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Sample records for chemical entities modern

  1. Beyond new chemical entities

    PubMed Central

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C; Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-type agents (i.e., antibodies and derivatives thereof) may be produced as clinically valuable antidotes, which conceivably could be developed in tandem with prospective new pharmaceutical products so as to render the risks of clinical trials more acceptable from a regulatory standpoint. Yet, this is but a relatively narrow view of the full potential utility associated with antibody-type agents, the significance of which is appreciated upon reconsidering key aspects of early modern biomedical research (notably major contributions thereto by Nobel Laureate Paul Ehrlich) in light of much more recent advances (e.g., application of immunity-oriented approaches to diseases in general, epitope-specific targeting, abzyme-mediated catalysis, antibody-mediated sustained-release buffering of unbound-ligand concentrations, and enhanced thermal and metabolic stability of deuterated chemical species via the kinetic isotope effect), as conditioned by health-related concerns (e.g., current and anticipated epidemiologic transitions vis-a-vis environmental changes) especially with regard to sustainable development (e.g., emphasizing more efficient resource utilization toward increased global resilience based on greater independence from high-maintenance technological infrastructure). The broader view that thus emerges highlights the urgent need to rebalance the health-research agenda, which presently reflect an overemphasis on small-molecule candidate-drug discovery, in order to advance health based on a comprehensive fundamental synthesis of immunity and pharmacology. PMID:24632567

  2. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The 'Yin and Yang' theory and the fundamentals of the 'five elements' applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng's bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson's disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its

  3. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng’s bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng

  4. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest: an update.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Paula; Alcántara, Rafael; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Turner, Steve; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. This article reports on new features in ChEBI since the last NAR report in 2007, including substructure and similarity searching, a submission tool for authoring of ChEBI datasets by the community and a 30-fold increase in the number of chemical structures stored in ChEBI.

  5. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest: an update

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Paula; Alcántara, Rafael; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Turner, Steve; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on ‘small’ chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. This article reports on new features in ChEBI since the last NAR report in 2007, including substructure and similarity searching, a submission tool for authoring of ChEBI datasets by the community and a 30-fold increase in the number of chemical structures stored in ChEBI. PMID:19854951

  6. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity.

    PubMed

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel

    2014-11-13

    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE.

  7. Accessing new chemical entities through microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-06-02

    Flow systems have been successfully utilized for a wide variety of applications in chemical research and development, including the miniaturization of (bio)analytical methods and synthetic (bio)organic chemistry. Currently, we are witnessing the growing use of microfluidic technologies for the discovery of new chemical entities. As a consequence, chemical biology and molecular medicine research are being reshaped by this technique. In this Minireview we portray the state-of-the-art, including the most recent advances in the application of microchip reactors as well as the micro- and mesoscale coil reactor-assisted synthesis of bioactive small molecules, and forecast the potential future use of this promising technology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined.

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and…

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  12. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and…

  13. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  14. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  15. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  16. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

  17. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  19. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  20. Cascaded classifiers for confidence-based chemical named entity recognition.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Peter; Copestake, Ann

    2008-11-19

    Chemical named entities represent an important facet of biomedical text. We have developed a system to use character-based n-grams, Maximum Entropy Markov Models and rescoring to recognise chemical names and other such entities, and to make confidence estimates for the extracted entities. An adjustable threshold allows the system to be tuned to high precision or high recall. At a threshold set for balanced precision and recall, we were able to extract named entities at an F score of 80.7% from chemistry papers and 83.2% from PubMed abstracts. Furthermore, we were able to achieve 57.6% and 60.3% recall at 95% precision, and 58.9% and 49.1% precision at 90% recall. These results show that chemical named entities can be extracted with good performance, and that the properties of the extraction can be tuned to suit the demands of the task.

  1. Cascaded classifiers for confidence-based chemical named entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Peter; Copestake, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Background Chemical named entities represent an important facet of biomedical text. Results We have developed a system to use character-based n-grams, Maximum Entropy Markov Models and rescoring to recognise chemical names and other such entities, and to make confidence estimates for the extracted entities. An adjustable threshold allows the system to be tuned to high precision or high recall. At a threshold set for balanced precision and recall, we were able to extract named entities at an F score of 80.7% from chemistry papers and 83.2% from PubMed abstracts. Furthermore, we were able to achieve 57.6% and 60.3% recall at 95% precision, and 58.9% and 49.1% precision at 90% recall. Conclusion These results show that chemical named entities can be extracted with good performance, and that the properties of the extraction can be tuned to suit the demands of the task. PMID:19025690

  2. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to “text mine” these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted. PMID:24834132

  3. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications.

    PubMed

    Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to "text mine" these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted.

  4. Identifying interactions between chemical entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Lamurias, Andre; Ferreira, João D; Couto, Francisco M

    2014-10-23

    Interactions between chemical compounds described in biomedical text can be of great importance to drug discovery and design, as well as pharmacovigilance. We developed a novel system, \\"Identifying Interactions between Chemical Entities\\" (IICE), to identify chemical interactions described in text. Kernel-based Support Vector Machines first identify the interactions and then an ensemble classifier validates and classifies the type of each interaction. This relation extraction module was evaluated with the corpus released for the DDI Extraction task of SemEval 2013, obtaining results comparable to state-of-the-art methods for this type of task. We integrated this module with our chemical named entity recognition module and made the whole system available as a web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/iice.

  5. Chemical entity extraction using CRF and an ensemble of extractors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As we are witnessing a great interest in identifying and extracting chemical entities in academic articles, many approaches have been proposed to solve this problem. In this work we describe a probabilistic framework that allows for the output of multiple information extraction systems to be combined in a systematic way. The identified entities are assigned a probability score that reflects the extractors' confidence, without the need for each individual extractor to generate a probability score. We quantitively compared the performance of multiple chemical tokenizers to measure the effect of tokenization on extraction accuracy. Later, a single Conditional Random Fields (CRF) extractor that utilizes the best performing tokenizer is built using a unique collection of features such as word embeddings and Soundex codes, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been explored in this context before, Results The ensemble of multiple extractors outperforms each extractor's individual performance during the CHEMDNER challenge. When the runs were optimized to favor recall, the ensemble approach achieved the second highest recall on unseen entities. As for the single CRF model with novel features, the extractor achieves an F1 score of 83.3% on the test set, without any post processing or abbreviation matching. Conclusions Ensemble information extraction is effective when multiple stand alone extractors are to be used, and produces higher performance than individual off the shelf extractors. The novel features introduced in the single CRF model are sufficient to achieve very competitive F1 score using a simple standalone extractor. PMID:25810769

  6. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  7. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  12. [Antitumor Chemical Entities of Cordyceps taii Mycelia Powder from Guizhou].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-gang; Pan, Wei-dong; Zhang, Xiao-jie; Xiao, Jian-hui

    2015-10-01

    To seperate and identify the chemicals from the antitumor fraction of Cordyceps taii mycelia powder. The mycelia of Cordyceps taii were prepared by the submerged fermentation technique. Chemical entities in the antitumor fraction of Cordyceps taii were isolated and purified by using different column chromatographies (silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI), and semi-preparative HPLC method. Theirs chemical structures were then identified by different spectrum techniques such as EI, ESI and 1D/2D-NMR, etc. The cytotoxic activity was investigated by the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Six compounds, such as 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (1), ergosterol (2), adenine nucleoside (3), helvolic acid (4), deacetylcytochalasin C (5) and zygosporin D (6), were identified. The IC50 value of compound 2 against human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was 5.99 μmol/L, which was less than the half value of cisplatin, and had lower cytotoxicity to normal cells in comparison with cisplatin. Six compounds have been isolated from the antitumor fraction of Cordyceps taii mycelia powder,of which compounds 1, 5 and 6 are isolated from Cordyceps taii for the first time. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 have cytotoxic activities against cancer cells, and should be the main antitumor compounds of Cordyceps taii.

  13. ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest.

    PubMed

    Degtyarenko, Kirill; de Matos, Paula; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Zbinden, Martin; McNaught, Alan; Alcántara, Rafael; Darsow, Michael; Guedj, Mickaël; Ashburner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/

  14. Enhancement of chemical entity identification in text using semantic similarity validation.

    PubMed

    Grego, Tiago; Couto, Francisco M

    2013-01-01

    With the amount of chemical data being produced and reported in the literature growing at a fast pace, it is increasingly important to efficiently retrieve this information. To tackle this issue text mining tools have been applied, but despite their good performance they still provide many errors that we believe can be filtered by using semantic similarity. Thus, this paper proposes a novel method that receives the results of chemical entity identification systems, such as Whatizit, and exploits the semantic relationships in ChEBI to measure the similarity between the entities found in the text. The method assigns a single validation score to each entity based on its similarities with the other entities also identified in the text. Then, by using a given threshold, the method selects a set of validated entities and a set of outlier entities. We evaluated our method using the results of two state-of-the-art chemical entity identification tools, three semantic similarity measures and two text window sizes. The method was able to increase precision without filtering a significant number of correctly identified entities. This means that the method can effectively discriminate the correctly identified chemical entities, while discarding a significant number of identification errors. For example, selecting a validation set with 75% of all identified entities, we were able to increase the precision by 28% for one of the chemical entity identification tools (Whatizit), maintaining in that subset 97% the correctly identified entities. Our method can be directly used as an add-on by any state-of-the-art entity identification tool that provides mappings to a database, in order to improve their results. The proposed method is included in a freely accessible web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/ice/.

  15. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... determined and certified to Congress that lifting sanctions on the following Chinese entities, their sub-units and successors is important to the national security interests of the United States: 1. China...

  16. tmChem: a high performance approach for chemical named entity recognition and normalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs are an important class of entities in biomedical research with great potential in a wide range of applications, including clinical medicine. Locating chemical named entities in the literature is a useful step in chemical text mining pipelines for identifying the chemical mentions, their properties, and their relationships as discussed in the literature. We introduce the tmChem system, a chemical named entity recognizer created by combining two independent machine learning models in an ensemble. We use the corpus released as part of the recent CHEMDNER task to develop and evaluate tmChem, achieving a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.8739 on the CEM subtask (mention-level evaluation) and 0.8745 f-measure on the CDI subtask (abstract-level evaluation). We also report a high-recall combination (0.9212 for CEM and 0.9224 for CDI). tmChem achieved the highest f-measure reported in the CHEMDNER task for the CEM subtask, and the high recall variant achieved the highest recall on both the CEM and CDI tasks. We report that tmChem is a state-of-the-art tool for chemical named entity recognition and that performance for chemical named entity recognition has now tied (or exceeded) the performance previously reported for genes and diseases. Future research should focus on tighter integration between the named entity recognition and normalization steps for improved performance. The source code and a trained model for both models of tmChem is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmChem. The results of running tmChem (Model 2) on PubMed are available in PubTator: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator PMID:25810774

  17. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  18. Optimising chemical named entity recognition with pre-processing analytics, knowledge-rich features and heuristics.

    PubMed

    Batista-Navarro, Riza; Rak, Rafal; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    The development of robust methods for chemical named entity recognition, a challenging natural language processing task, was previously hindered by the lack of publicly available, large-scale, gold standard corpora. The recent public release of a large chemical entity-annotated corpus as a resource for the CHEMDNER track of the Fourth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation (BioCreative IV) workshop greatly alleviated this problem and allowed us to develop a conditional random fields-based chemical entity recogniser. In order to optimise its performance, we introduced customisations in various aspects of our solution. These include the selection of specialised pre-processing analytics, the incorporation of chemistry knowledge-rich features in the training and application of the statistical model, and the addition of post-processing rules. Our evaluation shows that optimal performance is obtained when our customisations are integrated into the chemical entity recogniser. When its performance is compared with that of state-of-the-art methods, under comparable experimental settings, our solution achieves competitive advantage. We also show that our recogniser that uses a model trained on the CHEMDNER corpus is suitable for recognising names in a wide range of corpora, consistently outperforming two popular chemical NER tools. The contributions resulting from this work are two-fold. Firstly, we present the details of a chemical entity recognition methodology that has demonstrated performance at a competitive, if not superior, level as that of state-of-the-art methods. Secondly, the developed suite of solutions has been made publicly available as a configurable workflow in the interoperable text mining workbench Argo. This allows interested users to conveniently apply and evaluate our solutions in the context of other chemical text mining tasks.

  19. Optimising chemical named entity recognition with pre-processing analytics, knowledge-rich features and heuristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of robust methods for chemical named entity recognition, a challenging natural language processing task, was previously hindered by the lack of publicly available, large-scale, gold standard corpora. The recent public release of a large chemical entity-annotated corpus as a resource for the CHEMDNER track of the Fourth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation (BioCreative IV) workshop greatly alleviated this problem and allowed us to develop a conditional random fields-based chemical entity recogniser. In order to optimise its performance, we introduced customisations in various aspects of our solution. These include the selection of specialised pre-processing analytics, the incorporation of chemistry knowledge-rich features in the training and application of the statistical model, and the addition of post-processing rules. Results Our evaluation shows that optimal performance is obtained when our customisations are integrated into the chemical entity recogniser. When its performance is compared with that of state-of-the-art methods, under comparable experimental settings, our solution achieves competitive advantage. We also show that our recogniser that uses a model trained on the CHEMDNER corpus is suitable for recognising names in a wide range of corpora, consistently outperforming two popular chemical NER tools. Conclusion The contributions resulting from this work are two-fold. Firstly, we present the details of a chemical entity recognition methodology that has demonstrated performance at a competitive, if not superior, level as that of state-of-the-art methods. Secondly, the developed suite of solutions has been made publicly available as a configurable workflow in the interoperable text mining workbench Argo. This allows interested users to conveniently apply and evaluate our solutions in the context of other chemical text mining tasks. PMID:25810777

  20. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  1. Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    •Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water •CRADA’s with the private companies, CEM corporation and VeruTEK Technologies •Green Chemistry principles are accommodated via multi-faceted approach. Learning from nature- using na...

  2. Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    •Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water •CRADA’s with the private companies, CEM corporation and VeruTEK Technologies •Green Chemistry principles are accommodated via multi-faceted approach. Learning from nature- using na...

  3. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  4. A document processing pipeline for annotating chemical entities in scientific documents.

    PubMed

    Campos, David; Matos, Sérgio; Oliveira, José L

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of drugs and chemical entities in text is a very important task within the field of biomedical information extraction, given the rapid growth in the amount of published texts (scientific papers, patents, patient records) and the relevance of these and other related concepts. If done effectively, this could allow exploiting such textual resources to automatically extract or infer relevant information, such as drug profiles, relations and similarities between drugs, or associations between drugs and potential drug targets. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a document processing and information extraction pipeline for the identification of chemical entity mentions in text. We used the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER task data to train and evaluate a machine-learning based entity recognition system. Using a combination of two conditional random field models, a selected set of features, and a post-processing stage, we achieved F-measure results of 87.48% in the chemical entity mention recognition task and 87.75% in the chemical document indexing task. We present a machine learning-based solution for automatic recognition of chemical and drug names in scientific documents. The proposed approach applies a rich feature set, including linguistic, orthographic, morphological, dictionary matching and local context features. Post-processing modules are also integrated, performing parentheses correction, abbreviation resolution and filtering erroneous mentions using an exclusion list derived from the training data. The developed methods were implemented as a document annotation tool and web service, freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/becas-chemicals/.

  5. A document processing pipeline for annotating chemical entities in scientific documents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The recognition of drugs and chemical entities in text is a very important task within the field of biomedical information extraction, given the rapid growth in the amount of published texts (scientific papers, patents, patient records) and the relevance of these and other related concepts. If done effectively, this could allow exploiting such textual resources to automatically extract or infer relevant information, such as drug profiles, relations and similarities between drugs, or associations between drugs and potential drug targets. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a document processing and information extraction pipeline for the identification of chemical entity mentions in text. Results We used the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER task data to train and evaluate a machine-learning based entity recognition system. Using a combination of two conditional random field models, a selected set of features, and a post-processing stage, we achieved F-measure results of 87.48% in the chemical entity mention recognition task and 87.75% in the chemical document indexing task. Conclusions We present a machine learning-based solution for automatic recognition of chemical and drug names in scientific documents. The proposed approach applies a rich feature set, including linguistic, orthographic, morphological, dictionary matching and local context features. Post-processing modules are also integrated, performing parentheses correction, abbreviation resolution and filtering erroneous mentions using an exclusion list derived from the training data. The developed methods were implemented as a document annotation tool and web service, freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/becas-chemicals/. PMID:25810778

  6. ChemSpot: a hybrid system for chemical named entity recognition.

    PubMed

    Rocktäschel, Tim; Weidlich, Michael; Leser, Ulf

    2012-06-15

    The accurate identification of chemicals in text is important for many applications, including computer-assisted reconstruction of metabolic networks or retrieval of information about substances in drug development. But due to the diversity of naming conventions and traditions for such molecules, this task is highly complex and should be supported by computational tools. We present ChemSpot, a named entity recognition (NER) tool for identifying mentions of chemicals in natural language texts, including trivial names, drugs, abbreviations, molecular formulas and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry entities. Since the different classes of relevant entities have rather different naming characteristics, ChemSpot uses a hybrid approach combining a Conditional Random Field with a dictionary. It achieves an F(1) measure of 68.1% on the SCAI corpus, outperforming the only other freely available chemical NER tool, OSCAR4, by 10.8 percentage points. ChemSpot is freely available at: http://www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/wbi/resources.

  7. Incorporating domain knowledge in chemical and biomedical named entity recognition with word representations.

    PubMed

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Li, Meijing; Batsuren, Khuyagbaatar; Park, Hyeon Ah; Choi, Nak Hyeon; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Chemical and biomedical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an essential prerequisite task before effective text mining can begin for biochemical-text data. Exploiting unlabeled text data to leverage system performance has been an active and challenging research topic in text mining due to the recent growth in the amount of biomedical literature. We present a semi-supervised learning method that efficiently exploits unlabeled data in order to incorporate domain knowledge into a named entity recognition model and to leverage system performance. The proposed method includes Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks for text preprocessing, learning word representation features from a large amount of text data for feature extraction, and conditional random fields for token classification. Other than the free text in the domain, the proposed method does not rely on any lexicon nor any dictionary in order to keep the system applicable to other NER tasks in bio-text data. We extended BANNER, a biomedical NER system, with the proposed method. This yields an integrated system that can be applied to chemical and drug NER or biomedical NER. We call our branch of the BANNER system BANNER-CHEMDNER, which is scalable over millions of documents, processing about 530 documents per minute, is configurable via XML, and can be plugged into other systems by using the BANNER Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) interface. BANNER-CHEMDNER achieved an 85.68% and an 86.47% F-measure on the testing sets of CHEMDNER Chemical Entity Mention (CEM) and Chemical Document Indexing (CDI) subtasks, respectively, and achieved an 87.04% F-measure on the official testing set of the BioCreative II gene mention task, showing remarkable performance in both chemical and biomedical NER. BANNER-CHEMDNER system is available at: https://bitbucket.org/tsendeemts/banner-chemdner.

  8. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Hettne, Kristina M.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small. Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents PMID:27141091

  9. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  11. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task. The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and a F-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  12. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named

  13. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Hettne, Kristina M; van der Horst, Eelke; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named entity recognition, outperforming

  14. CheNER: a tool for the identification of chemical entities and their classes in biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Small chemical molecules regulate biological processes at the molecular level. Those molecules are often involved in causing or treating pathological states. Automatically identifying such molecules in biomedical text is difficult due to both, the diverse morphology of chemical names and the alternative types of nomenclature that are simultaneously used to describe them. To address these issues, the last BioCreAtIvE challenge proposed a CHEMDNER task, which is a Named Entity Recognition (NER) challenge that aims at labelling different types of chemical names in biomedical text. Methods To address this challenge we tested various approaches to recognizing chemical entities in biomedical documents. These approaches range from linear Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to a combination of CRFs with regular expression and dictionary matching, followed by a post-processing step to tag those chemical names in a corpus of Medline abstracts. We named our best performing systems CheNER. Results We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using the F-score statistics. Higher F-scores indicate better performance. The highest F-score we obtain in identifying unique chemical entities is 72.88%. The highest F-score we obtain in identifying all chemical entities is 73.07%. We also evaluate the F-Score of combining our system with ChemSpot, and find an increase from 72.88% to 73.83%. Conclusions CheNER presents a valid alternative for automated annotation of chemical entities in biomedical documents. In addition, CheNER may be used to derive new features to train newer methods for tagging chemical entities. CheNER can be downloaded from http://metres.udl.cat and included in text annotation pipelines. PMID:25810772

  15. CheNER: a tool for the identification of chemical entities and their classes in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Usié, Anabel; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Solsona, Francesc; Alves, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Small chemical molecules regulate biological processes at the molecular level. Those molecules are often involved in causing or treating pathological states. Automatically identifying such molecules in biomedical text is difficult due to both, the diverse morphology of chemical names and the alternative types of nomenclature that are simultaneously used to describe them. To address these issues, the last BioCreAtIvE challenge proposed a CHEMDNER task, which is a Named Entity Recognition (NER) challenge that aims at labelling different types of chemical names in biomedical text. To address this challenge we tested various approaches to recognizing chemical entities in biomedical documents. These approaches range from linear Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to a combination of CRFs with regular expression and dictionary matching, followed by a post-processing step to tag those chemical names in a corpus of Medline abstracts. We named our best performing systems CheNER. We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using the F-score statistics. Higher F-scores indicate better performance. The highest F-score we obtain in identifying unique chemical entities is 72.88%. The highest F-score we obtain in identifying all chemical entities is 73.07%. We also evaluate the F-Score of combining our system with ChemSpot, and find an increase from 72.88% to 73.83%. CheNER presents a valid alternative for automated annotation of chemical entities in biomedical documents. In addition, CheNER may be used to derive new features to train newer methods for tagging chemical entities. CheNER can be downloaded from http://metres.udl.cat and included in text annotation pipelines.

  16. A CRF-based system for recognizing chemical entity mentions (CEMs) in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Zhu, Lijun; Zhang, Yunliang; Zhang, Haodong

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve information access on chemical compounds and drugs (chemical entities) described in text repositories, it is very crucial to be able to identify chemical entity mentions (CEMs) automatically within text. The CHEMDNER challenge in BioCreative IV was specially designed to promote the implementation of corresponding systems that are able to detect mentions of chemical compounds and drugs, which has two subtasks: CDI (Chemical Document Indexing) and CEM. Our system processing pipeline consists of three major components: pre-processing (sentence detection, tokenization), recognition (CRF-based approach), and post-processing (rule-based approach and format conversion). In our post-challenge system, the cost parameter in CRF model was optimized by 10-fold cross validation with grid search, and word representations feature induced by Brown clustering method was introduced. For the CEM subtask, our official runs were ranked in top position by obtaining maximum 88.79% precision, 69.08% recall and 77.70% balanced F-measure, which were improved further to 88.43% precision, 76.48% recall and 82.02% balanced F-measure in our post-challenge system. In our system, instead of extracting a CEM as a whole, we regarded it as a sequence labeling problem. Though our current system has much room for improvement, our system is valuable in showing that the performance in term of balanced F-measure can be improved largely by utilizing large amounts of relatively inexpensive un-annotated PubMed abstracts and optimizing the cost parameter in CRF model. From our practice and lessons, if one directly utilizes some open-source natural language processing (NLP) toolkits, such as OpenNLP, Standford CoreNLP, false positive (FP) rate may be very high. It is better to develop some additional rules to minimize the FP rate if one does not want to re-train the related models. Our CEM recognition system is available at: http://www.SciTeMiner.org/XuShuo/Demo/CEM.

  17. A CRF-based system for recognizing chemical entity mentions (CEMs) in biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to improve information access on chemical compounds and drugs (chemical entities) described in text repositories, it is very crucial to be able to identify chemical entity mentions (CEMs) automatically within text. The CHEMDNER challenge in BioCreative IV was specially designed to promote the implementation of corresponding systems that are able to detect mentions of chemical compounds and drugs, which has two subtasks: CDI (Chemical Document Indexing) and CEM. Results Our system processing pipeline consists of three major components: pre-processing (sentence detection, tokenization), recognition (CRF-based approach), and post-processing (rule-based approach and format conversion). In our post-challenge system, the cost parameter in CRF model was optimized by 10-fold cross validation with grid search, and word representations feature induced by Brown clustering method was introduced. For the CEM subtask, our official runs were ranked in top position by obtaining maximum 88.79% precision, 69.08% recall and 77.70% balanced F-measure, which were improved further to 88.43% precision, 76.48% recall and 82.02% balanced F-measure in our post-challenge system. Conclusions In our system, instead of extracting a CEM as a whole, we regarded it as a sequence labeling problem. Though our current system has much room for improvement, our system is valuable in showing that the performance in term of balanced F-measure can be improved largely by utilizing large amounts of relatively inexpensive un-annotated PubMed abstracts and optimizing the cost parameter in CRF model. From our practice and lessons, if one directly utilizes some open-source natural language processing (NLP) toolkits, such as OpenNLP, Standford CoreNLP, false positive (FP) rate may be very high. It is better to develop some additional rules to minimize the FP rate if one does not want to re-train the related models. Our CEM recognition system is available at: http

  18. Review article: new drug formulations, chemical entities and therapeutic approaches for the management of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ng, S C; Kamm, M A

    2008-10-01

    Treatment options for ulcerative colitis (UC) are expanding with the development of novel drug formulations and dosing regimens and new chemical entities. Although the goals of medical therapy for UC remain unchanged, that is to induce and to maintain remission, focus has also centred on improving patient compliance, modifying the natural course of disease and healing the mucosa. To examine novel formulations, new chemical entities and novel therapeutic approaches to the management of UC. Searches for all studies related to UC treatment in Medline and abstracts from major national and international meetings published in the last 10 years. 5-Aminosalicylic acids (5-ASA) remain the standard first-line treatment for patients with mild to moderately active UC. New formulations with altered delivery, and new dosing regimens have demonstrated possible improvements in efficacy compared with historically available preparations and dosing patterns. Once-daily dosing, micropellet formulations,and high-dose tablets offer enhanced efficacy and improved compliance. 5-ASA is now recognized as a ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and it has a role as a chemo-preventive agent in long-standing UC. New colonic release corticosteroid formulations help to limit systemic toxicity; turmeric, tacrolimus and infliximab have shown promising results. New anti-inflammatory targeted therapies include an anti-CD3 antibody, selective integrin blockers, anti-IL-2 antibody and PPAR-gamma agonists. The evolution of novel oral 5-ASA formulations and dosage regimens,and recent development of new molecules have expanded the therapeutic armamentarium of UC.

  19. Chemical distinctions between Stradivari’s maple and modern tonewood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Chian; Huang, Shing-Jong; Jhu, Chang-Ruei; Chung, Jen-Hsuan; Wang, Bo Y.; Hsu, Chia-Shuo; Brandmair, Brigitte; Chung, Dai-Ting; Chen, Hao Ming; Chan, Jerry Chun Chung

    2017-01-01

    Violins made by Antonio Stradivari are renowned for having been the preferred instruments of many leading violinists for over two centuries. There have been long-standing questions about whether wood used by Stradivari possessed unique properties compared with modern tonewood for violin making. Analyses of maple samples removed from four Stradivari and a Guarneri instrument revealed highly distinct organic and inorganic compositions compared with modern maples. By solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, we observed that about one-third of hemicellulose had decomposed after three centuries, accompanied by signs of lignin oxidation. No apparent changes in cellulose were detected by NMR and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. By thermogravimetric analysis, historical maples exhibited reduced equilibrium moisture content. In differential scanning calorimetry measurements, only maples from Stradivari violins, but not his cellos, exhibited unusual thermooxidation patterns distinct from natural wood. Elemental analyses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggested that Stradivari’s maples were treated with complex mineral preservatives containing Al, Ca, Cu, Na, K, and Zn. This type of chemical seasoning was an unusual practice, unknown to later generations of violin makers. In their current state, maples in Stradivari violins have very different chemical properties compared with their modern counterparts, likely due to the combined effects of aging, chemical treatments, and vibrations. These findings may inspire further chemical experimentation with tonewood processing for instrument making in the 21st century. PMID:27994135

  20. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  1. The value of nature's natural product library for the discovery of New Chemical Entities: the discovery of ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Ogbourne, Steven M; Parsons, Peter G

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, 'Big Pharma' has invested billions of dollars into ingenious and innovative strategies designed to develop drugs using high throughput screening of small molecule libraries generated on the laboratory bench. Within the same time frame, screening of natural products by pharmaceutical companies has suffered an equally significant reduction. This is despite the fact that the complexity, functional diversity and druggability of nature's natural product library are considered by many to be superior to any library any team of scientists can prepare. It is therefore no coincidence that the number of New Chemical Entities reaching the market has also suffered a substantial decrease, leading to a productivity crisis within the pharmaceutical sector. In fact, the current dearth of New Chemical Entities reaching the market in recent decades might be a direct consequence of the strategic decision to move away from screening of natural products. Nearly 700 novel drugs derived from natural product New Chemical Entities were approved between 1981 and 2010; more than 60% of all approved drugs over the same time. In this review, we use the example of ingenol mebutate, a natural product identified from Euphorbia peplus and later approved as a therapy for actinic keratosis, as why nature's natural product library remains the most valuable library for discovery of New Chemical Entities and of novel drug candidates.

  2. The preclinical testing strategy for the development of novel chemical entities for the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christian; Erb, Klaus Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Identifying and developing novel chemical entities (NCE) for the treatment of asthma is a time-consuming process and liabilities that endanger the successful progression of a compound from research into the patient are found throughout all phases of drug discovery. In particular the failure of advanced compounds in clinical studies due to lack of efficacy and/or safety concerns is tremendously costly. Therefore, in order to try and reduce the failure rate in clinical trials various in vitro and in vivo tests are performed during preclinical development, to rapidly identify liabilities, eliminate high risk compounds and promote promising potential drug candidates. To achieve this objective, numerous prerequisites have to be met regarding the physico-chemical properties of the compound, and bioactivity or model systems are needed to rate the therapeutic potential of new compounds. Drug liabilities such as target and species specificity, formulation issues, pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamics and the toxic potential of the compound have to be analyzed in great detail before a compound can enter a clinical trial. A particularly challenging aspect of developing novel NCEs for the treatment of asthma is choosing and setting up in vivo models believed to be predictive for human disease. Numerous companies have in the past and are currently developing NCEs targeting many different pathways and cells with the aim to treat asthma. However, currently the only NCE having a significant market share are long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), inhaled and orally active steroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In the past many novel NCE for the treatment of asthma were effective in animal models but failed in the clinic. In this review we outline the prerequisites of novel NCE needed for clinical development.

  3. A comparison of conditional random fields and structured support vector machines for chemical entity recognition in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Tang, Buzhou; Feng, Yudong; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs (together called chemical entities) embedded in scientific articles are crucial for many information extraction tasks in the biomedical domain. However, only a very limited number of chemical entity recognition systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of chemical entity recognition systems, the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) and The University of Navarra organized a challenge on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER). The CHEMDNER challenge contains two individual subtasks: 1) Chemical Entity Mention recognition (CEM); and 2) Chemical Document Indexing (CDI). Our study proposes machine learning-based systems for the CEM task. The 2013 CHEMDNER challenge organizers provided a manually annotated 10,000 UTF8-encoded PubMed abstracts according to a predefined annotation guideline: a training set of 3,500 abstracts, a development set of 3,500 abstracts and a test set of 3,000 abstracts. We developed machine learning-based systems, based on conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVM) respectively, for the CEM task for this data set. The effects of three types of word representation (WR) features, generated by Brown clustering, random indexing and skip-gram, on both two machine learning-based systems were also investigated. The performance of our system was evaluated on the test set using scripts provided by the CHEMDNER challenge organizers. Primary evaluation measures were micro Precision, Recall, and F-measure. Our best system was among the top ranked systems with an official micro F-measure of 85.05%. Fixing a bug caused by inconsistent features marginally improved the performance (micro F-measure of 85.20%) of the system. The SSVM-based CEM systems outperformed the CRF-based CEM systems when using the same features. Each type of the WR feature was beneficial to the CEM task. Both the CRF

  4. A comparison of conditional random fields and structured support vector machines for chemical entity recognition in biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical compounds and drugs (together called chemical entities) embedded in scientific articles are crucial for many information extraction tasks in the biomedical domain. However, only a very limited number of chemical entity recognition systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of chemical entity recognition systems, the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) and The University of Navarra organized a challenge on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER). The CHEMDNER challenge contains two individual subtasks: 1) Chemical Entity Mention recognition (CEM); and 2) Chemical Document Indexing (CDI). Our study proposes machine learning-based systems for the CEM task. Methods The 2013 CHEMDNER challenge organizers provided a manually annotated 10,000 UTF8-encoded PubMed abstracts according to a predefined annotation guideline: a training set of 3,500 abstracts, a development set of 3,500 abstracts and a test set of 3,000 abstracts. We developed machine learning-based systems, based on conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVM) respectively, for the CEM task for this data set. The effects of three types of word representation (WR) features, generated by Brown clustering, random indexing and skip-gram, on both two machine learning-based systems were also investigated. The performance of our system was evaluated on the test set using scripts provided by the CHEMDNER challenge organizers. Primary evaluation measures were micro Precision, Recall, and F-measure. Results Our best system was among the top ranked systems with an official micro F-measure of 85.05%. Fixing a bug caused by inconsistent features marginally improved the performance (micro F-measure of 85.20%) of the system. Conclusions The SSVM-based CEM systems outperformed the CRF-based CEM systems when using the same features. Each type of the WR feature was

  5. NERChem: adapting NERBio to chemical patents via full-token features and named entity feature with chemical sub-class composition

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Po-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Chemical patents contain detailed information on novel chemical compounds that is valuable to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper, we introduce a system, NERChem that can recognize chemical named entity mentions in chemical patents. NERChem is based on the conditional random fields model (CRF). Our approach incorporates (1) class composition, which is used for combining chemical classes whose naming conventions are similar; (2) BioNE features, which are used for distinguishing chemical mentions from other biomedical NE mentions in the patents; and (3) full-token word features, which are used to resolve the tokenization granularity problem. We evaluated our approach on the BioCreative V CHEMDNER-patent corpus, and achieved an F-score of 87.17% in the Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) task and a sensitivity of 98.58% in the Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) task, ranking alongside the top systems. Database URL: Our NERChem web-based system is publicly available at iisrserv.csie.n cu.edu.tw/nerchem.

  6. Chemical and Biological Defense: Designated Entity Needed to Identify, Align, and Manage DOD’s Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear Defense Program Analysis and Integration Office (PAIO), CBDP’s analytical arm, recommended in 2008 that the CBDP Enterprise identify required...no CBDP Enterprise-wide impetus to address the infrastructure recommendations. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear , Chemical...Biological Defense Program CBRN chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear , and high-yield

  7. Recently disclosed chemical entities as potential candidates for management of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Stec, Jozef; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide. The drug discovery process of novel, safe and effective agents to combat TB involves identification of new molecular targets and novel chemical scaffolds. The current anti-TB drug pipeline includes several small molecules with more to follow as new candidates are disclosed. This review highlights the most significant findings described in 78 international, European and US patents for chemically diverse compounds as prospective anti-TB medications. Main points of emphasis include chemical classification, in vitro and in vivo activity, ADME/Tox profile and mycobacterial target as described in each patent. The collective mass of compounds disclosed in the reviewed patents introduces new candidates as potential therapeutic agents for TB infections.

  8. In silico and in vitro filters for the fast estimation of skin permeation and distribution of new chemical entities.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Giorgio; Martel, Sophie; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2007-02-22

    The development of in silico and in vitro tools to estimate or predict the passive human skin permeation and distribution of new chemical entities, useful in dermal drug delivery, in absorption studies of toxic compounds, and in the cosmetics industry, is presented. In vitro permeation parameters were measured using the artificial membrane PAMPA-skin. The Volsurf approach was then applied to extract pertinent descriptors from molecular interaction fields characterizing the molecular structure of tested compounds. Two useful three-dimensional solvatochromic models able to predict PAMPA permeation parameters directly from the molecular structure were obtained using the partial least squares analysis. The models also provide valuable information to understand the link between physicochemical and structural properties of tested compounds and their interactions with the artificial membrane PAMPA-skin and can be useful to rapidly estimate their permeation through the human skin.

  9. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  10. Balancing novelty with confined chemical space in modern drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Medina-Franco, José L; Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Meurice, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    The concept of chemical space has broad applications in drug discovery. In response to the needs of drug discovery campaigns, different approaches are followed to efficiently populate, mine and select relevant chemical spaces that overlap with biologically relevant chemical spaces. This paper reviews major trends in current drug discovery and their impact on the mining and population of chemical space. We also survey different approaches to develop screening libraries with confined chemical spaces balancing physicochemical properties. In this context, the confinement is guided by criteria that can be divided in two broad categories: i) library design focused on a relevant therapeutic target or disease and ii) library design focused on the chemistry or a desired molecular function. The design and development of chemical libraries should be associated with the specific purpose of the library and the project goals. The high complexity of drug discovery and the inherent imperfection of individual experimental and computational technologies prompt the integration of complementary library design and screening approaches to expedite the identification of new and better drugs. Library design approaches including diversity-oriented synthesis, biological-oriented synthesis or combinatorial library design, to name a few, and the design of focused libraries driven by target/disease, chemical structure or molecular function are more efficient if they are guided by multi-parameter optimization. In this context, consideration of pharmaceutically relevant properties is essential for balancing novelty with chemical space in drug discovery.

  11. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  12. Binding affinity and capacities for ytterbium(3+) and hafinum(4+) by chemical entities of plant tissue fragments.

    PubMed

    Worley, R; Clearfield, A; Ellis, W C

    2002-12-01

    The binding affinity of ytterbium (Yb3+) and hafinum (Hf4+) to ligands of chemical entities of fragments of bermudagrass tissues and their resistance to exchanging Yb with other ligands and to displacement by protons were investigated. Chemical entities of acid resistant NDF (ARNDF), 0.1 N acid detergent fiber (0.1 N ADF), and permanganate cellulose (CELL) were prepared from fragments of bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) obtained by grinding to pass a 2-mm sieve. 175Ytterbium and Yb, as YbCl3, were initially bound to each preparation by soaking for 12 h in pH 5.5 borate buffer to obtain Yb bound onto ligands having affinity constants for Yb equal to or greater than that for the weakly stable borate ligand, Yb > or = borate. The fraction of Yb > or = borate was measured and fragments then sequentially exposed to acetate, citrate, nitrotriacetate (NTA), and EDTA ions to allow exchange of Yb from Yb > or = borate with ligands having affinity constants for Yb equal to or greater than acetate (Yb > or = acetate), citrate (Yb > or = citrate), NTA (Yb > or = NTA), and EDTA (Yb > or = EDTA) ions. Binding of Yb > or = borate indicated the existence of two species of ligands: strong ligands binding essentially 100% of added Yb at levels of 1 to 1,300 ppm (0.1 N ADF) and at 1 to 7,000 ppm (ARNDF); and weaker ligands binding 4 and 8% of the Yb, respectively, at levels of added Yb greater than 1,300 ppm and 7,000 ppm. Ytterbium > or = acetate of ARNDF, but not 0.1 N ADF, was as resistant to exchange as Yb > or = citrate. Ytterbium > or = borate was exchanged extensively (85% or greater) with soluble ligands having affinity constants > or = NTA. Ytterbium resistance to proton displacement at pH of 1.5 increased with Yb > or = EDTA > Yb > or = NTA > Yb > or = citrate > Yb > or = acetate. Very efficient binding of Yb to CELL suggested that such chemical preparations are not representative of native cellulose. Hafnium (4+) was strongly bound to plant tissues rendering

  13. The use of biodiversity as source of new chemical entities against defined molecular targets for treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, and T-cell mediated diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luiz Augusto; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira; Moreira, Icaro de Souza; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Calixto, João Batista; Astolfi Filho, Spartaco; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2005-10-01

    The modern approach to the development of new chemical entities against complex diseases, especially the neglected endemic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria, is based on the use of defined molecular targets. Among the advantages, this approach allows (i) the search and identification of lead compounds with defined molecular mechanisms against a defined target (e.g. enzymes from defined pathways), (ii) the analysis of a great number of compounds with a favorable cost/benefit ratio, (iii) the development even in the initial stages of compounds with selective toxicity (the fundamental principle of chemotherapy), (iv) the evaluation of plant extracts as well as of pure substances. The current use of such technology, unfortunately, is concentrated in developed countries, especially in the big pharma. This fact contributes in a significant way to hamper the development of innovative new compounds to treat neglected diseases. The large biodiversity within the territory of Brazil puts the country in a strategic position to develop the rational and sustained exploration of new metabolites of therapeutic value. The extension of the country covers a wide range of climates, soil types, and altitudes, providing a unique set of selective pressures for the adaptation of plant life in these scenarios. Chemical diversity is also driven by these forces, in an attempt to best fit the plant communities to the particular abiotic stresses, fauna, and microbes that co-exist with them. Certain areas of vegetation (Amazonian Forest, Atlantic Forest, Araucaria Forest, Cerrado-Brazilian Savanna, and Caatinga) are rich in species and types of environments to be used to search for natural compounds active against tuberculosis, malaria, and chronic-degenerative diseases. The present review describes some strategies to search for natural compounds, whose choice can be based on ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies, and screen for their ability to bind to immobilized drug targets

  14. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug-Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0033 TITLE: Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum...Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0033 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...falciparum, P. cynomolgi, asexual blood stages, liver stages, high-throughput screen, drug assays, cell culture, transfection, green fluorescent

  16. Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0034 TITLE: Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum...Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0034 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...personnel. 2. Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, P. cynomolgi, asexual blood stages, liver stages, high-throughput screen, drug assays

  17. Modern tools for the chemical ligation and synthesis of modified peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Luca; Tosi, Pierluigi; Bauer, Adriano; Marco, Rossella De

    2016-12-01

    The ability to improve nature's capacity by introducing modification of biological interest in proteins and peptides (P&P) is one of the modern challenges in synthetic chemistry. Due to the unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, many native P&P are of little use as therapeutic agents. Today, few methods for the preparation of modified proteins are available. Initially introduced to realize the ligation between two standard peptidic sequences, and hence to afford native proteins, the modern chemical methodologies, in other words native chemical ligation, expressed ligation, Staudinger ligation, auxiliary mediated ligation, aldehyde capture, etc., can be virtually utilized to ligate a variety of peptidomimetic partners, allowing a systematic access to modified, unnatural large P&P.

  18. Causes of genome instability: the effect of low dose chemical exposures in modern society

    PubMed Central

    Langie, Sabine A.S.; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Azqueta, Amaya; Bisson, William H.; Brown, Dustin; Brunborg, Gunnar; Charles, Amelia K.; Chen, Tao; Colacci, Annamaria; Darroudi, Firouz; Forte, Stefano; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Hamid, Roslida A.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Leyns, Luc; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Mothersill, Carmel; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Pavanello, Sofia; Raju, Jayadev; Rojas, Emilio; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Valverde, Mahara; Woodrick, Jordan; Zhang, Luoping; van Larebeke, Nik; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Collins, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome’s integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis. PMID:26106144

  19. Causes of genome instability: the effect of low dose chemical exposures in modern society.

    PubMed

    Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Azqueta, Amaya; Bisson, William H; Brown, Dustin G; Brunborg, Gunnar; Charles, Amelia K; Chen, Tao; Colacci, Annamaria; Darroudi, Firouz; Forte, Stefano; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Hamid, Roslida A; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Leyns, Luc; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Mothersill, Carmel; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Pavanello, Sofia; Raju, Jayadev; Rojas, Emilio; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Van Schooten, Frederik J; Valverde, Mahara; Woodrick, Jordan; Zhang, Luoping; van Larebeke, Nik; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Collins, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis.

  20. Identifying the macromolecular targets of de novo-designed chemical entities through self-organizing map consensus

    PubMed Central

    Reker, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-01-01

    De novo molecular design and in silico prediction of polypharmacological profiles are emerging research topics that will profoundly affect the future of drug discovery and chemical biology. The goal is to identify the macromolecular targets of new chemical agents. Although several computational tools for predicting such targets are publicly available, none of these methods was explicitly designed to predict target engagement by de novo-designed molecules. Here we present the development and practical application of a unique technique, self-organizing map–based prediction of drug equivalence relationships (SPiDER), that merges the concepts of self-organizing maps, consensus scoring, and statistical analysis to successfully identify targets for both known drugs and computer-generated molecular scaffolds. We discovered a potential off-target liability of fenofibrate-related compounds, and in a comprehensive prospective application, we identified a multitarget-modulating profile of de novo designed molecules. These results demonstrate that SPiDER may be used to identify innovative compounds in chemical biology and in the early stages of drug discovery, and help investigate the potential side effects of drugs and their repurposing options. PMID:24591595

  1. The Markyt visualisation, prediction and benchmark platform for chemical and gene entity recognition at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining methods and technologies have improved significantly in the last decade. Considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the main challenges of biomedical literature retrieval and extraction and proposing solutions to problems of practical interest. Most notably, community-oriented initiatives such as the BioCreative challenge have enabled controlled environments for the comparison of automatic systems while pursuing practical biomedical tasks. Under this scenario, the present work describes the Markyt Web-based document curation platform, which has been implemented to support the visualisation, prediction and benchmark of chemical and gene mention annotations at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge. Creating this platform is an important step for the systematic and public evaluation of automatic prediction systems and the reusability of the knowledge compiled for the challenge. Markyt was not only critical to support the manual annotation and annotation revision process but also facilitated the comparative visualisation of automated results against the manually generated Gold Standard annotations and comparative assessment of generated results. We expect that future biomedical text mining challenges and the text mining community may benefit from the Markyt platform to better explore and interpret annotations and improve automatic system predictions. Database URL: http://www.markyt.org, https://github.com/sing-group/Markyt PMID:27542845

  2. Iron isotope fractionation by microbial iron reduction in modern chemically precipitated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, E. E.; Tangalos, G. E.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C. M.; Alpers, C. N.; Shelobolina, E. S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that dissimilatory microbial iron oxide reduction (DIR) can produce Fe(II) phases that have low 56Fe/54Fe ratios similar to those found in Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic banded iron formations (BIFs) and shales. Direct application of these experiments to BIF formation has been hindered by the lack of Fe isotope data from modern environments that are analogous to BIFs. Here we report Fe inventories and isotopic compositions for chemically precipitated sediments in the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir (SCAKR) downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The high concentration of reactive Fe(III) (ca. 50-100 mmol of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides per liter of bulk sediment) allows dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) to predominate over dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediment carbon metabolism, making the SCAKR a better analog for BIFs compared to modern marine environments. DIR has generated millimolar concentrations of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) in SCAKR sediments. The Fe(II)aq has lower 56Fe/54Fe values than bulk HCl-extractable Fe; δ56Fe values for bulk HCl-extractable Fe fall within the range previously defined for mafic- to intermediate-composition terrestrial igneous rocks, modern marine sediments, suspended river sediments, Proterozoic-Phanerozoic shales, loess, aerosols, and soils. After removal of pore fluid, sediment was reacted for 1 hr with 0.1M HCl to isolate solid-phase Fe(II) (Fe(II)s), which was likely a mixture of sorbed Fe(II) and amorphous surface-precipitated Fe(II) hydroxide. Subsequent 24-hr extraction with 0.5M HCl recovered amorphous Fe(III) oxide (Fe(III)am). Sediment incubation experiments with SCAKR sediment produced trends in in Fe isotopic fractionations between Fe(II)aq, Fe(II)s, and Fe(III)am analogous to those observed in situ. Collectively the data suggest an equilibrium 56Fe/54Fe isotope fractionation between Fe(II)aq and Fe

  3. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in δ13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This

  4. Discovery of New Chemical Entities for Old Targets: Insights on the Lead Optimization of Chromone-Based Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Cagide, Fernando; Chavarria, Daniel; Silva, Tiago; Fernandes, Carlos; Gaspar, Alexandra; Uriarte, Eugenio; Remião, Fernando; Alcaro, Stefano; Ortuso, Francesco; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-06-23

    The discovery of new chemical entities endowed with potent, selective, and reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitory activity is a clinically relevant subject. Therefore, a small library of chromone derivatives was synthesized and screened toward human monoamine oxidase isoforms (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). The structure-activity relationships studies strengthen the importance of the amide spacer and the direct linkage of carbonyl group to the γ-pyrone ring, along with the presence of meta and para substituents in the exocyclic ring. The most potent MAO-B inhibitors were N-(3'-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxamide (20) (IC50 = 403 pM) and N-(3',4'-dimethylphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxamide (27) (IC50 = 669 pM), acting as competitive and noncompetitive reversible inhibitors, respectively. Computational docking studies provided insights into enzyme-inhibitor interactions and a rationale for the observed selectivity and potency. Compound 27 stands out due to its favorable toxicological profile and physicochemical properties, which pointed toward blood-brain barrier permeability, thus being a valid candidate for subsequent animal studies.

  5. Evaluation of New Chemical Entities as Substrates of Liver Transporters in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Response to Regulatory Requirements and Future Steps.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions at an early stage of drug development, we used a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission. In the context of nonclinical evaluation of new chemical entities as medicines, we believe that transporter studies are emerging as a key strategy to predict their pharmacological and toxicological effects. In combination with the recent progress in systems approaches, the estimation of effective concentrations in the target tissues, by using mathematical models to describe the transporter-mediated distribution and elimination, has enabled us to identify promising compounds for clinical development at the discovery stage. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of kidney disease on drug disposition: An assessment of industry studies submitted to the FDA for new chemical entities 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Gary R; Dowling, Thomas C; Marks, Samantha A; Murphy, John E

    2016-04-01

    In 1998, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the first guidance for industry regarding pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in renally impaired patients. This study aimed to determine if the FDA renal PK guidance influenced the frequency and rigor of renal studies conducted for new chemical entities (NCEs). FDA-approved package inserts (APIs) and clinical pharmacology review documents were analyzed for 194 NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010. Renal studies were conducted in 71.6% of NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010, a significant increase over the 56.3% conducted from 1996 to 1997 (P = .0242). Renal studies were more likely to be completed in highly renally excreted drugs (fe ≥ 30%) compared with drugs with low renal excretion, fe < 30% (89.6% vs 65.8%, P = .0015). PK studies to assess the impact of dialysis were conducted for 31.7% of NCEs that had a renal study: a greater proportion of high fe NCEs were studied (44.2% vs 26.0%, P = .0335). No significant change in frequency or rigor of PK studies was detected over time. The majority of NCEs (76.3%) with a renal study provided specific dosing recommendations in the API. The adoption of the 1998 FDA guidance has resulted in improved availability of PK and drug-dosing recommendations, particularly for high fe drugs. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  8. Alginate based 3D hydrogels as an in vitro co-culture model platform for the toxicity screening of new chemical entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Starly, Binil

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of human response to potential therapeutic drugs is through conventional methods of in vitro cell culture assays and expensive in vivo animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing require sophisticated in vitro model systems that must replicate in vivo like function for reliable testing applications. Advancements in biomaterials have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell encapsulated hydrogels as in vitro drug screening tissue model systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro platform to enable high density 3D culture of liver cells combined with a monolayer growth of target breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a static environment as a representative example of screening drug compounds for hepatotoxicity and drug efficacy. Alginate hydrogels encapsulated with serial cell densities of HepG2 cells (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} cells/ml) are supported by a porous poly-carbonate disc platform and co-cultured with MCF-7 cells within standard cell culture plates during a 3 day study period. The clearance rates of drug transformation by HepG2 cells are measured using a coumarin based pro-drug. The platform was used to test for HepG2 cytotoxicity 50% (CT{sub 50}) using commercially available drugs which further correlated well with published in vivo LD{sub 50} values. The developed test platform allowed us to evaluate drug dose concentrations to predict hepatotoxicity and its effect on the target cells. The in vitro 3D co-culture platform provides a scalable and flexible approach to test multiple-cell types in a hybrid setting within standard cell culture plates which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to screen new chemical entity compounds. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > A porous support disc design to support the culture of desired cells in 3D hydrogels. > Demonstrated the co-culture of two cell types within standard cell-culture plates. > A scalable, low cost approach to toxicity screening involving

  9. Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A

    SciTech Connect

    Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2010-02-08

    The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

  10. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  11. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  12. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  13. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  14. Initiation of modern-style plate tectonics recorded in Mesoarchean marine chemical sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkoski, Aaron M.; Fralick, Philip; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2017-07-01

    The chemistry of the oceans in part reflects a balance between inputs from the continents and mantle. Traditionally, it has been thought that Archean ocean chemistry was dominated by mantle sources, but recent work has suggested that continental weathering during the Archean provided a much higher flux to the oceans than previously recognized. Here, we present new Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope compositions on carbonate (dolomite and limestone) from the 2.94 Ga Red Lake and 2.80 Ga Steep Rock groups in the Superior Province, Canada to assess the potential impact continental weathering had on ocean chemistry during the Mesoarchean, a time when initiation of modern-style plate tectonics has been proposed to have occurred. The low Rb contents of all carbonate samples suggest that clastic contamination does not affect the Sr isotope compositions. Using O and Sr isotope modeling, we identified unaltered samples and estimate a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70173 for seawater at 2.94 Ga and 0.70182 at 2.80 Ga. Strontium isotope compositions from both Red Lake and Steep Rock indicate that seawater was significantly more radiogenic than contemporaneous mantle, and suggests that weathering of evolved continental crust was an important input to seawater. Continental weathering likely affected seawater chemistry through uplift of continental lithosphere during the initiation of modern-style plate tectonics at 3.2 Ga, a model that is contrary to those that suggest the Archean continents were small in extent and largely submerged. Initiation of modern-style plate tectonics and associated continental weathering had an important effect on the biosphere, including increased nutrient delivery, as well as creation of ecological niches that allowed development of the first biologically produced shallow marine redox gradients.

  15. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    PubMed

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-08-31

    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  17. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  18. Toward a Modern Secondary Information System for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the information processing system employed by Chemical Abstracts Service which utilizes computers to organize material from the data base, convert it to the appropriate type face and format, and photocompose it in a form suitable for conversion to offset printing plates. (GS)

  19. Toward a Modern Secondary Information System for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the information processing system employed by Chemical Abstracts Service which utilizes computers to organize material from the data base, convert it to the appropriate type face and format, and photocompose it in a form suitable for conversion to offset printing plates. (GS)

  20. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  1. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  2. Analysis of surface structures of chemically peculiar stars with modern and future interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyak, D.; Perraut, K.; Paladini, Claudia; Li Causi, G.; Sacuto, Stephane; Kochukhov, O.

    2014-07-01

    Interferometry is a very powerful observational technique known in astronomy for many decades. Its application to main-sequence stars, however, is still limited to only brightest objects. In this work we aim to explore the application of interferometry to a special class of main-sequence stars known as chemically peculiar (CP) stars. These stars demonstrate surface chemical abundance inhomogeneities (spots) that usually cover a considerable part of the stellar surface and induce a pronounced spectral and photometric variability. Interferometry thus has a potential to naturally resolve such spots in single stars, providing unique complementary information about spots sizes and contrasts. By means of numerical experiments we derive the actual interferometric requirements essential for the CP stars research that can be addressed in future instrument development. The first comparison between theoretical predictions and already available observations will also be discussed.

  3. Thermodynamic physico-chemical modelling and calculation for the synthesis process of modern functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, A. B.; Ralys, R.; Kremnev, D.; Radin, M.; Slobodov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The method of thermodynamic modeling of phase and chemical transformations for synthesis conditions of multicomponent functional materials is presented. Calculation of the phase transformations taking place in the conditions of synthesis and operation of ceramic materials on the basis of the system SiO2 – K2O – Na2O – Al2O3 – Fe2O3 – CaO – MgO – TiO2 – P2O5 – SO3 in the field of temperatures from 0 to 2000° C is carried out. The sequence of phase and chemical transformations between components of synthesizable material and their reaction products, depending on temperature, is founded.

  4. Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT.

  5. The facts that the physical-chemical properties of modern tablets distinguish them from natural food lumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.; Reshetnikov, A.; Kopylov, M.; Kasatkin, A.; Baymurzin, D.; Gabdrafikov, R.

    2017-02-01

    It was found that pharmaceutical companies produce drugs in tablet form, physical or physical-chemical properties that are radically different from those of the properties of natural food lumps, in that adult converts food in our mouth before swallowing. It was shown that the conventional shape, color, size, volume, specific gravity, hardness, osmotic and acid activity of modern tablets impair the physical and physicochemical properties of the liquid contents of the stomach is much stronger than such “building” materials, such as chalk, clay, sand, river pebbles and gravel. The results showed, that the value of the specific hardness, deforming tablets, can distinguish modern tablets from each other by more than 5000 times. Therefore, introduction tablets inside without information of ability injuring their action leads to the fact that soft and “unsalted” tablets almost nothing damage, and too “salty” and solid tablets damage the gums, lips, tongue, teeth and dental structures. To reduce the traumatic action tablets offered standardize osmoticity, corrosion and hardness within the range of safe values for soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity and improve standard introduction of tablets in the mouth.

  6. Decreasing incidence of cutaneous chemical burns in a resource limited burn centre: is this a positive effect of modernization?

    PubMed

    Nnabuko, R E E; Okoye, C P; Ogbonnaya, I S; Isiwele, Egi

    2017-01-01

    Burns present a devastating injury to patients. Burns caused by chemical agents, present a worse scenario. In a resource limited country like Nigeria, readily available sources of these corrosive agents are mainly from lead-acid battery vendors and to some extent local small scale soap manufacturers who use caustic soda. We hypothesized that with the reduction in small scale soap manufacturing and increasing trend towards modernization in the use of dry cell batteries, chemical burns may be on the decline, and we sought to investigate this. The records of all acute burn patients seen at the Burns and Plastic Department of the National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu Nigeria between January 2011 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The results were compared to similar studies carried out at the same centre. A questionnaire was administered to corrosive chemical (sulphuric and caustic soda) vendors to assess the trends in product sales and use in recent times. A total of 624 acute burn cases were treated during the period; among which, 12 cases (1.9%) were chemical burns. When compared with previous studies at the centre, Chemical burn cases were  recorded as the lowest rate. The median age of patients was 24 years. There were eight males and four females. Interpersonal assault was the commonest mechanism of injury with sulphuric acid suspected to be the commonest agent in 83.3% of the cases, while 16.7% of the cases were from accidental use of caustic soda. The head and neck as well as the upper limbs were the most affected (30%). Twenty-six questionnaires to lead-acid vendors were analyzed and revealed that all respondents noticed a marked downward trend in the sale of either sulphuric acid or caustic soda, and they attributed this to the ready availability of imported alternatives to locally manufactured soap or wet lead-acid batteries. Ease of use, durability and convenience of the dry cell batteries were cited as principal reasons. There appears to be

  7. On-line reaction monitoring by mass spectrometry, modern approaches for the analysis of chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew; Bristow, Tony; Whitmore, Chris; Mosely, Jackie

    2017-06-19

    The application of on-line mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemical and other types of process continues to grow in importance and impact. The ability of the technique to characterize many aspects of a chemical reaction such as product and impurity formation, along with reactant consumption in a single experiment is key to its adoption and development. Innovations in ionization techniques and mass spectrometry instrumentation are enabling this adoption. An increasing range of ambient ionization techniques make on-line mass spectrometry applicable to a large range of chemistries. The academic development and commercialization of small footprint portable/transportable mass spectrometers is providing technology that can be positioned with any process under investigation. These developments, coupled with research into new ways of sampling representatively from both the condensed and gaseous phases, are positioning mass spectrometry as an essential technology for on-line process optimization, understanding and intelligent control. It is recognized that quantitative capability of mass spectrometry in this application can cause some resistance to its adoption, but research activities to tackle this limitation are on-going. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Stratified Bacterial Diversity along Physico-chemical Gradients in High-Altitude Modern Stromatolites.

    PubMed

    Toneatti, Diego M; Albarracín, Virginia H; Flores, Maria R; Polerecky, Lubos; Farías, María E

    2017-01-01

    At an altitude of 3,570 m, the volcanic lake Socompa in the Argentinean Andes is presently the highest site where actively forming stromatolite-like structures have been reported. Interestingly, pigment and microsensor analyses performed through the different layers of the stromatolites (50 mm-deep) showed steep vertical gradients of light and oxygen, hydrogen sulfide and pH in the porewater. Given the relatively good characterization of these physico-chemical gradients, the aim of this follow-up work was to specifically address how the bacterial diversity stratified along the top six layers of the stromatolites which seems the most metabolically important and diversified zone of the whole microbial community. We herein discussed how, in only 7 mm, a drastic succession of metabolic adaptations occurred: i.e., microbial communities shift from a UV-high/oxic world to an IR-low/anoxic/high H2S environment which force stratification and metabolic specialization of the bacterial community, thus, modulating the chemical faces of the Socompa stromatolites. The oxic zone was dominated by Deinococcus sp. at top surface (0.3 mm), followed by a second layer of Coleofasciculus sp. (0.3 to ∼2 mm). Sequences from anoxygenic phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria, along with an increasing diversity of phyla including Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes were found at middle layers 3 and 4. Deeper layers (5-7 mm) were mostly occupied by sulfate reducers of Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, next to a high diversity and equitable community of rare, unclassified and candidate phyla. This analysis showed how microbial communities stratified in a physicochemical vertical profile and according to the light source. It also gives an insight of which bacterial metabolic capabilities might operate and produce a microbial cooperative strategy to thrive in one of the most extreme environments on Earth.

  9. Stratified Bacterial Diversity along Physico-chemical Gradients in High-Altitude Modern Stromatolites

    PubMed Central

    Toneatti, Diego M.; Albarracín, Virginia H.; Flores, Maria R.; Polerecky, Lubos; Farías, María E.

    2017-01-01

    At an altitude of 3,570 m, the volcanic lake Socompa in the Argentinean Andes is presently the highest site where actively forming stromatolite-like structures have been reported. Interestingly, pigment and microsensor analyses performed through the different layers of the stromatolites (50 mm-deep) showed steep vertical gradients of light and oxygen, hydrogen sulfide and pH in the porewater. Given the relatively good characterization of these physico-chemical gradients, the aim of this follow-up work was to specifically address how the bacterial diversity stratified along the top six layers of the stromatolites which seems the most metabolically important and diversified zone of the whole microbial community. We herein discussed how, in only 7 mm, a drastic succession of metabolic adaptations occurred: i.e., microbial communities shift from a UV-high/oxic world to an IR-low/anoxic/high H2S environment which force stratification and metabolic specialization of the bacterial community, thus, modulating the chemical faces of the Socompa stromatolites. The oxic zone was dominated by Deinococcus sp. at top surface (0.3 mm), followed by a second layer of Coleofasciculus sp. (0.3 to ∼2 mm). Sequences from anoxygenic phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria, along with an increasing diversity of phyla including Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes were found at middle layers 3 and 4. Deeper layers (5–7 mm) were mostly occupied by sulfate reducers of Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, next to a high diversity and equitable community of rare, unclassified and candidate phyla. This analysis showed how microbial communities stratified in a physicochemical vertical profile and according to the light source. It also gives an insight of which bacterial metabolic capabilities might operate and produce a microbial cooperative strategy to thrive in one of the most extreme environments on Earth. PMID:28446906

  10. Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

  11. Modern marine sediments as a natural analog to the chemically stressed environment of a landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical reactions that occur in landfills are analogous to those reactions that occur in marine sediments. Lateral zonation of C, N, S, O, H, Fe and Mn species in landfills is similar to the vertical zonation of these species in marine sediments and results from the following reaction sequence: (1) oxidation of C, N and S species in the presence of dissolved free oxygen to HCO3-, NO3- and SO2-4; (2) after consumption of molecular oxygen, then NO3- is reduced, and Fe and Mn are solubilized; (3) SO2-4 is reduced to sulfide; and (4) organic compounds become the source of oxygen, and CH4 and NH4+ are formed as fermentation products. In a landfill in Delaware the oxidation potential increases downgradient and the redox zones in the reducing plume are characterized by: CH4, NH4+, Fe2+. Mn2+, HCO3- and NO3-. Lack of SO2-4 at that landfill eliminates the sulfide zone. Although it has not been observed at landfills, mineral alteration should result in precipitation of pyrite and/or siderite downgradient. Controls on the pH of leachate are the relative rates of production of HCO3-, NH4+ and CH4. Production of methane by fermentation at landfills results in 13C isotope fractionation and the accumulation of isotopically heavy ??CO2 (+10 to +18??? PDB). Isotope measurements may be useful to determine the extent of CO2 reduction in landfills and extent of dilution downgradient. The boundaries of reaction zones in stressed aquifers are determined by head distribution and flow velocity. Thus, if the groundwater flow is rapid relative to reaction rates, redox zones will develop downgradient. Where groundwater flow velocities are low the zones will overlap to the extent that they may be indeterminate. ?? 1979.

  12. Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: We extend our previous work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. Methods: We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,νe+)2H, 14N(p,γ)15O and triple-α reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way - for different metallicities - the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (tH), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. Results: For the stellar tracks, an increase in the metallicity from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.02 produces a cumulative physical uncertainty error variation in TO luminosity from 0.028 dex to 0.017 dex, while the global uncertainty on tH increases from 0.42 Gyr to 1.08 Gyr. For the RGB tip, the cumulative uncertainty on the luminosity is almost constant at 0.03 dex, whereas the one on the helium core mass decreases from 0.0055 M⊙ to 0.0035 M⊙. The dependence of the ZAHB luminosity error is not monotonic with Z, and it varies from a minimum of 0.036 dex at Z = 0.0005 to a maximum of 0.047 dex at Z = 0.0001. Regarding stellar isochrones of 12 Gyr, the cumulative physical uncertainty on the predicted TO luminosity and mass increases respectively from 0.012 dex to 0.014 dex and from 0.0136 M⊙ to 0.0186 M⊙. Consequently, from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.02 for ages typical of galactic globular clusters, the uncertainty on the age inferred from the TO luminosity

  13. Structural studies of crystals of organic and organoelement compounds using modern quantum chemical calculations within the framework of the density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korlyukov, Alexander A.; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2012-02-01

    The review generalizes the results of structural studies of crystals of organic and organometallic compounds by modern quantum chemical calculations within the framework of the density functional theory reported in the last decade. Features of the software for such calculations are discussed. Examples of the use of quantum chemical calculations for the studies of the electronic structure, spectroscopic and other physicochemical properties of molecular crystals are presented. The bibliography includes 223 references.

  14. Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sheema; Malik, Fayaz; Suri, Krishan A; Singh, Jaswant

    2009-10-09

    Withania somnifera, commonly called Ashwagandha in the Indian traditional system of medicine has been reported for several pharmacological activities. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of the chemically standardized leaf extract of W. somnifera (WSL) and it's identified component in activating immune system. WSL enhanced Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma expression in Con A primed splenocytes in vitro. When given orally for 2 weeks to BALB/c mice immunized with emulsion of OVA in Freund's adjuvant (OVA-FCA), it caused dose-dependent proliferation of T cells and improved their ability to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but moderately down-regulated Th2 cytokine IL-4. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte surface markers of T cells CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+), and B cells CD19(+) indicated prominent enhancement in proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Further, the effect of WSL in immunized mice elicited up-regulation of beta-integrins LFA (CD11a) and Mac-1 (CD11b) in splenocytes. Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 that are important secondary signals for the activation of immune system elicited remarkable enhanced expression when observed in spleen-derived macrophages isolated from WSL treated mice. Chemical standardization of WSL suggested that the withanolide 2,3 dihydro-3-sulphonile withanone is a major constituent of WSL responsible for skewing to Th1 immune polarization by stimulating the expression of IFN-gamma and B cell switch over to secrete IgG2a while simultaneously enhancing the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and integrins. These studies demonstrate the possible usefulness of WSL and its major constituent WSL-2 as Th1 immune adjuvants for chronic infectious ailments where patients suffer from weakened Th1 immunity.

  15. Web entity extraction based on entity attribute classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Su, Ya-Ru

    2011-12-01

    The large amount of entity data are continuously published on web pages. Extracting these entities automatically for further application is very significant. Rule-based entity extraction method yields promising result, however, it is labor-intensive and hard to be scalable. The paper proposes a web entity extraction method based on entity attribute classification, which can avoid manual annotation of samples. First, web pages are segmented into different blocks by algorithm Vision-based Page Segmentation (VIPS), and a binary classifier LibSVM is trained to retrieve the candidate blocks which contain the entity contents. Second, the candidate blocks are partitioned into candidate items, and the classifiers using LibSVM are performed for the attributes annotation of the items and then the annotation results are aggregated into an entity. Results show that the proposed method performs well to extract agricultural supply and demand entities from web pages.

  16. Where is industry getting it wrong? A review of quality concerns raised at Day 120 by the Committee For Medicinal Products for Human Use during European Centralised Marketing Authorisation Submissions for Chemical Entity Medicinal Products.

    PubMed

    Borg, John Joseph; Robert, Jean-Louis; Wade, George; Aislaitner, George; Pirozynski, Michal; Abadie, Eric; Salmonson, Tomas; Vella Bonanno, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common trends in the deficiencies identified in the quality part of the dossier during the evaluation of marketing authorisation applications for medicinal products for human use submitted through the EU's centralised procedure. We analysed all the adopted Day 120 list of questions on the quality module of 52 marketing authorisation applications for chemical entity medicinal products submitted to the European Medicines Agency and evaluated by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), during 12 consecutive plenary meetings held in 2007 and 2008. Subsequently we calculated the frequency of common deficiencies identified across these applications. Frequencies and trends on quality deficiencies have been recorded and presented for 52 marketing authorisation applications. 32 "Major Objections" originated from 13 marketing authorisation applications. 13 concerned were raised regarding drug substances and 19 for drug products. Furthermore, 905 concerns on drug substance and 1,054 on drug product were also adopted. The impact of the frequencies and trends in quality deficiencies that were identified are discussed from a regulatory point of view. It is expected that the results of this study will not only be of interest to pharmaceutical companies but will also aid regulators' in obtaining consistent information on drug products based on transparent rules safeguarding the necessary pharmaceutical quality of medicinal products.

  17. Information Sharing among Untrustworthy Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    Most of current technologies that enable secure information sharing assume that entities that share information are mutually trustworthy. However, in recent applications this assumption is not realistic. As applications become sophisticated, information systems are required to share information securely even among untrustworthy entities. This paper discusses two kinds of problems about information sharing among untrustworthy entities, i.e. secure statistical data gathering and anonymous authentication, and proposes their solutions. The former is a problem to calculate statistics while ensuring that raw data are not disclosed to any entity including ones that calculate statistics, and the latter is a problem to authenticate entities while keeping their identities confidential.

  18. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    PubMed

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  19. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  20. [Lipedema: a misdiagnosed entity].

    PubMed

    Vignes, S

    2012-07-01

    Lipedema is a clinical entity frequently misdiagnosed or confound with primary lymphedema. Lipedema is a disorder of adipose tissue that occurs almost exclusively in obese women. It is characterized by bilateral enlargement from hip to ankle due to abnormal depositions of subcutaneous fat associated with often mild edema, usually sparing the feet. Disease onset is usually at or soon after puberty. Lipedema results in considerable frustration and distress resulting from the cosmetic appearance. Patients may complain of pain, tenderness, easy bruising of the affected areas with moderate to severe sensitivity to digital pressure or pinching. Imaging studies using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, lymphoscintigraphy are not indicated, except if the diagnosis is atypic or doubtful. Long-term evolution may alter lymphatic system and lead to a lipo-lymphedema with specific complications such as cellulitis. Lipedema management is not codified and included weight loss (poorly improving leg appearance or discomfort), psychological counselling and compression therapy. Liposuction, especially using tumescent local anaesthesia, may reduce edema, spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, bruising and improve appearance resulting in a important increase in quality of life. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Service entity network virtualization architecture and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xue-Guang; Shou, Guo-Chu; Hu, Yi-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Communication network can be treated as a complex network carrying a variety of services and service can be treated as a network composed of functional entities. There are growing interests in multiplex service entities where individual entity and link can be used for different services simultaneously. Entities and their relationships constitute a service entity network. In this paper, we introduced a service entity network virtualization architecture including service entity network hierarchical model, service entity network model, service implementation and deployment of service entity networks. Service entity network oriented multiplex planning model were also studied and many of these multiplex models were characterized by a significant multiplex of the links or entities in different service entity network. Service entity networks were mapped onto shared physical resources by dynamic resource allocation controller. The efficiency of the proposed architecture was illustrated in a simulation environment that allows for comparative performance evaluation. The results show that, compared to traditional networking architecture, this architecture has a better performance.

  2. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  3. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonprofit or public entity. An accrediting entity must qualify as either: (a) An organization described in... administering standards for entities providing child welfare services; or (b) A public entity (other than a... child welfare services....

  4. Deep learning with word embeddings improves biomedical named entity recognition.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maryam; Weber, Leon; Neves, Mariana; Wiegandt, David Luis; Leser, Ulf

    2017-07-15

    Text mining has become an important tool for biomedical research. The most fundamental text-mining task is the recognition of biomedical named entities (NER), such as genes, chemicals and diseases. Current NER methods rely on pre-defined features which try to capture the specific surface properties of entity types, properties of the typical local context, background knowledge, and linguistic information. State-of-the-art tools are entity-specific, as dictionaries and empirically optimal feature sets differ between entity types, which makes their development costly. Furthermore, features are often optimized for a specific gold standard corpus, which makes extrapolation of quality measures difficult. We show that a completely generic method based on deep learning and statistical word embeddings [called long short-term memory network-conditional random field (LSTM-CRF)] outperforms state-of-the-art entity-specific NER tools, and often by a large margin. To this end, we compared the performance of LSTM-CRF on 33 data sets covering five different entity classes with that of best-of-class NER tools and an entity-agnostic CRF implementation. On average, F1-score of LSTM-CRF is 5% above that of the baselines, mostly due to a sharp increase in recall. The source code for LSTM-CRF is available at https://github.com/glample/tagger and the links to the corpora are available at https://corposaurus.github.io/corpora/ . habibima@informatik.hu-berlin.de.

  5. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  6. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  7. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  8. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  9. Distributing program entities in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Patrick; Mckay, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    In any discussion of distributing programs and entities of programs written in a high order language (HOL), certain issues need to be included because they are generally independent of the particular language involved and have a direct impact on the feasibility of distribution. Of special interest is the distribution of Ada program entities, but many of the issues involved are not specific to Ada and would require resolution whether written in PASCAL, PL/1, Concurrent PASCAL, HAL/S, or any language which provides similar functionality. The following sections will enumerate some of these issues, and will show in what ways they relate to Ada. Also, some (but by no means all) of the issues involved in the distribution of Ada programs and program entities will be discussed.

  10. Acute jejunoileitis. A distinct entity?

    PubMed

    Levine, J; Schmidt, M H; Burrell, M I; Hopkins, M S

    1992-01-01

    A 44-year-old man with acute jejunoileitis of unknown etiology developed small bowel obstruction. Intermittent abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, ascites, and leukocytosis were prominent features. All stool cultures were negative. On steroid treatment, symptoms and radiographic features completely resolved. We suggest, in agreement with an earlier report, that acute jejunoileitis may be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.

  11. Ameloblastic fibroma: an uncommon entity.

    PubMed

    Vij, Ruchieka; Vij, Hitesh

    2013-07-09

    Ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon mixed odontogenic tumour, which is often confused with ameloblastoma. It exhibits both epithelial and mesenchymal components with absence of any calcified dental structure. This paper presents two cases of this rare entity with detailed review of literature.

  12. Ameloblastic fibroma: an uncommon entity

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Ruchieka; Vij, Hitesh

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon mixed odontogenic tumour, which is often confused with ameloblastoma. It exhibits both epithelial and mesenchymal components with absence of any calcified dental structure. This paper presents two cases of this rare entity with detailed review of literature. PMID:23843410

  13. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results. PMID:26425144

  14. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-07-31

    Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.

  15. Automatic term list generation for entity tagging.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Ted; Schein, Andrew I; Ungar, Lyle H

    2006-03-15

    Many entity taggers and information extraction systems make use of lists of terms of entities such as people, places, genes or chemicals. These lists have traditionally been constructed manually. We show that distributional clustering methods which group words based on the contexts that they appear in, including neighboring words and syntactic relations extracted using a shallow parser, can be used to aid in the construction of term lists. Experiments on learning lists of terms and using them as part of a gene tagger on a corpus of abstracts from the scientific literature show that our automatically generated term lists significantly boost the precision of a state-of-the-art CRF-based gene tagger to a degree that is competitive with using hand curated lists and boosts recall to a degree that surpasses that of the hand-curated lists. Our results also show that these distributional clustering methods do not generate lists as helpful as those generated by supervised techniques, but that they can be used to complement supervised techniques so as to obtain better performance. The code used in this paper is available from http://www.cis.upenn.edu/datamining/software_dist/autoterm/

  16. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  17. Entity- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brian; Oppel, Fred; Rigdon, Brian; Whitfor, Gregg; Summers, Kenneth; Jungels, John

    2012-09-13

    This package contains classes that capture high-level aspects of characters and vehicles. Vehicles manage seats and riders. Vehicles and characters now can be configured to compose different behaviors and have certain capabilities, by adding them through xml data. These behaviors and capabilities are not included in this package, but instead are part of other packages such as mobility behavior, path planning, sight, sound. Entity is not dependent on these other packages. This package also contains the icons used for Umbra applications Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop and OpShed. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (EntityWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop, and OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  18. Collagenous colitis: an unrecognised entity.

    PubMed Central

    Bogomoletz, W V; Adnet, J J; Birembaut, P; Feydy, P; Dupont, P

    1980-01-01

    A patient is reported with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and associated radiological and endoscopic abnormalities of the sigmoid colon. Light and electron microscopic study of colorectal mucosa showed abnormal collagenous thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane. The authors felt that the clinical and morphological features justified a diagnosis of collagenous colitis. Review of the literature suggested that collagenous colitis was still an unrecognised entity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7380341

  19. Hepatic cysticercosis: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina; Kumar, Praveen; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic cysticercosis is a very rare entity; only four cases have been reported to date. High-resolution ultrasonography of the abdomen is the initial and most reliable modality for evaluation of hepatic cysticercosis. Medical therapy is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of hepatic cysticercosis in a 28-year-old male who presented with right upper quadrant pain, fever, and jaundice. The article also describes the imaging patterns of hepatic cysticercosis based on different stages of evolution.

  20. GEM: The GAAIN Entity Mapper

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Peehoo; Ambite, Jose-Luis; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a software system solution that significantly simplifies data sharing of medical data. This system, called GEM (for the GAAIN Entity Mapper), harmonizes medical data. Harmonization is the process of unifying information across multiple disparate datasets needed to share and aggregate medical data. Specifically, our system automates the task of finding corresponding elements across different independently created (medical) datasets of related data. We present our overall approach, detailed technical architecture, and experimental evaluations demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26665184

  1. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  2. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  3. Curatable Named-Entity Recognition Using Semantic Relations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Named-entity recognition (NER) plays an important role in the development of biomedical databases. However, the existing NER tools produce multifarious named-entities which may result in both curatable and non-curatable markers. To facilitate biocuration with a straightforward approach, classifying curatable named-entities is helpful with regard to accelerating the biocuration workflow. Co-occurrence Interaction Nexus with Named-entity Recognition (CoINNER) is a web-based tool that allows users to identify genes, chemicals, diseases, and action term mentions in the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD). To further discover interactions, CoINNER uses multiple advanced algorithms to recognize the mentions in the BioCreative IV CTD Track. CoINNER is developed based on a prototype system that annotated gene, chemical, and disease mentions in PubMed abstracts at BioCreative 2012 Track I (literature triage). We extended our previous system in developing CoINNER. The pre-tagging results of CoINNER were developed based on the state-of-the-art named entity recognition tools in BioCreative III. Next, a method based on conditional random fields (CRFs) is proposed to predict chemical and disease mentions in the articles. Finally, action term mentions were collected by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). At the BioCreative IV CTD Track, the best F-measures reached for gene/protein, chemical/drug and disease NER were 54 percent while CoINNER achieved a 61.5 percent F-measure. System URL: http://ikmbio.csie.ncku.edu.tw/coinner/ introduction.htm.

  4. EPA Finalizes Rule to Modernize Clean Water Act Reporting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a rule to modernize Clean Water Act reporting for municipalities, industries, and other facilities. The final rule will require regulated entities and state and federal re

  5. 31 CFR 588.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 588.303 Section 588.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS....303 Entity. The term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group...

  6. 31 CFR 545.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 545.303 Section 545.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS....303 Entity. The term entity means a partnership, association, corporation, or other organization...

  7. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ..., 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated Business Entities AGENCY: Farm Credit... business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. For purposes of this... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. This rule does...

  8. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  9. 14 CFR 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section Sec... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be... forth above. (c) The records for each required accounting entity shall be maintained with...

  10. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... COMPENSATION INFORMATION Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25. ...

  11. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25. ...

  12. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... COMPENSATION INFORMATION Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25. ...

  13. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... INFORMATION Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25. ...

  14. 31 CFR 547.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 547.304 Section 547.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS... Definitions § 547.304 Entity. The term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture...

  15. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  16. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  17. Modern thermoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gründler, Peter; Kirbs, Andreas; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-08-03

    Thermoelectrochemistry as a branch of electrochemistry like photoelectrochemistry is reviewed in an integral treatment of the subject. Especially modern thermoelectrochemistry is focused on new techniques to vary the temperature as an independent variable. This review based on a definition of modern thermoelectrochemistry includes all the classical work which contributes to the formation of modern thermoelectrochemistry, among them high-temperature electrochemistry, subcritical- and supercritical electrochemistry and in-situ electrochemical calorimetry. The main focus is on modern techniques like fast electrode heating by lasers or by alternating current as well as on heating of solution spots by microwaves and related methods. Here the state of the art in modern thermoelectrochemistry is critically reviewed for the first time.

  18. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, A. N.; Costello, R.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-15

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports.

  19. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  20. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V.Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V. Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html PMID:27777244

  2. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  3. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  4. Entity Network Prediction Using Multitype Topic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Hitohiro; Eguchi, Koji; Ohkawa, Takenao

    Conveying information about who, what, when and where is a primary purpose of some genres of documents, typically news articles. Statistical models that capture dependencies between named entities and topics can play an important role. Although some relationships between who and where should be mentioned in such a document, no statistical topic models explicitly address in handling such information the textual interactions between a who-entity and a where-entity. This paper presents a statistical model that directly captures the dependencies between an arbitrary number of word types, such as who-entities, where-entities and topics, mentioned in each document. We show that this multitype topic model performs better at making predictions on entity networks, in which each vertex represents an entity and each edge weight represents how a pair of entities at the incident vertices is closely related, through our experiments on predictions of who-entities and links between them. We also demonstrate the scale-free property in the weighted networks of entities extracted from written mentions.

  5. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  6. Dementia: Continuum or Distinct Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    The latent structure of dementia was examined in a group of 10,775 older adults with indicators derived from a neuropsychological test battery. Subjecting these data to taxometric analysis using mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode) produced results more consistent with dementia as a dimensional (lying along a continuum) than categorical (representing a distinct entity) construct. A second study conducted on a group of 2375 21-to-64-year olds produced similar results. These findings denote that dementia, as measured by deficits in episodic memory, attention/concentration, executive function, and language, differs quantitatively rather than qualitatively from the cognitive status of non-demented adults. The implications of these results for classification, assessment, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:20677881

  7. Viruses: are they living entities?

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged.

  8. Entitymetrics: Measuring the Impact of Entities

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Song, Min; Han, Jia; Yu, Qi; Yan, Erjia; Lin, Lili; Chambers, Tamy

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes entitymetrics to measure the impact of knowledge units. Entitymetrics highlight the importance of entities embedded in scientific literature for further knowledge discovery. In this paper, we use Metformin, a drug for diabetes, as an example to form an entity-entity citation network based on literature related to Metformin. We then calculate the network features and compare the centrality ranks of biological entities with results from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). The comparison demonstrates the usefulness of entitymetrics to detect most of the outstanding interactions manually curated in CTD. PMID:24009660

  9. [The nosological entity bulimia nerviosa].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J; Cervera Enguix, S

    1991-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are at the present moment, two well defined clinical entities among the group of the eating disorders. The psychopathological differentiation of both syndromes has a great importance for diagnosis and therapy. The authors make a phenomenological description, based on case histories of patients with diagnostics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and try to establish an approach to the essential symptomatology of those disorders. The presence of affective symptomatology--depressive, but not exclusively--in the eating behaviour disorders in general and particularly in bulimia nervosa, is nowadays interpreted as an unspecific emotional lability as a response to stressing situations. That is to say, it is a secondary depressive symptomatology, more than a primary mood disorder preceding or underlying bulimia. There is strong evidence in favour of a dysregulation of serotonin metabolism in patients with bulimia nervosa, in the sense of a reduced activity, which manifest itself clinically by binges with food with a high content in carbohydrates. High levels of 5-HT seem to induce increasing feelings of safety, fullness and lead to an interruption of eating. Fluoxetine and this active metabolite are selective inhibitors of the reuptake of 5-HT and their antibulimic effect could be mediated by this mechanism.

  10. Penoscrotal porokeratosis: A distinct entity

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv; Jadhav, Yatin

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with five months history of redness associated with itching and burning over the scrotum and shaft of the penis with a persistent rash on those sites. There had been no response to topical steroid and antifungal creams. Clinical examination revealed a large well-circumscribed erythematous plaque with a thready raised border with a tiny groove at its summit that involved almost two-thirds of the ventral part of the shaft of the penis. Ill-defined erythema with a granular surface was seen over the anterior scrotal skin. A 4 mm punch biopsy of the plaque on the penile shaft revealed multiple cornoid lamellae located adjacent to one another. The patient was treated with topical emollients. Follow up after four months revealed almost complete resolution of the plaque on the penile shaft. Penoscrotal porokeratosis appears to be a distinct entity in the family of porokeratotic diseases, described only in young males in their twenties with involvement of the penile shaft and anterior scrotum with severe burning and itching and histologically associated with multiple cornoid lamellae. It may represent an unusual epidermal porokeratotic reaction pattern and may be a self-resolving condition. PMID:26500866

  11. Heparin-like entities from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Colliec-Jouault, S; Bavington, C; Delbarre-Ladrat, C

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animals and plant cells where they play a significant role in a number of physiological situations e.g. hydration, mechanical properties of cell walls and ionic regulation. This review concentrates on heparin-like entities from marine procaryotes and eukaryotes. Carbohydrates from marine prokaryotes offer a significant structural chemodiversity with novel material and biological properties. Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes considered as a rich source of novel molecules, and marine bacteria are a rich source of polysaccharides with novel structures, which may be a good starting point from which to synthesise heparinoid molecules. For example, some sulphated polysaccharides have been isolated from gamma-proteobacteria such as Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas sp. In contrast to marine bacteria, all marine algae contain sulphated wall polysaccharides, whereas such polymers are not found in terrestrial plants. In their native form, or after chemical modifications, a range of polysaccharides isolated from marine organisms have been described that have anticoagulant, anti-thrombotic, anti-tumour, anti-proliferative, anti-viral or anti-inflammatory activities.In spite of the enormous potential of sulphated oligosaccharides from marine sources, their technical and pharmaceutical usage is still limited because of the high complexity of these molecules. Thus, the production of tailor-made oligo- and polysaccharidic structures by biocatalysis is also a growing field of interest in biotechnology.

  12. PRIS at TREC 2010: Related Entity Finding Task of Entity Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    constructing retrieval model and allocating homepages for entities. We also used some external resources, such as Stanford NER Tool, Indri1 & Lemur ...obtained less than 1,000 documents. This information was stored for the latter needs. In order to indexing by Indri or Lemur , we parsed the...priority to entities extracted manually PRIS3 Entity-Centered Model by Indri PRIS4 Entity-Centered Model by Lemur (BM25) Because the evaluation

  13. Modern drug discovery technologies: opportunities and challenges in lead discovery.

    PubMed

    Guido, Rafael V C; Oliva, Glaucius; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2011-12-01

    The identification of promising hits and the generation of high quality leads are crucial steps in the early stages of drug discovery projects. The definition and assessment of both chemical and biological space have revitalized the screening process model and emphasized the importance of exploring the intrinsic complementary nature of classical and modern methods in drug research. In this context, the widespread use of combinatorial chemistry and sophisticated screening methods for the discovery of lead compounds has created a large demand for small organic molecules that act on specific drug targets. Modern drug discovery involves the employment of a wide variety of technologies and expertise in multidisciplinary research teams. The synergistic effects between experimental and computational approaches on the selection and optimization of bioactive compounds emphasize the importance of the integration of advanced technologies in drug discovery programs. These technologies (VS, HTS, SBDD, LBDD, QSAR, and so on) are complementary in the sense that they have mutual goals, thereby the combination of both empirical and in silico efforts is feasible at many different levels of lead optimization and new chemical entity (NCE) discovery. This paper provides a brief perspective on the evolution and use of key drug design technologies, highlighting opportunities and challenges.

  14. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  15. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  16. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  17. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  18. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  19. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  20. 31 CFR 538.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 538.303 Section 538.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS.... The term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, or other...

  1. 31 CFR 595.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 595.303 Section 595.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS.... The term entity means a partnership, association, corporation, or other organization, group or...

  2. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS.... The term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup...

  3. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS... term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or...

  4. 31 CFR 546.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 546.304 Section 546.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS... term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or...

  5. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS.... The term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup...

  6. 31 CFR 537.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 537.304 Section 537.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS.... The term entity means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup...

  7. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  8. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  9. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  10. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  11. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303 Entity...

  12. 31 CFR 546.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 546.304 Section 546.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.304 Entity....

  13. 31 CFR 575.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 575.303 Section 575.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.303 Entity....

  14. 31 CFR 546.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 546.304 Section 546.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.304 Entity....

  15. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  16. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  17. 31 CFR 552.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 552.303 Section 552.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 552.303 Entity. The...

  18. 31 CFR 552.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 552.303 Section 552.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 552.303 Entity. The...

  19. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303 Entity...

  20. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303 Entity...

  1. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303 Entity...

  2. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303 Entity...

  3. LeadMine: a grammar and dictionary driven approach to entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical entity recognition has traditionally been performed by machine learning approaches. Here we describe an approach using grammars and dictionaries. This approach has the advantage that the entities found can be directly related to a given grammar or dictionary, which allows the type of an entity to be known and, if an entity is misannotated, indicates which resource should be corrected. As recognition is driven by what is expected, if spelling errors occur, they can be corrected. Correcting such errors is highly useful when attempting to lookup an entity in a database or, in the case of chemical names, converting them to structures. Results Our system uses a mixture of expertly curated grammars and dictionaries, as well as dictionaries automatically derived from public resources. We show that the heuristics developed to filter our dictionary of trivial chemical names (from PubChem) yields a better performing dictionary than the previously published Jochem dictionary. Our final system performs post-processing steps to modify the boundaries of entities and to detect abbreviations. These steps are shown to significantly improve performance (2.6% and 4.0% F1-score respectively). Our complete system, with incremental post-BioCreative workshop improvements, achieves 89.9% precision and 85.4% recall (87.6% F1-score) on the CHEMDNER test set. Conclusions Grammar and dictionary approaches can produce results at least as good as the current state of the art in machine learning approaches. While machine learning approaches are commonly thought of as "black box" systems, our approach directly links the output entities to the input dictionaries and grammars. Our approach also allows correction of errors in detected entities, which can assist with entity resolution. PMID:25810776

  4. Screening of the 'Open Scaffolds' collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Preston, Sarah; Jiao, Yaqing; Baell, Jonathan B; Keiser, Jennifer; Crawford, Simon; Koehler, Anson V; Wang, Tao; Simpson, Moana M; Kaplan, Ray M; Cowley, Karla J; Simpson, Kaylene J; Hofmann, Andreas; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-05-28

    The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the 'Open Scaffolds' collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the 'Open Scaffolds' collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, "coiled" xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46-5.93 μM), inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31-12.5 μM) and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3-50 μM) adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm) and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm) and eventually kill (>90%) these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50-100 μM) as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm). Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily) distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases, optimising analogs with improved biological activities and characterising their targets

  5. Semantic Entity Pairing for Improved Data Validation and Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yanning; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Narock, Tom; Groman, Robert; Rauch, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    One of the central incentives for linked data implementations is the opportunity to leverage the rich logic inherent in structured data. The logic embedded in semantic models can strengthen capabilities for data discovery and data validation when pairing entities from distinct, contextually-related datasets. The creation of links between the two datasets broadens data discovery by using the semantic logic to help machines compare similar entities and properties that exist on different levels of granularity. This semantic capability enables appropriate entity pairing without making inaccurate assertions as to the nature of the relationship. Entity pairing also provides a context to accurately validate the correctness of an entity's property values - an exercise highly valued by data management practices who seek to ensure the quality and correctness of their data. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) semantically models metadata surrounding oceanographic researchcruises, but other sources outside of BCO-DMO exist that also model metadata about these same cruises. For BCO-DMO, the process of successfully pairing its entities to these sources begins by selecting sources that are decidedly trustworthy and authoritative for the modeled concepts. In this case, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has a well-respected reputation among the oceanographic research community, presents a data context that is uniquely different and valuable, and semantically models its cruise metadata. Where BCO-DMO exposes the processed, analyzed data products generated by researchers, R2R exposes the raw shipboard data that was collected on the same research cruises. Interlinking these cruise entities expands data discovery capabilities but also allows for validating the contextual correctness of both BCO-DMO's and R2R's cruise metadata. Assessing the potential for a link between two datasets for a similar entity consists of aligning like

  6. 43 CFR 426.10 - Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certification and reporting requirements as specified in § 426.18. (b) Sale of public land. Reclamation does not.... (c) Leasing of public land. Public entities can lease irrigation land that they own or control to...

  7. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  8. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  9. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...) Together with its affiliates and controlling interests has average gross revenues that are not more than...

  10. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or a savings and loan association; (b) Any entity which is authorized by law to underwrite or... electrical equipment or coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear fuel, or other fuel, for the use of any...

  11. Filamentous Biological Entities Obtained from the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported the presence of large, non-filamentous, biological entities including a diatom fragment in the stratosphere at heights of between 22-27km. Here we report clear evidence for the presence of filamentous entities associated with a relatively large particle mass collected from the stratosphere. Although viable fungi have previously been isolated from the stratosphere, this is the first report of a filamentous microorganism being observed in situ on a stratospheric particle mass.

  12. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).

    PubMed

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-06-24

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... persistence of the legal entity identifier, it shall have a format consisting of a single data field, and...) Persistence. The legal entity identifier assigned to an entity shall persist despite all corporate events...

  14. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA).

  15. The Chemical Information Ontology: Provenance and Disambiguation for Chemical Data on the Biological Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA). PMID:21991315

  16. Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles via Biological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monaliben; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi; Tripathy, Suraj Kumar; Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the creation, manipulation and use of materials at the nanometre size scale (1 to 100 nm). At this size scale there are significant differences in many material properties that are normally not seen in the same materials at larger scales. Although nanoscale materials can be produced using a variety of traditional physical and chemical processes, it is now possible to biologically synthesize materials via environment-friendly green chemistry based techniques. In recent years, the convergence between nanotechnology and biology has created the new field of nanobiotechnology that incorporates the use of biological entities such as actinomycetes algae, bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts, and plants in a number of biochemical and biophysical processes. The biological synthesis via nanobiotechnology processes have a significant potential to boost nanoparticles production without the use of harsh, toxic, and expensive chemicals commonly used in conventional physical and chemical processes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent trends in synthesizing nanoparticles via biological entities and their potential applications. PMID:28793638

  17. Functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles with biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgeruşan, Lidia; Mrówczyński, Radosław; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    New hybrid materials, obtained through introduction of cysteine, lysine and folic acid as biological entities into polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles, are reported. The syntheses are straight forward and various methods were applied for structural and morphological characterization of the resulting nanoparticles. XPS proved a very powerful tool for surface chemical analysis and it evidences the functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetite nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior and the high values of saturation magnetization recommend all products for further application where magnetism is important for targeting, separation, or heating by alternative magnetic fields.

  18. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water

  19. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  20. Pott's puffy tumour: still not an eradicated entity.

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Brell, M; Cardona, E; Claramunt, E; Costa, J M

    2001-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumour is an infrequent entity characterised by one or more subperiosteal abscesses associated with frontal bone osteomyelitis. Although cases in patients of all ages have been reported, teenagers are the most frequently affected. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential because of the high risk of severe neurological complications, such as epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and secondary septic thrombosis of the dural sinuses. This paper describes the case of a patient with a subperiosteal abscess resulting from sinusitis, with orbital and intracranial extension, and subsequent neurological complications. Despite modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, 13 new cases have been published in the last 5 years; in at least 3 (23%) of these cases there were serious neurological complications. Upper respiratory infections and sinusitis are leading causes of visits to the emergency department in the paediatric age group; however, no risk factors for poor outcome have so far been identified in any of these patients.

  1. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-03-01

    For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba

  2. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale

    PubMed Central

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. Results: We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. Availability and implementation: All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. Contact: sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24162468

  3. 230Th and 231Pa on GEOTRACES GA03, the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect, and implications for modern and paleoceanographic chemical fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Robinson, Laura F.; Lu, Yanbin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Moran, S. Bradley

    2015-06-01

    The long-lived uranium decay products 230Th and 231Pa are widely used as quantitative tracers of adsorption to sinking particles (scavenging) in the ocean by exploiting the principles of radioactive disequilibria. Because of their preservation in the Pleistocene sediment record and through largely untested assumptions about their chemical behavior in the water column, the two radionuclides have also been used as proxies for a variety of chemical fluxes in the past ocean. This includes the vertical flux of particulate matter to the seafloor, the lateral flux of insoluble elements to continental margins (boundary scavenging), and the southward flux of water out of the deep North Atlantic. In a section of unprecedented vertical and zonal resolution, the distributions of 230Th and 231Pa across the North Atlantic shed light on the marine cycling of these radionuclides and further inform their use as tracers of chemical flux. Enhanced scavenging intensities are observed in benthic layers of resuspended sediments on the eastern and western margins and in a hydrothermal plume emanating from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Boundary scavenging is clearly expressed in the water column along a transect between Mauritania and Cape Verde which is used to quantify a bias in sediment fluxes calculated using 230Th-normalization and to demonstrate enhanced 231Pa removal from the deep North Atlantic by this mechanism. The influence of deep ocean ventilation that leads to the southward export of 231Pa is apparent. The 231Pa/230Th ratio, however, predominantly reflects spatial variability in scavenging intensity, complicating its applicability as a proxy for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  4. 37 CFR 1.29 - Micro entity status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Micro entity status. 1.29... Micro entity status. (a) To establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must... establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must certify that: (1) The...

  5. 37 CFR 1.29 - Micro entity status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Micro entity status. 1.29... Micro entity status. (a) To establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must... establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must certify that: (1) The...

  6. 42 CFR 438.808 - Exclusion of entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exclusion of entities. (a) General rule. FFP is available in payments under MCO contracts only if the State excludes from the contracts any entities described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Entities that must... certain crimes as described in section 1128(b)(8)(B) of the Act. (3) An entity that employs or...

  7. 18 CFR 39.8 - Delegation to a Regional Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reliability Organization may enter into an agreement to delegate authority to a Regional Entity for the... Reliability Organization's authority to enforce Reliability Standards within its region. The entity must... Commission may designate the entity as a Regional Entity and assign enforcement authority to it. (g) An...

  8. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  9. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  10. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  11. 45 CFR 160.310 - Responsibilities of covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of covered entities. 160.310... Responsibilities of covered entities. (a) Provide records and compliance reports. A covered entity must keep such... entity has complied or is complying with the applicable administrative simplification provisions. (b...

  12. S4MPLE--sampler for multiple protein-ligand entities: simultaneous docking of several entities.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Laurent; Horvath, Dragos

    2013-01-28

    S4MPLE is a conformational sampling tool, based on a hybrid genetic algorithm, simulating one (conformer enumeration) or more molecules (docking). Energy calculations are based on the AMBER force field [Cornell et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5179.] for biological macromolecules and its generalized version GAFF [Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004 , 25, 1157.] for ligands. This paper describes more advanced, specific applications of S4MPLE to problems more complex than classical redocking of drug-like compounds [Hoffer et al. J. Mol. Graphics Modell. 2012, submitted for publication.]. Here, simultaneous docking of multiple entities is addressed in two different important contexts. First, simultaneous docking of two fragment-like ligands was attempted, as such ternary complexes are the basis of fragment-based drug design by linkage of the independent binders. As a preliminary, the capacity of S4MPLE to dock fragment-like compounds has been assessed, since this class of small probes used in fragment-based drug design covers a different chemical space than drug-like molecules. Herein reported success rates from fragments redocking are as good as classical benchmarking results on drug-like compounds (Astex Diverse Set [Hartshorn et al. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 726.]). Then, S4MPLE is successfully challenged to predict locations of fragments involved in ternary complexes by means of multientity docking. Second, the key problem of predicting water-mediated interaction is addressed by considering explicit water molecules as additional entities to be docked in the presence of the "main" ligand. Blind prediction of solvent molecule positions, reproducing relevant ligand-water-site mediated interactions, is achieved in 76% cases over saved poses. S4MPLE was also successful to predict crystallographic water displacement by a therefore tailored functional group in the optimized ligand. However, water localization is an extremely delicate issue in terms of weighing of

  13. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  14. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Alejandro; Gil, José Fernando; Lujano, Heriberto; Piñon, Omar; Muñoz, Gabriel; Michel, José Manuel; Garcia, Jorge; Valdez, Jorge; Morales, Omar

    2017-01-01

    There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  15. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  16. Is the Core Top Really Modern? A Story of Chemical Erosion, Bioturbation, and Lateral Sediment Redistribution from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekik, F.

    2016-12-01

    Paleoceanographic work is based on calibrating paleo-environmental proxies using well-preserved core top sediments which represent the last one thousand years or less. However, core top sediments may be in places as old as 9000 years due to various sedimentary and diagenetic processes, such as chemical erosion, bioturbation and lateral sediment redistribution. We hypothesize that in regions with high surface ocean productivity, high organic carbon to calcite ratios reaching the seabed promote calcite dissolution in sediments, even in regions above the lysocline. This process may lead to chemical erosion of core tops which in turn may result in core top aging. The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), a popular site for calibration of paleoceanographic proxies, is such a place. Better understanding the relationship between core top age and dissolution will help correct biases inherent in proxy calibration because dissolution of foraminifers alters shell chemistry, and wholesale dissolution of sediments leads to core top aging and loss. We present both new and literature-based core top data of radiocarbon ages from the EEP. We created regional maps of both core top radiocarbon age and calcite preservation measured with the Globorotalia menardii Fragmentation Index (MFI; over 100 core tops). Our maps show a clear pattern of deep sea sedimentary calcite dissolution mimicking the pattern of surface ocean productivity observed from satellites and sediment traps in the EEP. Core top radiocarbon ages generally parallel the dissolution patterns observed in the region. Where this relationship does not hold true, bioturbation and/or lateral sediment redistribution may play a role. Down core radiocarbon and 230Th-normalized sediment accumulation rate data from several cores in the EEP support this hypothesis. Better understanding the role of diagenesis promotes the development of more reliable paleo-environmental proxies.

  17. Benchmark quantum-chemical calculations on a complete set of rotameric families of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone and their comparison with modern density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Mládek, Arnošt; Krepl, Miroslav; Svozil, Daniel; Cech, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel; Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Sponer, Jiří

    2013-05-21

    accurate as the less demanding DFT-D3 methods. Preliminary force field tests using several charge sets reveal an almost order of magnitude larger deviations from the reference QM data compared to modern DFT-D3, underlining the challenges facing force field simulations of nucleic acids. As expected, inclusion of the solvent environment approximated by a continuum approach has a large impact on the relative stabilities of different backbone substates and is important when comparing the QM data with structural bioinformatics and other experimental data.

  18. 31 CFR 593.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 593.303 Section 593.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  19. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck.

  20. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual...

  1. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the preceding... affiliates, has average gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross...

  2. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the..., has average gross revenues that are not more than $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the..., has average gross revenues that are not more than $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not...

  5. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  6. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual...

  7. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the..., has average gross revenues that are not more than $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not...

  9. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual...

  10. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  11. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  12. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual...

  13. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the..., has average gross revenues that are not more than $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not...

  14. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  15. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the..., has average gross revenues that are not more than $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not...

  16. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  17. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  18. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  19. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual...

  20. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average... winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in this section, or a consortium of...

  1. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  2. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  3. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  4. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  5. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  6. 31 CFR 593.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 593.303 Section 593.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. Massive ovarian oedema: a misleading clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Kouroutou, Paraskevi; Sarli, Polixeni; Alexiou, Nikolaos Konstantinos; Efthymiou, Elias; Maras, Athanasios; Alexiou, Nikolaos Georgios; Nikolaou, Spyridon Evaggelos; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Paliouras, Dimitrios; Gogakos, Apostolos; Machairiotis, Christodoulos

    2016-02-03

    Massive ovarian oedema is a rare non-neoplastic clinicopathologic entity has a higher incidence in women during their second and third life decade. The oedema can be presented in one or both ovaries as a result of partial intermittent torsion of the ovarian pedicle that interferes to the venal and lymphatic drainage of the ovary. We present a clinical case of a 16 year old with massive ovarian oedema and we performed a review of the literature. The pathophysiology of this entity is very complex. We tried to perform a complete review of the literature and focus on the complexity of this entity as far as its pathophysiological backround is concerned and as far as its clinical presentation is concerned. In conclusion, massive ovarian oedema is a rare, multi disease mimicking clinical entity, with an acute or progressive clinical presentation. It has also to be a part of our differential diagnosis in cases of acute abdominal pain and we have to try to treat her conservatively, in order to preserve fertility.

  8. 31 CFR 587.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 587.303 Section 587.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO)...

  9. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter. ...

  10. 31 CFR 586.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 586.303 Section 586.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO...

  11. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  12. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  13. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  14. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  15. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  16. 31 CFR 543.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 543.304 Section 543.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  17. 42 CFR 425.104 - Legal entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Legal entity. 425.104 Section 425.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... law, and authorized to conduct business in each State in which it operates for purposes of...

  18. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536...

  19. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536...

  20. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536...

  1. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536...

  2. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536...

  3. 31 CFR 538.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 538.303 Section 538.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 538.303...

  4. 31 CFR 537.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 537.304 Section 537.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.304...

  5. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  6. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  7. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  8. 31 CFR 537.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 537.304 Section 537.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.304...

  9. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  11. 31 CFR 538.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 538.303 Section 538.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 538.303...

  12. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  13. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  14. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 558.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 558.303 Section 558.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 558.303...

  16. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.303...

  17. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.303...

  18. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  19. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.1429 Section 101.1429 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service Rules for the 12.2-12.7 GHz Band § 101.1429...

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the Penis, an Exceptional Entity

    PubMed Central

    Romero Gonzalez, Edwin Javier; Marenco Jiménez, José L.; Mayorga Pineda, Maria P.; Martínez Morán, Alfonso; Castiñeiras Fernández, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In tumors of the penis, mesenchymal tumors are extremely rare and within them, sarcomas are exceptional. We report a patient with a sarcomatous lesion treated with conservative surgery with good surgical outcome and the review of the literature, to present the latest advances in the treatment of this unusual entity. PMID:26793502

  2. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck. PMID:26396452

  3. Melorheostosis: a rare entity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kherfani, Abdelhakim; Mahjoub, Hachem

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare entity belonging to the group of sclerotic bone dysplasias. Described for the first time in 1922 by Leri, it remains imperfectly known as clinical presentations are highly variable, and the etiological diagnosis is not fully elucidated. We report a case of polyostoticmelorheostosis for which radiological investigations were complete, in order to study this disease.

  4. Melorheostosis: a rare entity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kherfani, Abdelhakim; Mahjoub, Hachem

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare entity belonging to the group of sclerotic bone dysplasias. Described for the first time in 1922 by Leri, it remains imperfectly known as clinical presentations are highly variable, and the etiological diagnosis is not fully elucidated. We report a case of polyostoticmelorheostosis for which radiological investigations were complete, in order to study this disease. PMID:25489356

  5. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  6. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR...

  7. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  8. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  9. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  10. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  11. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  12. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  13. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  14. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  15. 77 FR 28250 - Entity List Additions; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Export Administration Regulations (EAR) in April 2012. BIS published the first final rule in the Federal Register on Wednesday, April 18, 2012. That rule added three persons to the Entity List of the EAR... to the denial. 12. First Floor, Tla'a Al Ali EAR. (See Sec. Khali Al Salim Street, 744.11 of...

  16. 33 CFR 154.2011 - Application for acceptance as a certifying entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to— (1) Performing system design calculations; (2) Providing chemical data; (3) Developing plans... certifying entity may not recertify a VCS design, configuration, or operational change if it was involved in that change, and may not conduct an operational review of a VCS if it has been involved in the...

  17. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. δ56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ≈ 0. These near-zero bulk δ56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero δ56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (δ56Fe ≈ -1.5 to -0.5‰) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2‰. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-δ56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  18. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks.

    PubMed

    Tangalos, G E; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Alpers, C N; Shelobolina, E S; Xu, H; Konishi, H; Roden, E E

    2010-06-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)(am)] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe-S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. delta(56)Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were approximately 0. These near-zero bulk delta(56)Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero delta(56)Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (delta(56)Fe approximately -1.5 to -0.5 per thousand) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)(am) by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)(am) are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)(am) of approximately -2 per thousand. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-delta(56)Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  19. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, that has expertise in developing and... agencies in a State and that has expertise in developing and administering standards for entities...

  20. Entity Came to Rescue - Leveraging Entities to Minimize Risks in Web Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Entity Came to Rescue - Leveraging Entities to Minimize Risks in Web Search Xitong Liu, Peilin Yang and Hui Fang University of Delaware , Newark, DE...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Delaware ...by ANSI Std Z39-18 The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was the military component of the

  1. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  2. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  3. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  4. [Pallido-pyramidal syndrome: an unrecognized entity].

    PubMed

    Tranchant, C; Boulay, C; Warter, J M

    1991-01-01

    A female teenager, without familial history, presented, since the age of 13 years, with gradually worsening pyramidal signs and a parkinsonian syndrome controlled by L-Dopa in small doses. The clinical complex was suggestive of the pallido-pyramidal syndrome, an entity which was individualized in 1954 by Davison on the basis of 5 young patients who had pyramidal signs and a parkinsonian syndrome. In only one of these patients a pathological study was carried out, disclosing a non specific degeneration without inclusions, involving the pallidum, substantia nigra and pyramidal tract. We hope that this report will encourage other authors to report similar cases, since only the study of new cases will determine whether the pallido-pyramidal syndrome is a true entity.

  5. Central neurocytoma: establishment of the disease entity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    The establishment and identification of central neurocytoma as a distinct disease entity are invaluable in catalyzing investigations of neuronal differentiation in central nervous system tumors. The discovery of neuronal differentiation in neuroepithelial tumors has been extended to extraventricular tumors and potentially to various glial tumors undergoing neuronal differentiation. Understanding the disease spectrum of neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors is important for deciphering the mechanism of gliomagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  7. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  8. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  9. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  10. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  11. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except as...

  12. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except as...

  13. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except as...

  14. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except as...

  15. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the...

  16. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  17. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  18. 78 FR 22270 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY: Office... issued Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities. Specifically, the Special Fraud Alert addressed... INFORMATION: In our publication of the Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities, an inadvertent error...

  19. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the...

  20. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the...

  1. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the...

  2. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the...

  3. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly during...

  4. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly during...

  5. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly during...

  6. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly during...

  7. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly during...

  8. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  9. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  10. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  11. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  12. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  13. 45 CFR 160.310 - Responsibilities of covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities of covered entities. 160.310... Responsibilities of covered entities. (a) Provide records and compliance reports. A covered entity must keep such... information, including protected health information, that are pertinent to ascertaining compliance with...

  14. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  15. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  16. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  17. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  18. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  19. 7 CFR 795.6 - Multiple individuals or other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple individuals or other entities. 795.6 Section... Multiple individuals or other entities. The rules in §§ 795.5 through 795.16 shall be used to determine whether certain multiple individuals or legal entities are to be treated as one person or as...

  20. 16 CFR 801.50 - Formation of unincorporated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subject to the requirements of the Act if it acquires control of the newly-formed entity. Unless exempted... control of the newly-formed entity; or (2)(i) The acquiring person has annual net sales or total assets of... adjusted) or more; and (iii) The acquiring person acquires control of the newly-formed entity. (c) For...

  1. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reporting rules; (3) Decisions related to the purchase, sale or retention of Treasury securities must be made by employees of such entity(ies). Employees of such entity(ies) who make decisions to purchase or...) The records of such entity(ies) related to the ownership, financing, purchase and sale of Treasury...

  2. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  3. Semantic modeling of the structural and process entities during plastic deformation of crystals and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita

    2016-04-01

    We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive

  4. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  5. Cardiac Plasmacytoma: A Rare Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Vrettou, Agathi-Rosa; Heffner, L. Thompson; Rossi, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare. Among these tumors, cardiac plasmacytoma is extremely rare and is the subject of few case reports. We present the case of a 73-year-old man who had isolated cardiac plasmacytoma 26 years after successful treatment of an axillary plasmacytoma. Multiple imaging methods—including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and positron-emission tomography/computed tomography—were valuable and complementary to each other in this patient's diagnosis and optimal management. His case illustrates the use of these techniques in the successful diagnosis and treatment of a rare clinical entity, cardiac plasmacytoma. PMID:25425995

  6. Cardiac plasmacytoma: a rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Vrettou, Agathi-Rosa; Heffner, L Thompson; Rossi, Peter J; Clements, Stephen D

    2014-10-01

    Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare. Among these tumors, cardiac plasmacytoma is extremely rare and is the subject of few case reports. We present the case of a 73-year-old man who had isolated cardiac plasmacytoma 26 years after successful treatment of an axillary plasmacytoma. Multiple imaging methods-including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and positron-emission tomography/computed tomography-were valuable and complementary to each other in this patient's diagnosis and optimal management. His case illustrates the use of these techniques in the successful diagnosis and treatment of a rare clinical entity, cardiac plasmacytoma.

  7. 77 FR 24587 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ..., Egypt, Germany, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Syria, the United..., Iran, Lebanon, Syria, and the U.A.E. sections of the Entity List. The Entity List provides notice to... review for entities listed under Armenia, Germany, Iran, Lebanon, South Korea, Syria, and the U.A.E....

  8. Modern Techniques for Searching the Chemical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Bart E.

    The chemists' information needs are for current awareness, selective dissemination, and retrospective search services, of research, development, engineering, production, and marketing information located internally or externally, and contained in journals, patents, theses, reports, data files, information services, and from people. This paper is…

  9. Male urethral diverticulum uncommon entity: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Mane, Deepak; Mullay, Abhirudra

    2016-01-01

    Out pouching of the urethral wall could be congenital or acquired. Male urethral diverticulum (UD) is a rare entity. We present 2 cases of acquired and 1 case of congenital male UD. Case 1A: 40 year male presented with SPC and dribbling urine. Clinically he had hard perineal swelling. RGU revealed large diverticulum in proximal bulbar, irregular narrow distal urethra and stricture just beyond diverticulum. Managed with perineal exploration, stone removal, diverticulum repair and urethroplasty using excess diverticular wall. Case 2A: 30 year male with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) revealed bulbar urethral diverticulum akin to anterior urethral valve, managed endoscopically. 1 year follow up urine stream satisfactory. Case 3A: 27 year male previously operated large proximal bulbar urethral stone with incontinence. RGU large proximal bulbar UD with wide open sphincter. Treated with excision of excess diverticular wall and penile clamp with pelvic exercises for incontinence. Congenital UD develops due to imperfect closure of urethral fold, Acquired UDs occurs secondary to stricture, infection, trauma, long standing impacted urethral stones or scrotal / skin flap urethroplasties. RGU and MCU are the best diagnostic technique to confirm and characterize the UD. Urethral diverticulectomy with urethral reconstruction is the recommended treatment for UD. UD is a rare entity. Especially in males, congenital are even more rare. Management should be individualized. Surgery can involve innovation and/or surgical modifications. We used excess diverticular flap for stricture urethroplasty in one case. PMID:28057997

  10. Childhood flexural comedones: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Margarita; Abad, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Andrea Santos; Luna, Paula

    2007-07-01

    Comedones are usually found in acne and involve the seborrheic areas of the skin. Disseminated comedones can be found in other skin disorders. Flexural comedones are characterized by double orifices connected by a thin layer of epidermis that reveals the comedo content below it. To the best of our knowledge, flexural comedones have not been previously described as an entity. Our objective was to characterize this disorder. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed from April 2004 to July 2006. We included 40 pediatric and adolescent patients with flexural comedones; 21 were female (52%), and 19 were male (48%) (mean age, 6.2 years). In 29 cases the lesions were single (72%) and in 32 cases (80%) unilateral. The lesions were located in the axilla in 88% of the patients. We performed biopsies of skin samples in 6 cases. To our knowledge, flexural comedones have not been previously described as an entity, and we felt that they deserved attention owing to the relative frequency of cases in our clinical practice. Because of its clinical appearance, flexural localization, and age distribution, we named this disorder childhood flexural comedones. Further investigation and follow-up of a larger number of patients is needed.

  11. Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).

    PubMed

    Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet

    2011-08-31

    Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups.

  12. Unstable solar lentigo: A defined separate entity.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Lisa; Barksdale, Sarah; Weedon, David; Muir, Jim

    2016-08-01

    An unstable solar lentigo is a solar lentigo with areas of melanocytic hyperplasia not extending past the margin of the lesion. They are discrete, macular, pigmented lesions arising on sun-damaged skin and a subset of typical solar lentigos. Clinically they differ from usual solar lentigines in often being solitary or larger and darker than adjacent solar lentigines. These lesions are of clinical importance as they can arise in close proximity to lentigo maligna and in a single lesion there can be demonstrated changes of solar lentigo, unstable solar lentigo and lentigo maligna. These observations led us to conjecture that unstable solar lentigos could be a precursor lesion to lentigo maligna. In this article we examine the possibility that lentigo maligna can arise within a solar lentigo through an intermediate lesion, the unstable solar lentigo. We propose that the histopathological recognition of this entity will allow for future research into its behaviour and thus management. We review difficulties in the diagnosis of single cell predominant melanocytic proliferations and the concept of unstable lentigo in view of the literature and clinical experience supporting the proposal of its recognition as a separate entity.

  13. Giant thoracic osteophyte: a distinct clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Neal, Jonathan B; Grottkau, Brian E; Nahed, Brian V; Shin, John H; Walcott, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Calcified lesions described within the neural axis are classified as either an ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, or ossification of the ligamentum flavum. We aim to describe a unique pathologic entity: the giant thoracic osteophyte. We identified four patients who were surgically treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2006 to 2012 with unusual calcified lesions in the ventral aspect of the spinal canal. In order to differentiate giant thoracic osteophytes from calcified extruded disc material, disc volumetrics were performed on actual and simulated disc spaces. All patients underwent operative resection of the calcific lesion as they had signs and/or symptoms of spinal cord compression. The lesions were found to be isolated, large calcific masses that originated from the posterior aspect of adjacent thoracic vertebral bodies. Pathological examination was negative for tumor. Adjacent disc volumes were not significantly different from the index disc (p=0.91). A simulated calculation hypothesizing that the calcific mass was extruded disc material demonstrated a significant difference (p=0.01), making this scenario unlikely. In conclusion, giant thoracic osteophyte is a unique and rare entity that can be found in the thoracic spine. The central tenant of surgical treatment is resection to relieve spinal cord compression.

  14. The Private Military Company: A Legitimate International Entity Within Modern Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Than War MPRI Military Professional Resources Incorporated OAU Organisation for African Unity ODTC Office of Defense Trade Controls PAM Pamphlet PMC...distinguish between the operations conducted by mercenary organizations and the operations conducted by PMCs. Finally, the Organisation for African Unity...is directed against the “ freelance ” mercenary at the individual level. No detail is made against corporate payments that are in turn finalized in

  15. Leveraging Pattern Semantics for Extracting Entities in Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Fangbo; Zhao, Bo; Fuxman, Ariel; Li, Yang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity Extraction is a process of identifying meaningful entities from text documents. In enterprises, extracting entities improves enterprise efficiency by facilitating numerous applications, including search, recommendation, etc. However, the problem is particularly challenging on enterprise domains due to several reasons. First, the lack of redundancy of enterprise entities makes previous web-based systems like NELL and OpenIE not effective, since using only high-precision/low-recall patterns like those systems would miss the majority of sparse enterprise entities, while using more low-precision patterns in sparse setting also introduces noise drastically. Second, semantic drift is common in enterprises (“Blue” refers to “Windows Blue”), such that public signals from the web cannot be directly applied on entities. Moreover, many internal entities never appear on the web. Sparse internal signals are the only source for discovering them. To address these challenges, we propose an end-to-end framework for extracting entities in enterprises, taking the input of enterprise corpus and limited seeds to generate a high-quality entity collection as output. We introduce the novel concept of Semantic Pattern Graph to leverage public signals to understand the underlying semantics of lexical patterns, reinforce pattern evaluation using mined semantics, and yield more accurate and complete entities. Experiments on Microsoft enterprise data show the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26705540

  16. Leveraging Pattern Semantics for Extracting Entities in Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tao, Fangbo; Zhao, Bo; Fuxman, Ariel; Li, Yang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Entity Extraction is a process of identifying meaningful entities from text documents. In enterprises, extracting entities improves enterprise efficiency by facilitating numerous applications, including search, recommendation, etc. However, the problem is particularly challenging on enterprise domains due to several reasons. First, the lack of redundancy of enterprise entities makes previous web-based systems like NELL and OpenIE not effective, since using only high-precision/low-recall patterns like those systems would miss the majority of sparse enterprise entities, while using more low-precision patterns in sparse setting also introduces noise drastically. Second, semantic drift is common in enterprises ("Blue" refers to "Windows Blue"), such that public signals from the web cannot be directly applied on entities. Moreover, many internal entities never appear on the web. Sparse internal signals are the only source for discovering them. To address these challenges, we propose an end-to-end framework for extracting entities in enterprises, taking the input of enterprise corpus and limited seeds to generate a high-quality entity collection as output. We introduce the novel concept of Semantic Pattern Graph to leverage public signals to understand the underlying semantics of lexical patterns, reinforce pattern evaluation using mined semantics, and yield more accurate and complete entities. Experiments on Microsoft enterprise data show the effectiveness of our approach.

  17. Lipedema: a clinical entity distinct from lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Rudkin, G H; Miller, T A

    1994-11-01

    In a review of 250 cases of lymphedema of the lower extremity, 9 patients were noted to share unique similarities in their history and physical findings. Although these patients had mild swelling in their pretibial areas and were all referred with a diagnosis of lymphedema of the legs, their findings differed significantly from the usual patient with either congenital or acquired lymphedema. Notably, the lower extremity swelling was always bilateral and symmetrical in nature and never involved the feet. Skin changes characteristic of lymphedema were not found, and consistent fat pads were present anterior to the lateral malleoli in each patient. These findings are representative of a clinical entity known as lipedema, which is distinct from lymphedema and for which treatment may be different.

  18. Unipolar mania: a distinct clinical entity?

    PubMed

    Nurnberger, J; Roose, S P; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1979-11-01

    Of the 241 lithium clinic patients at the New York State Psychiatric Institute with bipolar I affective disorder, 38 (15.7%) had never been hospitalized or somatically treated for depression. These "unipolar manic" patients had a significantly lower incidence of rapid cycling and suicide attempts than other bipolar I patients. No differences were found, however, in risk of illness in first-degree relatives. Lithium was an effective prophylactic agent in these patients. Some patients originally classified as "unipolar manic" were found to have depressive episodes with additional information and clinical observation. "Unipolar mania" appears to be a subgroup of bipolar I illness, but there are no data to support the hypothesis that it is a separate entity.

  19. Cardiac Pseudoaneurysm- A Death Defying Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saryu

    2016-01-01

    A pseudoaneurysm refers to a contained rupture of the myocardium with a tenuous pericardium walling off the leak. It needs to be differentiated from a true aneurysm by the fact that there is lack of myocardial tissue in the wall of a pseudoaneurysm. The differentiation between the two is pertinent as true aneurysms can be treated medically while pseudoaneurysms require urgent surgical treatment. Untreated pseudoaneurysms carry a high risk of rupture and mortality. We report a case of cardiac pseudoaneurysm developing in a 46-year-old male who had suffered myocardial infarction four months back. The patient now presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. CECT chest revealed a partially thrombosed large pseudoaneurysm arising from the posterior wall of left ventricle. While the clinical diagnosis of this entity is difficult, CECT plays a pivotal role in the non-invasive detection of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:27504379

  20. Brachioradial pruritus--an enigmatic entity.

    PubMed

    Barry, R; Rogers, S

    2004-11-01

    Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is an unusual clinical entity resulting in pruritus of the upper arms, classically affecting the skin overlying the proximal heads of the brachioradialis muscles. Seven patients with BRP are described. The upper limb was involved in six patients, being bilateral in four and restricted to the right arm in two. Radiological evidence of cervical vertebral osteoarthritis was seen in five. Three patients reported exacerbation with ultraviolet radiation (UVR), i.e., sunlight. All seven were treated with topical capsaicin and four got significant relief. Two of the remaining three patients found relief from amitryptiline. UVR may act as a trigger in some patients although underlying neurological cervical injury also seems to be an important aetiological factor.

  1. Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Raj, Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a new entity described by an expert working group from South Asia. First reported in Taiwan, there are no reports so far from an Indian population. The aim was to use the microscopic features described by the expert group to differentiate OVH from other oral verruco-papillary lesions in an Indian archive. In a retrospective multicentre study, using pathology archives, 188 verruco-papillary lesions were retrieved from pathology archives. A proforma listing histopathological criteria for OVH based on published guidelines (Annals of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 2013) was used. Patients' demographic and clinical data were transcribed from patient charts. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine associations between clinical and histopathological features. Of 188 oral verruco-papillary lesions that were evaluated, based on microscopic features the cases were reclassified as OVH (57), verrucous carcinoma (VC) (84), oral squamous cell carcinoma (16), and other verruco-papillary lesions (31). Both OVH (70%) and VC (60%) showed male predominance and commonly affected buccal mucosa (OVH 74% and VC 57%). Absence of downward growth of the hyperplastic epithelium into lamina propria when compared with the level of the basement membrane of the adjacent normal epithelium was a distinct feature in OVH. Keratin plugging, epithelial dysplasia and subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) in OVH versus VC. The sample size of other verruco-papillary lesions was insufficient for statistical comparison. Apart from the absence of an endophytic growth pattern in OVH, we noted the presence of dysplasia in OVH. This significant observation does institute a debate as to whether this enigmatic lesion could possibly be a precedent of oral squamous or verrucous carcinoma. We propose OVH is a distinct entity in our Indian population and should be considered in the classification of oral

  2. A rare clinic entity: Huge trichobezoar.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hidayatullah; Muhammadi, Marzia; Saberi, Bismillah; Sarwari, Mohammad Arif

    2016-01-01

    Trichobezoar is a rare clinical entity in which a ball of hair amasses within the alimentary tract. It can either be found as isolated mass in the stomach or may extend into the intestine. Trichobezoars mostly occur in young females with psychiatric disorders such as trichophagia and trichotillomania. Authors present a giant trichobezoar in an 18year old female presented with complaints of upper abdominal mass, epigastric area pain, anorexia and weight loss. The patient underwent trans-abdominal ultrasonography (USG), Computed tomography (CT), upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and subsequently laparotomy. USG was inconclusive due to non-specific findings. It revealed a thick echogenic layer with posterior dirty shadowing extending from the left sub-diaphragmatic area to the right sub hepatic region obscuring the adjacent structures. Abdominal CT images revealed a huge, well defined, multi-layered, heterogeneous, solid appearing, non-enhancing mass lesion in the gastric lumen extending from the gastric fundus to the pyloric canal. An endoscopic attempt was performed for removal of this intraluminal mass, but due to its large size, and hard nature, the endoscopic removal was unsuccessful. Finally the large trichobezoar was removed with open laparotomy. Trichobezoars should be suspected in young females with long standing upper abdominal masses; as the possibility of malignancy is not very common in this age group. While USG is inconclusive, trichobezoar can be accurately diagnosed with CT. In patient with huge trichobezoar, laparotomy can be performed firstly because of big size and location of mass, and psychiatric recommendation should be made to prevent relapse of this entity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  4. [Melanosis of the bladder: a very uncommon entity].

    PubMed

    Palmero Martí, J L; Arlandis Guzmán, S; Broseta Rico, E; Guillen Navarro, M; Salom Fuster, J V; Jiménez Cruz, J F

    2004-09-01

    Melanosis of the bladder is a rare entity characterized by anomalous deposits of melanin-containing pigment on the vesical urothelium without melanocytic atypia or associated malignant melanoma. To our knowledge and following such strict criteria, there are only five cases previously reported. The biological potential of this entity is uncertain because of the rarity of their. We report one case of simple melanosis of the bladder confirmed by histological examination and inmunohistochemistry analysis. We believe that recognition of this entity is important.

  5. SimConcept: A Hybrid Approach for Simplifying Composite Named Entities in Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    Many text-mining studies have focused on the issue of named entity recognition and normalization, especially in the field of biomedical natural language processing. However, entity recognition is a complicated and difficult task in biomedical text. One particular challenge is to identify and resolve composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept(e.g., BRCA1/2). Most bioconcept recognition and normalization studies have either ignored this issue, used simple ad-hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, which is only one of the many types of composite mentions studied in this work. No systematic methods for simplifying composite mentions have been previously reported, making a robust approach greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid approach by integrating a machine learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the antecedent and conjuncts regions of a concept mention, and then reassemble the composite mention using those identified regions. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first method to systematically handle most types of composite mentions. Our method achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three fundamental biological entities: genes (89.29% in F-measure), diseases (85.52% in F-measure) and chemicals (84.04% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that, using our SimConcept method can subsequently help improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization.

  6. Delft University at the TREC 2009 Entity Track: Ranking Wikipedia Entities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    containing ClueWeb09 collection using Lemur Toolkit 4.10. We used no stemming and stop-word removal on the collection level. However, we applied a very...approach implemented in Lemur with Dirichlet smoothing (µ = 1500). In order to have some flexibility in development and also for the sake of better...consider them as the only entities allowed (actu- ally, using #scoreif directive of the Lemur query language). Since we still could not be sure that all

  7. CHEMICAL PRIORITIZATION FOR DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Defining a predictive model of developmental toxicity from in vitro and high-throughput screening (HTS) assays can be limited by the availability of developmental defects data. ToxRefDB (www.epa.gov/ncct/todrefdb) was built from animal studies on data-rich environmental chemicals, and has been used as an anchor for predictive modeling of ToxCast™ data. Scaling to thousands of untested chemicals requires another approach. ToxPlorer™ was developed as a tool to query and extract specific facts about defined biological entities from the open scientific literature and to coherently synthesize relevant knowledge about relationships, pathways and processes in toxicity. Here, we investigated the specific application of ToxPlorer to weighting HTS assay targets for relevance to developmental defects as defined in the literature. First, we systemically analyzed 88,193 Pubmed abstracts selected by bulk query using harmonized terminology for 862 developmental endpoints (www.devtox.net) and 364,334 dictionary term entities in our VT-KB (virtual tissues knowledgebase). We specifically focused on entities corresponding to genes/proteins mapped across of >500 ToxCast HTS assays. The 88,193 devtox abstracts mentioned 244 gene/protein entities in an aggregated total of ~8,000 occurrences. Each of the 244 assays was scored and weighted by the number of devtox articles and relevance to developmental processes. This score was used as a feature for chemical prioritization by Toxic

  8. Modern Soft Tissue Pathology | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This book comprehensively covers modern soft tissue pathology and includes both tumors and non-neoplastic entities. Soft tissues make up a large bulk of the human body, and they are susceptible to a wide range of diseases. Many soft-tissue tumors are biologically very aggressive, and the chance of them metastasizing to vital organs is quite high. In recent years, the outlook for soft-tissue cancers has brightened dramatically due to the increased accuracy of the pathologist's tools.

  9. Accessing and using chemical property databases.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Josephs, Zara; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Chemical compounds participate in all the processes of life. Understanding the complex interactions of small molecules such as metabolites and drugs and the biological macromolecules that consume and produce them is key to gaining a wider understanding in a systemic context. Chemical property databases collect information on the biological effects and physicochemical properties of chemical entities. Accessing and using such databases is key to understanding the chemistry of toxic molecules. In this chapter, we present methods to search, understand, download, and manipulate the wealth of information available in public chemical property databases, with particular focus on the database of Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI).

  10. Multimodal entity coreference for cervical dysplasia diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhao; Kim, Edward; Huang, Xiaolei; Patruno, Joseph; Munoz-Avila, Hector; Heflin, Jeff; Long, L Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer for women. Existing screening programs for cervical cancer, such as Pap Smear, suffer from low sensitivity. Thus, many patients who are ill are not detected in the screening process. Using images of the cervix as an aid in cervical cancer screening has the potential to greatly improve sensitivity, and can be especially useful in resource-poor regions of the world. In this paper, we develop a data-driven computer algorithm for interpreting cervical images based on color and texture. We are able to obtain 74% sensitivity and 90% specificity when differentiating high-grade cervical lesions from low-grade lesions and normal tissue. On the same dataset, using Pap tests alone yields a sensitivity of 37% and specificity of 96%, and using HPV test alone gives a 57% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Furthermore, we develop a comprehensive algorithmic framework based on Multimodal Entity Coreference for combining various tests to perform disease classification and diagnosis. When integrating multiple tests, we adopt information gain and gradient-based approaches for learning the relative weights of different tests. In our evaluation, we present a novel algorithm that integrates cervical images, Pap, HPV, and patient age, which yields 83.21% sensitivity and 94.79% specificity, a statistically significant improvement over using any single source of information alone.

  11. Exploratory and regulatory assessments on photosafety of new drug entities.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yoshiki; Hosoi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Hironori; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Kojima, Hajime; Yamada, Shizuo; Onoue, Satomi

    2012-04-01

    Drug-induced phototoxicity is elicited after exposure of the skin and/or eyes to topically or systemically administered pharmaceutical substances, followed by exposure to sunlight. This undesirable side effect is one of the impediments in drug discovery and development, and substantial efforts have been made to avoid drug-induced phototoxic reactions. To evaluate the phototoxic potential of compounds, effective methodologies have been developed over the past few years, and screening strategies have also been proposed for predicting in vivo phototoxic reactions. European and American regulatory agencies have published guidelines for predicting and avoiding drug-induced phototoxicity in an early phase of drug discovery. The guidelines have indicated the requirements for assessing the photosafety of chemicals on the basis of their photochemical behaviors and have recommended some phototoxic assessment tools for aiding new drug development. A number of phototoxic screening systems have also been proposed on the basis of the pathogenesis of drug-induced phototoxicity, and some of them have already been applied to the phototoxic evaluation of new drug entities in drug discovery and development. The present review aims to summarize the current status of research tools, screening strategy and regulations for evaluating the photosafety of new drug candidates and to introduce our thoughts on the phototoxic risk assessments of compounds.

  12. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  13. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  14. When Depression Mediates the Relationship between Entity Beliefs and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Cury, Francois; Santos, Andreia; Payen, Vincent; Bounoua, Lenda; Brisswalter, Jeannick; Rufo, Marcel; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether depression can explain the negative relationship between academic performance and the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, i.e., entity belief. A sample of 353 French volunteer adolescents (age 11-16) completed questionnaires assessing entity theory and depressive symptoms (Children Depression…

  15. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229... discretionary activities with regard to the administration of the asset pool or the asset-backed securities, and... entity, apart from the asset-backed securities. Disclose the fiscal year end of the issuing entity. (e...

  16. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  17. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  18. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  19. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  20. 2 CFR 200.74 - Pass-through entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pass-through entity. 200.74 Section 200.74 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.74 Pass-through entity. Pass-through...

  1. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity....

  2. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity. (a)-(a)(2) ....

  3. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  4. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  5. 78 FR 19271 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Special Fraud Alert addresses.... Introduction This Special Fraud Alert addresses physician-owned entities that derive revenue from selling, or...

  6. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contact information of its corporate headquarters. Level two reference data means information concerning the corporate affiliations or company hierarchy relationships of the legal entity to which a legal... identifier shall ever be reused. Each entity within a corporate organization or group structure that acts...

  7. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... institutions' use of unincorporated business entities organized under State law for certain business activities... business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. A UBE includes limited... business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does not apply to UBEs that one or more...

  8. 45 CFR 162.923 - Requirements for covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adopted under this part (or within the same covered entity), using electronic media, a transaction for... the format requirements of the standard. (c) Use of a business associate. A covered entity may use a business associate, including a health care clearinghouse, to conduct a transaction covered by this...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  11. 47 CFR 14.4 - Exemption for Small Entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemption for Small Entities. 14.4 Section 14.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope § 14.4 Exemption for Small Entities. (a) A provider of advanced...

  12. 47 CFR 14.4 - Exemption for Small Entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption for Small Entities. 14.4 Section 14.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope § 14.4 Exemption for Small Entities. (a) A provider of advanced...

  13. 47 CFR 14.4 - Exemption for Small Entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemption for Small Entities. 14.4 Section 14.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope § 14.4 Exemption for Small Entities. (a) A provider of advanced...

  14. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... entities and public corporations. Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, a State, county, city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  15. When Depression Mediates the Relationship between Entity Beliefs and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Cury, Francois; Santos, Andreia; Payen, Vincent; Bounoua, Lenda; Brisswalter, Jeannick; Rufo, Marcel; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether depression can explain the negative relationship between academic performance and the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, i.e., entity belief. A sample of 353 French volunteer adolescents (age 11-16) completed questionnaires assessing entity theory and depressive symptoms (Children Depression…

  16. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Cooperation among entities. An HPC must cooperate with HUD in distributing information about its...

  17. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Cooperation among entities. An HPC must cooperate with HUD in distributing information about its...

  18. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  19. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  20. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    PubMed

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p < 0.001). Symptom duration before diagnosis were significantly shorter in CIC (3.4 vs. 6.8 months: p < 0.0001). Visceral (36.2% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.001) and brain metastases (7.4% vs. 1%; p = 0.02) was significantly more frequent in CIC. Negative estrogen receptors were more frequent in CIC (34.9% vs. 65.1%: p < 0.004). Five-years DFS (25.6 vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001) and OS (28.6 vs. 40%; p < 0.05) were shorter in CIC. CIC (regardless of subdermal lymphatics involvement) must be clearly differentiated from OIC. Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  1. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  3. 76 FR 71867 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ..., Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by... EAR to implement modifications to the Entity List on the basis of the annual review of the Entity List... the EAR. The ERC, composed of representatives of the Departments of Commerce (Chair), State,...

  4. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Donglei

    transport charged Au nanowires with length longer than 4 mum. The surface of Au nanowires has been chemical functionalized by either positive or negative charges. High frequency AC electric field has been applied to align and fix the orientation of the charged nanowires, though not to induce any motions, whereas a small DC voltage causes linear motion. The velocity of nanowires increases linearly with the DC electric field. The moving direction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nanowires. Nanowires modified with different charges behave differently due to the electroosmosis flow induced by the DC electric field on the negatively charged quartz substrate. The zeta potential of quartz surface and the ratio of Stokes coefficients for longitudinal nano-entities suspended in a low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5) has been determined. Due to the small size of the nanowires, the nanowires suspended in liquids such as DI water are in extremely low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5). Manipulation due to DEP and EP forces are versatile and precise. Nanowires have been set into motion with prescribed tracks, such as squares and zigzags. The manipulation is also so precise that oppositely charged nanowires with radius of 150 nm have been moved to contact and connected end to end. A nanowire clipper have been assembled by this technique and set into oscillation. This method is not only applicable to nanowires, it has been successfully applied to multiwall carbon nanotubes as well. To demonstrate the complete control and flexibility of manipulating nanoparticles by E field, we have programmed nanowires to dance with music by Mozart with regard to clearly demonstrating the versatility of manipulating small entities of metallic, semiconductor, and biological materials. This work has been conducted under the guidance of the author's thesis advisors, Prof. Robert C. Cammarata, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University

  5. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  6. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  7. [Chronic appendicitis as an independent clinical entity].

    PubMed

    Mussack, T; Schmidbauer, S; Nerlich, A; Schmidt, W; Hallfeldt, K K

    2002-07-01

    Chronic appendicitis is not generally accepted as an independent clinical entity. The diagnosis is often made only after histological analysis when the patient has undergone appendectomy in a case of persistent or recurrent pain. The objectives of this prospective study were to analyse the incidence of chronic appendicitis among our patients, to compare demographic and clinical data with histological results and to evaluate long-term follow-up after appendectomy. Between November 1995 and February 1998, 322 patients underwent appendectomy due to typical symptoms of appendicitis. All appendices were analysed macroscopically by the surgeon and histologically by two independent pathologists. Furthermore, demographic data, standard blood results, Alvarado score, body mass index, operation time, complications, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. In April 2001, a long-term follow-up survey evaluated the present complaints of all operated patients. A total of 112 patients showed clinical signs of non-acute appendicitis. However, 26.8% of these appendices histologically revealed an acute inflammation. In the subgroup of histologically non-acute appendicitis, 4.9% of the appendices were inconspicuous, 42.0% chronically inflamed and 50.6% fibrotic. Compared to that, the macroscopic examination by the surgeon resulted in a 93.5% specificity and a 77.8% sensitivity. The preoperative period of pain was significantly longer (7 days) compared to patients with acute appendicitis (0.5 days). White blood count (8.700 versus 13.400) and preoperative Alvarado score (4 versus 7 points) were significantly lower, the hospital stay significantly shorter (3 versus 4 days). A specificity of 89.9% and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.64 were calculated for an optimal cut-off value of 7 days for preoperative pain. At a median of 50.2 months after the operation, 93.1% of the patients were asymptomatic, and five patients reported persistent pain in the right lower quadrant. Three

  8. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose

    1999-10-01

    Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

  9. 26 CFR 53.4965-5 - Entity managers and related definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entity managers and related definitions. 53... Taxes § 53.4965-5 Entity managers and related definitions. (a) Entity manager of a non-plan entity—(1) In general. Under section 4965(d)(1), an entity manager of a non-plan entity is— (i) A person with...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  15. 40 CFR 33.205 - How does an entity become certified by EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... entity. Interview the principal officers of the entity and review their resumes and/or work histories... entity; (iii) Analyze the bonding and financial capacity of the entity; (iv) Determine the work history of the entity, including contracts it has received and work it has completed; (v) Obtain a statement...

  16. [Gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: A distinct entity].

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Rouquette, Alexandre; Brezault, Catherine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC) is a distinct entity. Their incidence is increasing. The pathologist plays a central role in the identification of this entity. Diagnosis is based on an adenocarcinoma containing a majority of signet ring cells (above 50 %). The prognosis of GSRC is the same as gastric adenocarcinoma while GSRC appeared more aggressive. Signet ring cells present a low sensitivity to chemotherapy. This review aimed to discuss the histological, the prognostic and the therapeutic aspect of this entity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  18. Ambulatory surgery center joint ventures involving tax-exempt entities.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Pristave, R J; McConnell, W

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the tax-exempt related issues for ambulatory surgery center joint ventures involving tax-exempt entities. The article analyzes the key points of analysis of the guidance released by the IRS, in particular General Counsel Memorandum 39862, Revenue Ruling 98-15, and Redlands Surgical Services v. Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service. These key points include whether the venture results in private inurement to insiders and whether the venture furthers the charitable purposes of the tax-exempt entity. The article also provides practical guidance to analyze the documents and structure of the joint venture to ensure compliance with the IRS guidance. These practical considerations include, among other things, whether the charitable purposes of the tax-exempt entity are clearly expressed in the documents and whether the tax-exempt entity has sufficient control over the joint venture to ensure the charitable purposes are being adhered to.

  19. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Partnerships With International Entities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    November 5, 2012. The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin preliminary research on an evaluation of EPA’s partnerships with international entities.

  20. 7 CFR 760.908 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolved entity must be provided. (c) If a participant is now a dissolved general partnership or joint venture, all members of the general partnership or joint venture at the time of dissolution or their duly...

  1. Data Base Design Using Entity-Relationship Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathi Hogshead

    1983-01-01

    The entity-relationship (ER) approach to database design is defined, and a specific example of an ER model (personnel-payroll) is examined. The requirements for converting ER models into specific database management systems are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  2. 42 CFR 438.808 - Exclusion of entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certain crimes as described in section 1128(b)(8)(B) of the Act. (3) An entity that employs or contracts, directly or indirectly, for the furnishing of health care, utilization review, medical social work, or...

  3. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  4. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  5. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  6. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  7. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  8. NASA STI modernization plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, Karen

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) modernization plan is described as a phased approach to a shared network environment. The plan is based on end user needs articulated in continuing user studies in addition to technical requirements. The modernization phases are outlined in a chronology covering the 1993-1997 time frame. Various challenges and constraints are discussed. Emphasis is placed on sustaining user involvement and meeting user needs in measurable ways as the development of the system architecture proceeds.

  9. GPS Status and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    11 GPS IIA • 12 GPS IIR • 7 GPS IIR-M • 4 additional satellites in residual status • 1 additional IIR-M waiting to be set healthy • Global GPS ...AEP) Next Generation Control Segment (OCX) Legacy Control System 7 GPS Modernization – Ground • Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP) • Transitioned in 2007...Modern distributed system replaced 1970’s mainframes • Increased capacity for monitoring of GPS signals • Increased worldwide commanding

  10. The nanosilica hazard: another variable entity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are produced on an industrial scale and are an addition to a growing number of commercial products. SNPs also have great potential for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Contrary to the well-studied crystalline micron-sized silica, relatively little information exists on the toxicity of its amorphous and nano-size forms. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, kinetics and unusual bioactivity, their potential biological effects may differ greatly from those of micron-size bulk materials. In this review, we summarize the physico-chemical properties of the different nano-sized silica materials that can affect their interaction with biological systems, with a specific emphasis on inhalation exposure. We discuss recent in vitro and in vivo investigations into the toxicity of nanosilica, both crystalline and amorphous. Most of the in vitro studies of SNPs report results of cellular uptake, size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity, increased reactive oxygen species levels and pro-inflammatory stimulation. Evidence from a limited number of in vivo studies demonstrates largely reversible lung inflammation, granuloma formation and focal emphysema, with no progressive lung fibrosis. Clearly, more research with standardized materials is needed to enable comparison of experimental data for the different forms of nanosilicas and to establish which physico-chemical properties are responsible for the observed toxicity of SNPs. PMID:21126379

  11. Confidence Links Between Name Entities in Disparate Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-03

    entity/subject. For example, the Wikipedia page title for the article referring to Benjamin Franklin (the Founding Father of the United States) is...differ- ent from the page title for the article referring to Benjamin Franklin (the 19’h century religious leader). Using this infor- 60 mation...c12) United States Patent Baronet al. (54) CONFIDENCE LINKS BETWEEN NAME ENTITIES IN DISPARATE DOCUMENTS (75) Inventors : Alex Baron, Canton, MA

  12. Extra-CNS metastasis from glioblastoma: a rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Awan, Musaddiq; Liu, Stanley; Sahgal, Arjun; Das, Sunit; Chao, Samuel T; Chang, Eric L; Knisely, Jonathan P S; Redmond, Kristin; Sohn, Jason W; Machtay, Mitchell; Sloan, Andrew E; Mansur, David B; Rogers, Lisa R; Lo, Simon S

    2015-05-01

    Extra-CNS metastasis from glioblastoma (ECMGBM) is an emerging but little known clinical entity. We review pre-clinical and translational publications assessing the ability of GBM to spread locally and outside the CNS. Reported cases demonstrating ECMGBM are reviewed providing a summary of presentations for the entity. Special attention is placed on transmission of GBM through organ transplantation. Finally, predictions are made as to the future significance of ECMGBM, especially in the context of better outcomes in CNS GBM.

  13. A Journey in Entity Related Retrieval for TREC 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    contains about 50 million English pages for the entity track, was used. For indexing, the Lemur tool kit in Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform and for...the entity related finding Base Run with Simple Query For indexing the Clueweb09 the Lemur Tool Kit version 10 was installed, since the...ClueWeb09 collection, which was indexed using the Lemur were also retrieved. In addition, the queries were defined according to the output required

  14. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets.

  15. SimConcept: a hybrid approach for simplifying composite named entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multitype composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure), and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. SimConcept is available for download at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/SimConcept/.

  16. Stacked ensemble combined with fuzzy matching for biomedical named entity recognition of diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhasuran, Balu; Murugesan, Gurusamy; Abdulkadhar, Sabenabanu; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (Bio-NER) is the crucial initial step in the information extraction process and a majorly focused research area in biomedical text mining. In the past years, several models and methodologies have been proposed for the recognition of semantic types related to gene, protein, chemical, drug and other biological relevant named entities. In this paper, we implemented a stacked ensemble approach combined with fuzzy matching for biomedical named entity recognition of disease names. The underlying concept of stacked generalization is to combine the outputs of base-level classifiers using a second-level meta-classifier in an ensemble. We used Conditional Random Field (CRF) as the underlying classification method that makes use of a diverse set of features, mostly based on domain specific, and are orthographic and morphologically relevant. In addition, we used fuzzy string matching to tag rare disease names from our in-house disease dictionary. For fuzzy matching, we incorporated two best fuzzy search algorithms Rabin Karp and Tuned Boyer Moore. Our proposed approach shows promised result of 94.66%, 89.12%, 84.10%, and 76.71% of F-measure while on evaluating training and testing set of both NCBI disease and BioCreative V CDR Corpora.

  17. 2D-3D MIGRATION AND CONFORMATIONAL MULTIPLICATION OF CHEMICALS IN LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions are three-dimensional (3D) in nature and require modeling chemicals as 3D entities. In turn, using 3D models of chemicals leads to the realization that a single 2D structure can have hundreds of different conformations, and the electronic properties of these...

  18. 2D-3D MIGRATION AND CONFORMATIONAL MULTIPLICATION OF CHEMICALS IN LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions are three-dimensional (3D) in nature and require modeling chemicals as 3D entities. In turn, using 3D models of chemicals leads to the realization that a single 2D structure can have hundreds of different conformations, and the electronic properties of these...

  19. Physical Properties of Biological Entities: An Introduction to the Ontology of Physics for Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel L.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities—molecules, cells, organs—are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties—energies, volumes, flow rates—of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  20. 'Small change of the universal': beyond modernity?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Sarat

    2010-09-01

    The paper is a sounding of Ulrich Beck's and Edgar Grande's conceptual map of the varieties of second modernity - Western and Non-Western, European and beyond - that makes up today's world. Their mapping is examined in the light of two, striking analytical perspectives associated with Ulrich Beck: everyday 'cosmopolitization' and his call for a methodological cosmopolitanism. A line of inquiry explores whether contemporary modernities are essentially expressions of a single, underlying modernization drive or whether they are utterly disparate entities. The implications of treating them as 'variants and variations' are unpacked with reference to musical models and how they generate difference. The probe into methodological cosmopolitanism touches on 'de-provincialization' that is somewhat at odds with the postcolonial project of 'provincializing' Europe. It looks at the attempt to go beyond 'nation-bound' sociological dualisms in determining the appropriate 'unit of analysis' for our ever-morphing current reality. Does this imply engaging with 'singularity'- with a mode of conceptualization that sidesteps the universal/particular couple and related either/or thinking? References to the making of the 'first modernity' under unequal centre/periphery relations of colonial power are aired for possible lessons in mappings of the second. Ulrich Beck's 'impure, really-existing cosmopolitanism'- in contrast to its speculative counterpart derived from the realm of pure ideas - springs from humdrum global economic and political links and institutions that span out across, above and beyond the 'container of the national space'. With the inadvertent cosmopolitical impact of the migrations it amounts in practice to a functioning 'cosmopolitan realpolitik'. Is there room for it to develop or will it stall as a mere front for national, tribal-territorial interests - going the way of 'multiculturalism and diversity' that seem increasingly to serve as governmental ideologies for

  1. Modernization of machines laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mako, T.J.; Kasten, D.; Kent, J.C.; Turner, S.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Ohio State University has maintained an undergraduate machinery laboratory using 10 to 15 hp AC and DC machines. a recent gift from the American Electric Power Service Corporation is being used to modernize the laboratory. This modernization includes the electrical and mechanical refurbishment of the 10 to 15 hp machines, the development of a computerized data acquisition system, and the specification and purchase of a three-machine (1 to 2 hp) table-top unit with variable speed drives. This paper will present information about the computerized data acquisition system and how it is being used by the students to investigate machine characteristics.

  2. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  3. Relational categories are more mutable than entity categories.

    PubMed

    Asmuth, Jennifer; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-10-01

    Across three experiments, we explore differences between relational categories-whose members share common relational patterns-and entity categories, whose members share common intrinsic properties. Specifically, we test the claim that relational concepts are more semantically mutable in context, and therefore less stable in memory, than entity concepts. We compared memory for entity nouns and relational nouns, tested either in the same context as at encoding or in a different context. We found that (a) participants show better recognition accuracy for entity nouns than for relational nouns, and (b) recognition of relational nouns is more impaired by a change in context than is recognition of entity nouns. We replicated these findings even when controlling for factors highly correlated with relationality, such as abstractness-concreteness. This suggests that the contextual mutability of relational concepts is due to the core semantic property of conveying relational structure and not simply to accompanying characteristics such as abstractness. We note parallels with the distinction between nouns and verbs and suggest implications for lexical and conceptual structure. Finally, we relate these patterns to proposals that a deep distinction exists between words with an essentially referential function and those with a predicate function.

  4. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  5. Named Entity Recognition for Bacterial Type IV Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents. PMID:21468321

  6. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  7. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  8. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  9. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  10. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  11. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  12. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  13. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  14. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  15. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  16. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bockris, J.M.; Conway, B.E.; White, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: perspectives in electrochemical physics; modern state of double layer study of solid metals; photoelectrolysis and photoelectrochemical catalysis; electron transfer reactions on oxide-covered metal electrodes; and interfacial electrostatics and electrodynamics in disperse systems.

  17. Modernizing an Old School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberson, Vonda M.; Kate, Sandra M.

    1999-01-01

    Once a school district determines that modernization is the best alternative for a particular building, the planning process begins. The first step is determining how administrators and teachers would like to use the building. Flexible instructional spaces, technology wiring, comfort, and communication are important considerations. (MLH)

  18. [Modern magic and medicine].

    PubMed

    Prokop, O

    1975-01-01

    In a paper presented on the occasion of the 5th Congress of gynecology in the GDR the author discusses in details the phenomenon of modern occultism and quackery. Preferably he examines the so called parapsychology and declares that this is a field without any scientific value. Therefore the course of action of parapsychologists is not to be accepted without resolute reply.

  19. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  20. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  1. Deconstructing Modern Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses modern educational technology, including postmodernism; deconstruction; the Shannon-Weaver Model for telecommunication apparatus and the epistemology of educational technology; the systems approach; and possible demands of postmodern educational technology, including technoscience, instructional design issues, and cultural aspects.…

  2. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  3. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  4. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  5. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  6. Modern School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2008-01-01

    There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

  7. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events

    PubMed Central

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org PMID:24951798

  9. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  10. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    PubMed

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/

  11. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind.

  12. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind (whisk; Imai and Gentner, 1997). Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin-speakers and English-speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's (1999) hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object-kind rather than substance-kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

  13. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug–drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called ‘AnnSim’ that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1–1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  14. 26 CFR 301.7701-5 - Domestic and foreign business entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic and foreign business entities. 301... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-5 Domestic and foreign business entities. (a) Domestic and foreign business entities. A business entity (including...

  15. 26 CFR 301.7701-5 - Domestic and foreign business entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic and foreign business entities. 301... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-5 Domestic and foreign business entities. (a) Domestic and foreign business entities. A business entity (including...

  16. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity. An eligible academic entity that generates hazardous waste outside of a...

  17. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity. An eligible academic entity that generates hazardous waste outside of a...

  18. The sky entities as represented in African literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Evelyn N.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical observations used by the ancient people of Africa were developed out of the people's desire to have concrete manifestations of their gods and religious beliefs as well as for time-keeping - day, night and calendar for agricultural and festive seasons. The sky entities (the solar and stellar systems) observed become part of the lives and events here on Earth and so are also part of the context of African literature. This paper examines the ways in which different African peoples have reflected on the role of the sky entities in their literature.

  19. 15 CFR 744.11 - License requirements that apply to entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section by adding an entity to the Entity List (Supp. No. 4 to this part) with a reference to this section and by stating on the Entity List the license requirements and license application review policy that apply to that entity. BIS may remove an entity from the Entity List if it is no longer engaged in...

  20. Industrial technology modernization (ITM) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, M. R.

    The Industrial Technology Modernization (ITM) program represents an F-16 technology modernization program for subcontractors. The original F-16 Technology Modernization Program was conceived to establish a manufacturing environment which would minimize the manufacturing costs of F-16 aircraft. The success of this program led to the expansion of the concept of modernization to include key F-16 subcontractors. The phases in the ITM program structure are related to analysis and conceptual design, detailed factory modernization designs, and the implementation of factory medernization. Attention is also given to aspects of program documentation, and details regarding the contracting mechanics established for initiating subcontractor technology modernization.