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Sample records for chemical entities modern

  1. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng’s bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng

  2. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined. PMID:26188793

  3. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined.

  4. Chemical Entity Recognition and Resolution to ChEBI

    PubMed Central

    Grego, Tiago; Pesquita, Catia; Bastos, Hugo P.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical entities are ubiquitous through the biomedical literature and the development of text-mining systems that can efficiently identify those entities are required. Due to the lack of available corpora and data resources, the community has focused its efforts in the development of gene and protein named entity recognition systems, but with the release of ChEBI and the availability of an annotated corpus, this task can be addressed. We developed a machine-learning-based method for chemical entity recognition and a lexical-similarity-based method for chemical entity resolution and compared them with Whatizit, a popular-dictionary-based method. Our methods outperformed the dictionary-based method in all tasks, yielding an improvement in F-measure of 20% for the entity recognition task, 2–5% for the entity-resolution task, and 15% for combined entity recognition and resolution tasks. PMID:25937941

  5. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  6. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  7. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  10. Identifying interactions between chemical entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Lamurias, Andre; Ferreira, João D; Couto, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between chemical compounds described in biomedical text can be of great importance to drug discovery and design, as well as pharmacovigilance. We developed a novel system, \\"Identifying Interactions between Chemical Entities\\" (IICE), to identify chemical interactions described in text. Kernel-based Support Vector Machines first identify the interactions and then an ensemble classifier validates and classifies the type of each interaction. This relation extraction module was evaluated with the corpus released for the DDI Extraction task of SemEval 2013, obtaining results comparable to state-of-the-art methods for this type of task. We integrated this module with our chemical named entity recognition module and made the whole system available as a web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/iice. PMID:25339081

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  12. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  13. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  14. Use and reported adverse effects of new chemical entities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D L; Goetsch, R A; Dreis, M W

    1989-03-01

    Reports submitted to the FDA through 1987 of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to new chemical entities (NCEs) approved after 1983 are described, and estimates of each NCE's proportionate use in hospitals and within its therapeutic class are reported. This review was limited to those domestic spontaneous ADR reports submitted to the FDA by healthcare professionals. NCEs accounted for approximately 20% of the total number of domestic spontaneous ADR reports received in 1987, 22% of the reports of serious ADRs, and 24% of the reports that listed death as an outcome. Data on the use of these NCEs were obtained through the U.S. Pharmaceutical Market--Drugstores and Hospitals and the National Prescription Audit. Of the 93 drugs designated as NCEs in 1987, 65 had measurable use, with 41% of those used principally in hospitals. Most hospital-use NCEs were injectable antimicrobial agents, surgical drugs, and radioactive diagnostic agents. Because NCEs account for a disproportionate share of the ADRs reported to the FDA, and because of the high use of NCEs in hospitals, hospital pharmacists should be aware of the importance of monitoring and reporting serious ADRs associated with NCEs. PMID:2719041

  15. Enhancement of Chemical Entity Identification in Text Using Semantic Similarity Validation

    PubMed Central

    Grego, Tiago; Couto, Francisco M.

    2013-01-01

    With the amount of chemical data being produced and reported in the literature growing at a fast pace, it is increasingly important to efficiently retrieve this information. To tackle this issue text mining tools have been applied, but despite their good performance they still provide many errors that we believe can be filtered by using semantic similarity. Thus, this paper proposes a novel method that receives the results of chemical entity identification systems, such as Whatizit, and exploits the semantic relationships in ChEBI to measure the similarity between the entities found in the text. The method assigns a single validation score to each entity based on its similarities with the other entities also identified in the text. Then, by using a given threshold, the method selects a set of validated entities and a set of outlier entities. We evaluated our method using the results of two state-of-the-art chemical entity identification tools, three semantic similarity measures and two text window sizes. The method was able to increase precision without filtering a significant number of correctly identified entities. This means that the method can effectively discriminate the correctly identified chemical entities, while discarding a significant number of identification errors. For example, selecting a validation set with 75% of all identified entities, we were able to increase the precision by 28% for one of the chemical entity identification tools (Whatizit), maintaining in that subset 97% the correctly identified entities. Our method can be directly used as an add-on by any state-of-the-art entity identification tool that provides mappings to a database, in order to improve their results. The proposed method is included in a freely accessible web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/ice/. PMID:23658791

  16. Enhancement of chemical entity identification in text using semantic similarity validation.

    PubMed

    Grego, Tiago; Couto, Francisco M

    2013-01-01

    With the amount of chemical data being produced and reported in the literature growing at a fast pace, it is increasingly important to efficiently retrieve this information. To tackle this issue text mining tools have been applied, but despite their good performance they still provide many errors that we believe can be filtered by using semantic similarity. Thus, this paper proposes a novel method that receives the results of chemical entity identification systems, such as Whatizit, and exploits the semantic relationships in ChEBI to measure the similarity between the entities found in the text. The method assigns a single validation score to each entity based on its similarities with the other entities also identified in the text. Then, by using a given threshold, the method selects a set of validated entities and a set of outlier entities. We evaluated our method using the results of two state-of-the-art chemical entity identification tools, three semantic similarity measures and two text window sizes. The method was able to increase precision without filtering a significant number of correctly identified entities. This means that the method can effectively discriminate the correctly identified chemical entities, while discarding a significant number of identification errors. For example, selecting a validation set with 75% of all identified entities, we were able to increase the precision by 28% for one of the chemical entity identification tools (Whatizit), maintaining in that subset 97% the correctly identified entities. Our method can be directly used as an add-on by any state-of-the-art entity identification tool that provides mappings to a database, in order to improve their results. The proposed method is included in a freely accessible web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/ice/.

  17. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  18. Optimising chemical named entity recognition with pre-processing analytics, knowledge-rich features and heuristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of robust methods for chemical named entity recognition, a challenging natural language processing task, was previously hindered by the lack of publicly available, large-scale, gold standard corpora. The recent public release of a large chemical entity-annotated corpus as a resource for the CHEMDNER track of the Fourth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation (BioCreative IV) workshop greatly alleviated this problem and allowed us to develop a conditional random fields-based chemical entity recogniser. In order to optimise its performance, we introduced customisations in various aspects of our solution. These include the selection of specialised pre-processing analytics, the incorporation of chemistry knowledge-rich features in the training and application of the statistical model, and the addition of post-processing rules. Results Our evaluation shows that optimal performance is obtained when our customisations are integrated into the chemical entity recogniser. When its performance is compared with that of state-of-the-art methods, under comparable experimental settings, our solution achieves competitive advantage. We also show that our recogniser that uses a model trained on the CHEMDNER corpus is suitable for recognising names in a wide range of corpora, consistently outperforming two popular chemical NER tools. Conclusion The contributions resulting from this work are two-fold. Firstly, we present the details of a chemical entity recognition methodology that has demonstrated performance at a competitive, if not superior, level as that of state-of-the-art methods. Secondly, the developed suite of solutions has been made publicly available as a configurable workflow in the interoperable text mining workbench Argo. This allows interested users to conveniently apply and evaluate our solutions in the context of other chemical text mining tasks. PMID:25810777

  19. Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    •Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water •CRADA’s with the private companies, CEM corporation and VeruTEK Technologies •Green Chemistry principles are accommodated via multi-faceted approach. Learning from nature- using na...

  20. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  1. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... These restrictions were imposed on July 9, 2002 (see Volume 67 FR Public Notice 4071). Dated: June 21... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities...

  2. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. PMID:27141091

  3. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Hettne, Kristina M.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small. Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents PMID:27141091

  4. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents.

  5. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task. The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and a F-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  6. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  7. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  8. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named

  9. Drug discovery alliances in India--indications, targets, and new chemical entities.

    PubMed

    Differding, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    Global pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have been building increasingly on the skills and services offered by Indian biotech companies through strategic collaborative partnerships and alliances to fuel their in-house discovery and development pipelines. With the exception of generic press releases, however, very little has been published on the process and progress of drug discovery itself, such as the targets or modes of action involved, nor on the scientific output of such collaborations, and therefore on new chemical entities coming out of India through research collaborations. This Essay provides an analytical review of recent patents, patent applications, and peer-reviewed publications of major research alliances. It aims at highlighting their scientific output as well as the considerable bandwidth of targets and therapeutic areas involved. PMID:24136820

  10. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  11. The value of nature's natural product library for the discovery of New Chemical Entities: the discovery of ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Ogbourne, Steven M; Parsons, Peter G

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, 'Big Pharma' has invested billions of dollars into ingenious and innovative strategies designed to develop drugs using high throughput screening of small molecule libraries generated on the laboratory bench. Within the same time frame, screening of natural products by pharmaceutical companies has suffered an equally significant reduction. This is despite the fact that the complexity, functional diversity and druggability of nature's natural product library are considered by many to be superior to any library any team of scientists can prepare. It is therefore no coincidence that the number of New Chemical Entities reaching the market has also suffered a substantial decrease, leading to a productivity crisis within the pharmaceutical sector. In fact, the current dearth of New Chemical Entities reaching the market in recent decades might be a direct consequence of the strategic decision to move away from screening of natural products. Nearly 700 novel drugs derived from natural product New Chemical Entities were approved between 1981 and 2010; more than 60% of all approved drugs over the same time. In this review, we use the example of ingenol mebutate, a natural product identified from Euphorbia peplus and later approved as a therapy for actinic keratosis, as why nature's natural product library remains the most valuable library for discovery of New Chemical Entities and of novel drug candidates. PMID:25016953

  12. The value of nature's natural product library for the discovery of New Chemical Entities: the discovery of ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Ogbourne, Steven M; Parsons, Peter G

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, 'Big Pharma' has invested billions of dollars into ingenious and innovative strategies designed to develop drugs using high throughput screening of small molecule libraries generated on the laboratory bench. Within the same time frame, screening of natural products by pharmaceutical companies has suffered an equally significant reduction. This is despite the fact that the complexity, functional diversity and druggability of nature's natural product library are considered by many to be superior to any library any team of scientists can prepare. It is therefore no coincidence that the number of New Chemical Entities reaching the market has also suffered a substantial decrease, leading to a productivity crisis within the pharmaceutical sector. In fact, the current dearth of New Chemical Entities reaching the market in recent decades might be a direct consequence of the strategic decision to move away from screening of natural products. Nearly 700 novel drugs derived from natural product New Chemical Entities were approved between 1981 and 2010; more than 60% of all approved drugs over the same time. In this review, we use the example of ingenol mebutate, a natural product identified from Euphorbia peplus and later approved as a therapy for actinic keratosis, as why nature's natural product library remains the most valuable library for discovery of New Chemical Entities and of novel drug candidates.

  13. The preclinical testing strategy for the development of novel chemical entities for the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christian; Erb, Klaus Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Identifying and developing novel chemical entities (NCE) for the treatment of asthma is a time-consuming process and liabilities that endanger the successful progression of a compound from research into the patient are found throughout all phases of drug discovery. In particular the failure of advanced compounds in clinical studies due to lack of efficacy and/or safety concerns is tremendously costly. Therefore, in order to try and reduce the failure rate in clinical trials various in vitro and in vivo tests are performed during preclinical development, to rapidly identify liabilities, eliminate high risk compounds and promote promising potential drug candidates. To achieve this objective, numerous prerequisites have to be met regarding the physico-chemical properties of the compound, and bioactivity or model systems are needed to rate the therapeutic potential of new compounds. Drug liabilities such as target and species specificity, formulation issues, pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamics and the toxic potential of the compound have to be analyzed in great detail before a compound can enter a clinical trial. A particularly challenging aspect of developing novel NCEs for the treatment of asthma is choosing and setting up in vivo models believed to be predictive for human disease. Numerous companies have in the past and are currently developing NCEs targeting many different pathways and cells with the aim to treat asthma. However, currently the only NCE having a significant market share are long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), inhaled and orally active steroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In the past many novel NCE for the treatment of asthma were effective in animal models but failed in the clinic. In this review we outline the prerequisites of novel NCE needed for clinical development. PMID:18537583

  14. NERChem: adapting NERBio to chemical patents via full-token features and named entity feature with chemical sub-class composition

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Po-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Chemical patents contain detailed information on novel chemical compounds that is valuable to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper, we introduce a system, NERChem that can recognize chemical named entity mentions in chemical patents. NERChem is based on the conditional random fields model (CRF). Our approach incorporates (1) class composition, which is used for combining chemical classes whose naming conventions are similar; (2) BioNE features, which are used for distinguishing chemical mentions from other biomedical NE mentions in the patents; and (3) full-token word features, which are used to resolve the tokenization granularity problem. We evaluated our approach on the BioCreative V CHEMDNER-patent corpus, and achieved an F-score of 87.17% in the Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) task and a sensitivity of 98.58% in the Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) task, ranking alongside the top systems. Database URL: Our NERChem web-based system is publicly available at iisrserv.csie.n cu.edu.tw/nerchem.

  15. A divergent route towards single-chemical entity triazine dendrimers with opportunities for structural diversity†‡

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Hannah; Hollink, Emily; Perez, Lisa M.; Simanek, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the successful synthesis and characterization of five generations of dendrimers based on melamine. Early generations of these materials appear to be single chemical entities: upon purification, no detectable impurities are observed using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and HPLC and GPC analysis. The analysis of larger generation materials precludes an unambiguous statement of purity. The synthetic route to these targets is divergent, relying on dichlorotriazine monomers that react with a polyamine dendrimer core of generation n to produce a poly(monochlorotriazine) dendrimer of generation n + 1. Subsequently, the poly(monochlorotriazine) is derivatized through nucleophilic aromatic substitution before additional nucleophilic amines are unmasked and the process iterated. PMID:20037678

  16. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  17. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  18. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  19. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition.

  20. Conceptual Entities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    Discussed is one "quite general" attribute that can differentiate problem representations: the kinds of entities that are included -- the cognitive objects that the system can reason about in a relatively direct way, and that are included continuously in the representation. The ontology of a domain is significant for four reasons. First, ontology…

  1. Causes of genome instability: the effect of low dose chemical exposures in modern society

    PubMed Central

    Langie, Sabine A.S.; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Azqueta, Amaya; Bisson, William H.; Brown, Dustin; Brunborg, Gunnar; Charles, Amelia K.; Chen, Tao; Colacci, Annamaria; Darroudi, Firouz; Forte, Stefano; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Hamid, Roslida A.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Leyns, Luc; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Mothersill, Carmel; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Pavanello, Sofia; Raju, Jayadev; Rojas, Emilio; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Valverde, Mahara; Woodrick, Jordan; Zhang, Luoping; van Larebeke, Nik; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Collins, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome’s integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis. PMID:26106144

  2. Causes of genome instability: the effect of low dose chemical exposures in modern society.

    PubMed

    Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Azqueta, Amaya; Bisson, William H; Brown, Dustin G; Brunborg, Gunnar; Charles, Amelia K; Chen, Tao; Colacci, Annamaria; Darroudi, Firouz; Forte, Stefano; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Hamid, Roslida A; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Leyns, Luc; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Mothersill, Carmel; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Pavanello, Sofia; Raju, Jayadev; Rojas, Emilio; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Van Schooten, Frederik J; Valverde, Mahara; Woodrick, Jordan; Zhang, Luoping; van Larebeke, Nik; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Collins, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis. PMID:26106144

  3. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    PubMed

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences. PMID:23933662

  4. Physical and chemical weathering in modern and Permian proximal fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Leslie Jo

    Chapter 1 Inferring paleoclimate from ancient fluvial strata can be challenging, and conflicting interpretations for a given system are common in the literature. This research uses a combination of physical and chemical weathering signals in an attempt to better define the paleoclimatic interpretations for the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, Colorado (Chapter 3) and the Post Oak Conglomerate in the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma (Chapter 4), both Permian units. Chapter 4 includes a comparison of weathering signals from modern sediments in the Wichita Mountains. A methodology for pretreatment techniques used for grain-size analysis was evaluated during the course of the research and is the topic of Chapter 2. This dissertation is organized as three stand-alone manuscripts and a brief summary of each is presented below. Chapter 2 Pretreatment drying of mud-sized sediment (<63 im) resulted in clayrich (>39%) samples exhibiting more sensitivity to drying techniques than clay-poor (<39%) samples. This demonstrates an influence of the drying technique on the granulometric results. Employing freeze drying for sample drying yielded the most consistent results. However, for samples with <39% clay-sized material, all drying techniques are equally effective, and no apparent need exists for the extra effort (and expense) that accompanies freeze drying. Chapter 3 Scanning Electron Microscopy is a useful tool in the study of quartz grain microtextures. Microtextures on quartz grains from the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, CO were documented for the presence/absence of 18 distinct microtextures. Averaging of presence/absence data for the samples provided a means to use more quantitative techniques than previously employed for SEM microtextural analysis. These continuous quantitative variables were utilized for non-metric multidimensional scaling, a purely quantitative technique that does not rely on initial assumptions of what environments produce specific

  5. The Markyt visualisation, prediction and benchmark platform for chemical and gene entity recognition at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining methods and technologies have improved significantly in the last decade. Considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the main challenges of biomedical literature retrieval and extraction and proposing solutions to problems of practical interest. Most notably, community-oriented initiatives such as the BioCreative challenge have enabled controlled environments for the comparison of automatic systems while pursuing practical biomedical tasks. Under this scenario, the present work describes the Markyt Web-based document curation platform, which has been implemented to support the visualisation, prediction and benchmark of chemical and gene mention annotations at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge. Creating this platform is an important step for the systematic and public evaluation of automatic prediction systems and the reusability of the knowledge compiled for the challenge. Markyt was not only critical to support the manual annotation and annotation revision process but also facilitated the comparative visualisation of automated results against the manually generated Gold Standard annotations and comparative assessment of generated results. We expect that future biomedical text mining challenges and the text mining community may benefit from the Markyt platform to better explore and interpret annotations and improve automatic system predictions.Database URL: http://www.markyt.org, https://github.com/sing-group/Markyt. PMID:27542845

  6. Iron isotope fractionation by microbial iron reduction in modern chemically precipitated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, E. E.; Tangalos, G. E.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C. M.; Alpers, C. N.; Shelobolina, E. S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that dissimilatory microbial iron oxide reduction (DIR) can produce Fe(II) phases that have low 56Fe/54Fe ratios similar to those found in Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic banded iron formations (BIFs) and shales. Direct application of these experiments to BIF formation has been hindered by the lack of Fe isotope data from modern environments that are analogous to BIFs. Here we report Fe inventories and isotopic compositions for chemically precipitated sediments in the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir (SCAKR) downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The high concentration of reactive Fe(III) (ca. 50-100 mmol of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides per liter of bulk sediment) allows dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) to predominate over dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediment carbon metabolism, making the SCAKR a better analog for BIFs compared to modern marine environments. DIR has generated millimolar concentrations of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) in SCAKR sediments. The Fe(II)aq has lower 56Fe/54Fe values than bulk HCl-extractable Fe; δ56Fe values for bulk HCl-extractable Fe fall within the range previously defined for mafic- to intermediate-composition terrestrial igneous rocks, modern marine sediments, suspended river sediments, Proterozoic-Phanerozoic shales, loess, aerosols, and soils. After removal of pore fluid, sediment was reacted for 1 hr with 0.1M HCl to isolate solid-phase Fe(II) (Fe(II)s), which was likely a mixture of sorbed Fe(II) and amorphous surface-precipitated Fe(II) hydroxide. Subsequent 24-hr extraction with 0.5M HCl recovered amorphous Fe(III) oxide (Fe(III)am). Sediment incubation experiments with SCAKR sediment produced trends in in Fe isotopic fractionations between Fe(II)aq, Fe(II)s, and Fe(III)am analogous to those observed in situ. Collectively the data suggest an equilibrium 56Fe/54Fe isotope fractionation between Fe(II)aq and Fe

  7. Discovery of New Chemical Entities for Old Targets: Insights on the Lead Optimization of Chromone-Based Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Cagide, Fernando; Chavarria, Daniel; Silva, Tiago; Fernandes, Carlos; Gaspar, Alexandra; Uriarte, Eugenio; Remião, Fernando; Alcaro, Stefano; Ortuso, Francesco; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-06-23

    The discovery of new chemical entities endowed with potent, selective, and reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitory activity is a clinically relevant subject. Therefore, a small library of chromone derivatives was synthesized and screened toward human monoamine oxidase isoforms (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). The structure-activity relationships studies strengthen the importance of the amide spacer and the direct linkage of carbonyl group to the γ-pyrone ring, along with the presence of meta and para substituents in the exocyclic ring. The most potent MAO-B inhibitors were N-(3'-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxamide (20) (IC50 = 403 pM) and N-(3',4'-dimethylphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxamide (27) (IC50 = 669 pM), acting as competitive and noncompetitive reversible inhibitors, respectively. Computational docking studies provided insights into enzyme-inhibitor interactions and a rationale for the observed selectivity and potency. Compound 27 stands out due to its favorable toxicological profile and physicochemical properties, which pointed toward blood-brain barrier permeability, thus being a valid candidate for subsequent animal studies.

  8. Influence of kidney disease on drug disposition: An assessment of industry studies submitted to the FDA for new chemical entities 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Gary R; Dowling, Thomas C; Marks, Samantha A; Murphy, John E

    2016-04-01

    In 1998, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the first guidance for industry regarding pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in renally impaired patients. This study aimed to determine if the FDA renal PK guidance influenced the frequency and rigor of renal studies conducted for new chemical entities (NCEs). FDA-approved package inserts (APIs) and clinical pharmacology review documents were analyzed for 194 NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010. Renal studies were conducted in 71.6% of NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010, a significant increase over the 56.3% conducted from 1996 to 1997 (P = .0242). Renal studies were more likely to be completed in highly renally excreted drugs (fe ≥ 30%) compared with drugs with low renal excretion, fe < 30% (89.6% vs 65.8%, P = .0015). PK studies to assess the impact of dialysis were conducted for 31.7% of NCEs that had a renal study: a greater proportion of high fe NCEs were studied (44.2% vs 26.0%, P = .0335). No significant change in frequency or rigor of PK studies was detected over time. The majority of NCEs (76.3%) with a renal study provided specific dosing recommendations in the API. The adoption of the 1998 FDA guidance has resulted in improved availability of PK and drug-dosing recommendations, particularly for high fe drugs.

  9. Crossed optical and chemical evaluations of modern glass soiling in various European urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Hélène; Chabas, Anne; Ausset, Patrick; Lefevre, Roger

    As part of the MULTI-ASSESS and VIDRIO EC projects, the soiling of modern glass is characterised in various European urban atmospheres. Our original methodology relies on crossed chemical measurements of the deposit (evaluation of the ion, elemental and organic carbon contents, and subsequent "mass closure") and exhaustive measurements of glass optical properties (light reflectance, transmittance and absorption). Samples were exposed sheltered from rain in Athens, Krakow, London, Montelibretti (Italy), Prague and Troyes (France), during increasing exposure durations, up to more than two years. Although a slowing down of the deposition rate is observed for some species at some sites, no obvious saturation phenomenon seems to occur for the particle deposition. The chemical composition of the deposit is shown to reflect the atmospheric environment of the exposure site. Some post-deposit evolutions, such as the disappearance of ammonium and possibly of particulate organic matter, are found to occur. For thin deposits, the glass optical properties (e.g. light absorption and diffuse transmittance) are found to evolve quasi-linearly with species concentrations (EC and ions, respectively). However, for conditions creating heavier deposits such as long time exposures in rather polluted environments, a saturation phenomenon is observed. Using a simple model, light absorption, which is primarily due to EC particles, is shown to reach the saturation level ( S) for A≈16% and the concentration for which the semi-saturation level is reached (C 1/2) is found to be about 15 μgC of EC/cm 2. For diffuse transmittance, due to scattering species, these parameters are found to be about 30% and 65 μg of ions/cm 2, respectively. These values may be considered as representative of the soiling in Europe.

  10. Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions versus modern observing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyak, D.; Paladini, C.; Causi, G. Li; Perraut, K.; Kochukhov, O.

    2014-09-01

    By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star ε UMa as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in near-infrared at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180 m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g. Fibered and spectrally Resolved Interferometric Equipment New Design) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure V2 ≈ 10-3, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure rotation and spots. Our study provides necessary details about strategies of spot detections and the requirements for modern and planned interferometric facilities essential for CP star research.

  11. Modern operative fluorocholangiography: utopia or overlooked entity?

    PubMed

    Berci, G; Hamlin, J A; Morgenstern, L; Fisher, D L

    1978-10-01

    A system of image amplification with television fluoroscopy and 100 X 100 mm cut film technique is presented for use in the operating room. Biliary surgery has benefited from this equipment as operative cholangiography has been improved and unnecessary extension of operating time avoided. Applications of the equipment for other procedures are discussed.

  12. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  13. Alginate based 3D hydrogels as an in vitro co-culture model platform for the toxicity screening of new chemical entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Starly, Binil

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of human response to potential therapeutic drugs is through conventional methods of in vitro cell culture assays and expensive in vivo animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing require sophisticated in vitro model systems that must replicate in vivo like function for reliable testing applications. Advancements in biomaterials have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell encapsulated hydrogels as in vitro drug screening tissue model systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro platform to enable high density 3D culture of liver cells combined with a monolayer growth of target breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a static environment as a representative example of screening drug compounds for hepatotoxicity and drug efficacy. Alginate hydrogels encapsulated with serial cell densities of HepG2 cells (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} cells/ml) are supported by a porous poly-carbonate disc platform and co-cultured with MCF-7 cells within standard cell culture plates during a 3 day study period. The clearance rates of drug transformation by HepG2 cells are measured using a coumarin based pro-drug. The platform was used to test for HepG2 cytotoxicity 50% (CT{sub 50}) using commercially available drugs which further correlated well with published in vivo LD{sub 50} values. The developed test platform allowed us to evaluate drug dose concentrations to predict hepatotoxicity and its effect on the target cells. The in vitro 3D co-culture platform provides a scalable and flexible approach to test multiple-cell types in a hybrid setting within standard cell culture plates which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to screen new chemical entity compounds. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > A porous support disc design to support the culture of desired cells in 3D hydrogels. > Demonstrated the co-culture of two cell types within standard cell-culture plates. > A scalable, low cost approach to toxicity screening involving

  14. Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A

    SciTech Connect

    Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2010-02-08

    The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

  15. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  16. Modern Sport and Chemistry: What a Chemically Aware Sports Fanatic Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffin, Guinevere A.; Boone, Steven R.; Cole, Renee S.; McKay, Scott E.; Kopitzke, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Advances in the chemical and materials sciences have had dramatic impact on sporting events. Discusses some of the chemicals and materials involved in these advances with the intention of providing a mechanism to interest students in chemistry. Presents structures and properties of some materials that led to their adoption in sports and ideas for…

  17. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  18. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  19. Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT.

  20. Rock magnetic, chemical and bacterial community analysis of a modern soil from Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyodo, Yohan; LaPara, Timothy M.; Anschutz, Amy J.; Penn, R. Lee; Banerjee, Subir K.; Geiss, Christoph E.; Zanner, William

    2006-11-01

    Detailed rock-magnetic and bacterial community analyses have been conducted on a 2.2 m-long soil profile developed over loess in Nebraska. Results show magnetic enhancement in the A-horizon of the soil profile, in part due to increased concentration of pedogenic superparamagnetic (SP) ferrimagnetic minerals (i.e., magnetite, maghemite). The magnetic enhancement correlates well with higher microbial biomass and lower iron hydroxide concentrations (here determined using a goethite-specific magnetic method), therefore supporting the idea of bacterially-mediated topsoil magnetite formation through iron-reduction of iron hydroxides. Cultivation-independent bacterial community analysis biased towards the Geobacteraceae (common dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria) failed to show the involvement of this phylogenetic group in SP magnetite formation at this site. Although preliminary in nature, our failure to implicate dissimilatory Geobacteraceae with magnetic enhancement in modern Nebraskan soil and Dearing et al. ( Dearing, Hannam, Anderson, Wellington, Geophysical Journal International 144 (2001) 183-196) earlier failure to detect magnetotactic bacteria in enhanced British soils points to the need to focus further multidisciplinary investigations on the possible roles of other dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria in contributing to magnetic enhancement. Many authors have produced strong circumstantial evidence of a microbial role in causing magnetic enhancement in topsoils of temperate climate zones, yet a precise role of specific cultured microbes in enhancing soil magnetism is still lacking.

  1. Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

  2. Modern marine sediments as a natural analog to the chemically stressed environment of a landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical reactions that occur in landfills are analogous to those reactions that occur in marine sediments. Lateral zonation of C, N, S, O, H, Fe and Mn species in landfills is similar to the vertical zonation of these species in marine sediments and results from the following reaction sequence: (1) oxidation of C, N and S species in the presence of dissolved free oxygen to HCO3-, NO3- and SO2-4; (2) after consumption of molecular oxygen, then NO3- is reduced, and Fe and Mn are solubilized; (3) SO2-4 is reduced to sulfide; and (4) organic compounds become the source of oxygen, and CH4 and NH4+ are formed as fermentation products. In a landfill in Delaware the oxidation potential increases downgradient and the redox zones in the reducing plume are characterized by: CH4, NH4+, Fe2+. Mn2+, HCO3- and NO3-. Lack of SO2-4 at that landfill eliminates the sulfide zone. Although it has not been observed at landfills, mineral alteration should result in precipitation of pyrite and/or siderite downgradient. Controls on the pH of leachate are the relative rates of production of HCO3-, NH4+ and CH4. Production of methane by fermentation at landfills results in 13C isotope fractionation and the accumulation of isotopically heavy ??CO2 (+10 to +18??? PDB). Isotope measurements may be useful to determine the extent of CO2 reduction in landfills and extent of dilution downgradient. The boundaries of reaction zones in stressed aquifers are determined by head distribution and flow velocity. Thus, if the groundwater flow is rapid relative to reaction rates, redox zones will develop downgradient. Where groundwater flow velocities are low the zones will overlap to the extent that they may be indeterminate. ?? 1979.

  3. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    PubMed

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  4. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    PubMed

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature. PMID:26829865

  5. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  6. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  7. [Fatal nanism: 3 different entities].

    PubMed

    Escrivá Tomás, P; Clemente Yago, F; López Peña, L F; Cidras Pidre, M; Orts Serrano, F; Serrano Martínez, J L; Jiménez Cobo, B

    1991-04-01

    Three cases of congenital dwarfism are presented. All of them are lethal and represent the three better known nonviable nosologic entities: Achondrogenesis I, Achondrogesis II and Thanatophoric dwarfism. According to clinical features and radiologic data it is possible to approach the diagnosis accurately. We comment genetic, clinic, radiologic and histologic aspects of these processes. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis as these entities have different genetic basis, what influences genetic counsel. PMID:2069281

  8. Entity linking for biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Entity Linking (EL) task links entity mentions from an unstructured document to entities in a knowledge base. Although this problem is well-studied in news and social media, this problem has not received much attention in the life science domain. One outcome of tackling the EL problem in the life sciences domain is to enable scientists to build computational models of biological processes with more efficiency. However, simply applying a news-trained entity linker produces inadequate results. Methods Since existing supervised approaches require a large amount of manually-labeled training data, which is currently unavailable for the life science domain, we propose a novel unsupervised collective inference approach to link entities from unstructured full texts of biomedical literature to 300 ontologies. The approach leverages the rich semantic information and structures in ontologies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Results Without using any manual annotation, our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art supervised EL method (9% absolute gain in linking accuracy). Furthermore, the state-of-the-art supervised EL method requires 15,000 manually annotated entity mentions for training. These promising results establish a benchmark for the EL task in the life science domain. We also provide in depth analysis and discussion on both challenges and opportunities on automatic knowledge enrichment for scientific literature. Conclusions In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised collective inference approach to address the EL problem in a new domain. We show that our unsupervised approach is able to outperform a current state-of-the-art supervised approach that has been trained with a large amount of manually labeled data. Life science presents an underrepresented domain for applying EL techniques. By providing a small benchmark data set and identifying opportunities, we hope to stimulate discussions across natural language processing

  9. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  10. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  11. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  12. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  13. Ameloblastic fibroma: an uncommon entity.

    PubMed

    Vij, Ruchieka; Vij, Hitesh

    2013-07-09

    Ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon mixed odontogenic tumour, which is often confused with ameloblastoma. It exhibits both epithelial and mesenchymal components with absence of any calcified dental structure. This paper presents two cases of this rare entity with detailed review of literature.

  14. 31 CFR 575.304 - Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity of the Government of Iraq... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.304 Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity. The term entity of the Government of Iraq or Iraqi Government entity includes: (a)...

  15. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  16. Entity- Version 1.0

    2012-09-13

    This package contains classes that capture high-level aspects of characters and vehicles. Vehicles manage seats and riders. Vehicles and characters now can be configured to compose different behaviors and have certain capabilities, by adding them through xml data. These behaviors and capabilities are not included in this package, but instead are part of other packages such as mobility behavior, path planning, sight, sound. Entity is not dependent on these other packages. This package also containsmore » the icons used for Umbra applications Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop and OpShed. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (EntityWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop, and OpShed, to incorporate this library.« less

  17. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying. PMID:22315867

  18. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  19. Entity- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brian; Oppel, Fred; Rigdon, Brian; Whitfor, Gregg; Summers, Kenneth; Jungels, John

    2012-09-13

    This package contains classes that capture high-level aspects of characters and vehicles. Vehicles manage seats and riders. Vehicles and characters now can be configured to compose different behaviors and have certain capabilities, by adding them through xml data. These behaviors and capabilities are not included in this package, but instead are part of other packages such as mobility behavior, path planning, sight, sound. Entity is not dependent on these other packages. This package also contains the icons used for Umbra applications Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop and OpShed. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (EntityWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop, and OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  20. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) A small business is an entity that, together...

  1. Curatable Named-Entity Recognition Using Semantic Relations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Named-entity recognition (NER) plays an important role in the development of biomedical databases. However, the existing NER tools produce multifarious named-entities which may result in both curatable and non-curatable markers. To facilitate biocuration with a straightforward approach, classifying curatable named-entities is helpful with regard to accelerating the biocuration workflow. Co-occurrence Interaction Nexus with Named-entity Recognition (CoINNER) is a web-based tool that allows users to identify genes, chemicals, diseases, and action term mentions in the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD). To further discover interactions, CoINNER uses multiple advanced algorithms to recognize the mentions in the BioCreative IV CTD Track. CoINNER is developed based on a prototype system that annotated gene, chemical, and disease mentions in PubMed abstracts at BioCreative 2012 Track I (literature triage). We extended our previous system in developing CoINNER. The pre-tagging results of CoINNER were developed based on the state-of-the-art named entity recognition tools in BioCreative III. Next, a method based on conditional random fields (CRFs) is proposed to predict chemical and disease mentions in the articles. Finally, action term mentions were collected by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). At the BioCreative IV CTD Track, the best F-measures reached for gene/protein, chemical/drug and disease NER were 54 percent while CoINNER achieved a 61.5 percent F-measure. System URL: http://ikmbio.csie.ncku.edu.tw/coinner/ introduction.htm. PMID:26357317

  2. 14 CFR 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section Sec... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be... forth above. (c) The records for each required accounting entity shall be maintained with...

  3. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  4. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  5. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  6. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Sivaji, Nagaraj; Ashraf, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics.

  7. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ayaaz; Sivaji, Nagaraj; Ashraf, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics. PMID:27648332

  8. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Sivaji, Nagaraj; Ashraf, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics. PMID:27648332

  9. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V. Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html PMID:27777244

  10. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  11. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  12. Dementia: Continuum or Distinct Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    The latent structure of dementia was examined in a group of 10,775 older adults with indicators derived from a neuropsychological test battery. Subjecting these data to taxometric analysis using mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode) produced results more consistent with dementia as a dimensional (lying along a continuum) than categorical (representing a distinct entity) construct. A second study conducted on a group of 2375 21-to-64-year olds produced similar results. These findings denote that dementia, as measured by deficits in episodic memory, attention/concentration, executive function, and language, differs quantitatively rather than qualitatively from the cognitive status of non-demented adults. The implications of these results for classification, assessment, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:20677881

  13. Viruses: are they living entities?

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged. PMID:22220354

  14. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  15. The neural representation of plural discourse entities.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Timothy W; Bowers, Eric; Nair, Veena A; Almor, Amit

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the underlying neural structures that mediate the generation and tracking of discourse referents. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we examined the neural structures involved in generating and maintaining the representations of multiple referents. Experiment 1 used two-sentence discourses with singular and plural conditions linking back to single or conjoined subjects. In Experiment 2, conjunction type was manipulated in order to keep the number of discourse entities constant across the discourse. Both experiments found greater activation in the superior parietal lobule bilaterally for plural entities relative to singular entities in Experiment 1 and for unconjoined plural entities relative to conjoined plural entities in Experiment 2. This parietal activation suggests that referring to multiple entities evokes multiple representations that need to be integrated and tracked. We discuss these findings in terms of psycholinguistic theories of multiple referent representations.

  16. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  17. Entitymetrics: Measuring the Impact of Entities

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Song, Min; Han, Jia; Yu, Qi; Yan, Erjia; Lin, Lili; Chambers, Tamy

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes entitymetrics to measure the impact of knowledge units. Entitymetrics highlight the importance of entities embedded in scientific literature for further knowledge discovery. In this paper, we use Metformin, a drug for diabetes, as an example to form an entity-entity citation network based on literature related to Metformin. We then calculate the network features and compare the centrality ranks of biological entities with results from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). The comparison demonstrates the usefulness of entitymetrics to detect most of the outstanding interactions manually curated in CTD. PMID:24009660

  18. 7 CFR 1738.16 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provide, broadband services in eligible rural communities. (1) Types of eligible entities include... services to the eligible rural community. RUS will determine whether the commitment is sufficient...

  19. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... administering standards for entities providing child welfare services; or (b) A public entity (other than a... political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, that is responsible for licensing adoption... child welfare services....

  20. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administering standards for entities providing child welfare services; or (b) A public entity (other than a... political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, that is responsible for licensing adoption... child welfare services....

  1. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  2. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  3. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  4. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  5. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  6. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  7. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) A very small business is an entity that, together with its... preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  8. 47 CFR 24.321 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS... for small business provisions. (1) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling... years. (2) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  9. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 22.223 Section 22.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and...

  10. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated entities. Eligibility for small business provisions: (a)(1) A small business is an entity that, together with...

  11. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business provisions...-1392 MHz band. (1) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  12. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with...

  13. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  14. 46 CFR 67.41 - Governmental entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Governmental entity. 67.41 Section 67.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.41 Governmental entity....

  15. 46 CFR 67.41 - Governmental entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Governmental entity. 67.41 Section 67.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.41 Governmental entity....

  16. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  17. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  18. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  19. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  20. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  1. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  2. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  3. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  4. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  5. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  6. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  7. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.5 Covered entities. Entities to which the general rule in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign...

  8. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  9. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  10. LeadMine: a grammar and dictionary driven approach to entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical entity recognition has traditionally been performed by machine learning approaches. Here we describe an approach using grammars and dictionaries. This approach has the advantage that the entities found can be directly related to a given grammar or dictionary, which allows the type of an entity to be known and, if an entity is misannotated, indicates which resource should be corrected. As recognition is driven by what is expected, if spelling errors occur, they can be corrected. Correcting such errors is highly useful when attempting to lookup an entity in a database or, in the case of chemical names, converting them to structures. Results Our system uses a mixture of expertly curated grammars and dictionaries, as well as dictionaries automatically derived from public resources. We show that the heuristics developed to filter our dictionary of trivial chemical names (from PubChem) yields a better performing dictionary than the previously published Jochem dictionary. Our final system performs post-processing steps to modify the boundaries of entities and to detect abbreviations. These steps are shown to significantly improve performance (2.6% and 4.0% F1-score respectively). Our complete system, with incremental post-BioCreative workshop improvements, achieves 89.9% precision and 85.4% recall (87.6% F1-score) on the CHEMDNER test set. Conclusions Grammar and dictionary approaches can produce results at least as good as the current state of the art in machine learning approaches. While machine learning approaches are commonly thought of as "black box" systems, our approach directly links the output entities to the input dictionaries and grammars. Our approach also allows correction of errors in detected entities, which can assist with entity resolution. PMID:25810776

  11. Modern biostatistical methods for assessing in vitro/in vivo correlation of severely eye irritating chemicals in a validation study of in vitro alternatives to the Draize eye test.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H; Liebsch, M; Moldenhauer, F; Holzhutter, H G; de Silva, O

    1995-08-01

    The HET-CAM test and 3T3 cell neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay were evaluated in a national German validation project to replace the Draize eye test for classifying severely eye irritating chemicals, which have to be labelled 'R-41' according to EU regulations. As testing of 200 chemicals in the two in vitro assays did not sufficiently allow severely eye irritating chemicals to be identified and since the scoring system of the HET-CAM assay has been derived empirically, it was investigated whether modern biostatistical methods, for example discriminant analysis, would improve the selection of predictive endpoints of the HET-CAM assay. Comparison of HET-CAM data with adverse reactions observed in different tissues of the rabbit's eye proved that complex regression models are better describing in vitro /in vivo correlations than simple linear models. Discriminant analysis revealed that among the nine endpoints routinely determined in the HET-CAM test, coagulation was the only acceptable endpoint to classify severely irritating chemicals 'R-41' according to EU regulations. To identify R-41 chemicals the reaction time of appearance of coagulation of a 10% solution was the best discriminating factor and coagulation of the undiluted chemical for the less water-soluble ones. The results suggest that only R-41 chemicals are inducing coagulation of the CAM within 50 sec, and can therefore be classified without further testing in vivo. Stepwise discriminant analysis allowed an in vitro testing strategy to be developed to identify R-41 chemicals by combining coagulation data of the HET-CAM assay with cytotoxicity data. Validity of the model for future data sets was assessed by cross-validation. The results obtained with 200 chemicals under blind conditions suggest that this approach will provide an acceptable sensitivity, predictivity and percentage of false positive data for severely eye irritating chemicals.

  12. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  13. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  14. Evaluation and Cross-Comparison of Lexical Entities of Biological Interest (LexEBI)

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Yan, Ying; Dixit, Abhishek; Friteyre, Caroline; Hoehndorf, Robert; Backofen, Rolf; Lewin, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Biomedical entities, their identifiers and names, are essential in the representation of biomedical facts and knowledge. In the same way, the complete set of biomedical and chemical terms, i.e. the biomedical “term space” (the “Lexeome”), forms a key resource to achieve the full integration of the scientific literature with biomedical data resources: any identified named entity can immediately be normalized to the correct database entry. This goal does not only require that we are aware of all existing terms, but would also profit from knowing all their senses and their semantic interpretation (ambiguities, nestedness). Result This study compiles a resource for lexical terms of biomedical interest in a standard format (called “LexEBI”), determines the overall number of terms, their reuse in different resources and the nestedness of terms. LexEBI comprises references for protein and gene entries and their term variants and chemical entities amongst other terms. In addition, disease terms have been identified from Medline and PubmedCentral and added to LexEBI. Our analysis demonstrates that the baseforms of terms from the different semantic types show only little polysemous use. Nonetheless, the term variants of protein and gene names (PGNs) frequently contain species mentions, which should have been avoided according to protein annotation guidelines. Furthermore, the protein and gene entities as well as the chemical entities, both do comprise enzymes leading to hierarchical polysemy, and a large portion of PGNs make reference to a chemical entity. Altogether, according to our analysis based on the Medline distribution, 401,869 unique PGNs in the documents contain a reference to 25,022 chemical entities, 3,125 disease terms or 1,576 species mentions. Conclusion LexEBI delivers the complete biomedical and chemical Lexeome in a standardized representation (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/LexEBI/). The resource provides the disease terms as open

  15. Modern drug discovery technologies: opportunities and challenges in lead discovery.

    PubMed

    Guido, Rafael V C; Oliva, Glaucius; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2011-12-01

    The identification of promising hits and the generation of high quality leads are crucial steps in the early stages of drug discovery projects. The definition and assessment of both chemical and biological space have revitalized the screening process model and emphasized the importance of exploring the intrinsic complementary nature of classical and modern methods in drug research. In this context, the widespread use of combinatorial chemistry and sophisticated screening methods for the discovery of lead compounds has created a large demand for small organic molecules that act on specific drug targets. Modern drug discovery involves the employment of a wide variety of technologies and expertise in multidisciplinary research teams. The synergistic effects between experimental and computational approaches on the selection and optimization of bioactive compounds emphasize the importance of the integration of advanced technologies in drug discovery programs. These technologies (VS, HTS, SBDD, LBDD, QSAR, and so on) are complementary in the sense that they have mutual goals, thereby the combination of both empirical and in silico efforts is feasible at many different levels of lead optimization and new chemical entity (NCE) discovery. This paper provides a brief perspective on the evolution and use of key drug design technologies, highlighting opportunities and challenges. PMID:21843147

  16. Semantic Entity Pairing for Improved Data Validation and Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yanning; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Narock, Tom; Groman, Robert; Rauch, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    One of the central incentives for linked data implementations is the opportunity to leverage the rich logic inherent in structured data. The logic embedded in semantic models can strengthen capabilities for data discovery and data validation when pairing entities from distinct, contextually-related datasets. The creation of links between the two datasets broadens data discovery by using the semantic logic to help machines compare similar entities and properties that exist on different levels of granularity. This semantic capability enables appropriate entity pairing without making inaccurate assertions as to the nature of the relationship. Entity pairing also provides a context to accurately validate the correctness of an entity's property values - an exercise highly valued by data management practices who seek to ensure the quality and correctness of their data. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) semantically models metadata surrounding oceanographic researchcruises, but other sources outside of BCO-DMO exist that also model metadata about these same cruises. For BCO-DMO, the process of successfully pairing its entities to these sources begins by selecting sources that are decidedly trustworthy and authoritative for the modeled concepts. In this case, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has a well-respected reputation among the oceanographic research community, presents a data context that is uniquely different and valuable, and semantically models its cruise metadata. Where BCO-DMO exposes the processed, analyzed data products generated by researchers, R2R exposes the raw shipboard data that was collected on the same research cruises. Interlinking these cruise entities expands data discovery capabilities but also allows for validating the contextual correctness of both BCO-DMO's and R2R's cruise metadata. Assessing the potential for a link between two datasets for a similar entity consists of aligning like

  17. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  18. 48 CFR 552.238-80 - Use of Federal Supply Schedule Contracts by Certain Entities-Recovery Purchasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dispute Resolution. Likewise, a Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA), although not a contract, is an agreement..., chemical, or radiological attack. (b) If the Schedule Contractor accepts an order from an entity...

  19. 48 CFR 552.238-80 - Use of Federal Supply Schedule Contracts by Certain Entities-Recovery Purchasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dispute Resolution. Likewise, a Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA), although not a contract, is an agreement..., chemical, or radiological attack. (b) If the Schedule Contractor accepts an order from an entity...

  20. 48 CFR 552.238-80 - Use of Federal Supply Schedule Contracts by Certain Entities-Recovery Purchasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dispute Resolution. Likewise, a Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA), although not a contract, is an agreement..., chemical, or radiological attack. (b) If the Schedule Contractor accepts an order from an entity...

  1. Functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles with biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgeruşan, Lidia; Mrówczyński, Radosław; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    New hybrid materials, obtained through introduction of cysteine, lysine and folic acid as biological entities into polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles, are reported. The syntheses are straight forward and various methods were applied for structural and morphological characterization of the resulting nanoparticles. XPS proved a very powerful tool for surface chemical analysis and it evidences the functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetite nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior and the high values of saturation magnetization recommend all products for further application where magnetism is important for targeting, separation, or heating by alternative magnetic fields.

  2. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  3. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  4. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  5. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  6. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  7. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  8. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  9. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  10. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  11. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  12. Pott's puffy tumour: still not an eradicated entity.

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Brell, M; Cardona, E; Claramunt, E; Costa, J M

    2001-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumour is an infrequent entity characterised by one or more subperiosteal abscesses associated with frontal bone osteomyelitis. Although cases in patients of all ages have been reported, teenagers are the most frequently affected. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential because of the high risk of severe neurological complications, such as epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and secondary septic thrombosis of the dural sinuses. This paper describes the case of a patient with a subperiosteal abscess resulting from sinusitis, with orbital and intracranial extension, and subsequent neurological complications. Despite modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, 13 new cases have been published in the last 5 years; in at least 3 (23%) of these cases there were serious neurological complications. Upper respiratory infections and sinusitis are leading causes of visits to the emergency department in the paediatric age group; however, no risk factors for poor outcome have so far been identified in any of these patients.

  13. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA).

  14. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  15. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  16. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  17. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  18. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  19. 37 CFR 1.29 - Micro entity status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Micro entity status. 1.29... Micro entity status. (a) To establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must... establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must certify that: (1) The...

  20. 37 CFR 1.29 - Micro entity status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Micro entity status. 1.29... Micro entity status. (a) To establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must... establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must certify that: (1) The...

  1. BDDCS class prediction for new molecular entities.

    PubMed

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z; Oprea, Tudor I

    2012-03-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was successfully employed for predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with respect to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters and their interplay. The major assumption of BDDCS is that the extent of metabolism (EoM) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport is not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated with in vitro assays, could anticipate disposition and potential DDIs of new molecular entities (NMEs). Here we describe a computational procedure for predicting BDDCS class from molecular structures. The model was trained on a set of 300 oral drugs, and validated on an external set of 379 oral drugs, using 17 descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction the accuracy was 82% in training and 79% in external validation. The actual BDDCS class corresponded to the highest ranked calculated class for 55% of the validation molecules, and it was within the top two ranked more than 92% of the time. The unbalanced stratification of the data set did not affect the prediction, which showed highest accuracy in predicting classes 2 and 3 with respect to the most populated class 1. For class 4 drugs a general lack of predictability was observed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirming the degree of accuracy for the prediction of the different BDDCS classes is tied to the structure of the data set. This model could routinely be used in early drug discovery to prioritize in vitro tests for NMEs (e.g., affinity to transporters

  2. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-03-01

    For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba

  3. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  4. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  6. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  7. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  8. 31 CFR 589.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 589.303 Section 589.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UKRAINE RELATED SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Institutions, dated October 14, 2010, and published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 64728 on October 20, 2010... 12 CFR Parts 604, 611, 612, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated Business...) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain...

  10. 31 CFR 588.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 588.303 Section 588.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WESTERN BALKANS STABILIZATION REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  11. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  12. 31 CFR 593.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 593.303 Section 593.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS,...

  14. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  15. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  20. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air...) Eligibility for small business provisions in the commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service. (1) A small business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates...

  1. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Covered entities. 46.5 Section 46.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT PUBLIC UTILITY FILING REQUIREMENTS AND FILING...

  2. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  3. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  4. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  6. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  7. 31 CFR 586.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 586.303 Section 586.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO...

  8. 31 CFR 587.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 587.303 Section 587.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO)...

  9. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  11. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  12. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  17. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  18. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  19. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  20. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  2. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  4. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  6. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  7. Pelvic fibromatoses--a rare gynecological entity.

    PubMed

    Buckshee, K; Mittal, S; Agarwal, N; Chellani, M

    1988-06-01

    A rare case of pelvic fibromatoses is reported. This condition is rarely encountered in gynecological practice but when encountered, creates a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The reported patient highlights the difficulties encountered in surgical excision (done twice) and illustrates the local aggressive growth behavior of this entity.

  8. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  9. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  10. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  11. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  12. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  13. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  14. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  15. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  16. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  17. 31 CFR 545.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 545.303 Section 545.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  18. 31 CFR 598.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 598.303 Section 598.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS..., organization, network, group, or subgroup, or any form of business collaboration....

  19. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  20. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  1. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  2. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  3. 31 CFR 544.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 544.303 Section 544.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  5. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  6. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  7. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  12. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  13. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  14. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  15. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter....

  16. 230Th and 231Pa on GEOTRACES GA03, the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect, and implications for modern and paleoceanographic chemical fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Robinson, Laura F.; Lu, Yanbin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Moran, S. Bradley

    2015-06-01

    The long-lived uranium decay products 230Th and 231Pa are widely used as quantitative tracers of adsorption to sinking particles (scavenging) in the ocean by exploiting the principles of radioactive disequilibria. Because of their preservation in the Pleistocene sediment record and through largely untested assumptions about their chemical behavior in the water column, the two radionuclides have also been used as proxies for a variety of chemical fluxes in the past ocean. This includes the vertical flux of particulate matter to the seafloor, the lateral flux of insoluble elements to continental margins (boundary scavenging), and the southward flux of water out of the deep North Atlantic. In a section of unprecedented vertical and zonal resolution, the distributions of 230Th and 231Pa across the North Atlantic shed light on the marine cycling of these radionuclides and further inform their use as tracers of chemical flux. Enhanced scavenging intensities are observed in benthic layers of resuspended sediments on the eastern and western margins and in a hydrothermal plume emanating from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Boundary scavenging is clearly expressed in the water column along a transect between Mauritania and Cape Verde which is used to quantify a bias in sediment fluxes calculated using 230Th-normalization and to demonstrate enhanced 231Pa removal from the deep North Atlantic by this mechanism. The influence of deep ocean ventilation that leads to the southward export of 231Pa is apparent. The 231Pa/230Th ratio, however, predominantly reflects spatial variability in scavenging intensity, complicating its applicability as a proxy for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  17. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  18. Benchmark quantum-chemical calculations on a complete set of rotameric families of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone and their comparison with modern density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Mládek, Arnošt; Krepl, Miroslav; Svozil, Daniel; Cech, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel; Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Sponer, Jiří

    2013-05-21

    accurate as the less demanding DFT-D3 methods. Preliminary force field tests using several charge sets reveal an almost order of magnitude larger deviations from the reference QM data compared to modern DFT-D3, underlining the challenges facing force field simulations of nucleic acids. As expected, inclusion of the solvent environment approximated by a continuum approach has a large impact on the relative stabilities of different backbone substates and is important when comparing the QM data with structural bioinformatics and other experimental data.

  19. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  20. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  1. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  2. Microrobotic navigable entities for Magnetic Resonance Targeting.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Targeting (MRT) uses MRI for gathering tracking data to determine the position of microscale entities with the goal of guiding them towards a specific target in the body accessible through the vascular network. At full capabilities, a MRT platform designed to treat a human would consist of a clinical MRI scanner running special algorithms and upgraded to provide propulsion gradient up to approximately 400mT/m to enable entities as small as a few tens of micrometers in diameter and containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to be steered at vessel bifurcations based on tracking information. Indeed, using a clinical MRI system, we showed that such single entity with a diameter as small as 15microm is detectable in gradient-echo scans. Among many potential interventions, targeted cancer therapy is a good initial application for such new microrobotic approach since secondary toxicity for the patient could be reduced while increasing therapeutic efficacy using lower dosages. Although many types of such entities are needed to provide a larger set of tools, here, only three initial types designed with different functionalities and for different types of cancer are briefly described. Initially designed for targeted chemo-embolization of liver tumors, the first type known as Therapeutic Magnetic Micro-Carriers (TMMC) consists in its present form of approximately 50 microm PLGA microparticles containing therapeutics and approximately 180 nm FeCo MNP. For the second type, MNP are not only used for propulsion and tracking, but also actuation based on a local elevation of the temperature. In its simplest form, it consists of approxiamtely 20 nm MNP embedded in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel known as PNIPA, allowing additional functionalities such as computer triggered drug release and targeted hyperthermia. The third type initially considered to target colorectal tumors, consists of 1-2 microm MR-trackable and controllable MC-1 Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) with

  3. Central neurocytoma: establishment of the disease entity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    The establishment and identification of central neurocytoma as a distinct disease entity are invaluable in catalyzing investigations of neuronal differentiation in central nervous system tumors. The discovery of neuronal differentiation in neuroepithelial tumors has been extended to extraventricular tumors and potentially to various glial tumors undergoing neuronal differentiation. Understanding the disease spectrum of neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors is important for deciphering the mechanism of gliomagenesis.

  4. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. δ56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ≈ 0. These near-zero bulk δ56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero δ56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (δ56Fe ≈ -1.5 to -0.5‰) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2‰. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-δ56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  5. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... capitalization of the issuing entity and the amount or nature of any equity contribution to the issuing entity by... loans originated under the Federal Family Education Loan Program of the Higher Education Act of 1965...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... capitalization of the issuing entity and the amount or nature of any equity contribution to the issuing entity by... loans originated under the Federal Family Education Loan Program of the Higher Education Act of 1965...

  7. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  8. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  9. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  10. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  11. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  12. 17 CFR 202.8 - Small entity compliance guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small entity compliance guides. 202.8 Section 202.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION INFORMAL AND OTHER PROCEDURES § 202.8 Small entity compliance guides. The following small entity compliance guides are available to the public from...

  13. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. 760.115... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.115 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payments... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a...

  14. 7 CFR 760.908 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. 760.908... § 760.908 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payments may be made for eligible losses suffered by an eligible participant who is now a deceased individual or is a dissolved entity if...

  15. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. 1413.113... PROGRAMS Durum Wheat Quality Program § 1413.113 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payment may... individual or is a dissolved entity if a representative who currently has authority to enter into a...

  16. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  17. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  18. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  19. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  20. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  1. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  2. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  3. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  4. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  5. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  6. 7 CFR 795.6 - Multiple individuals or other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple individuals or other entities. 795.6 Section... Multiple individuals or other entities. The rules in §§ 795.5 through 795.16 shall be used to determine whether certain multiple individuals or legal entities are to be treated as one person or as...

  7. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  8. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  9. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  10. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  11. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  12. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  13. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  14. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  15. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities... government entities. A firearm may be made without payment of the making tax by, or on behalf of, any State... organization of such a government entity engaged in criminal investigations. Any person making a firearm...

  16. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities... government entities. A firearm may be made without payment of the making tax by, or on behalf of, any State... organization of such a government entity engaged in criminal investigations. Any person making a firearm...

  17. 76 FR 28503 - Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13566

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities... Transactions Related to Libya.'' DATES: The identification by the Director of OFAC of the three entities... issued Executive Order 13566, ``Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to...

  18. Semantic modeling of the structural and process entities during plastic deformation of crystals and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita

    2016-04-01

    We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive

  19. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  20. [Cutaneous lymphomas: new entities and rare variants].

    PubMed

    Kempf, W; Mitteldorf, C

    2015-02-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are the second most common group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recently several new variants and entities have been described but have not yet become part of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. These forms include the granulomatous form of mycosis fungoides, which is associated with a poorer prognosis, as well as indolent CD8+ lymphoproliferations on the head and at acral localizations. Within the group of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, new histological types of lymphomatoid papulosis have been identified, such as type D (CD8+ epidermotropic) and type E (angioinvasive) which simulate aggressive lymphomas. Cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a prognostically heterogeneous group of cutaneous lymphomas. The cutaneous CD8+ aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma are very aggressive neoplasms, whereas cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-sized T-cell lymphoma in its solitary or localized form represents an indolent lymphoproliferation: the terminology, histogenesis and differentiation from nodular T-cell pseudolymphoma are still a matter of debate. Among B-cell lymphomas, disorders associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed focusing on EBV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly and EBV-associated mucocutaneous ulcer. This review describes the clinical, histological and immunophenotypic features of new and rare entities and variants of cutaneous lymphomas and highlights the impact of the clinicopathological correlation in the diagnostic process.

  1. Unstable solar lentigo: A defined separate entity.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Lisa; Barksdale, Sarah; Weedon, David; Muir, Jim

    2016-08-01

    An unstable solar lentigo is a solar lentigo with areas of melanocytic hyperplasia not extending past the margin of the lesion. They are discrete, macular, pigmented lesions arising on sun-damaged skin and a subset of typical solar lentigos. Clinically they differ from usual solar lentigines in often being solitary or larger and darker than adjacent solar lentigines. These lesions are of clinical importance as they can arise in close proximity to lentigo maligna and in a single lesion there can be demonstrated changes of solar lentigo, unstable solar lentigo and lentigo maligna. These observations led us to conjecture that unstable solar lentigos could be a precursor lesion to lentigo maligna. In this article we examine the possibility that lentigo maligna can arise within a solar lentigo through an intermediate lesion, the unstable solar lentigo. We propose that the histopathological recognition of this entity will allow for future research into its behaviour and thus management. We review difficulties in the diagnosis of single cell predominant melanocytic proliferations and the concept of unstable lentigo in view of the literature and clinical experience supporting the proposal of its recognition as a separate entity.

  2. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  3. PHILOSOPHICAL PRESUPPOSITIONS OF AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of Ayurveda rests on the concepts of matter, vital principle, mind, and pure consciousness. It is a holistic theory of medicine, which aims at restoration of physical and mental health, and spiritual well-being in a sick person, so that he may self-actualize himself, and eventually, realize his nature as pure consciousness. Modern Western medicine tries to reduce consciousness, and vital principle to biochemical entities. It is a value-neutral science, and considers the aim of therapy as removal of pathological symptoms. Its theoretical position is weak. Interface between medical and value science is urgently needed. PMID:22557392

  4. Modern Techniques for Searching the Chemical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Bart E.

    The chemists' information needs are for current awareness, selective dissemination, and retrospective search services, of research, development, engineering, production, and marketing information located internally or externally, and contained in journals, patents, theses, reports, data files, information services, and from people. This paper is…

  5. Cardiac Pseudoaneurysm- A Death Defying Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saryu

    2016-01-01

    A pseudoaneurysm refers to a contained rupture of the myocardium with a tenuous pericardium walling off the leak. It needs to be differentiated from a true aneurysm by the fact that there is lack of myocardial tissue in the wall of a pseudoaneurysm. The differentiation between the two is pertinent as true aneurysms can be treated medically while pseudoaneurysms require urgent surgical treatment. Untreated pseudoaneurysms carry a high risk of rupture and mortality. We report a case of cardiac pseudoaneurysm developing in a 46-year-old male who had suffered myocardial infarction four months back. The patient now presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. CECT chest revealed a partially thrombosed large pseudoaneurysm arising from the posterior wall of left ventricle. While the clinical diagnosis of this entity is difficult, CECT plays a pivotal role in the non-invasive detection of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:27504379

  6. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  7. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  8. Central nervous system injury in utero: selected entities.

    PubMed

    Naidich, Thomas P; Griffiths, Paul D; Rosenbloom, Lorne

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the syndrome of amnionic bands, anencephaly, schizencephaly and hydranencephaly, four entities whose pathogenesis includes significant injury to the fetus in utero. PMID:26346151

  9. A rare case of "runaway" pacemaker in a modern CPU-controlled pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Makaryus, Amgad N; Patrick, Carol; Maccaro, Paul

    2005-09-01

    "Runaway" pacemaker is a rare entity that occurs when a malfunctioning artificial cardiac pacemaker abruptly accelerates its pacing rate above the set upper rate limit. This can result in life-threatening dysrhythmia. Runaway pacemaker used to occur more frequently in older model pacemakers, but now with newer pacemaker generators, runaway pacemaker is a rare entity. We report the case of a runaway pacemaker in a modern CPU-controlled pacemaker in a 79-year-old man presenting with lightheadedness and review the literature regarding this rare entity.

  10. Monitoring named entity recognition: the League Table

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Named entity recognition (NER) is an essential step in automatic text processing pipelines. A number of solutions have been presented and evaluated against gold standard corpora (GSC). The benchmarking against GSCs is crucial, but left to the individual researcher. Herewith we present a League Table web site, which benchmarks NER solutions against selected public GSCs, maintains a ranked list and archives the annotated corpus for future comparisons. Results The web site enables access to the different GSCs in a standardized format (IeXML). Upon submission of the annotated corpus the user has to describe the specification of the used solution and then uploads the annotated corpus for evaluation. The performance of the system is measured against one or more GSCs and the results are then added to the web site (“League Table”). It displays currently the results from publicly available NER solutions from the Whatizit infrastructure for future comparisons. Conclusion The League Table enables the evaluation of NER solutions in a standardized infrastructure and monitors the results long-term. For access please go to http://wwwdev.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/calbc/assessmentGSC/. Contact: rebholz@ifi.uzh.ch. PMID:24034148

  11. Prolonged ulcerative laryngitis: a new disease entity.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, a new disease entity, prolonged ulcerative laryngitis (PUL), with unique clinical presentation and prolonged disease course, has been recognized. Until now, very few studies dealing with this disease have been reported in the literature. From 1999 to 2008, we analyzed clinical data from a series of 39 PUL patients who were treated with an observational approach without implementing specific treatments. This disease affects adults, predominantly females. The age of patients in our series ranged from 26 to 76 years with a median of 49.5 years. This disease is characterized by ulcers and signs of acute inflammation on the membranous portion of the vocal folds with a prolonged clinical course. The recovery times of patients ranged from 4 to 20 weeks with an average of 9.4 weeks. The data in this study may reflect a natural history of this disease. PUL seems to be a self-limited disease, but the etiology of this disease is unknown. Specific infections or systemic inflammatory processes involving the larynx must be ruled out before diagnosis, and conservative treatments are suggested.

  12. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ..., 622, 623, and 630 published on May 28, 2013 (78 FR 31822) is effective July 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER..., 612, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date... institutions' use of unincorporated business entities organized under State law for certain business...

  13. 42 CFR 401.705 - Eligibility criteria for qualified entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... efficiency, effectiveness, or resource use measures from claims data, including the following: (A... that is projected to cover the costs of performing the required functions, including the fee for the... other entities if the applicant is the lead entity and includes documentation in its application of...

  14. 78 FR 22270 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... correction to the OIG Federal Register ] notice published on March 29, 2012 (78 FR 19271), on our recently issued Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities. Specifically, the Special Fraud Alert addressed... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY:...

  15. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  16. When Depression Mediates the Relationship between Entity Beliefs and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Cury, Francois; Santos, Andreia; Payen, Vincent; Bounoua, Lenda; Brisswalter, Jeannick; Rufo, Marcel; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether depression can explain the negative relationship between academic performance and the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, i.e., entity belief. A sample of 353 French volunteer adolescents (age 11-16) completed questionnaires assessing entity theory and depressive symptoms (Children Depression…

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  18. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  19. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  20. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  1. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  2. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  3. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  4. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  5. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  6. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  7. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  8. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  9. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... government entities. (a) A firearm may be transferred without payment of the transfer tax to or from...

  10. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign government entities. 140.6 Section 140... Enforcement § 140.6 Foreign government entities. (a) Determination Procedures. (1) The Country Narcotics... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  11. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... government entities. (a) A firearm may be transferred without payment of the transfer tax to or from...

  12. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign government entities. 140.6 Section 140... Enforcement § 140.6 Foreign government entities. (a) Determination Procedures. (1) The Country Narcotics... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  13. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign government entities. 140.6 Section 140... Enforcement § 140.6 Foreign government entities. (a) Determination Procedures. (1) The Country Narcotics... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  14. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain government... Certain government entities. A firearm may be made without payment of the making tax by, or on behalf of... police organization of such a government entity engaged in criminal investigations. Any person making...

  15. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... government entities. (a) A firearm may be transferred without payment of the transfer tax to or from...

  16. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  18. 76 FR 44776 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... part 40 Provisions Common to Registered Entities, 75 FR 67282 (Nov. 2, 2010). The Commission's final... mandatory clearing; 75 FR 67277 (Nov. 2, 2010)). Paragraph (j)(2)(ii) refers to `` otional amounts, quantity... Registered Entities, 75 FR 57282 (Nov. 2, 2010). In this regard, the Commission continues to view its...

  19. 18 CFR 39.8 - Delegation to a Regional Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.8 Delegation to a Regional Entity. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization may enter into an agreement to delegate authority to a Regional Entity for...

  20. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  1. 78 FR 75458 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; Amendment of Entity List Entries; and Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... on the Entity List since May 2001 (see 66 FR 24266). As a result of its inclusion on the Entity List... BIS's Denied Persons List since 2008. See 78 FR 48138 (August 7, 2008). Pursuant to Sec. 744.11(b)(4... CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78 FR...

  2. 77 FR 24587 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ..., Egypt, Germany, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Syria, the United... amendments to the Entity List including: The removal of three entries (one each in Germany, South Korea, and... review for entities listed under Armenia, Germany, Iran, Lebanon, South Korea, Syria, and the U.A.E....

  3. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  4. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  5. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Donglei

    transport charged Au nanowires with length longer than 4 mum. The surface of Au nanowires has been chemical functionalized by either positive or negative charges. High frequency AC electric field has been applied to align and fix the orientation of the charged nanowires, though not to induce any motions, whereas a small DC voltage causes linear motion. The velocity of nanowires increases linearly with the DC electric field. The moving direction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nanowires. Nanowires modified with different charges behave differently due to the electroosmosis flow induced by the DC electric field on the negatively charged quartz substrate. The zeta potential of quartz surface and the ratio of Stokes coefficients for longitudinal nano-entities suspended in a low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5) has been determined. Due to the small size of the nanowires, the nanowires suspended in liquids such as DI water are in extremely low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5). Manipulation due to DEP and EP forces are versatile and precise. Nanowires have been set into motion with prescribed tracks, such as squares and zigzags. The manipulation is also so precise that oppositely charged nanowires with radius of 150 nm have been moved to contact and connected end to end. A nanowire clipper have been assembled by this technique and set into oscillation. This method is not only applicable to nanowires, it has been successfully applied to multiwall carbon nanotubes as well. To demonstrate the complete control and flexibility of manipulating nanoparticles by E field, we have programmed nanowires to dance with music by Mozart with regard to clearly demonstrating the versatility of manipulating small entities of metallic, semiconductor, and biological materials. This work has been conducted under the guidance of the author's thesis advisors, Prof. Robert C. Cammarata, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University

  6. 26 CFR 301.7701-3 - Classification of certain business entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... January 1, 1997. (2) Prior treatment of existing entities. In the case of a business entity that is not... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of certain business entities... of certain business entities. (a) In general. A business entity that is not classified as...

  7. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Sung, Kang; Chang-Ho, Hong; Jino, Heo; Jong-In, Lim; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Korea University.

  8. Overview of the INEX 2008 Entity Ranking Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demartini, Gianluca; de Vries, Arjen P.; Iofciu, Tereza; Zhu, Jianhan

    In many contexts a search engine user would prefer to retrieve entities instead of just documents. Example queries include “Italian nobel prize winners”, “Formula 1 drivers that won the Monaco Grand Prix”, or “German spoken Swiss cantons”. The XML Entity Ranking (XER) track at INEX creates a discussion forum aimed at standardizing evaluation procedures for entity retrieval. This paper describes the XER tasks and the evaluation procedure used at the XER track in 2008, focusing specifically on the sampled pooling strategy applied first this year. We conclude with a brief discussion of the predominant participant approaches and their effectiveness.

  9. Education and Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hywel

    2005-01-01

    A review of the articles on modernization in Australia, England, New Zealand, Scotland and the USA demonstrates and discusses the complexity attached to the concept. This also enables a better understanding of the contention and controversy that surrounds the concept and its application to educational policy and practice. Modernization policies in…

  10. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  11. Modern Soviet Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishkov, Valery

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Marxist theoretical bases and research objectives of modern Soviet historiography. Soviet historians concentrate on the historical developments of social organization and the analysis of laws governing progress in human society. The author describes current Soviet historical work on Russian, world, ancient, medieval, modern, and…

  12. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  13. 42 CFR 401.705 - Eligibility criteria for qualified entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Availability of Medicare Data for Performance Measurement § 401.705 Eligibility criteria for qualified entities. (a) Eligibility criteria: To be... data. (iii) Successfully combining claims data from different payers to calculate performance...

  14. 42 CFR 401.705 - Eligibility criteria for qualified entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Availability of Medicare Data for Performance Measurement § 401.705 Eligibility criteria for qualified entities. (a) Eligibility criteria: To be... data. (iii) Successfully combining claims data from different payers to calculate performance...

  15. Data Base Design Using Entity-Relationship Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathi Hogshead

    1983-01-01

    The entity-relationship (ER) approach to database design is defined, and a specific example of an ER model (personnel-payroll) is examined. The requirements for converting ER models into specific database management systems are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  16. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards..., notice is hereby given that the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board is seeking input on...

  17. Ambulatory surgery center joint ventures involving tax-exempt entities.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Pristave, R J; McConnell, W

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the tax-exempt related issues for ambulatory surgery center joint ventures involving tax-exempt entities. The article analyzes the key points of analysis of the guidance released by the IRS, in particular General Counsel Memorandum 39862, Revenue Ruling 98-15, and Redlands Surgical Services v. Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service. These key points include whether the venture results in private inurement to insiders and whether the venture furthers the charitable purposes of the tax-exempt entity. The article also provides practical guidance to analyze the documents and structure of the joint venture to ensure compliance with the IRS guidance. These practical considerations include, among other things, whether the charitable purposes of the tax-exempt entity are clearly expressed in the documents and whether the tax-exempt entity has sufficient control over the joint venture to ensure the charitable purposes are being adhered to.

  18. 7 CFR 760.908 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolved entity must be provided. (c) If a participant is now a dissolved general partnership or joint venture, all members of the general partnership or joint venture at the time of dissolution or their...

  19. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  20. Rediscovering Perifollicular Elastolysis: A Hitherto Undocumented Entity in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shyam B; Nandkumar, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Perifollicular elastolysis, also known as papular acne scars is a common but taken for granted entity. It appears as asymptomatic whitish yellow papules on the trunk and proximal arms. Histologically there is loss of elastin around the pilosebaceous follicles. The lesions are the result of a scarring process that appear as papules and are often mistaken for papules of acne and are treated. A knowledge of this entity which has never been described before in India is being reiterated. PMID:26677277

  1. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets.

  2. The nanosilica hazard: another variable entity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are produced on an industrial scale and are an addition to a growing number of commercial products. SNPs also have great potential for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Contrary to the well-studied crystalline micron-sized silica, relatively little information exists on the toxicity of its amorphous and nano-size forms. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, kinetics and unusual bioactivity, their potential biological effects may differ greatly from those of micron-size bulk materials. In this review, we summarize the physico-chemical properties of the different nano-sized silica materials that can affect their interaction with biological systems, with a specific emphasis on inhalation exposure. We discuss recent in vitro and in vivo investigations into the toxicity of nanosilica, both crystalline and amorphous. Most of the in vitro studies of SNPs report results of cellular uptake, size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity, increased reactive oxygen species levels and pro-inflammatory stimulation. Evidence from a limited number of in vivo studies demonstrates largely reversible lung inflammation, granuloma formation and focal emphysema, with no progressive lung fibrosis. Clearly, more research with standardized materials is needed to enable comparison of experimental data for the different forms of nanosilicas and to establish which physico-chemical properties are responsible for the observed toxicity of SNPs. PMID:21126379

  3. Using Workflows to Explore and Optimise Named Entity Recognition for Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Hawizy, Lezan; Murray-Rust, Peter; Tsujii, Junichi; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry text mining tools should be interoperable and adaptable regardless of system-level implementation, installation or even programming issues. We aim to abstract the functionality of these tools from the underlying implementation via reconfigurable workflows for automatically identifying chemical names. To achieve this, we refactored an established named entity recogniser (in the chemistry domain), OSCAR and studied the impact of each component on the net performance. We developed two reconfigurable workflows from OSCAR using an interoperable text mining framework, U-Compare. These workflows can be altered using the drag-&-drop mechanism of the graphical user interface of U-Compare. These workflows also provide a platform to study the relationship between text mining components such as tokenisation and named entity recognition (using maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM) and pattern recognition based classifiers). Results indicate that, for chemistry in particular, eliminating noise generated by tokenisation techniques lead to a slightly better performance than others, in terms of named entity recognition (NER) accuracy. Poor tokenisation translates into poorer input to the classifier components which in turn leads to an increase in Type I or Type II errors, thus, lowering the overall performance. On the Sciborg corpus, the workflow based system, which uses a new tokeniser whilst retaining the same MEMM component, increases the F-score from 82.35% to 84.44%. On the PubMed corpus, it recorded an F-score of 84.84% as against 84.23% by OSCAR. PMID:21633495

  4. 78 FR 3317 - Removal of Persons From the Entity List Based on Removal Request; Implementation of Entity List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Certain Persons to the Entity List'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 61249). This rule amends the Entity... CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002), as extended by the Notice of August 15, 2012, 77 FR 49699 (August 16.... 7201 et seq.; 22 ] U.S.C. 7210; E.O. 12058, 43 FR 20947, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 179; E.O. 12851, 58...

  5. Pattern formation in Dictyostelium via the dynamics of cooperative biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    1993-12-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum exhibits a variety of spatial patterns as it aggregates to form a multicellular slug. These patterns arise via the interaction of the aggregating amoebae, either via contact or as mediated by chemical signals involving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). We model this system as a set of reaction-diffusion equations coupled to dynamical biological entities (bions), each of which is endowed with signal receptors and response rules. Simulations of our model reveal a close correspondence with the observed structures. Also, the general framework we propose should be suitable for modeling other biological pattern-forming processes.

  6. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  7. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  8. Foucault and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.

  9. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  10. Physical Properties of Biological Entities: An Introduction to the Ontology of Physics for Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel L.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities—molecules, cells, organs—are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties—energies, volumes, flow rates—of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  11. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets. PMID

  12. [Adjuvants in modern medicine and veterinary].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, V G; Ozherelkov, S V; Sanin, A V; Kozhevnikova, T N

    2014-01-01

    The review is dedicated to immunologic adjuvants--various natural and synthetics substances that are added to vaccines for stimulation of specific immune response, but they do not induce specific response themselves. Critically important is the selection of the correct adjuvants, for which mechanisms of effect on immune system are studied the most. The majority of these mechanisms as well as physical-chemical and biological features of modern adjuvants are analyzed in the review. The problem of safety of adjuvants, types of immune response induced by adjuvants of various nature, excipients that are being verified or already in use in modern medicine and veterinary are also examined.

  13. 2D-3D MIGRATION AND CONFORMATIONAL MULTIPLICATION OF CHEMICALS IN LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions are three-dimensional (3D) in nature and require modeling chemicals as 3D entities. In turn, using 3D models of chemicals leads to the realization that a single 2D structure can have hundreds of different conformations, and the electronic properties of these...

  14. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PMID:24128076

  15. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  16. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  17. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug–drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called ‘AnnSim’ that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1–1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  18. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    PubMed

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  19. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind.

  20. 40 CFR 33.205 - How does an entity become certified by EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... basis of present circumstances. An entity shall not be denied certification based solely on historical... disadvantaged individuals at some time in the past, if the entity currently meets the ownership and/or control... equipment owned by or available to the entity and the licenses the entity and its key personnel possess...

  1. 40 CFR 33.205 - How does an entity become certified by EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... basis of present circumstances. An entity shall not be denied certification based solely on historical... disadvantaged individuals at some time in the past, if the entity currently meets the ownership and/or control... equipment owned by or available to the entity and the licenses the entity and its key personnel possess...

  2. Solitary fibrous tumour of lacrimal gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Narang, Vikram; Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically.

  3. Solitary fibrous tumour of lacrimal gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Narang, Vikram; Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically. PMID:25954627

  4. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-07-15

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  5. Ossification of the bilateral Achilles tendon: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Arora, Abhishek J; Arora, Richa

    2015-09-01

    Ossification of the Achilles tendon is a rare clinical entity comprising of one or more segments of variable sized ossified masses in the fibrocartilaginous substance of the tendon. The etiology of ossification of the Achilles tendon is multifactorial with recurrent trauma and surgery comprising major predisposing factors, with others being metabolic, systemic, and infectious diseases. The possibility of a genetic predisposition towards this entity has also been raised, but has not yet been proven. We present a rare case of ossification of the bilateral Achilles tendons without any history of trauma or surgery in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:26413314

  6. The sky entities as represented in African literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Evelyn N.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical observations used by the ancient people of Africa were developed out of the people's desire to have concrete manifestations of their gods and religious beliefs as well as for time-keeping - day, night and calendar for agricultural and festive seasons. The sky entities (the solar and stellar systems) observed become part of the lives and events here on Earth and so are also part of the context of African literature. This paper examines the ways in which different African peoples have reflected on the role of the sky entities in their literature.

  7. [Heidegger and modern research].

    PubMed

    Reiter, A

    1976-01-01

    The unity of thought content and its corresponding object in reality - an unsolved problem till now - is explicated in a gestaltqualitative-neurobiological way. This gives the opportunity of analyzing Heidegger's concepts of truth as "lichtendes Bergen", of "Gestimmtheit" and "Angst", of life and death and "Dasein" in an actualgenetic framework. In opposition to Heidegger's postulation of the non-thinking modern science it results that Heidegger's conceptualization of thought contents is emphasizing primarily the aspects of unity and constancy versus division of unity and complexity by the modern science.

  8. 15 CFR 744.11 - License requirements that apply to entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section by adding an entity to the Entity List (Supp. No. 4 to this part) with a reference to this section and by stating on the Entity List the license requirements and license application review policy that apply to that entity. BIS may remove an entity from the Entity List if it is no longer engaged in...

  9. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  10. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  11. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  12. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  13. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  14. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  15. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  16. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  17. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  18. Modern splinting bandages.

    PubMed

    Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; Ledingham, W M; Wardlaw, D; Ritchie, I K

    1991-01-01

    We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, using physical and mechanical tests and the subjective opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive, and potentially more hazardous. PMID:1991785

  19. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  20. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  1. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  2. Business Entity Selection: Why It Matters to Healthcare Practitioners. Part II--Corporations, Limited Liability Companies, and Professional Entities.

    PubMed

    Nithman, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor statistics indicates only a 50% four-year survivability rate among businesses classified as "education and health services." Gaining knowledge of IRS business entities can result in cost savings, operational efficiency, reduced liability, and enhanced sustainability. Each entity has unique disadvantages, depending on size, diversity of ownership, desire to expand, and profitability. Business structures should be compatible with organizational mission or vision statements, services and products, and professional codes of ethics. Healthcare reform will require greater business acumen. We have an ethical duty to disseminate and acquire the knowledge to properly establish and manage healthcare practices to ensure sustainable services that protect and serve the community.

  3. Contained Entity of an Educational Innovation: The Realities of Micropolitics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raksit, Mandira

    2006-01-01

    This study was about a single case of educational innovation and excellence in educational technology in a secondary school in Ontario. The researcher explored the question of how the innovation resulted from an individual effort and attainment remained a "contained entity" after its decade-long existence. From the lenses of multiple realities,…

  4. Integrating Real World Entities into an Academic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Terrance; Schlesinger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This research will demonstrate how an experiential learning practicum can be successfully implemented into an academic curriculum, using Drexel University's (Philadelphia, PA) award-winning student-run record label, MAD Dragon Records, as a case study. It will describe the components necessary to implement and operate a real-world entity within…

  5. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  6. 42 CFR 438.808 - Exclusion of entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Conditions for Federal Financial Participation § 438.808..., directly or indirectly, for the furnishing of health care, utilization review, medical social work, or administrative services, with one of the following: (i) Any individual or entity excluded from participation...

  7. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history.

  8. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  9. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  10. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  11. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  12. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identity of the counterparty's ultimate parent, shall be reported, by means of self-registration, third... identity of the legal entity's ultimate parent. Parent means, for the purposes of § 45.6, a legal person... identifier system designated by the Commission pursuant to this section. Self-registration means...

  13. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  14. Pseudopsychopathic schizophrenia--a neglected diagnostic entity with legal implications.

    PubMed

    Durst, R; Jabotinsky-Rubin, K; Fliman, M

    1997-01-01

    Pseudopsychopathic schizophrenia (PPS) forms a diagnostic unity, comprising aspects of schizophrenic process and antisocial personality disorder. Perusal of the psychiatric literature reveals that this diagnostic entity has fallen into oblivion. Recognition of this neglected category is important from therapeutic, academic and medico-legal points of view.

  15. 78 FR 50396 - Common Format for Federal Entity Transition Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... plans to be developed by federal entities to facilitate the relocation of, and spectrum sharing with, U.S. Government stations in spectrum bands reallocated from federal use to non-federal use, or to... and 1755-1780 MHz bands. DATES: Submit comments on or before September 18, 2013. ADDRESSES:...

  16. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  17. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  18. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  19. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  20. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  1. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... inventories, and a certification that, to the best of the certifier's knowledge, the direct greenhouse gas... the entity's report, such as landfill gas recovery or forest sequestration; (7) A certification...

  2. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... inventories, and a certification that, to the best of the certifier's knowledge, the direct greenhouse gas... the entity's report, such as landfill gas recovery or forest sequestration; (7) A certification...

  3. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... inventories, and a certification that, to the best of the certifier's knowledge, the direct greenhouse gas... the entity's report, such as landfill gas recovery or forest sequestration; (7) A certification...

  4. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... inventories, and a certification that, to the best of the certifier's knowledge, the direct greenhouse gas... the entity's report, such as landfill gas recovery or forest sequestration; (7) A certification...

  5. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... inventories, and a certification that, to the best of the certifier's knowledge, the direct greenhouse gas... the entity's report, such as landfill gas recovery or forest sequestration; (7) A certification...

  6. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history.

  7. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  8. 77 FR 66566 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ..., FHFA published for comment in the Federal Register a proposed rule, and invited comments. See 77 FR...; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 RIN 2590-AA47 Stress Testing of Regulated Entities AGENCY... notice of proposed rulemaking for public comment concerning stress testing of the Federal...

  9. 22 CFR 96.8 - Fees charged by accrediting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees charged by accrediting entities. 96.8 Section 96.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... limited to, costs for completing the accreditation or approval process, complaint review and...

  10. GASB's New Standard on Reporting Entity for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, W. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Explains the impact on school district financial reporting of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 14, "The Financial Reporting Entity." One of Statement 14's objectives is for financial report users to be able to distinguish between the primary government and its component units. (MLF)

  11. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis (IEMPP): A controversial entity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y Z; Koh, W L; Ang, C C

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old man with a 6-month history of progressive development of hyperpigmented, velvety plaques on the face and body. A diagnosis of idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis (IEMPP) was determined. This entity is discussed. PMID:27617467

  12. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  13. Design and Construction of an Entity Resolution System that Supports Entity Identity Information Management and Asserted Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric Derrand

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and construction of an open source, entity resolution system that enables users to assign and maintain persistent identifiers for master data items. Two key features of this system that are not available in current ER systems and that make persistent identification possible are (1) The capture and management of…

  14. Post modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Dacher, E S

    1996-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that our current approach to health and healing is undergoing substantial change, there has been a lack of critical discussion regarding the extent, character, and direction of that change. It is important for us to articulate the values that we would like expressed in a reconfigured approach to health and healing, and to ensure that our efforts to initiate change are aligned with these values. An overview of western history suggests that the post-modern world view is characterized by four essential values: multidimensional realism, intentionality, holism, and personal authenticity. Our current efforts to change the direction of health care have failed to produce fundamental change. This has resulted from the compelling influence of existing perspectives and the promotion of parochial professional and institutional interests. To assure fundamental change, values that are consistent with a post-modern world must be articulated, fostered, and embedded into innovative programs.

  15. Modern anaesthesia vapourisers.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-09-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers.

  16. COMPUTING THERAPY FOR PRECISION MEDICINE: COLLABORATIVE FILTERING INTEGRATES AND PREDICTS MULTI-ENTITY INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    REGENBOGEN, SAM; WILKINS, ANGELA D.; LICHTARGE, OLIVIER

    2015-01-01

    Biomedicine produces copious information it cannot fully exploit. Specifically, there is considerable need to integrate knowledge from disparate studies to discover connections across domains. Here, we used a Collaborative Filtering approach, inspired by online recommendation algorithms, in which non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) predicts interactions among chemicals, genes, and diseases only from pairwise information about their interactions. Our approach, applied to matrices derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, successfully recovered Chemical-Disease, Chemical-Gene, and Disease-Gene networks in 10-fold cross-validation experiments. Additionally, we could predict each of these interaction matrices from the other two. Integrating all three CTD interaction matrices with NMF led to good predictions of STRING, an independent, external network of protein-protein interactions. Finally, this approach could integrate the CTD and STRING interaction data to improve Chemical-Gene cross-validation performance significantly, and, in a time-stamped study, it predicted information added to CTD after a given date, using only data prior to that date. We conclude that collaborative filtering can integrate information across multiple types of biological entities, and that as a first step towards precision medicine it can compute drug repurposing hypotheses. PMID:26776170

  17. [Chemical compound safety: typology of competency accreditation for assay centers and analytical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Menditto, Antonio; Chiodo, Ferdinando

    2002-01-01

    The use of chemicals warrants many benefits on which modern society is entirely dependent. On the other hand, the lack of reliable information about the impact of the use of chemicals raises increasing concern. In order to guarantee the safety of chemicals it is mandatory to proceed to risk assessment, which in turn consists of hazard evaluation and exposure estimation. These activities are strictly dependent upon the availability of reliable data and information, produced by, e.g., test facilities, test laboratories and clinical laboratories, the specific competence of which has been properly recognised. All this applies in the pre-marketing phase as well as during the use of chemical substances. In this latter phase it is necessary to carry out an appropriate monitoring of environment, food and, in specific situations, human beings (biological monitoring). In the field of chemical safety, standards, legal instruments and operative instruments are nowadays available. These tools make it possible to assess both the quality of data and the competence of the entities involved in the production of the data themselves.

  18. Parts function as perceptual organizational entities in infancy.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2013-08-01

    Both objects and parts function as organizational entities in adult perception. Prior research has indicated that objects affect organization early in life: Infants grouped elements located within object boundaries and segregated them from those located on different objects. Here, we examined whether parts also induce grouping in infancy. Five- and 6.5-month-olds were habituated to two-part objects containing element pairs. In a subsequent test, infants treated groupings of elements that crossed part boundaries as novel, in comparison with groupings that had shared a common part during habituation. In contrast, the same arrangement of elements failed to elicit evidence of grouping in control conditions in which the elements were not surrounded by closed part boundaries. Thus, infants grouped and segregated elements on the basis of part structure. Part-based processing is a key aspect of many theories of perception. The present research adds to this literature by indicating that parts function as organizational entities early in life.

  19. "Disease entity" as the key theoretical concept of medicine.

    PubMed

    Hucklenbroich, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Philosophical debates about the concept of disease, particularly of mental disease, might benefit from reconsideration and a closer look at the established terminology and conceptual structure of contemporary medical pathology and clinical nosology. The concepts and principles of medicine differ, to a considerable extent, from the ideas and notions of philosophical theories of disease. In medical theory, the concepts of disease entity and pathologicity are, besides the concept of disease itself, of fundamental importance, and they are essentially connected to the concepts cause of disease or etiological factor, natural course or natural history of disease, and pathological disposition. It is the concept of disease entity that is of key importance for understanding medical pathology and theory of disease. Its central role is shown by a short reconstruction of its main features and its intrinsic connection to the concept of pathologicity. The meaning of pathologicity is elucidated by explicating the underlying criteria.

  20. Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC) of Condylar Head: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Managutti, Anil; Managutti, Sunita; Patel, Harsh; Menat, Shailesh

    2016-07-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental jaw cyst, considered as distinct entity from odontogenic keratocysts as it exhibits a less aggressive behaviour and a very low rate of recurrence. Most commonly occurs in mandibular molar and ramus region, rarely seen in maxilla and mandibular premolar area. But till now never reported in condyle, this article describes a case of OOC involving the mandibular condylar head in a 41-year-old male. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as TMD based on the clinical features, but radiographic evaluation revealed osteolytic lesion in right side condylar head. Condylotomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. We report a rare entity in this article with its management.

  1. Entity-Centric Abstraction and Modeling Framework for Transportation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewe, Jung-Ho; DeLaurentis, Daniel A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive framework for representing transpportation architectures is presented. After discussing a series of preceding perspectives and formulations, the intellectual underpinning of the novel framework using an entity-centric abstraction of transportation is described. The entities include endogenous and exogenous factors and functional expressions are offered that relate these and their evolution. The end result is a Transportation Architecture Field which permits analysis of future concepts under the holistic perspective. A simulation model which stems from the framework is presented and exercised producing results which quantify improvements in air transportation due to advanced aircraft technologies. Finally, a modeling hypothesis and its accompanying criteria are proposed to test further use of the framework for evaluating new transportation solutions.

  2. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  3. Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC) of Condylar Head: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Managutti, Anil; Managutti, Sunita; Patel, Harsh; Menat, Shailesh

    2016-07-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental jaw cyst, considered as distinct entity from odontogenic keratocysts as it exhibits a less aggressive behaviour and a very low rate of recurrence. Most commonly occurs in mandibular molar and ramus region, rarely seen in maxilla and mandibular premolar area. But till now never reported in condyle, this article describes a case of OOC involving the mandibular condylar head in a 41-year-old male. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as TMD based on the clinical features, but radiographic evaluation revealed osteolytic lesion in right side condylar head. Condylotomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. We report a rare entity in this article with its management. PMID:27408460

  4. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual Pathological Entity Mimicking Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, M; Gill, MK; Singh, DP

    2013-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and histopathologically turned out as xanthogranulomatous endometritis. So, this condition should always be dealt with caution, and pathologists and clinicians should be aware of it. PMID:24349850

  5. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

  6. Considering context: reliable entity networks through contextual relationship extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy; Hansen, Nichole; Nolan, James J.

    2016-05-01

    Existing information extraction techniques can only partially address the problem of exploiting unreadable-large amounts text. When discussion of events and relationships is limited to simple, past-tense, factual descriptions of events, current NLP-based systems can identify events and relationships and extract a limited amount of additional information. But the simple subset of available information that existing tools can extract from text is only useful to a small set of users and problems. Automated systems need to find and separate information based on what is threatened or planned to occur, has occurred in the past, or could potentially occur. We address the problem of advanced event and relationship extraction with our event and relationship attribute recognition system, which labels generic, planned, recurring, and potential events. The approach is based on a combination of new machine learning methods, novel linguistic features, and crowd-sourced labeling. The attribute labeler closes the gap between structured event and relationship models and the complicated and nuanced language that people use to describe them. Our operational-quality event and relationship attribute labeler enables Warfighters and analysts to more thoroughly exploit information in unstructured text. This is made possible through 1) More precise event and relationship interpretation, 2) More detailed information about extracted events and relationships, and 3) More reliable and informative entity networks that acknowledge the different attributes of entity-entity relationships.

  7. Unsupervised entity and relation extraction from clinical records in Italian.

    PubMed

    Alicante, Anita; Corazza, Anna; Isgrò, Francesco; Silvestri, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes and discusses the use of text mining techniques for the extraction of information from clinical records written in Italian. However, as it is very difficult and expensive to obtain annotated material for languages different from English, we only consider unsupervised approaches, where no annotated training set is necessary. We therefore propose a complete system that is structured in two steps. In the first one domain entities are extracted from the clinical records by means of a metathesaurus and standard natural language processing tools. The second step attempts to discover relations between the entity pairs extracted from the whole set of clinical records. For this last step we investigate the performance of unsupervised methods such as clustering in the space of entity pairs, represented by an ad hoc feature vector. The resulting clusters are then automatically labelled by using the most significant features. The system has been tested on a fairly large data set of clinical records in Italian, investigating the variation in the performance adopting different similarity measures in the feature space. The results of our experiments show that the unsupervised approach proposed is promising and well suited for a semi-automatic labelling of the extracted relations. PMID:26851833

  8. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-10-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  9. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-08-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  10. Modeling discrete and continuous entities with fractions and decimals.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Monica; Bassok, Miriam; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-03-01

    When people use mathematics to model real-life situations, their use of mathematical expressions is often mediated by semantic alignment (Bassok, Chase, & Martin, 1998): The entities in a problem situation evoke semantic relations (e.g., tulips and vases evoke the functionally asymmetric "contain" relation), which people align with analogous mathematical relations (e.g., the noncommutative division operation, tulips/vases). Here we investigate the possibility that semantic alignment is also involved in the comprehension and use of rational numbers (fractions and decimals). A textbook analysis and results from two experiments revealed that both mathematic educators and college students tend to align the discreteness versus continuity of the entities in word problems (e.g., marbles vs. distance) with distinct symbolic representations of rational numbers--fractions versus decimals, respectively. In addition, fractions and decimals tend to be used with nonmetric units and metric units, respectively. We discuss the importance of the ontological distinction between continuous and discrete entities to mathematical cognition, the role of symbolic notations, and possible implications of our findings for the teaching of rational numbers.

  11. Biological correlates of modernization in a Guatemalan highland municipio.

    PubMed

    Scholl, T O; Odell, M E

    1976-01-01

    The demographic correlates of modernization were studied in a municipio of the Guatemalan highlands using, as indicators of modernization, the introduction of chemical fertilizers and of a religous revitalization movement. Accion Catolica. Records, taken from interviews, of 340 women divided into declines (decennial groups) within ten-year birth cohorts extending from before 1925 to 1954, were checked for representativeness against the birth registries for the entire municipio for the years 1965-69.

  12. Biological correlates of modernization in a Guatemalan highland municipio.

    PubMed

    Scholl, T O; Odell, M E

    1976-01-01

    The demographic correlates of modernization were studied in a municipio of the Guatemalan highlands using, as indicators of modernization, the introduction of chemical fertilizers and of a religous revitalization movement. Accion Catolica. Records, taken from interviews, of 340 women divided into declines (decennial groups) within ten-year birth cohorts extending from before 1925 to 1954, were checked for representativeness against the birth registries for the entire municipio for the years 1965-69. PMID:1275431

  13. Field emission chemical sensor for receptor/binder, such as antigen/antibody

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  14. The Effect of Realistic Contexts on Ontological Judgments of Novel Entities

    PubMed Central

    Van Reet, Jennifer; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2014-01-01

    Although a great deal of research has focused on ontological judgments in preschoolers, very little has examined ontological judgments in older children. The present study asked 10-year-olds and adults (N = 94) to judge the reality status of known real, known imagined, and novel entities presented in simple and elaborate contexts and to explain their judgments. Although judgments were generally apt, participants were more likely to endorse imagined and novel entities when the entities were presented in elaborate contexts. When asked to explain their reasoning, participants at both ages cited firsthand experience for real entities and general knowledge for imagined entities. For novel entities, participants referred most to indirect experiences when entities were presented in simple contexts and to general knowledge when those entities were presented in elaborate contexts. These results suggest that rich contextual information continues to be an important influence on ontological judgments past the preschool years. PMID:25914442

  15. 78 FR 64234 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Responsibilities. OMB Approval Number: 2506-0087. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection..., ``Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities'' requires units...

  16. 77 FR 68132 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antiasthmatic Drug Products for Over... small business entities entitled ``Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator... business entities entitled ``Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator,...

  17. 22 CFR 96.78 - Accrediting entity procedures to terminate adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accrediting entity that the deficiencies that led to the adverse action have been corrected. The accrediting... demonstrates to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the specific deficiencies that led to...

  18. 40 CFR 33.205 - How does an entity become certified by EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disadvantaged individuals at some time in the past, if the entity currently meets the ownership and/or control... determination. Consideration of whether an entity performs a commercially useful function or is a regular...

  19. 36 CFR 1211.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization. ... other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1211.205 Section 1211.205 Parks, Forests, and... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  20. 76 FR 47593 - Guidance for Small Business Entities on Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... a guidance for small business entities entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice... entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP); Small Entity Compliance Guide.''...

  1. 22 CFR 96.78 - Accrediting entity procedures to terminate adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accrediting entity that the deficiencies that led to the adverse action have been corrected. The accrediting... demonstrates to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the specific deficiencies that led to...

  2. The first modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known.

  3. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  4. Modern quantitative schlieren techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

    2010-11-01

    Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. Modern schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured refractive index gradient to obtain the refractive index field in an image. Ultimately this is converted to a density or temperature field using the Gladstone-Dale relationship, an equation of state, and geometry assumptions for the flowfield of interest. Several quantitative schlieren methods are reviewed here, including background-oriented schlieren (BOS), schlieren using a weak lens as a "standard," and "rainbow schlieren." Results are presented for the application of these techniques to measure density and temperature fields across a supersonic turbulent boundary layer and a low-speed free-convection boundary layer in air. Modern equipment, including digital cameras, LED light sources, and computer software that make this possible are also discussed.

  5. Preclinical imaging: an essential ally in modern biosciences.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Lídia; Horvath, Ildiko; Ferreira, Sara; Lemos, Joana; Costa, Pedro; Vieira, Domingos; Veres, Dániel S; Szigeti, Krisztián; Summavielle, Teresa; Máthé, Domokos; Metello, Luís F

    2014-04-01

    continue to broaden the horizons of research in such key areas as infection, oncology, cardiology, and neurology, contributing not only to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease, but also providing efficient and unique tools for evaluating new chemical entities and candidate drugs. The added value of small-animal imaging techniques has driven their increasing use by pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, and research institutions.

  6. 77 FR 31806 - Changes to Implement Micro Entity Status for Paying Patent Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC78 Changes to Implement Micro Entity... to amend the rules of practice in patent cases to implement the micro entity provision of the Leahy... Leahy-Smith America Invents Act will be reduced by seventy-five percent for micro entities. The...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6233-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership...

  8. 49 CFR 37.41 - Construction of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... public entities. 37.41 Section 37.41 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... transportation facilities by public entities. (a) A public entity shall construct any new facility to be used in providing designated public transportation services so that the facility is readily accessible to and...

  9. Collaborative human-machine analysis to disambiguate entities in unstructured text and structured datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Jack H.

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence analysts demand rapid information fusion capabilities to develop and maintain accurate situational awareness and understanding of dynamic enemy threats in asymmetric military operations. The ability to extract relationships between people, groups, and locations from a variety of text datasets is critical to proactive decision making. The derived network of entities must be automatically created and presented to analysts to assist in decision making. DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation (DAC) provides capabilities to automatically extract entities, relationships between entities, semantic concepts about entities, and network models of entities from text and multi-source datasets. DAC's Natural Language Processing (NLP) Entity Analytics model entities as complex systems of attributes and interrelationships which are extracted from unstructured text via NLP algorithms. The extracted entities are automatically disambiguated via machine learning algorithms, and resolution recommendations are presented to the analyst for validation; the analyst's expertise is leveraged in this hybrid human/computer collaborative model. Military capability is enhanced by these NLP Entity Analytics because analysts can now create/update an entity profile with intelligence automatically extracted from unstructured text, thereby fusing entity knowledge from structured and unstructured data sources. Operational and sustainment costs are reduced since analysts do not have to manually tag and resolve entities.

  10. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise... Commerce entity may compromise the Commerce debt in accordance with the provisions of 31 CFR part 902 and the Commerce entity's policies and procedures. Legal counsel approval to compromise a Commerce debt...

  11. 34 CFR 75.62 - Requirements applicable to entities making certain awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements applicable to entities making certain awards. 75.62 Section 75.62 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT... to entities making certain awards. (a) An entity that provides a fellowship, scholarship,...

  12. 5 CFR 581.501 - Rules, regulations, and directives by governmental entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules, regulations, and directives by... Governmental Entities § 581.501 Rules, regulations, and directives by governmental entities. Appropriate officials of all governmental entities shall, to the extent necessary, issue implementing rules,...

  13. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  14. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  15. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  16. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  17. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  18. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... List). (See also § 744.1(c) of the EAR.) A license is required, to the extent specified on the Entity List, to export, reexport, or transfer (in-country) any item subject to the EAR to such entities. (b... EAR to these entities will be reviewed with a presumption of denial....

  19. 43 CFR 46.320 - Adopting environmental assessments prepared by another agency, entity, or person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by another agency, entity, or person. 46.320 Section 46.320 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Assessments § 46.320 Adopting environmental assessments prepared by another agency, entity, or person. (a) A Responsible Official may adopt an environmental assessment prepared by another agency, entity, or...

  20. 43 CFR 46.320 - Adopting environmental assessments prepared by another agency, entity, or person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prepared by another agency, entity, or person. 46.320 Section 46.320 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Assessments § 46.320 Adopting environmental assessments prepared by another agency, entity, or person. (a) A Responsible Official may adopt an environmental assessment prepared by another agency, entity, or...

  1. 43 CFR 46.320 - Adopting environmental assessments prepared by another agency, entity, or person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prepared by another agency, entity, or person. 46.320 Section 46.320 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Assessments § 46.320 Adopting environmental assessments prepared by another agency, entity, or person. (a) A Responsible Official may adopt an environmental assessment prepared by another agency, entity, or...

  2. 7 CFR 1486.200 - What entities are eligible to participate in the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participate in the program? To participate in the EMP, U.S. private or government entities must demonstrate a... consist of federal, state, and local agencies. Private entities include non-profit trade associations, universities, agricultural cooperatives, state regional trade groups, and profit-making entities and...

  3. 22 CFR 140.9 - Other non-governmental entities and individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Section 140.9 applies to private voluntary agencies, educational institutions, for-profit firms, other non-governmental entities and private individuals. A non-governmental entity that is not organized under the laws.... and foreign non-governmental entities. Examples: (1) A $100,000 grant to a covered U.S. university...

  4. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  5. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  6. 12 CFR 1238.6 - Post-assessment actions by regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post-assessment actions by regulated entities. 1238.6 Section 1238.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS... entity shall take the results of the stress test conducted under § 1238.3 into account in making...

  7. 10 CFR 455.104 - Rebates from utilities and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rebates from utilities and other entities. 455.104 Section... from utilities and other entities. (a) Grantees which receive rebates or other monetary considerations from utilities or other entities for installing the energy conservation measures funded by a...

  8. 22 CFR 96.76 - Procedures governing adverse action by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Action by the Accrediting Entity § 96.76 Procedures governing adverse action by the accrediting entity. (a) The accrediting entity must decide which adverse action to take based on the seriousness and type... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures governing adverse action by...

  9. 22 CFR 96.76 - Procedures governing adverse action by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Action by the Accrediting Entity § 96.76 Procedures governing adverse action by the accrediting entity. (a) The accrediting entity must decide which adverse action to take based on the seriousness and type... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures governing adverse action by...

  10. 75 FR 38691 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-43; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-43; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCIES... Administration (NASA). ACTION: Small Entity Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: This document is issued under the joint... National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This Small Entity Compliance Guide has been prepared...

  11. Access to modern contraception.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. PMID:16443395

  12. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  13. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  14. Modern tandem control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J. R.; Marsaudon, J. C.

    1993-04-01

    Nowadays, tandem electrostatic accelerators can benefit greatly from the growing possibilities provided by modern control facilities. Controlling an electrostatic accelerator first requires the solution of technological problems raised by the necessity of fitting inside the tank equipment which is highly stressed by the physical environment. Then, these controls can take advantage of new techniques which appear on the market. Present computer technology provides cheap powerful workstations for efficient operator interfacing, and new modular and distributed control concepts have been developed for general use in experimental physics, in data acquisition and in control systems. The general trend towards standardization is now accepted for both hardware and software and this brings benefits to the designer and the user.

  15. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  16. The dual origin of modern humanity.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Living Homo sapiens can define itself using both behavioral and anatomical uniquenesses. But is this possible when looking backward? Using a strict morphological definition, Homo sapiens can probably be traced back in the fossil record to about 150 kyr ago, which fits well with molecular estimates for the ancestor of all living human populations. However, activities reliably indicating established symbolic cognition can be recognized in the archaeological record only back to under 100 kyr ago. Since it is probable that the potential for symbolic cognition was born in the genetic/structural alterations that also gave rise to the distinctive morphological entity Homo sapiens, it appears that the expression of the human symbolic cognitive potential had to await, for many millennia, the >discovery< of that potential through a cultural rather than a biological stimulus. Most plausibly, this stimulus was the invention of language. Modern human symbolic cognition is not an extrapolation of pre-existing evolutionary trends, suggesting that Homo sapiens is not biologically >fine-tuned< for any specific behavior patterns.

  17. [Paraphrenia: the modernity of Emil Kraepelin's thinking].

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica

    2010-01-01

    Paraphrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder similar to paranoid schizophrenia, but with a better-preserved affect and rapport, and a much less personality deterioration. It was at first described by Kraepelin in 1913 as a group of patients who exhibited delusional symptoms typical of dementia praecox, but with minimal disturbances of emotion and volition. After the publication of Mayer-Gross's report in 1921, the view to differentiate paraphrenia from schizophrenia was considered to be unfounded and the term "paraphrenia" was not included in the current DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Consequently, this disorder is now diagnosed relatively infrequently. However, several authors have recently suggested that the paraphrenia concept has not lost its usefulness. It seems to be that many psychiatrists recognize the illness, but labelled it as "atypical psychosis", "schizoaffective disorder" or "psychotic disorder not otherwise specified" for the lack of a better diagnostic category. Very few systematic studies on paraphrenia have been conducted in the past 70 years. Aim of this article is to underline the modernity of Kraepelin's thinking and his "paraphrenia" concept, suggesting that it could be possible to define and recognize the illness if practitioners would be induced to use a viable diagnostic entity. PMID:20568578

  18. [Modern disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, U; Richter, K; Tarner, I H

    2015-03-01

    The term modern disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) includes not only the constantly growing family of DMARDs for chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases but also the repositioning of established drugs in updated and novel algorithms of the different entities. The usual precursor for these developments is rheumatoid arthritis for which completely revised and updated guidelines have been published not only in Germany but also on the European level. In addition, label extensions to existing drugs have been granted for connective tissue diseases and vasculitides, e.g. anti-CD20 antibodies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides and belimumab for systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, several novel drugs, especially of the biologics class, have been either introduced in clinical rheumatology or are close to being licensed and include ustekinumab for psoriatic arthritis, granulocyte growth inhibitors and janus kinase inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis and atacicept for systemic lupus erythematosus. With the termination of the patent for several biologics, a new momentum also took place: the approval of the so-called biosimilars which has already initiated intensive discussions not only with respect to "similar" effects and side effects but also with respect to their potential impact on economical aspects. PMID:25700648

  19. Relevance of ancient Indian wisdom to modern mental health – A few examples

    PubMed Central

    Shamasundar, C.

    2008-01-01

    The ancient Indian concepts and paradigms relating to mental health are holistic and cover aspects that have been neglected by the modern mental health literature. The latter can borrow, study, and incorporate them in their text books to advantage. The current trend in mental health research is heavily biased in favour of biological aspects of psychological phenomena neglecting the basic entity, the mind. Correction of this partisan tilt is urgently needed. PMID:19742213

  20. Lobodontia: Genetic entity with specific pattern of dental dysmorphology.

    PubMed

    Skrinjaric, Tomislav; Gorseta, Kristina; Skrinjaric, Ilija

    2016-01-01

    A characteristic pattern of dental anomalies including cone-shaped premolars, multitubercular molar crowns, pyramidal molar roots with single root canals, shovel-shaped incisors with palatal invaginations and hypodontia usually described as lobodontia was recognised as a separate entity. Only a few family reports on this condition have been published until now. The prevalence of the condition is estimated to be less than 1:1000,000. In the present paper we tried to delineate and clarify some additional aspects of this rare genetic entity in three families with 17 affected members. This represents the largest number of cases recorded since now. The analyses of dental morphology, crown-size profile patterns, pedigree analyses, and analyses of digitopalmar dermatoglyphics were performed in 7 examined patients. Crown-size profile pattern was calculated for seven patients and compared with standards for the Croatian population. The most striking features of the condition are conical premolars, tritubercular canines, single pyramidal molar roots, multitubercular molar crowns and invaginated upper incisors. A considerable reduction of crown-size was observed for all premolars, particularly in mandible. The alveolar process in the premolar region was hypoplastic and thin in all patients studied. Gender ratio of affected individuals was approximately M1:F1. Our data suggest that the prevalence of this condition is less than 1:300,000 in the Croatian population, which is considerably higher than previously reported in the literature. The analysis of the anomaly in all the families showed a slight variability in the clinical picture and autosomal dominant (AD) mode of inheritance. It could be concluded that this rare condition described as lobodontia represents a true genetic entity which follows AD mode of inheritance and displays variability in its expression.

  1. Using chemical kinetics to model biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Le Novère, Nicolas; Endler, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical kinetics is the study of the rate of reactions transforming some chemical entities into other chemical entities. Over the twentieth century it has become one of the cornerstones of biochemistry. When in the second half of the century basic knowledge of cellular processes became sufficient to understand quantitatively metabolic networks, chemical kinetics associated with systems theory led to the development of what would become an important branch of systems biology. In this chapter we introduce basic concepts of chemical and enzyme kinetics, and show how the temporal evolution of a reaction system can be described by ordinary differential equations. Finally we present a method to apply this type of approach to model any regulatory network.

  2. Plasmablastic lymphoma: an atypical cutaneous presentation of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Mesquita, Bruno; Carvalho, S; Coelho, André; Velho, Glória; Lima, Margarida; Selores, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a very rare B-cell lymphoma typically associated with immunosuppression: It occurs primarily in the oral cavity, although some cases were reported in other organs and tissues.To date, only 10 cases of primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma have been described. Clinically, primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma presents as non-specific cutaneous lesions (purple nodules, erythematous infiltrated plaques). In previously described cases, as in this case, histology and immunohistochemistry are required to make the diagnosis. Owing to the rarity of this entity, there is no established therapy, which makes its management an individualized, patient-based decision. PMID:27617520

  3. Bilateral Systematized Epidermolytic Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek; Saha, Abanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Das, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are congenital, noninflammatory cutaneous hamartomas composed of keratinocytes. They follow the lines of Blaschko and show hyperkeratosis without cellular atypia. The routine histology shows variable amount of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and papillomatosis and rarely epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We saw a 3-year-old boy with bilaterally symmetrical, systematized verrucous plaques along the lines of Blaschko extensively involving the trunk and extremities but sparing the face and palmoplantar skin. Histopathology showed features of epidermal nevi with prominent epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We report here the case for the rarity of this entity. PMID:26288413

  4. Unconsummated marriages: a separate and different clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Leon Roberto; Resnicoff, Diana

    2002-01-01

    We bring our experience in the treatment of unconsummated marriages (UM). We postulate that it is an independent clinical entity. Since 1991, 199 couples with UM have sought treatment in our center in Buenos Aires. A new approach to this problem is based on an intensive treatment session that lasts a whole day and a pledge to pay only if therapy succeeds. The outcome was a success (97%) with coitus consummation. We make a long-term follow up. The advantages are the brevity of the treatment and lack of desertions. We postulate that UM cannot be approached with an individual perspective or with the usual psychotherapy techniques.

  5. The serotonin irritation syndrome--a new clinical entity?

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Malone, D A; Piotrowski, T A

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the possible existence of a "serotonin irritation syndrome" is examined. This syndrome is an anxiety state occurring in the presence of elevated levels of atmospheric or ambient cations and is associated with elevated central and peripheral serotonin levels. Investigation of these cations' effects on microbes, insects, and mammals, including humans, shows a disruption of normal activity. It is suggested that clinicians become acquainted with the potential relationship between cation exposure and serotonin in their treatment of anxious patients. Further research exploring the etiology and diagnostic definition of this entity is urged. PMID:2416736

  6. [Psychomotor disadaptation syndrome: a poorly known clinical entity].

    PubMed

    Lepage, S; Gillain, S; Petermans, J

    2012-02-01

    Psychomotor disadaptation syndrome is a typical geriatric clinical syndrome. It includes postural disorders such as body retropulsion, specific gait disorders, with axial akinesia and hypertonia, and psychobehavioral disorders akin to those found in depression. The diagnosis is essentially based on clinical observation rather than on iconographic data. This syndrome causes falls which induce a fear of falling. The old patient has a tendency to put himself down, to withdraw from society and to lose autonomy. This article briefly describes the physiopathology of the syndrome, recalls the diagnostic tools, and makes some suggestions regarding the care of patients suffering from this clinical entity.

  7. Cold agglutinin disease in sepsis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ravinder; Kukar, Neetu; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Kaur, Shaminder

    2015-01-01

    Cold agglutinin disease (CAgD) is a type of autoimmune hemolytic anemia which generally occurs in adults and is characterized by the presence of IgM antibodies directed against polysaccharide antigens on red blood cell surface. A 16-year-old male, having clinical picture of sepsis and anemia, presented to the Emergency Department of our Institute in an Hemodynamically unstable condition. Investigation profile revealed hemolysis due to CAgD, which responded to corticosteroids, antibiotics and supportive treatment. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this entity in such type of cases presenting with sepsis and anemia. PMID:26229347

  8. Monoclonal gammopathy associated membranous glomerulonephritis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, K. K.; Joshi, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Nada, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopic analysis of the renal biopsy showed thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. Immunofluorescence examination revealed granular deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G3-kappa and complement C3 along the glomerular basement membrane. Electron microscopy showed subepithelial electron dense deposits, thus confirming membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) with monoclonal gammopathy. MGN with monoclonal gammopathy is an extremely rare but distinctive entity. This patient was treated with a combination of bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone and showed partial remission of his nephrotic state and dysproteinemia. PMID:25684873

  9. Autosomal Recessive Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangita; Ghosh, Epsita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, a very rare entity, in a 2-year-old female child of two asymptomatic, consanguineous parents. Their previous child also had a similar condition. Autosomal recessive AED (AR-AED) can have its full expression both in males and females and it is clinically indistinguishable from the x-linked recessive AED (XL-AED), which is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Unlike the partially symptomatic carriers of XL-AED, the heterozygotes of AR-AED are phenotypically asymptomatic. PMID:25071285

  10. Polymicrobial community-acquired pneumonia: An emerging entity.

    PubMed

    Cillóniz, Catia; Civljak, Rok; Nicolini, Antonello; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Polymicrobial aetiology in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is more common than previously recognized. This growing new entity can influence inflammation, host immunity and disease outcomes in CAP patients. However, the true incidence is complicated to determine and probably underestimated due mainly to many cases going undetected, particularly in the outpatient setting, as the diagnostic yield is restricted by the sensitivity of currently available microbiologic tests and the ability to get certain types of clinical specimens. The observed rate of polymicrobial cases may also lead to new antibiotic therapy considerations. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, microbial interactions in pneumonia, epidemiology, biomarkers and antibiotic therapy for polymicrobial CAP.

  11. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  12. [Does brittle diabetes exist as a clinical entity?].

    PubMed

    Eliaschewitz, Freddy Goldberg; Franco, Denise Reis

    2009-06-01

    The best comprehension about the instability of the glycemia levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and the availability of new alternatives to successfully control it, like insulin pump therapy and the insulin analogues, underlined the questions about the brittle diabetes existence as a clinical entity as well as the necessity of define it. The aim of this article was to describe the concept of brittle diabetes in the light of the latest advances in the treatment of type 1 diabetes and propose objective criteria to evaluate the level of glucose liability.

  13. [Eosinophllic meningitis, a very rare entity in Europe].

    PubMed

    Tudisco, Jean-Blaise; Fumeaux, Christophe; Petignat, Pierre-Auguste

    2013-11-13

    Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare entity, which is a complication of an underlying disease. Its diagnosis and treatment is always a challenge for the hospital practitioner. The aim of this case report and review is to identify the most important aetiologies, and show the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of Eosinophilic meningitis. The most frequent causes of Eosinophilic meningitis are parasitic and fungal infections. In Europe Eosinophilic meningitis is essentially seen in travellers returning from endemic areas for these agents. The treatment is directed against the underlying disease and can differ depending on the aetiology and severity of the clinical manifestations.

  14. A rare entity in adults: Bilateral Hutch diverticulum with calculi.

    PubMed

    Telli, Onur; Guclu, Adil Gucal; Haciyev, Perviz; Burgu, Berk; Gogus, Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Congenital bladder diverticulum (CBD) is a very uncommon entity in adults. CBD could be unilateral or bilateral and is caused by a congenital weakness in the bladder musculature. CBD is differentiated from the paraureteral or Hutch type of diverticula. A 42-year-old male presented with bilateral Hutch diverticulum and multiple diverticulum calculus on intravenous pyelography. Cystoscopy revealed bladder diverticulum just medial to the left ureteral orifice with multiple calculi; the patient successfully underwent endoscopic laser cystolithotripsy with resolution of his urinary tract infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report presenting stone formation of CBD in an adult. PMID:26029313

  15. Pineal anlage tumour - a rare entity with divergent histology.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Sharma, B S; Garg, Ajay

    2011-06-01

    Pineal anlage tumour is a rare tumour of the pineal gland that is not listed in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Pineal anlage has been defined as a primary pineal tumour with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation but without endodermal differentiation. We report a pineal anlage tumour in a 4-month-old boy, the youngest patient reported with this rare tumour, with a brief review of the literature. Clinicians and neuropathologists should be aware of this entity as it is likely to be misdiagnosed as a teratoma or a melanocytic tumour of the central nervous system.

  16. Remote-controlling chemical reactions by light: towards chemistry with high spatio-temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Göstl, Robert; Senf, Antti; Hecht, Stefan

    2014-03-21

    The foundation of the chemical enterprise has always been the creation of new molecular entities, such as pharmaceuticals or polymeric materials. Over the past decades, this continuing effort of designing compounds with improved properties has been complemented by a strong effort to render their preparation (more) sustainable by implementing atom as well as energy economic strategies. Therefore, synthetic chemistry is typically concerned with making specific bonds and connections in a highly selective and efficient manner. However, to increase the degree of sophistication and expand the scope of our work, we argue that the modern aspiring chemist should in addition be concerned with attaining (better) control over when and where chemical bonds are being made or broken. For this purpose, photoswitchable molecular systems, which allow for external modulation of chemical reactions by light, are being developed and in this review we are covering the current state of the art of this exciting new field. These "remote-controlled synthetic tools" provide a remarkable opportunity to perform chemical transformations with high spatial and temporal resolution and should therefore allow regulating biological processes as well as material and device performance.

  17. Developing novel chemical entities for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders: an academic perspective.

    PubMed

    Shayman, James A

    2015-12-15

    Historically, most Federal Drug Administration-approved drugs were the result of "in-house" efforts within large pharmaceutical companies. Over the last two decades, this paradigm has steadily shifted as the drug industry turned to startups, small biotechnology companies, and academia for the identification of novel drug targets and early drug candidates. This strategic pivot has created new opportunities for groups less traditionally associated with the creation of novel therapeutics, including small academic laboratories, for engagement in the drug discovery process. A recent example of the successful development of a drug that had its origins in academia is eliglustat tartrate, an oral agent for Gaucher disease type 1. PMID:26447223

  18. High-throughput microsomal stability assay for screening new chemical entities in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Fonsi, Massimiliano; Orsale, Maria V; Monteagudo, Edith

    2008-10-01

    In this work, the authors present a novel, robotic, automated protocol for assessing a metabolic stability protocol assembled on a Hamilton platform and a new strategy for pooling samples (cassette analysis). To increase the high throughput of the liquid chromatography (LC) step, fast chromatography and automated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analytical methods were also developed, and a rapid data analysis system was generated that converts peak areas obtained by LC/MS/MS in intrinsic clearance values. All of the steps of the microsomal stability assay were carefully studied and optimized. Standard errors and confidence intervals of the measured clearances were also automatically generated in the process to allow an immediate evaluation of the significance of observed values. Methods based on pooling analysis of 2 and 4 different analytes were compared with a standard method without pooling. A simple statistical treatment was used to show their equivalence. The different protocols developed were analyzed in terms of the best compromise between accuracy and high-throughput capabilities.

  19. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Chemical Entities from Ibuprofen as Novel Analgesic Candidates.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Naderi, N; Daniali, M; Kazemi, S; Aazami, S; Alizadeh, N; Nahri-Niknafs, B

    2015-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the first choice of drugs that are normally used for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Ibuprofen (I) and its analogues as the most widely used NSAIDs have been synthesized in recent years. In an effort to establish new candidates with improved analgesic properties, derivatives (II-VII) with substituted aromatic as well as aliphatic moieties were synthesized in this experiment and evaluated in formalin test with rats. The results were compared to ibuprofen and control groups. Findings indicated that derivatives with new alkylphenyl rings (VI and VII) had some similar or more analgesic activities relative to the control and ibuprofen groups, respectively; which could be justified as to more alkyl and phenyl groups instead of p-isobutylphenyl moiety in I.

  20. Developing novel chemical entities for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders: an academic perspective.

    PubMed

    Shayman, James A

    2015-12-15

    Historically, most Federal Drug Administration-approved drugs were the result of "in-house" efforts within large pharmaceutical companies. Over the last two decades, this paradigm has steadily shifted as the drug industry turned to startups, small biotechnology companies, and academia for the identification of novel drug targets and early drug candidates. This strategic pivot has created new opportunities for groups less traditionally associated with the creation of novel therapeutics, including small academic laboratories, for engagement in the drug discovery process. A recent example of the successful development of a drug that had its origins in academia is eliglustat tartrate, an oral agent for Gaucher disease type 1.