, reactivity series, molar volume of gases, spreadsheets in chemistry, hydrogen bonding, composite materials, radioactive decay, magnetism, speed, charged particles, compression waves, heat transfer, Ursa Major, balloons, current, and expansion of…

  4. Skeptical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  5. Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eads, Ewin A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses implementation of an interdisciplinary bachelor of science degree program in Lamar University, Beaumont, with emphases upon the training of pollution and environmental quality control. Indicates that graduates' job opportunities are created by the enactment of recent laws for cleaner air and water. (CC)

  6. Kaleidoscope Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janes, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Presents a collection of science activities that have elementary students investigate how color can trick the eye and the brain. The activities involve working with contrasting colors, creating a rainbow, and exploring the connection between colors and words. An instructor reproducible features two color activities. (SM)

  7. Actuarial Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Bette

    1982-01-01

    Details are provided of a program on actuarial training developed at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton through the Department of Mathematical Sciences. An outline of its operation, including a few statistics on students in the program, is included. (MP)

  8. Science First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Diane

    2005-01-01

    At the elementary level, when children learn best through hands-on activities, when is the best time to use literacy and make that connection to enhance learning? For teachers involved in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Science Teacher Enhancement Program Unifying the Pikes Peak Region, STEP-uP professional development program for teachers, it is…

  9. Subterranean science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paling, Sean; Sadler, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    The deep underground laboratories of the world are no longer the scientific realm of astroparticle physics alone. From Mars rovers to muon tomography, and from radioactive dating to astrobiology, Sean Paling and Stephen Sadler describe the renaissance in the science taking place far beneath our feet.

  10. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom…

  11. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes 26 different activities, experiments, demonstrations, and computer simulations in various topics in science. Includes instructional activities dealing with mural ecology, surface area/volume ratios, energy transfer in ecosystems, electrochemical simulations, alternating and direct current, terminal velocity, measuring the size of the…

  12. Pathological Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Sheldon

    2001-09-01

    I discuss examples of what Dr. Irving Langmuir, a Nobel prize winner in Chemistry, called "the science of things that aren't so." Some of his examples are reviewed and others from High Energy Physics are added. It is hoped that discussing these incidents will help us develop an understanding of some potential pitfalls.

  13. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, G. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

  14. Brewing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

  15. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Activities, experiments, computer programs, equipment, procedures, demonstrations, and teaching techniques are provided for a wide variety of topics in the biological and physical sciences. They include an improved apparatus for measuring rate of photosynthesis, procedures for making rainbows and measuring stomatal openings, and others. (JN)

  16. Organizational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  17. Literary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Megan R.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of literacy in science education. Uses "Silent Spring", a book on environmental issues, to encourage students to think about the role of water in balancing the earth's system and possible actions against environmental concerns. Creates an environment for students to discuss their knowledge on the use of the pesticide…

  18. Talking Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The Talking Science project initially involved three secondary schools and eight of their feeder primary schools in the London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames. The project created, trialled and evaluated a set of key stage 2/3 transition materials for children moving from primary to secondary school, using argument as a teaching and learning…

  19. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  20. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…