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Sample records for chemical fertilizers application

  1. [Effects of combined application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers on greenhouse tomato's growth and its fruit yield and quality].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-huan; Chen, Gang; Yuan, Qiao-xia; Lin, Gui-ying; Wang, Zhi-shan; Guo, Cong-ying; Zhong, Hui

    2010-09-01

    With randomized block design, a field experiment was conducted in greenhouse to study the effects of combined application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers on the tomato growth and its fruit yield and quality. The combined application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers benefited the tomato growth and its fruit yield and quality. The yield of the combined application of 60% biogas residues and 40% chemical fertilizers were higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the application of 60% biogas residue and 40% chemical fertilizers also improved significantly, with the Vc content (91.09 mg x kg(-1)) and total sugar content being 21.32 mg x kg(-1) and 2.13% higher than the control, respectively. Among the test fertilization combinations, 60% biogas residue combined with 40% chemical fertilizers was the best one for greenhouse tomato's growth and its fruit yield and quality.

  2. Evaluation of denitrification decomposition model for estimating ammonia fluxes from chemical fertilizer application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model predictions of NH3 fluxes following chemical fertilizer application were evaluated by comparison to relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) measurements, in Central Illinois, United States, over the 2014 growing season of corn. Practical issues for evaluating closu...

  3. [Effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer on winter wheat rhizosphere soil microorganisms and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Guan, Tao; Wang, Xiao-yu; Zhu, Yun-ji; Guo, Tian-cai

    2011-04-01

    This paper studied the effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer under same N application rate on the quantities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi as well as the activities of urease, protease and catalase in winter wheat rhizosphere soil. With the growth of winter wheat, the quantities of test microorganisms and the activities of urease and catalase showed a trend of increasing after an initial decrease, while the protease activity showed an S-type change. Combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer increased the quantities of test microorganisms significantly, and improved the activities of soil urease and protease. Applying 50% biogas slurry N as basal plus 50% chemical N as topdressing and applying 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing had the best effect, while applying single conventional urea or biogas slurry had the worst effect. At all growth stages, the activity of soil catalase was the highest in treatments 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing and single biogas slurry, but had greater differences in other treatments among the growth stages. The results suggested that proper biogas slurry application combined with chemical fertilization could increase the microbial quantity and enzyme activities in winter wheat rhizosphere soil.

  4. Quantifying Uncertainty in Daily Temporal Variations of Atmospheric NH3 Emissions Following Application of Chemical Fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Improving modeling predictions of atmospheric particulate matter and deposition of reactive nitrogen requires representative emission inventories of precursor species, such as ammonia (NH3). Anthropogenic NH3 is primarily emitted to the atmosphere from agricultural sources (80-90%) with dominant contributions (56%) from chemical fertilizer usage (CFU) in regions like Midwest USA. Local crop management practices vary spatially and temporally, which influence regional air quality. To model the impact of CFU, NH3 emission inputs to chemical transport models are obtained from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). NH3 emissions from CFU are typically estimated by combining annual fertilizer sales data with emission factors. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model is used to disaggregate annual emissions to hourly scale using temporal factors. These factors are estimated by apportioning emissions within each crop season in proportion to the nitrogen applied and time-averaged to the hourly scale. Such approach does not reflect influence of CFU for different crops and local weather and soil conditions. This study provides an alternate approach for estimating temporal factors for NH3 emissions. The DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to estimate daily variations in NH3 emissions from CFU at 14 Central Illinois locations for 2002-2011. Weather, crop and soil data were provided as inputs. A method was developed to estimate site level CFU by combining planting and harvesting dates, nitrogen management and fertilizer sales data. DNDC results indicated that annual NH3 emissions were within ±15% of SMOKE estimates. Daily modeled emissions across 10 years followed similar distributions but varied in magnitudes within ±20%. Individual emission peaks on days after CFU were 2.5-8 times greater as compared to existing estimates from SMOKE. By identifying the episodic nature of NH3 emissions from CFU, this study is expected to provide improvements

  5. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

    2009-11-01

    The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake levels equivalent to those with full rates of the fertilizer and (2) the minimum level to which fertilizer could be reduced when inoculants were used. The microbial inoculants used in the study were a mixture of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus T4, a formulated PGPR product, and the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices. Results showed that supplementing 75% of the recommended fertilizer rate with inoculants produced plant growth, yield, and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake that were statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer rate without inoculants. When inoculants were used with rates of fertilizer below 75% of the recommended rate, the beneficial effects were usually not consistent; however, inoculation with the mixture of PGPR and AMF at 70% fertility consistently produced the same yield as the full fertility rate without inoculants. Without inoculants, use of fertilizer rates lower than the recommended resulted in significantly less plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake or inconsistent impacts. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used and should be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  7. Chemical Conversion of Nitrocellulose for Fertilizer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    economical and nonpolluting method of decomposing waste nitrocellulose, and secondly to determine whether a useful product, such as a fertilizer ...A C5 CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF NITROCELLULOSE FOR FERTILIZER September 1976 Approved for public release; distribution unlimit’,d. Food Sciences...research was to develop economical, nonpolluting methods for dec~mposlng waste nitrocellulose and to determiine the most efficient procedure for chemically

  8. Leaf and seed micronutrient accumulation in soybean cultivars in response to integrated organic and chemical fertilizers application.

    PubMed

    Mottaghian, Alaleh; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Ali; Abbasian, Arastoo

    2008-05-01

    Plant nutrients can be influenced by organic materials of soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on elements uptake by soybean cultivars in a silty loam soil in Mazandaran province, Iran. The experiment was carried out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2006. Main plots were included 8 fertilizer treatments consisted of 20 and 40 Mg ha(-1) Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSW), Vermicompost (VC) and Sewage Sludge (SS) which enriched with 50% chemical fertilizers needed by soil, only chemical fertilizer treatment and control. Sub plots consisted of three genotypes of soybean (032, 033 and JK). Grain yield was determined and soybean leaves and seeds were digested and analyzed for Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe. Results showed that yield and elements content in soybean leaves and seeds (Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe) were influenced by all treatments. The 40 Mg ha(-1) of sewage sludge enriched with chemical fertilizers produced maximum grain yield. Different soybean cultivars had also significant differences in terms of leaf and seed micronutrients accumulation. Maximum grain yield was observed in JK and 033. Mean comparisons showed that interaction effects of fertilizer and cultivar had significant differences on Mn, Cu and Fe content in soybean leaves, so that the maximum Cu content was observed in 032 cultivars with 40 Mg ha(-1) enriched sewage sludge and municipal waste compost. Also the highest amount of Fe was obtained for JK cultivar when the 40 Mg ha(-1) of municipal compost was used. Among different mentioned traits, Fe and Cu content in leaf and seed and Zn content in leaf had a positive and significant correlation with grain yield.

  9. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  10. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

  11. Effects of Combined Application of Biogas Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer on Soil Aggregation and C/N Distribution in an Ultisol

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuebo; Fan, Jianbo; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Unreasonable use of chemical fertilizer (CF) on agricultural soil leads to massive losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in tropical and subtropical areas, where soil conditions are unfavorable for aggregate formation. This study evaluated the effects of combined application of biogas slurry (BS) plus CF on soil aggregation and aggregate—associated C/N concentration and storage in an Ultisol. Six treatments included: no fertilizer (T1), CF only (T2), partial (15% (T3), 30% (T4) and 45% (T5)) substitution of TN with BS and BS only (T6). Soil mechanical—stable aggregates (MSAs) formation and stability as well as MSAs—associated C/N concentration and storage were observed in different aggregate sizes (>5, 5–2, 2–1, 1.0–0.5, 0.50–0.25 and <0.25 mm). The proportion of MSAs >5 mm significantly increased with BS substitution (T5), while the proportions of MSAs 1.0–0.5 mm, MSAs 0.50–0.25 mm and MSAs <0.25 mm significantly decreased. Both mean weight diameter and geometric mean diameter were highest in T5, which improved soil aggregation stability as well as resulted in significantly higher SOC and TN concentrations and storage in MSAs >0.5 mm that constituted 72–82% of MSAs. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MSAs >5 mm, SOC in MSAs >5 mm and TN in MSAs >5 mm were the dominant variables affecting aggregate stability. Meanwhile SOC in MSAs <0.25 mm and TN in MSAs 2–1 mm were independent variables affecting SOC and TN concentrations in bulk soils. Therefore, certain rate of combined application of BS plus CF is an effective, eco—friendly way to improve soil quality in an Ultisol. PMID:28125647

  12. [Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P < 0.05), whilst the cumulative N2O emissions for the 1/2N + PM treatment were decreased by 67.50% compared with N treatment, but increased by 129.43% and 119.23% compared with ON and 1/2N treatments, respectively (P < 0.05). CH4 was the dominant contributor to the global warming potential (GWP) in both rice growing seasons, which contributed more than 99% to the integrated GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions for all the four treatments. Both GWP and yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM were significantly higher than the other three treatments. The yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM was higher than those for the N, 1/2N and ON treatments by 58.21%, 26.82% and 20. 63%, respectively. Therefore, combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory.

  13. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  14. Struvite-based fertilizer and its physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2012-12-01

    This study describes a method to formulate struvite fine powder into pellets that are easy to spread on agricultural land. To evaluate the quality of produced pellets, some chemical and physical properties commonly measured for fertilizers were tested. The findings indicated that the salt index and heavy metal content ofstruvite pellets were significantly lower than those of commercial NPK fertilizers. In addition, the percentage of nutrient released from struvite pellets after 105 days was in the range of 9.6-23.2, 8.4-26.7 and 11.3-32.6% for nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium, respectively, which is considerably lower than that of commercial NPK fertilizer. Among different formulations between struvite crystals and binders, starch and bentonite were the most efficient in agglomerating struvite powder, leading to an increase in the crush strength to over the recommended limit of >2.5 kgf for fertilizer hardness.

  15. [Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang.

  16. Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration.

    PubMed

    Atafar, Zahra; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nouri, Jafar; Homaee, Mehdi; Yunesian, Masoud; Ahmadimoghaddam, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of chemicals is annually applied at the agricultural soils as fertilizers and pesticides. Such applications may result in the increase of heavy metals particularly Cd, Pb, and As. The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of chemical applications on Cd, Pb, and As concentrations of wheat-cultivated soils. Consequently, a study area was designed and was divided into four subareas (A, B, C, and D). The soil sampling was carried out in 40 points of cultivated durum wheat during the 2006-2007 periods. The samples were taken to the laboratory to measure their heavy metal concentration, soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, cationic exchange capacity, organic matter, and carbonate contents. The result indicated that Cd, Pb, and As concentrations were increased in the cultivated soils due to fertilizer application. Although the statistical analysis indicates that these heavy metals increased significantly (P value<0.05), the lead and arsenic concentrations were increased dramatically compared to Cd concentration. This can be related to overapplication of fertilizers as well as the pesticides that are used to replant plant pests, herbs, and rats.

  17. Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice-mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils.

    PubMed

    Rautaray, S K; Ghosh, B C; Mittra, B N

    2003-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years in sandy loam acid lateritic soil to study the direct effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on rice (Oryza sativa) and their residual effect on mustard (Brassica napus var glauca) grown in sequence. Rice yields were higher when fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers were used in an integrated manner as compared to sole application of chemical fertilizers. Yields of mustard were also higher under the residual effect of the former rather than the latter. However, this beneficial residual effect under integrated nutrient sources was inadequate for the mustard crop in the low fertility test soil. Hence, direct application of fertilizers was needed, in addition to residual fertility. The effect of fly ash on mean rice equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was highest (up to 14%) when it was used in combination with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. While the yield increase was 10% when it was used in combination with only chemical fertilizers. The minimum yield advantage, 3%, occurred when fly ash was applied alone. The equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was equally influenced by either of the organic wastes. Cadmium and Ni content in rice grain and straw were less under the direct effect of fly ash. The residual effect on mustard was similar for Ni content in seed and stover; however, Cd content was increased. Beneficial residual soil chemical properties in terms of pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K were noted for integrated nutrient treatments involved fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers as compared to continuous use of only chemical fertilizers. Application of fly ash alone was effective in raising soil available P. Thus, integrated use of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers was beneficial in improving crop yield, soil pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K in sandy loam acid lateritic soil.

  18. Impact of combined exposure of chemical, fertilizer, bio-fertilizer and compost on growth, physiology and productivity of Brassica campestries in old alluvial soil.

    PubMed

    Datta, J K; Banerjee, A; Sikdar, M Saha; Gupta, S; Mondal, N K

    2009-09-01

    Field experiment was carried out during November 2006 to February 2007 under old alluvial soil to evaluate the impact of combined dose of chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer in combination with compost for the yellow sarson (Brassica campestries cv. B9) in a randomized block design replicated thrice. Various morpho-physiological parameters viz., plant population, length of shoot and root, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), yield attributes viz., number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds/siliquae, 1000 seed weight (test weight), seed yield, stover yield and physiological and biochemical parameters viz., pigment content, sugar, amino acid, protein, ascorbic acid content in physiologically active leaf were performed. The treatment T1 i.e., 40% less N fertilizer 25% less P fertilizer K fertilizer constant + 12 kg ha(-1) biofertilizer (Azophos) and organic manure (compost) @ 5Mt ha(-1), showed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation (10. 231 mg g(-1) freshweight), highest seed/siliquae (25.143), test weight of seeds (4. 861g) and highest seed yield (10.661 tha(-1)). A comparison between all the morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical parameters due to application of chemical fertilizer; bio-fertilizer and compost alone and in combination and their impact on soil microorganism, flora and fauna will throw a sound environmental information.

  19. Impact of Chemical, Organic and Bio-Fertilizers Application on Bell Pepper, Capsicum annuum L. and Biological Parameters of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hem.: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Mardani-Talaee, M; Razmjou, J; Nouri-Ganbalani, G; Hassanpour, M; Naseri, B

    2017-03-11

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is a polyphagous aphid that causes chlorosis, necrosis, stunting, and reduce growth rate of the host plants. In this research, the effects of Zinc sulfate and vermicompost (30%), Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Glomus intraradices, G. intraradices × B. subtilis, and G. intraradices × P. fluorescens compared to control was investigated on the growth characters of Capsicum annuum L. and biological parameters of M. persicae. Different fertilizers caused a significant effect on growth characters of C. annuum and biological parameters of M. persicae. The highest plant growth was observed on Zinc sulfate and B. subtilis treated plants, and the lowest was on control. Increase in the amount of specific leaf area (SLA) (0.502 mm(2) mg(-1)) was significantly higher in the B. subtilis than other fertilizer treatments. The longest (10.3 days) and the shortest (5.3 days) developmental times of M. persicae nymphs were observed on 30% vermicompost and Zinc sulfate treatments, respectively. The lowest adult longevity periods of M. persicae (11.2 and 11.3 days) were observed on G. intraradices × B. subtilis and 30% vermicompost treatments, respectively, and the longest ones (16.4 days) on Zinc sulfate. The highest rate of nymphal mortality and the lowest amount of nymphal growth index (NGI) were recorded on 30% vermicompost. The nymphs reared on Zinc sulfate treatment had the lowest rate of nymphal mortality and the highest amount of NGI. Thus, amending the soil with 30% vermicompost had a significantly negative effect on the biological parameters of M. persicae that can be used as an ecological control tactic for this pest.

  20. The dynamics of nitrogen derived from a chemical nitrogen fertilizer with treated swine slurry in paddy soil-plant systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonhee

    2017-01-01

    A well-managed chemical nitrogen (N) fertilization practice combined with treated swine slurry (TSS) is necessary to improve sustainability and N use efficiency in rice farming. However, little is known about the fate of N derived from chemical N fertilizer with and without TSS in paddy soil-plant systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the contribution of applied N fertilizer to N turnover in rice paddy soil with different N fertilization practices that were manipulated by the quantity of treated swine slurry and chemical N fertilizer (i.e., HTSS+LAS, a high amount of TSS with a low amount of ammonium sulfate; LTSS+HAS, a low amount of TSS with a high amount of ammonium sulfate; AS, ammonium sulfate with phosphorus and potassium; C, the control) and (2) to compare the rice response to applied N derived from each N fertilization practice. Rice biomass yield, 15N recovery in both rice grain and stems, soil total N (TN), soil inorganic N, and soil 15N recovery were analyzed. Similar amounts of 15N uptake by rice in the TSS+AS plots were obtained, indicating that the effects of the different quantities of TSS on chemical fertilizer N recovery in rice during the experimental period were not significant. The soil 15N recoveries of HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS, and AS in each soil layer were not significantly different. For the HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS and AS applications, total 15N recoveries were 42%, 43% and 54%, respectively. Because the effects of reducing the use of chemical N fertilizer were attributed to enhancing soil quality and cost-effectiveness, HTSS+LAS could be an appropriate N fertilization practice for improving the long-term sustainability of paddy soil-plant systems. However, N losses, especially through the coupled nitrification-denitrification process, can diminish the benefits that HTSS+LAS offers. PMID:28339491

  1. Chemical state of mercury and selenium in sewage sludge ash based P-fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Krüger, Oliver; Herzel, Hannes; Amidani, Lucia; Adam, Christian

    2016-08-05

    Phosphorus-fertilizers from secondary resources such as sewage sludge ash (SSA) will become more important in the future as they could substitute conventional fertilizers based on the nonrenewable resource phosphate rock. Thermochemical approaches were developed which remove heavy metals from SSA prior to its fertilizer application on farmlands. We analyzed the chemical state of mercury and selenium in SSA before and after thermochemical treatment under different conditions for P-fertilizer production by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In some incineration plants the mercury loaded carbon adsorber from off-gas cleaning was collected together with the SSA for waste disposal. SSAs from those plants contained mercury mainly bound to carbon/organic material. The other SSAs contained inorganic mercury compounds which are most probably stabilized in the SSA matrix and were thus not evaporated during incineration. During thermochemical treatment, carbon-bound mercury was removed quantitatively. In contrast, a certain immobile fraction of inorganic mercury compounds remained in thermochemically treated SSA, which were not clearly identified. HgSe might be one of the inorganic compounds, which is supported by results of Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy. Furthermore, the chemical state of selenium in the SSAs was very sensitive to the conditions of the thermochemical treatment.

  2. Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg(-1). Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

  3. Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg−1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

  4. Effect of bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers on chemical composition and yield of soybean.

    PubMed

    Piccinin, Gleberson Guillen; Braccini, Alessandro Lucca; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Mariucci, Giovanna Emanuêlle Gonçalves; Suzukawa, Andréia Kazumi; Dan, Lilian Gomes de Morais; Tonin, Telmo António

    2013-11-15

    Current study evaluates the effects of bio-regulator associated with foliar fertilizers on the yield components, productivity and chemical composition of soybean. The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of: T1-absolute control, T2-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate in R1 stage of development, T3-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1, T4-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1; T5-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1, T6-application of 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1 and T7-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R1. Application of Sett and Mover is a potentially efficient handling as it favors the soybean agronomic performance in R1 stage. Chemical composition of processed grains has influence with applying bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers.

  5. Process Improvement Study of the Rock Springs Fertilizer Complex for Chevron Chemical Company, Rock Springs, WY [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1989-12-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  6. [Effects of long-term applying sulfur- and chloride-containing chemical fertilizers on weed growth in paddy field].

    PubMed

    Shen, Pu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Xu, Ming-gang; Li, Dong-chu; Niu, De-kui; Qin, Dao-zhu

    2011-04-01

    An investigation was made at a double-rice paddy field in the Qiyang Red Soil Field Experimental Station, Hunan Province, China to study the species and biomass of weeds growing in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth season after 34-year application of sulfur (SO4(2-)) and chloride (Cl(-))-containing chemical fertilizers under the same application rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Long-term application of Cl(-)-containing chemical fertilizer resulted in the greatest species number of weeds and the highest biomass of floating weeds and wet weeds, compared with long-term application of SO4(2-) and Cl(-) +SO4(2-)-containing chemical fertilizers. In early rice growth season, the biomass of weeds after applying Cl(-)-containing chemical fertilizer was 51.4% and 17.6% higher than that after applying Cl(-) + SO4(2-) and SO4(2-)-containing chemical fertilizers, respectively; in late rice growth season, the increment was 144% and 242%, respectively. More floating weeds were observed after applying Cl(-) + SO4(2-) and SO4(2-)-containing chemical fertilizers, but few of them were found after applying Cl(-)-containing chemical fertilizer. The total dry mass of weeds and the dry mass of wet weeds were positively correlated with soil Cl(-) content (r = 0.764, P < 0.01 and r = 0.948, P < 0.01, respectively), but negatively correlated with soil SO4(2-)-S content (r = 0.849, P < 0.01 and r = 0.641, P < 0.05). Soil alkali-hydrolyzable N and available P, under the co-effects of soil SO4(2-)-S, Cl(-), and pH, had indirect effects on the total dry mass of weeds. By adopting various fertilization measures to maintain proper soil pH and alkali-hydrolyzable N and available P contents, increase soil SO42(-)-S content, and decrease soil Cl(-) content, it could be possible to effectively inhibit the growth of wet weeds and to decrease the total biomass of weeds in double-rice paddy field.

  7. [Effects of different organic manure sources and their combinations with chemical fertilization on soil nematode community structure in a paddy field of East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ye, Cheng-Long; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qi-Rong; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on the soil nematode community structure in a paddy field with paddy rice and wheat rotation in Jintan County (31 degrees 39'41.8" N, 119 degrees 28'23.5" E) of Jiangsu Province, East China. Six treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), 100% chemical NPK fertilization (F), pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PF), straw returning plus 100% chemical fertilization (SF), pig manure compost and straw returning plus 50% chemical fertilization (PSF), and application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer (PMF). The soil samples were collected from the field after the paddy rice harvested in autumn. The two continuous years study showed that the soil nematode community structure varied with fertilization treatments and years. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures increased the total number of soil nematodes, decreased the abundance of soil bacterivorous nematodes, and made the abundance of predator- and omnivore nematodes increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of soil fungivorous nematodes among all the treatments. Chemical fertilization alone and the application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer had no obvious suppression effect on the soil phytophagous nematodes. The abundance of soil bacteriavorous nematodes under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures was relatively increased in the second year, as compared with that in the first year, while the abundance of soil phytophagous nematodes (Hirschmanniella) was relatively decreased in the second year. From the aspect of nematode ecological indices, the Margalef diversity index (H) under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the second year had an increasing trend, while the NCR index had less change. The Wasilewka index had a

  8. Effect of cow manure and empty fruit bunches application treated with different fertilizers on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Mohd Rashdan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Study on the comparison of cow manure (CM) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) compost application as planting medium was conducted using four different treatments of fertilizer (without fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer, and both fertilizer) on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum). The experiment started on August until December 2014 which consisted of eight treatments and were laid in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Variety chili that was used was Cilibangi 3. The seed was planted inside the tray for one week and transferred into the polybag containing growth media consisted of soil, compost (CM or EFB compost) and sand with ratio 3:2:1. Treatments without fertilizer were acted as a control. Throughout the study, plant growth performance and yield were recorded. The highest height of the plants for CM compost was 100.8 cm using chemical fertilizer and have significant different between the groups. For EFB compost was 92.7 cm using also chemical fertilizer but no significant different between the groups. The highest fruits weight per plant for CM compost was 485.67 g treated with both fertilizers and for EFB compost was 420.17 g treated with chemical fertilizer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) table stated that fruits weight per plant has significant different for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment. For the highest total fruits per plant, CM compost recorded about average 55 fruits per plant using both fertilizers and EFB compost recorded around 45 fruit per plant using chemical fertilizer. There was significantly different for total fruits per plant for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment according to the ANOVA table. For CM, the ripening time was around 102-112 days and for EFB compost was around 96-110 days. Thus, application of CM compost treated with both chemical and organic fertilizers demonstrated better growth and fruit yield. While EFB compost was better growth and fruit

  9. [Effects of organic fertilizer application rate on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Liang, Lian-You; Ding, Rui-Xia; Wang, Min; Li, Han

    2012-02-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted at the Heyang Research Station in Weibei dryland to study the effects of organic fertilizer application rate on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize. Comparing with applying chemical fertilizer, applying organic fertilizer increased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, but decreased the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration at each growth stage of maize significantly. With the increasing application rate of organic fertilizer, the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance at each growth stage of maize had a gradual increase, while the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration had a gradual decrease. The leaf photosynthesis of maize at each growth stage was controlled by non-stomatal factors, and the application of organic fertilizer reduced the non-stomatal limitation on the photosynthesis performance significantly. The 4-year application of organic fertilizer improved soil nutrient status, and soil nutrients were no longer the main factors limiting the leaf photosynthetic rate and grain yield of maize.

  10. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, M. B.; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A.; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 (SOS1) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants. PMID:28303151

  11. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Rubio, M B; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 (SOS1) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants.

  12. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-01-15

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  13. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  14. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  15. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  16. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  17. Effects of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutritional status of the loquat trees.

    PubMed

    Doran, I; Kaya, Z; Caglar, S

    2003-07-01

    The nutritional status of the loquat trees was investigated using cattle manure and commercial fertilizers for three years. The farmyard manure increased N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn contents of the leaves. No significant difference was found between the fertilizer types for trunk growth. Yield efficiency was nearly doubled by application of farmyard manure. Fertilizers did not affect the weight and shape of the fruits; however, commercial fertilizers led the lower total acidity in fruits. It was concluded that the loquat trees grown in sandy soils could fulfill their principal nutrient requirements for growth and commercial yield with application of farmyard manure.

  18. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  19. DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Angela L; Anderson, Kim A

    2009-09-01

    Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Cd(DGT)), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of Cd(DGT). Significant factors contributing to Cd(DGT) concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cd(fertilizer)), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cd(total)). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cd(wheat)) and in potato (Cd(potato)) were as follows: Cd(wheat):Cd(fertilizer), and Cd(DGT); and Cd(potato):Cd(fertilizer), Cd(DGT), % O.M. The effective concentration, C(E), calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cd(wheat) or with Cd(potato). Direct measurements of Cd(DGT) correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems.

  20. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  1. Mercury in some chemical fertilizers and the effect of calcium superphosphate on mercury uptake by corn seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Dingyong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contents in ten chemical fertilizers were determined, and the effect of calcium superphosphate (CSP) on the uptake and translocation of Hg in corn seedlings was investigated by pot experiments. CSP was applied at the levels of 0, 66.7, and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg to Hg-treated (2 mg/kg) and untreated soils. CSP had the highest Hg content (5.1 mg/kg), followed by the NPK compound fertilizer 15-5-5 (15% N, 5% P2O5, 5% K2O) (1.2 mg/kg), then by nitrogen fertilizers (except for ammonia sulfate) and potassium fertilizers. Application of CSP did not obviously influence the biomass of corn roots, but it significantly increased the biomass of corn shoots in Hg-treated soil. Application of CSP at the levels of 66.7 and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg did not obviously influence the uptake of Hg by corn seedlings on soils without Hg treatment, but it decreased the Hg uptake of corn seedlings significantly on Hg-treated soils. The transfer coefficient of Hg in corn seedlings improved slightly on soils without Hg treatment, but decreased slightly on Hg-treated soils with the application of CSP. These results implied that CSP could ameliorate Hg toxicity to corn seedlings by inhibiting the uptake and the translocation of Hg in plants on Hg-polluted soils.

  2. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products

    SciTech Connect

    Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru

    2010-11-24

    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca{sub 7}Mg{sub 2}P{sub 6}O{sup 24}) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

  3. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    2010-11-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid—phosphorus.

  4. Predicting Nitrogen in Streams: A Comparison of Two Estimates of Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehaffey, M.; Neale, A.

    2011-12-01

    Decision makers frequently rely on water and air quality models to develop nutrient management strategies. Obviously, the results of these models (e.g., SWAT, SPARROW, CMAQ) are only as good as the nutrient source input data and recently the Nutrient Innovations Task Group has called for a better accounting of nonpoint nutrient sources. Currently, modelers frequently rely on county level fertilizer sales records combined with acreage of crops to estimate nitrogen sources from fertilizer for counties or watersheds. However, since fertilizer sales data are based on reported amounts they do not necessarily reflect actual use on the fields. In addition the reported sales data quality varies by state resulting in differing accuracy between states. In this study we examine an alternative method potentially providing a more uniform, spatially explicit, estimate of fertilizer use. Our nitrogen application data is estimated at a 30m pixel resolution which allows for scalable inputs for use in water and air quality models. To develop this dataset we combined raster data from the National Cropland data layer (CDL) data with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD). This process expanded the NLCD's 'cultivated crops' classes to included major grains, cover crops, and vegetable and fruits. The Agriculture Resource Management Survey chemical fertilizer application rate data were summarized by crop type and year for each state, encompassing the corn, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat crop types (ARMS, 2002-2005). The chemical fertilizer application rate data were then used to estimate annual application parameters for nitrogen, phosphate, potash, herbicide, pesticide, and total pesticide, all expressed on a mass-per-unit-crop-area basis for each state for each crop type. By linking crop types to nitrogen application rates, we can better estimate where applied fertilizer would likely be in excess of the amounts used by crops or where conservation practices may improve retention

  5. Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

  6. Effects of serpentinite fertilizer on the chemical properties and enzyme activity of young spruce soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Januszek, Kazimierz; Małek, Stanisław; Wanic, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The experimental plots used in the study were located in the middle forest zone (elevation: 900-950 m a.s.l.) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians in southern Poland. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of serpentinite in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers on selected chemical properties of the soil and activity of dehydrogenase and urease in the studied soils. All fertilizer treatments significantly enriched the tested soils in magnesium. The use of serpentinite as a fertilizer reduced the molar ratio of exchangeable calcium to magnesium, which facilitated the uptake of magnesium by tree roots due to competition between calcium and magnesium. After one year of fertilization on the Wisła experimental plot, the pH of the Ofh horizon increased, while the pH of the mineral horizons significantly decreased. Enrichment of serpentinite with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers stimulated the dehydrogenase activity in the studied organic horizon. The lack of a negative effect of the serpentinite fertilizer on enzyme activity in the spruce stand soil showed that the concentrations of the heavy metals added to the soil were not high enough to be toxic and indicated the feasibility of using this fertilizer in forestry.

  7. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  8. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  9. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  10. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    PubMed

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  11. Reconstruction of spatially detailed global map of NH4+ and NO3- application in synthetic nitrogen fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, Kazuya; Ito, Akihiko; Hanasaki, Naota; Hayashi, Seiji

    2017-02-01

    Currently, available historical global N fertilizer map as an input data to global biogeochemical model is still limited and existing maps were not considered NH4+ and NO3- in the fertilizer application rates. This paper provides a method for constructing a new historical global nitrogen fertilizer application map (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) for the period 1961-2010 based on country-specific information from Food and Agriculture Organization statistics (FAOSTAT) and various global datasets. This new map incorporates the fraction of NH4+ (and NO3-) in N fertilizer inputs by utilizing fertilizer species information in FAOSTAT, in which species can be categorized as NH4+- and/or NO3--forming N fertilizers. During data processing, we applied a statistical data imputation method for the missing data (19 % of national N fertilizer consumption) in FAOSTAT. The multiple imputation method enabled us to fill gaps in the time-series data using plausible values using covariates information (year, population, GDP, and crop area). After the imputation, we downscaled the national consumption data to a gridded cropland map. Also, we applied the multiple imputation method to the available chemical fertilizer species consumption, allowing for the estimation of the NH4+ / NO3- ratio in national fertilizer consumption. In this study, the synthetic N fertilizer inputs in 2000 showed a general consistency with the existing N fertilizer map (Potter et al., 2010) in relation to the ranges of N fertilizer inputs. Globally, the estimated N fertilizer inputs based on the sum of filled data increased from 15 to 110 Tg-N during 1961-2010. On the other hand, the global NO3- input started to decline after the late 1980s and the fraction of NO3- in global N fertilizer decreased consistently from 35 to 13 % over a 50-year period. NH4+-forming fertilizers are dominant in most countries; however, the NH4+ / NO3- ratio in N fertilizer inputs shows clear differences temporally and geographically. This

  12. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-02-05

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m(-2) h(-1) for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha(-1) and 1.58 kg NO-N ha(-1), respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China.

  13. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-02-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m‑2 h‑1 for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha‑1 and 1.58 kg NO-N ha‑1, respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China.

  14. [Silkworm excrement organic fertilizer: its nutrient properties and application effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-ping; Xie, Ya-jun; Luo, Guang-en; Shi, Wei-yong

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, silkworm excrement was harmless-treated via controlled fermentation to prepare silkworm excrement organic fertilizer (SEOF). The nutrient properties of the SEOF were determined, and a pot experiment was conducted to examine the application effect of the fertilizer. After fermentation, the total N, P, and K contents in the SEOF had a significant increase, being 58.0%, 84.4% , and 29.7% higher than those in the raw material, respectively. The addition of microbial inoculants shortened the fermentation period, and decreased the carbon and nitrogen losses during fermentation. With the application of SEOF, the seed germination index of cabbage and tomato was higher than 80% , suggesting that the fertilizer had no inhibitory effect on the seed germination. The application of SEOF not only increased the Chinese cabbage yield and its nutrients and Vc contents, decreased the plant nitrate content, but also improved the soil pH value, and increased the soil available nutrients and organic matter contents and soil enzyme activities, with better effect than applying composted goat feces.

  15. Microrobots for in vitro fertilization applications.

    PubMed

    Boukallel, M; Gauthier, M; Piat, E; Abadie, J; Roux, C

    2004-05-01

    The Micromanipulation and Micro-actuation Research Group at the LAB has activities related to biological and surgical applications. Concerning cells micromanipulation, our laboratory works in collaboration with the research team "Genetic and Reproduction" of the Besançon's hospital (France). The global final objective is the development of an automatic intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) device in order to improve performances and ergonomics of current devices. In the future this new device will contain various modules: module for removal of cumulus cells, modules for characterization of oocytes, microinjection module, cells transport system. The first subsystem developed is a new single cell transport system. It consists in a so-called micropusher which pushes single cells without having contact with the external environment. This micropusher is a ferromagnetic particle (from 400 x 400 x 20 microm3 to 100 x 100 x 5 microm3) which follows the movement of a permanent magnet located under the biological medium. A 2D micro-positioning table moves this magnet under the glass slide. The pusher and cells positions are measured through an optical microscope with a CCD camera located above the biological medium. The second subsystem is developed to measure oocytes mechanical stiffness in order to sort them. We have then developed a micro/nano-force sensor based on the diamagnetic levitation principle: a glass tip end-effector (with 20 microm in diameter) is fixed on the equipment which is in levitation (0.5 mm in diameter, 100 mm in length). When a force is applied to the levitated glass tip, it moves to a new equilibrium position. Thanks to themeasurement of this displacement, the applied force can be measured. Since there is no contact and friction between the levitated tip and the fixed part, the resolution of this sensor is very high (10 nN).

  16. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  17. Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  18. Reconsidering emissions of ammonia from chemical fertilizer usage in Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Srinidhi; Koloutsou-Vakakis, Sotiria; McFarland, D. Michael; Rood, Mark J.

    2015-06-01

    We present alternative methods for estimating spatial surrogates and temporal factors for ammonia (NH3) emissions from chemical fertilizer usage (CFU), in the USA, at spatial and temporal scales used to simulate regional air quality and deposition of reactive nitrogen to ecosystems. The newly developed Improved Spatial Surrogate (ISS) method incorporates year-specific fertilizer sales data, high resolution and year-specific crop maps, and local crop nitrogen demands to allocate NH3 emissions at 4 km × 4 km grid cells. Results are compared with the commonly used gridded emission estimates by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) preprocessor. NH3 emissions over Central Illinois in the USA, estimated at the 4 km × 4 km grid level in SMOKE and ISS methods, exhibit differences between -10% and 120%, with 58% of the grid cells exhibiting more than ±10% difference. Application of the ISS method for a larger domain over the Midwest USA, at 4 km × 4 km, reflected similar differences. We also employed the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model to develop daily temporal factors of NH3 emissions from CFU using multi-site and multi-year analyses. Ratio of temporal factors estimated by SMOKE and DNDC methods is 0.54 ± 2.35, with DNDC identifying daily emission peaks 2.5-8 times greater than SMOKE. Identified emission peaks will be useful for future air quality modeling efforts to understand particulate matter episodes, as well as trends in regional particulate matter formation and nitrogen deposition for Midwest USA, using the proposed NH3 emissions inventory.

  19. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions.

  20. DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Angela L.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (CdDGT), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of CdDGT. Significant factors contributing to CdDGT concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cdfertilizer), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cdtotal). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cdwheat) and in potato (Cdpotato) were as follows: Cdwheat:Cdfertilizer, and CdDGT; and Cdpotato:Cdfertilizer, CdDGT, % O.M. The effective concentration, CE, calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cdwheat or with Cdpotato. Direct measurements of CdDGT correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems. PMID:19552942

  1. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  2. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  3. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  4. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0–20, 20–40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0–20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20–40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  5. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0–20, 20–40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0–20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20–40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C. PMID:26750143

  6. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-09-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment.

  7. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  8. Porphyrinoids for Chemical Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Paolesse, Roberto; Nardis, Sara; Monti, Donato; Stefanelli, Manuela; Di Natale, Corrado

    2017-02-22

    Porphyrins and related macrocycles have been intensively exploited as sensing materials in chemical sensors, since in these devices they mimic most of their biological functions, such as reversible binding, catalytic activation, and optical changes. Such a magnificent bouquet of properties allows applying porphyrin derivatives to different transducers, ranging from nanogravimetric to optical devices, also enabling the realization of multifunctional chemical sensors, in which multiple transduction mechanisms are applied to the same sensing layer. Potential applications are further expanded through sensor arrays, where cross-selective sensing layers can be applied for the analysis of complex chemical matrices. The possibility of finely tuning the macrocycle properties by synthetic modification of the different components of the porphyrin ring, such as peripheral substituents, molecular skeleton, coordinated metal, allows creating a vast library of porphyrinoid-based sensing layers. From among these, one can select optimal arrays for a particular application. This feature is particularly suitable for sensor array applications, where cross-selective receptors are required. This Review briefly describes chemical sensor principles. The main part of the Review is divided into two sections, describing the porphyrin-based devices devoted to the detection of gaseous or liquid samples, according to the corresponding transduction mechanism. Although most devices are based on porphyrin derivatives, seminal examples of the application of corroles or other porphyrin analogues are evidenced in dedicated sections.

  9. Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape cv. 'Cardinal'.

    PubMed

    Topalović, Ana; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Knezević, Mirko; Veberic, Robert

    2011-09-28

    The foliar fertilization has been used as an important agrotechnical measure to avoid deficiencies and to improve quality. During the two consecutive years, a study has been performed on Vitis vinifera L. (cv. 'Cardinal') to examine whether a grape berry quality has been affected by the foliar application of PK fertilizer. A liquid mineral fertilizer containing 15% P2O5, 20% K2O with 0.1% B, 0.1% Mn and 0.01% Mo (% w/w) has been sprayed three times at rate of 8 L ha(-1) every 14-15 days starting at about 15 days before veraison. The sugars, organic acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) have been analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography in the grape berries. The foliar fertilization of grapevine can accelerate the accumulation of sugars and anthocyanins, whereas climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence the content of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in general. The effect of fertilizer spraying on flavonols and flavan-3-ols has not been found.

  10. [Application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shu-Min; You, Fan

    2014-05-01

    Due to the low effectiveness of traditional assisted reproductive technology (ART), new technological possibilities are constantly explored. Lots of studies have demonstrated the potential of microfluidics to revolutionize the fundamental processes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). With the advantages of high efficiency, short time, harmless collection, real-time observation of separation, similar microenvironment, and automation, the application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and IVF has shown an evident superiority over the conventional approaches and provided a new platform for ART. This review highlights the application of various microfluidic techniques in sperm motility assessment and isolation, sperm chemotaxis assay, IVF, sperm concentration, and sperm separation and enrichment in recent years. It also briefly introduces the basic principles, structural design, and operation processes of the microfluidic platform, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the potential of their clinical application. Obviously, there are still some challenges to the application of microfluidics in ART. However, it is believed that the development of this new technology would be toward a highly integrated application of several steps in one single device, known as IVF-lab-on-a-chip.

  11. Precipitated impurities in monoammonium phosphate and their effect on chemical and physical properties of suspension fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, E.F.; Frazier, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The TVA processes for the production of granular ammonium phosphate fertilizers use a preneutralizer or pipe reactor; a rotary drum ammoniator-granulator; accessory equipment for scrubbing off-gases; and equipment for drying, cooling, and sizing the product. Although the main interest in the processes has been in taking advantage of full ammoniation of the phosphoric acid for production of 18-46-0, there has been considerable interest in adapting these processes for production of monoammonium phosphate (MAP). This laboratory study was conducted to identify the solid-phase components in granular MAP, especially the forms of precipitated impurities. The first phase of the laboratory study concerned the identification of solid phases in granular MAP. The second phase of this laboratory study was conducted to correlate physical properties (viscosity and pourability) of 11-33-0 suspensions with the chemical and solid-phase composition of the original MAP from which these suspensions were prepared. The identification of these fertilizer compounds by the use of polarizing light microscopy (PLM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for detailed solid-phase characterization and chemical analysis has provided a more thorough understanding of the composition of MAP fertilizer. 14 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  12. [Effects of different potassium fertilizer application periods on the yield and quality of Fuji apple].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-li; Yang, Xian-long; Li, Ru; Li, Shui-li; Tong, Yan-an

    2015-04-01

    In order to ascertain the effects of potassium fertilizer application periods on apple production, we conducted a field experiment and analyzed the differences in apple yield, fruit quality, potassium fertilizer use efficiency, and nutrient concentrations in leaves and fruits among treatments with differences in timing of potassium application. The results indicated that, compared with no potassium-applied treatment (CK), all potassium fertilizer application treatments significantly increased the apple yield by 4.3%-33.2%, meanwhile, it also obviously improved the fruit quality. In comparison with the application of 100% potassium fertilizer as a base, the application of 50% or 100% of potassium fertilizer at the fruit enlargement stage (the remaining 50% applied as a base or after flowering) significantly increased the apple yield by 20.5% - 27.7% and improved the fruit quality. Compared with the application 100% potassium fertilizer at the stage of fruit enlargement, the evenly split application as base flowering stage and at the fruit enlargement: stage not only contributed to a higher yield, better quality and higher potassium use efficiency, but also maintained a relatively stable potassium concentration level in leaves. However, the split potassium fertilizer application at the flowering and fruit enlargement stages resulted in the significant decrease in concentration of calcium in fruit, which would be negative to fruit quality. In conclusion, our research suggested that evenly split application of potassium fertilizer as a base and at the fruit enlargement stage was the suitable period for apple production in Fuji apple orchards in this region.

  13. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  14. Projections of Demand for Waterborne Transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 8. Group VI. Chemicals & Chemical Fertilizers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    provides three basic nutrients to the soil: nitrogen, potash , and phosphate. Movements of intermediate fertilizer materials are shipments of products...inexpensively stored and moved. b. Potassic Chemicals Fertilizers Potassic chemicals include muriate of potash , potassium muri- ate, potassium sulfate...sulfate of potash magnesia, and vegetable potash . These materials can move by any mode of transportation. 1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne

  15. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  16. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  17. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

  18. The core root microbiome of sugarcanes cultivated under varying nitrogen fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Dennis, Paul G; Robinson, Nicole; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria potentially supply substantial amounts of biologically fixed nitrogen to crops, but their occurrence may be suppressed by high nitrogen fertilizer application. Here, we explored the impact of high nitrogen fertilizer rates on the presence of diazotrophs in field-grown sugarcane with industry-standard or reduced nitrogen fertilizer application. Despite large differences in soil microbial communities between test sites, a core sugarcane root microbiome was identified. The sugarcane root-enriched core taxa overlap with those of Arabidopsis thaliana raising the possibility that certain bacterial families have had long association with plants. Reduced nitrogen fertilizer application had remarkably little effect on the core root microbiome and did not increase the relative abundance of root-associated diazotrophs or nif gene counts. Correspondingly, low nitrogen fertilizer crops had lower biomass and nitrogen content, reflecting a lack of major input of biologically fixed nitrogen, indicating that manipulating nitrogen fertilizer rates does not improve sugarcane yields by enriching diazotrophic populations under the test conditions. Standard nitrogen fertilizer crops had improved biomass and nitrogen content, and corresponding soils had higher abundances of nitrification and denitrification genes. These findings highlight that achieving a balance in maximizing crop yields and minimizing nutrient pollution associated with nitrogen fertilizer application requires understanding of how microbial communities respond to fertilizer use.

  19. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S.; Heath, Katy D.; Stinchcombe, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  20. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Anna K; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  1. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide.

  2. Germ cell toxicity: significance in genetic and fertility effects of radiation and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Oakberg, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the male and female to radiation and chemicals is different. Any loss of oocytes in the female cannot be replaced, and if severe enough, will result in a shortening of the reproductive span. In the male, a temporary sterile period may be induced owing to destruction of the differentiating spermatogonia, but the stem cells are the most resistant spermatogonial type, are capable of repopulating the seminiferous epithelium, and fertility usually returns. The response of both the male and female changes with development of the embryonic to the adult gonad, and with differentiation and maturation in the adult. The primordial germ cells, early oocytes, and differentiating spermatogonia of the adult male are unusually sensitive to the cytotoxic action of noxious agents, but each agent elicits a specific response owing to the intricate biochemical and physiological changes associated with development and maturation of the gametes. The relationship of germ cell killing to fertility is direct, and long-term fertility effects can be predicted from histological analysis of the gonads. The relationship to genetic effects, on the other hand, is indirect, and acts primarily by limiting the cell stages available for testing, by affecting the distribution of mitotically active stem cells among the different stages of the mitotic cycle, and thereby, changing both the type and frequency of genetic effects observed. 100 references, 38 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields.

  4. [Effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus content of upland red soil].

    PubMed

    Jing, Yan; Chen, Xiao-min; Liu, Zu-xiang; Huang, Qian-ru; LiI, Qiu-xia; Chen, Chen; Lu, Shao-shan

    2013-04-01

    Aiming at the low content of available phosphorus in upland red soil of Southern China, this paper studied the effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus and organic carbon contents and the pH of this soil. With the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers, the soil physical and chemical properties improved to different degrees. As compared with the control, the soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents at different growth stages of oil rape after the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers all had an improvement, with the increments at bolting stage, flowering stage, and ripening stage being 16%, 24% and 26%, 23%, 34% and 38%, and 100%, 191% and 317% , respectively. The soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were increased with the increasing amount of applied biochar. Under-the application of biochar, the soil available phosphorus had a significant correlation with the soil pH and soil organic carbon content. This study could provide scientific basis to improve the phosphorus deficiency and the physical and chemical properties of upland red soil.

  5. Application of image analysis techniques to evaluate the effect of urban residuals fertilization on corn (Zea mays) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Socciarelli, S.

    2007-09-01

    The work focused the application of an image analysis technique to determine corn leaves morphology as objective indicator of the growth performance of corn (Zea mays) resulting from the urban residual fertilization. The analyses were related to six fertilization plots: original soil; chemical fertilizer (160 and 200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen); organic fertilizer (32 t ha-1) and two different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges) (7.5 and 22.5 t ha-1, this last amount corresponds to is the maximum level permitted from the Italian law in three year of fertilization). Those tests were realized by full randomized plots, with two three repetitions for each treatment. Measurements were performed for the first year of the trials in the period proximate to harvest (Rome, Italy - July 2000). Four plants for each plot were harvested and stripped of all leaves, whose RGB images were acquired by a digital photo camera (Kodak Ltd). Image analysis was performed first through the separation of RGB channels into single monochromatic 8-bit distribution, than the blue channel images, the most informative, were then submitted to enhancement, low pass filtering to reduce noise, threshold of binarization (based on statistical parameter affected on Gaussian grey levels distribution), binary morphology and object measurement. For ach single leaf the length, the width, the area were measured. The test results indicated positive and significant responses in relation between the crop growth (leaves area, length and width greater) and the different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges).

  6. [Effects of different fertilization modes on vegetable growth, fertilizer nitrogen utilization, and nitrogen loss from vegetable field].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-feng; Wang, Guo; Li, Wei-hua; Qiu, Xiao-xuan

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment with Chinese cabbage, water spinach, and three-colored amaranth cropped three times in one year was conducted to study the effects of seven fertilization modes, i.e., none fertilization, basal application of chemical fertilizers, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers, basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, and basal application of organic manure, on the plant height, yield, nitrogen accumulation, and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of the vegetables, and the loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N from vegetable field under natural rainfall condition. The results showed that comparing with none fertilization, the fertilization modes '1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure' and 'basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide' improved the agronomic properties of test vegetables, increased their yields by 103%-219% and 93%-226%, and nitrogen accumulation by 153% -216% and 231%-320%, respectively, and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen utilization rate. They also decreased the surface runoff loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N by 48.1% and 46.5%, respectively, compared with the mode 'basal application of chemical fertilizers', and hence, reduced the risk of agricultural non-point pollution. Therefore, these two fertilization modes could be popularized in vegetable production.

  7. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  8. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time.

  9. Stabilized nitrogen fertilizers and application rate influence nitrogen losses under rainfed spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) losses associated with fertilizer application have negative economic and environmental consequences, but urease and nitrification inhibitors have potential to reduce N losses. The effectiveness of these inhibitors has been studied extensively in irrigated but not rainfed systems. Theref...

  10. Chemical attributes of soil fertilized with cassava mill wastewater and cultivated with sunflower.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Rolim, Mário Monteiro; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Regis; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m(3) ha(-1)); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers.

  11. Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Monteiro Rolim, Mário; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Maria Regis Pedrosa, Elvira; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m3 ha−1); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers. PMID:25610900

  12. Disease incidence and severity of rice plants in conventional chemical fertilizer input compared with organic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    To study the impacts of different fertilizer applications on rice growth and disease infection, a 3-year field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai from 2012-2014. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire experiment to prevent their disturbance to rice disease. Compared with green (GM) and cake manures (CM), the application of chemical fertilizer (CF) stimulated the photosysthesis and vegetative growth of rice plants more effectively. Chlorophyll content, height and tiller number of the rice plants treated with the CF were generally higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control; the contents of nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) and soluble protein treated with the CF were also higher than those with the others during the 3-year experiment. The 3-year experiment also indicated that the incidences of stem borers, shreath blight, leaf rollers and planthoppers of the rice treated with the CF were signficantly higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control. Especially in 2012 and 2014, the incidences of rice pests and diseases treated with the CF were far more severe than those with the others. As a result, the grain yield treated with the CF was not only lower than that treated with the GM and CM, but also lower than that of the no-fertilizer control. This might be attributed to two reasons: Pests favor the rice seedlings with sufficient N-related nutrients caused by CF application; the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the seedlings might have toxic effects and weaken their immune systems, thus making them more vulnerable to pests and diseases. In comparison, the plants treated with a suitable amount of organic manure showed a better capability of disease resistance and grew more healthy. In addition, the incidences of rice pests and diseases might also be related to climatic conditions. Shanghai was hit by strong subtropical storms in the summer of

  13. Liquid N and S fertilizer solutions effects on the mass, chemical, and shear strength properties of winter wheat (Triticum aestuvum) residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve stand establishment in high crop residue situations, the utility of fertilizer to stimulate microbial decomposition of residue has been debated. Field experiments assessed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw decomposition under different fertilizer rates and application timings at thre...

  14. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009–2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity. PMID:27965631

  15. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs.

  16. Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile Amazonian anthrosoils.

    PubMed

    Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change.

  17. [Mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice in wheat-rice rotation system under combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ren; Li, Xiang; Yu, Jie; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the nitrogen uptake by rice and the nitrogen supply by soil in a wheat-rice rotation system, and approach the mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice under the combined fertilization from the viewpoint of microbiology. Comparing with applying inorganic fertilizers, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and soil mineral nitrogen contents before tillering stage, but increased them significantly from heading to filling stage. Under the combined fertilization, the dynamics of soil nitrogen supply matched best the dynamics of rice nitrogen uptake and utilization, which promoted the nitrogen accumulation in rice plant and the increase of rice yield and biomass, and increased the fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice significantly. Combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers also promoted the propagation of soil microbes, and consequently, more mineral nitrogen in soil was immobilized by the microbes at rice early growth stage, and the immobilized nitrogen was gradually released at the mid and late growth stages of rice, being able to better satisfy the nitrogen demand of rice in its various growth and development stages.

  18. Bioinoculants: A sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways.

  19. Aqeuous and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses Induced by Fertilizer Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and atmospheric pollution of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3). Characterizing the amount and species of N losses is therefore essential in developing a strat...

  20. Fertilizer applications for container-grown ornamental tree production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of better utilization of nutrients during the growing season is needed to produce marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees economically. Fertilizer practices to grow Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’ trees in two separate fields (each containing four plots) irrigated with either city or po...

  1. Macronutrients use efficiency and changes in chemical properties of an oxisol as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and tropical cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are important components of copping systems due to their beneficial effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. A green house experiment was conducted to evaluate influence of phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient use efficiency of 14 tropical cover crops. The P leve...

  2. Comparative analysis of fertility signals and sex-specific cuticular chemical profiles of Odontomachus trap-jaw ants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adrian A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Suarez, Andrew V

    2016-02-01

    The lipid mixture that coats the insect cuticle contains a number of chemical signals. Mate choice in solitary insects is mediated by sexually dimorphic cuticular chemistry, whereas in eusocial insects, these profiles provide information through which colony members are identified and the fertility status of individuals is assessed. Profiles of queens and workers have been described for a number of eusocial species, but there have been few comparisons of fertility signals among closely related species. Additionally, sexual dimorphism in cuticular lipid profiles has only been reported in two species of ants. This study describes the cuticular chemical profiles of queens, workers and males of three species of Odontomachus trap-jaw ants: O. ruginodis, O. relictus and O. haematodus. These are compared with fertility signals and sexually dimorphic profiles already described from O. brunneus. We report that fertility signals are not conserved within this genus: chemical compounds that distinguish queens from workers vary in number and type among the species. Furthermore, the compounds that were most abundant in cuticular extracts of O. ruginodis queens relative to workers were novel 2,5-dialkyltetrahydrofurans. Bioassays of extracts of O. ruginodis queens indicate that the dialkyltetrahydrofuran and hydrocarbon fractions of the profile are likely to work synergistically in eliciting behavioral responses from workers. In contrast, cuticular lipids that distinguish males from females are more conserved across species, with isomeric and relative abundance variations comprising the main differences among species. Our results provide new insights into how these contact chemical signals may have arisen and evolved within eusocial insects.

  3. Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze

    1998-12-31

    Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

  4. [Effects of long-term application of organic fertilizer and superphosphate on accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in Fluvo-aquic soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Min; Guo, Dou-Dou; Zhang, Shui-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Based on a 20-year experiment of fertilization with organic and chemical fertilizers on a Fluvo-aquic soil under wheat-corn cropping system, this paper studied the relationships between Olsen-P concentration in plough layer and crop yields as well as the accumulation and vertical translocation of Olsen-P in soil profile. The results showed that when the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer maintained at 10-40 mg x kg(-1), the grain yields of wheat and corn were higher, whereas when the concentration of Olsen-P in plough layer was higher than 40 mg x kg(-1), it started to leach, which meant that in light loam Fluvo-aquic soil, the threshold value for P leaching might be 40 mg x kg(-1). In the treatments of chemical fertilization (NPK) and corn straw returning (SNPK) with the P application rate of 77-90 kg x hm(-2), the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer was increased by 0.63-0.72 mg x kg(-1) per 100 kg x hm(-2) of applied P, with an annual increment of 0.49-0.65 mg x kg(-1) and needed 45-60 years for reaching the threshold value for P leaching. In the treatments of chemical fertilization combined with manure application (MNPK, MNPK2, and 1.5MNPK), the formula of Olsen-P accumulation in 0-20 cm soil layer were Y(MNPK) = 3.1097x + 6.9615 (R2 = 0.8562), Y(MNPK2) = 2.4765x + 13.563 (R2 = 0.9307), and Y1.5MNPK = 4.506x + 6.4464 (R2 = 0.8862). It might take 8 years to reach the threshold value for Olsen-P leaching when the P application rate in treatment 1.5MNPK was 210 kg x hm(-2), 11 years when the P application rate in treatments MNPK2 and MNPK was 125 and 140 kg x hm(-2). Organic fertilization combined with chemical fertilization increased the Olsen-P accumulation rate being 2.5 times higher than chemical fertilization. Excessive application of organic fertilizer could increase the accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in soil profile.

  5. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  6. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  7. Fertilizer application timing influences greenhouse gas fluxes over a growing season.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Tanaka, Donald L; Archer, David W; Hanson, Jon D

    2009-01-01

    Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) is influenced by temperature and nutrients, especially during the first few weeks after agricultural fertilization. The effect of fertilization on GHG fluxes should occur during and shortly after application, yet data indicating how application timing affects both GHG fluxes and crop yields during a growing season are lacking. We designed a replicated (n = 5) field experiment to test for the short-term effect of fertilizer application timing on fluxes of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) over a growing season in the northern Great Plains. Each 0.30-ha plot was planted to maize (Zea mays L.) and treated similarly with the exception of fertilizer timing: five plots were fertilized with urea in early spring (1 April) and five plots were fertilized with urea in late spring (13 May). We hypothesized time-integrated fluxes over a growing season would be greater for the late-spring treatment, resulting in a greater net GHG flux, as compared to the early-spring treatment. Data collected on 59 dates and integrated over a 5-mo time course indicated CO(2) fluxes were greater (P < 0.0001) and CH(4) fluxes were lower (P < 0.05) for soils fertilized in late spring. Net GHG flux was also significantly affected by treatment, with 0.84 +/- 0.11 kg CO(2) equivalents m(-2) for early spring and 1.04 +/- 0.13 kg CO(2) equivalents m(-2) for late spring. Nitrous oxide fluxes, however, were similar for both treatments. Results indicate fertilizer application timing influences net GHG emissions in dryland cropping systems.

  8. Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

  9. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method.

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A; Horwath, William R

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of (15)N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20-29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf (13)C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  10. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method

    PubMed Central

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A.; Horwath, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of 15N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20–29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf 13C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  11. Protein-based biorefining: metabolic engineering for production of chemicals and fuel with regeneration of nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2013-02-01

    Threats to stable oil supplies and concerns over environmental emissions have pushed for renewable biofuel developments to minimize dependence on fossil resources. Recent biofuel progress has moved towards fossil resource-independent carbon cycles, but environmental issues regarding use of nitrogen fertilizers have not been addressed on a global scale. The recently demonstrated conversion of waste protein biomass into advanced biofuels and renewable chemicals, while recycling nitrogen fertilizers, offers a glimpse of the efforts needed to balance the nitrogen cycle at scale. In general, the catabolism of protein into biofuels is challenging because of physiological regulation and thermodynamic limitations. This conversion became possible with metabolic engineering around ammonia assimilation, intracellular nitrogen flux, and quorum sensing. This review highlights the metabolic engineering solutions in transforming those cellular processes into driving forces for the high yield of chemical products from protein.

  12. Fibrin in Reproductive Tissue Engineering: A Review on Its Application as a Biomaterial for Fertility Preservation.

    PubMed

    Chiti, M C; Dolmans, M M; Donnez, J; Amorim, C A

    2017-03-07

    In recent years, reproductive medicine has made good use of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine techniques to develop alternatives to restore fertility in cancer patients. For young female cancer patients who cannot undergo any of the currently applied strategies due to the possible presence of malignant cells in their ovaries, the challenge is creating an in vitro or in vivo artificial ovary using carefully selected biomaterials. Thanks to its numerous qualities, fibrin has been widely used as a scaffold material for fertility preservation applications. The goal of this review is to examine and discuss the applications and advantages of this biopolymer for fertility restoration in cancer patients, and consider the main results achieved so far.

  13. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  14. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

  15. Bayesian inference of baseline fertility and treatment effects via a crop yield-fertility model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer.

  16. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  17. [Further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application in paddy field under green manuring of Taihu Area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Yan, Ting-mei; Qiao, Jun; Yang, Lin-zhang; Tang, Fang; Song, Yun-fei

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on the nitrogen loss via runoff, change of nitrogen in different forms in surface water in paddy field, and grain yield, through further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application rate under green manuring without basal dressing. Results showed that with 150 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil, no basal dressing could not only sharply reduce N concentration in surface water and decrease 17.2% of N loss, but also increase 2.8% of grain yield in comparison with basal dressing. It was a worthwhile farming method that inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was not used for basal dressing but for topdressing after return of green ma- nure to soil in Taihu Area. However, the grain yield would decrease if the rate of topdressing nitro- gen was excessively reduced or increased. After all, it was feasible to realize harmonization of grain yield and environmental benefits in Taihu Area, with 133 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil as well as no application of basal dressing, which could greatly reduce N fertilizer input and N loss as well as ensure rice yield.

  18. Nutrient and Estrogenic Activity of Runoff Post–Application of Animal Waste-Based Fertilizer to Frozen Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While nutrient loading of surface waters from agricultural use of fertilizer has long been an environmental concern, recently attention has focused on hormonal contamination of waters from application of animal wastes as fertilizer. Application of manure to frozen fields may further increase the env...

  19. Influences of Chemical Fertilizers and a Nitrification Inhibitor on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Corn (Zea mays L.) Field in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jumadi, Oslan; Hala, Yusminah; Muis, Abd; Ali, Alimuddin; Palennari, Muhiddin; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The influences of chemical fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor on greenhouse gas fluxes (N(2)O and CH(4)) in a corn field in Indonesia were investigated using a closed chamber. Plots received 45+45 kg-N ha(-1) of nitrogen fertilizer by split applications of urea, a single application of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF-LP30) or urea+dicyandiamide (DCD; a nitrification inhibitor), and no nitrogen application (control). Cumulative amounts of N(2)O emitted from the field were 1.87, 1.70, 1.06, and 0.42 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) season(-1) for the urea, CRF-LP30, urea+DCD, and control plots, respectively. The application of urea+DCD reduced the emission of N(2)O by 55.8% compared with urea. On the other hand, the soil acted as a sink for CH(4) in the CRL-LP30, control, and urea+DCD plots with value of -0.09, -0.06 and -0.06 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) season(-1), respectively. When the viability of AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) were monitored, AOB numbers were correlated with the N(2)O emission. These results suggest that 1) there is a potential for reducing emissions of N(2)O by applying DCD, and 2) corn fields treated with CRF or urea+DCD can act as a sink for CH(4) in a tropical humid climate.

  20. [Changes of crop yield and soil fertility under long-term application of fertilizer and recycled nutrients in manure on a black soil III. Soil nutrient budget].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiang; Wang, Delu; Wang, Shouyu; Meng, Kai; Han, Xiaozeng; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin

    2002-11-01

    The nutrient budget of fertilization models under different treatments was calculated using data from a field experiment over the period of 1985-1999. The results indicated that application of nitrogen fertilizer accelerated a large deficit of soil phosphorus, and the use of nitrogen and phosphorus accelerated the deficit of potassium. The experimental data demonstrated the appearance of a large area of soil deficit of phosphorus from 1970s and of potassium from 1980s in China. Nutrient recycled in farming system improved soil nutrient budget, but could not meet the nutrient requirements from high-yield crops. The use of recycled nutrients with an appropriate use of fertilizers according to the soil fertility could produce higher crop yields, balance soil nutrient budget, and not cause surplus nutrients to emit into environment.

  1. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P <0. 05) increased the SOC content of sand- (2-0.02 mm), silt- (0.02-0.002 mm) and clay-sized (< 0.002 mm) fractions. However, no significant difference was observed in the accumulation of silt- and clay-associated SOC between CK and rice straw (RS) treatments. Besides, in comparison with plots applied with NPK fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of

  2. Chemical Sniffing Instrumentation for Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Brkić, Boris; Taylor, Stephen; Marshall, Alan; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-07-27

    Border control for homeland security faces major challenges worldwide due to chemical threats from national and/or international terrorism as well as organized crime. A wide range of technologies and systems with threat detection and monitoring capabilities has emerged to identify the chemical footprint associated with these illegal activities. This review paper investigates artificial sniffing technologies used as chemical sensors for point-of-use chemical analysis, especially during border security applications. This article presents an overview of (a) the existing available technologies reported in the scientific literature for threat screening, (b) commercially available, portable (hand-held and stand-off) chemical detection systems, and (c) their underlying functional and operational principles. Emphasis is given to technologies that have been developed for in-field security operations, but laboratory developed techniques are also summarized as emerging technologies. The chemical analytes of interest in this review are (a) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with security applications (e.g., illegal, hazardous, and terrorist events), (b) chemical "signatures" associated with human presence, and

  3. 21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310... REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a... application of all or any part of the Act a chemical mixture consisting of two or more chemical components,...

  4. 21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310... REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a... application of all or any part of the Act a chemical mixture consisting of two or more chemical components,...

  5. 21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310... REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a... application of all or any part of the Act a chemical mixture consisting of two or more chemical components,...

  6. 21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310... REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a... application of all or any part of the Act a chemical mixture consisting of two or more chemical components,...

  7. Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, M. F.; Khrapach, I.; Barnes, M. D.; Russo, S.

    2013-10-01

    The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  8. Effects of fertilizer application to sweet corn (Zea mays.) grown on sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc; Jakab, Samuel; Losak, Tomas; Slezak, Katalin

    2009-11-01

    In our experiment we tried to find out what kind of eventual changes in the environment and in plant chemical composition occurred in response to different fertilizer treatments applied to sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata) grown on sandy soil with low humus content. The ploughed layer contained <1% CaCO3 and around 1% humus. The soil was very well supplied with P, well supplied with K, Mg, Mn and Cu, and weakly supplied with N and Ca. The treatments were planned in accordance with the recommendations, with a planned unhusked ear yield of 16 tons per hectare, of the new environmental friendly advisory system recently elaborated for field vegetable crops in Hungary. The treatments applied included: G1 (blank control)(N0P0K0), G2(N222.5P22.2K143), G3(N445 P22.5 K143), G4(N222.5 P22.5K143), G5(N222.5P22.5 K286), G6(N222.5 P22.5 K143) + Mg(1.52). According to our findings, of the composition parameters of the grains of the treatments with no fertilizer application, the invert and reducing sugar contents (4.42%, respectively 2.59% relative to fresh weight(-1)) in grains were the highest among the treatments. The same conclusion was drawn on the K 120.2, Mg 13.3, Fe 0.24, Cu 0.66 mg 100 g(-1) grain dry weight levels among minerals. In the case of the basic treatment (G2) recommended by the advisory system we obtained favourable results for the measured parameters, including yields. Invert and reducing sugar contents were (3.26% respectively 1.97% relative to fresh weight(-1)), and mineral contents K 101.9; Mg 11.8; Fe 0.21; Cu 0.56 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight. In the grains, no translocation of toxic elements was observed in response to the direct or indirect effect of the treatments.

  9. Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  10. TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate rock is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Due to its chemical properties, phosphate rock may contain significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  11. Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

    2014-05-01

    A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

  12. Music therapy: fertile ground for application of research in practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J E

    1993-03-01

    When participating in research studies in the clinical setting it is important to remember the goals of the interventions under study. Frequently the parameters and design of the research, while necessary to validate findings, are not written in stone for future application. It is possible to consider other situations in which the intervention might be applied that lie outside the current research protocols. To fully utilize research findings, apply them to your own unique practice and then set up your own study using the original work as a starting place.

  13. School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s Investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tinney, Veronica A.; Denton, Jerad M.; Sciallo-Tyler, Lucy; Paulson, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the 17 April 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries, and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades kindergarten–12, a nursing care facility, and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries. Objectives: The goal of this commentary is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous chemicals, and highlight the need for additional regulations to prevent future siting of schools near these facilities. Discussion: We summarize the findings of the CSB’s investigation related to the damaged school buildings and the lack of regulation surrounding the siting of schools near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Conclusions: In light of the current lack of federal authority for oversight of land use near educational institutions, state and local governments should take a proactive role in promulgating state regulations that prohibit the siting of public receptors, such as buildings occupied by children, near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Citation: Tinney VA, Denton JM, Sciallo-Tyler L, Paulson JA. 2016. School siting near industrial chemical facilities: findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion. Environ Health Perspect 124:1493–1496; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP132 PMID:27483496

  14. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with soil temperature, but not with soil moisture, during the maize or wheat growing season. The 18-year application of compost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (P<0.05) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 152% and 10-43% (respectively), but also increased background N2O emissions by 106% and 48-76% (respectively) compared with the control. Total N in soils was a better indicator for predicting annual background N2O emission than SOC. The estimated emission factor (EF) of mineralized N, calculated by dividing annual N2O emission by mineralized N was 0.13-0.19%, significantly (P<0.05) lower than the EF of added N (0.30-0.39%). The annual N2O emission in the NPK, HOM and OM soils amended with 300 kg ha(-1) organic or inorganic N was 1427, 1325 and 1178 g N ha(-1), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the NPK and OM. The results of this study indicate that soil indigenous N was less efficiently converted into N2O compared with exogenous N. Increasing SOC by compost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain.

  15. The Rengen Grassland experiment: bryophytes biomass and element concentrations after 65 years of fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Hejcman, Michal; Száková, Jirina; Schellberg, Jürgen; Srek, Petr; Tlustos, Pavel; Balík, Jirí

    2010-07-01

    The Rengen Grassland Experiment in Germany, established in 1941, consists of the following fertilizer treatments applied under a two cut management: control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP-KCl, and CaNP-K(2)SO(4). The aim of this study was (1) to identify effects of fertilizer application on biomass and species composition of bryophytes and (2) to investigate the impact of fertilizer application on macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), micro- (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni) element concentrations in bryophyte biomass. In June 2006, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus was the only bryophyte species recorded in the control. In treatment Ca, R. squarrosus was the dominant bryophyte species whereas Brachythecium rutabulum occurred sporadically only in a single plot of that treatment. The latter was the only bryophyte species collected in CaN, CaNP, CaNP-KCl, and CaNP-K(2)SO(4) treatments. Dry matter accumulation of bryophytes was highest in the control (180 g m(-2)) followed by Ca (46 g m(-2)), CaNP (25 g m(-2)), CaNP-KCl (15 g m(-2)), CaNP-K(2)SO(4) (9 g m(-2)), and CaN (2 g m(-2)) treatments. A negative correlation between biomass production of bryophytes and dry matter production of vascular plants was revealed up to a threshold value of 400 g m(-2). Above this limit, biomass production of bryophytes remained obviously unaffected by further increase in biomass production of vascular plants. A significant effect of treatment on As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, P, Ca, Mg, K, and N concentrations was revealed. Concentrations of these elements were a function of amount of elements supplied with fertilizers. Bryophytes seem to be promising bio-indicators not only for airborne deposition of toxic element but also for fertilizer introduced as well.

  16. [Effects of calcium fertilizer application on peanut growth, physiological characteristics, yield and quality under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xue-hua; Sun, Lian-qiang; Gao, Bo; Sun, Qi-ze; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Jia-lei; Li, Xiang-dong

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different rates of calcium application on peanut growth, physiological characteristics, yield and quality under drought stress at pegging stage and pod setting stage in pool cultivation with rainproof, using variety 606 as experimental material. The results showed that applying Ca fertilizer under drought stress could promote peanut growth, increase the chlorophyll content, leaf photosynthetic rate and the root vitality, increase the recovery ability of peanut during rewatering after drought stress, alleviate the impact of drought stress on peanut. Applying Ca fertilizer under drought stress increased pod and kernel yields because of the increase of kernel rate and pod number per plant. It also increased the fat and protein contents of peanut kernel, and improved peanut kernel quality under drought stress. It was suggested that 300 kg · hm(-2) Ca application is the best choice to alleviate the impact of drought stress on peanut.

  17. Engineered biochar reclaiming phosphate from aqueous solutions: mechanisms and potential application as a slow-release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-08-06

    This work explored the potential application of an engineered biochar prepared from Mg-enriched tomato tissues to reclaim and reuse phosphate (P) from aqueous solution. Findings from batch sorption experiments suggested that, although sorption of P on the biochar was controlled by relatively slow kinetics, the maximum P sorption capacity of the biochar could reach >100 mg·g(-1). Mathematical modeling and postsorption characterization results indicated that the sorption was mainly controlled by two mechanisms: precipitation of P through chemical reaction with Mg particles and surface deposition of P on Mg crystals on biochar surfaces. Most of the P retained in the engineered biochar was bioavailable and could be released equally at multiple successive extractions. In addition, the P-laden biochar significantly stimulated grass seed germination and growth. These results suggested the postsorption biochar can be cycled back directly to soils as an effective slow-release P-fertilizer.

  18. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  19. [Effects of different application amount of N, P, K fertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu-ying; Li, Xiang-dong; Tang, Xiao; Lin, Ying-jie; Li, Zong-feng

    2007-11-01

    The field experiment was executed with peanut cv. Fenghua No. 1 from 2004 to 2005 in the experimental station of Shandong Agricultural University to study the effects of N, P, K fertilizers application amount on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut. The results showed that, compared with no fertilization, application N, P, K fertilizers increased the content of chlorophyll and soluble protein, enhanced photosynthetic rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catlase (CAT), and reduced malondialdeyde (MDA) accumulation amount in peanut leaves. The effects of applying N 300-450 kg x hm(-2), P5O2, 150-225 kg x hm(-2) and K2O 300-450 kg x hm(-2) treatments were the most significant. The improvement effect of N fertilizer on photosynthesis properties was mainly at early stage, and that of P was at middle-later stage, K was at whole stage. Applying N, P, K fertilizers increased the pod yield of peanut remarkably, and with the increasing of N application amount the pod yield enhanced, the pod yields were highest when P and K application were at middle amount rates (P5O2, 150 kg x hm(-2) K2O 300 kg x hm(-2)). The increasing effect on pod yield of K fertilizer was greater than that of N and P fertilizers. Applying a small amount of P and K fertilizers (P2O5 75 kg x hm(-2), K2O 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the contents of fat and protein in peanut kernel, applying a small amount of N fertilizer (N 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of protein in peanut kernel, but applying a large amount of N fertilizer (N 450 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of fat in peanut kernel. Applying P fertilizer obviously increased fat and protein content, applying N fertilizer mainly enhanced protein content, and applying K fertilizer mainly raised the content of soluble sugar. In addition, the application of N, P and K fertilizers also increased the contents of lysine and

  20. Arsenic in Ironite fertilizer: The absorption by hamsters and the chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Aposhian, M.M.; Koch, I.; Avram, M.D.; Chowdhury, U.K.; Smith, P.G.; Reimer, K.J.; Aposhian, H.V.

    2009-09-11

    We determined the gastrointestinal absorption of the arsenic in Ironite, a readily available fertilizer, for male hamsters (Golden Syrian), considered to be an excellent model for how the human processes inorganic arsenic. Urine and feces were collected after administering an aqueous suspension of Ironite by stomach tube. In addition, we studied the forms and oxidation states of arsenic in Ironite by synchrotron spectroscopic techniques. The absorption of the arsenic in Ironite (1-0-0) was 21.2% and the absorption relative to sodium arsenite was 31.0%. Our results using XANES spectra determinations indicate that Ironite contains scorodite (AsV) as well as previously reported arsenopyrite (As(-1)). Since the 1-0-0 Ironite is readily available for purchase, its risk assessment for children by professionals is recommended. This is especially important because it is used to fertilize large areas of grass in playgrounds and parks where children play. The absorption of the arsenic in it, the hand to mouth activity of children, and the potential of ground water contamination makes the use of 1-0-0 Ironite as a fertilizer a potential environmental hazard.

  1. Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications

    DOEpatents

    Engelke, Raymond P.; Hedges, Robert O.; Kammerman, Alan B.; Albright, James N.

    1998-01-01

    A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

  2. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field

  3. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hercules, David M.

    2004-12-01

    The development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA, XPS) is reviewed from an historical perspective that is relevant to its use for analytical chemistry. The emphasis is on early development of the technique, primarily during the period, 1964 1977. During these years there were significant developments in instrumentation, accompanied by significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of the technique. First, a historical perspective is presented to establish the backdrop against which XPS was developed. The early work in the field dealt mainly with measuring and understanding chemical shifts for elements and particularly for organic compounds. This was an exciting time because XPS appeared to provide chemical information unavailable otherwise. A detailed summary of some of the early work on chemical shifts is presented. It was also established that XPS could be used for quantitative analysis of elements, compounds, and different oxidation states of the same element. As the development of XPS occurred, emphasis changed from measuring chemical shifts to developing XPS as a surface analytical tool, a role that it fills today. Early applications to the analysis of catalysts and polymers, use to study adsorption and surface reactions, application of XPS to electrochemistry and corrosion, and studies of atmospheric particulates are all reviewed.

  4. Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, D K; Dubey, R C; Aeron, Abhinav; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, HCN, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. Fertilizer adaptive variant strain of A. chroococcum TRA2 was studied with Tn5 induced streptomycin resistant transconjugants of wild type tetracycline-resistant TRA2 (designated TRA2(tetra+strep+)) after different durations. The strain was significantly competent in rhizosphere, as its population increased by 15.29 % in rhizosphere of Sesamum indicum. Seed bacterization with the strain TRA2 resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth parameters and yield of sesame over the non-bacterized seeds. However, application of TRA2 with half dose of fertilizers showed sesame yield almost similar to that obtained by full dose treatment. Moreover, the oil yield increased by 24.20 %, while protein yield increased by 35.92 % in treatment receiving half dose of fertilizer along with TRA2 bacterized seeds, as compared to untreated control.

  5. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates.

  6. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  7. Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. This approach is receiving increasing attention in chemical applications as a result of its high accuracy. However, reducing statistical uncertainty remains a priority because chemical effects are often obtained as small differences of large numbers. As an example, the single-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH sub 2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on the VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX, are discussed. The computational time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and this is compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures.

  8. Graphene Chemical Sensor for Heliophysics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, Mahmooda; Herrero, Fred; Khazanov, George

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that offer a unique set of advantages as a chemical sensor due to a number of its inherent properties. Graphene has been explored as a gas sensor for a variety of gases, and molecular sensitivity has been demonstrated by measuring the change in electrical properties due to the adsorption of target species. In this paper, we discuss the development of an array of chemical sensors based on graphene and its relevance to plasma physics due to its sensitivity to radical species such as oxonium, hydron and the corresponding neutrals. We briefly discuss the great impact such sensors will have on a number of heliophysics applications such as ground-based manifestations of space weather.

  9. CFD applications in chemical propulsion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The present research is aimed at developing analytical procedures for predicting the performance and stability characteristics of chemical propulsion engines. Specific emphasis is being placed on understanding the physical and chemical processes in the small engines that are used for applications such as spacecraft attitude control and drag make-up. The small thrust sizes of these engines lead to low nozzle Reynolds numbers with thick boundary layers which may even meet at the nozzle centerline. For this reason, the classical high Reynolds number procedures that are commonly used in the industry are inaccurate and of questionable utility for design. A complete analysis capability for the combined viscous and inviscid regions as well as for the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic portions of the flowfield is necessary to estimate performance levels and to enable tradeoff studies during design procedures.

  10. Phosphorus concentration and loading reductions following changes in fertilizer application and formulation on managed turf.

    PubMed

    King, K W; Balogh, J C; Agrawal, S G; Tritabaugh, C J; Ryan, J A

    2012-11-01

    Excess phosphorus, particularly in surface waters can lead to severe eutrophication. Identifying source areas, quantifying contributions, and evaluating management practices are required to address current and future water quality concerns. A before-after study was conducted from 2003-2010 on a sub-watershed of Northland Country Club Golf Course in Duluth, MN to demonstrate the impacts of two different phosphorus management approaches (Period 1: traditional application and timing using commercially available synthetic blends; Period 2: reduced rate, low dose applications, and organic formulations). Outflow median dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total phosphorus (TP) stream concentrations were significantly less in Period 2 compared to Period 1. There was no statistical difference in the mean TP loading in Period 1 (0.25 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) compared to Period 2 (0.20 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) or between the DRP loading in Period 1 (0.15 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) compared to Period 2 (0.09 kg ha(-1) year(-1)). However, by switching to organic phosphorus formulations and reducing application rates by greater than 75%, substantial reduction in DRP and TP concentrations was achieved. Based on these findings it is recommended that turf managers (parks and recreation to golf courses) explore the feasibility of altering their fertility management related to phosphorus by including organic formulations, low dose applications, and overall rate reductions. Additionally, it is recommended that the fertilizer industry develop and make more readily available commercial blends with lesser to zero amounts of phosphorus.

  11. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of corn production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-15

    Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in corn cultivation in terms of both economic and environmental aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer positively affects corn yield and the soil organic carbon level, but it also has negative environmental effects through nitrogen-related emissions from soil (e.g., N20, NOx, NO3(-) leaching, etc.). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain are investigated via life cycle assessment. Ecoefficiency analysis is also used to determine an economically and environmentally optimal nitrogen application rate (NAR). The ecoefficiency index in this study is defined as the ratio of economic return due to nitrogen fertilizer to the greenhouse gas emissions of corn cultivation. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain decrease as NAR increases at a lower NAR until a minimum greenhouse gas emission level is reached because corn yield and soil organic carbon level increase with NAR. Further increasing NAR after a minimum greenhouse gas emission level raises greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Increased greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to nitrous oxide emissions from soil are much higher than reductions of greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to corn yield and changes in soil organic carbon levels at a higher NAR. Thus, there exists an environmentally optimal NAR in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The trends of the ecoefficiency index are similar to those of economic return to nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Therefore, an appropriate NAR could enhance profitability as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain.

  12. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Golf Course Fairway and Rough after Application of Different Nitrogen Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Katrina L; Qian, Yaling; Follett, Ronald F; Del Grosso, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have quantified nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from intensively managed turfgrass systems on golf courses. Fertilizer treatments consisting of urea with inhibitors of nitrification and urease (INU), polymer-coated urea (PCU), and uncoated balanced methylene urea (BMU) chain, which use different mechanisms to control the release of N substrate, were applied to a golf course fairway and rough three times during the 2011 growing season at a rate of 50 kg N ha per application. The vented chamber method was used to measure turf-soil-atmospheric NO exchange. Cumulative emissions from fairway INU, PCU, and BMU treatments totaled 6.5, 1.9, and 7.6 kg NO-N ha yr, representing a 4.02, 1.25, and 4.75% loss of total N applied, respectively. Summer INU and BMU fertilization to the fairway produced the greatest NO fluxes. Rapid fluxes during the summer were likely related to low physiological activity in cool-season turfgrass and to warm, wet soil conditions that increased denitrification rates. However, PCU applied to the fairway was more resistant to NO losses than other fertilizer treatments. Fertilizer treatments applied to the rough had cumulative emissions of 2.4, 1.50, and 1.49 kg NO-N ha yr from INU, PCU, and BMU treatments, corresponding to a 1.21, 0.62, and 0.61% loss of total N applied, respectively. The lower NO emission on roughs was likely associated with greater carbon pools, lower soil moisture, and lower temperatures. This study supports the effectiveness of PCU to reduce NO emission from cool-season turfgrass fairways when soil conditions favored denitrification during warm periods. Applying INU and BMU when soil was cool and dry was effective in moderating NO losses.

  13. [Effects of long-term application of fertilizers on soil microbial biomass nitrogen and organic nitrogen components in subtropical paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Qin; Qiu, Shao-Jun; Tong, Cheng-Li; Ren, Xiu-E

    2007-08-01

    The effect of long-term fertilization on soil organic nitrogen components and microbial biomass nitrogen (B(N)) in paddy soils from two experiment sites in Hunan province were studied. Soil samples were collected from the plough layers of different fertilizer treatments. Soil B(N) was measured by the fumigation-extraction method, and soil organic N was fractionated by acid hydrolysis-distillation method according to the scheme of Bremner (1965). Results showed that the soil N increased 40 mg x kg(-1) every year at Ningxiang site (low N level) for 17 years under the application combined of fertilizers and manure, while that at Nanxian site (high N level) was 55 mg x kg(-1). Soil total nitrogen (T(N)), total hydrolysable nitrogen (THN) and microbial biomass nitrogen(B(N)) were increased by long-term combined application of chemical fertilizer and manure (NPKM). NPKM significantly increased the content of T(N), B(N), total hydrolysable nitrogen (THN), ammonia acid nitrogen (AAN), hydrolysable unidentified nitrogen (HUN) and the percentage of B(N) to T(N). Besides, NPKM increased the easily mineralizable B(N), AAN, and low decomposed HUN. There was positive correlated relationship between B(N) and THN and different THN components, and the effect of AAN and HUN on B(N) was biggest. It is obvious that NPKM increased soil fertility and enhanc the nitrogen-supplying capability of paddy soils. NPKM had the effect on increasing soil nitrogen capability of paddy soils, both easily decomposed fractions and difficultly decomposed ones.

  14. Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2014-07-15

    Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice.

  15. Predicting fertility.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Abha; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Johnson, Neil P

    2008-06-01

    Various predictors of fertility have been described, suggesting that none are ideal. The literature on tests of ovarian reserve is largely limited to women undergoing in vitro fertilization, and is reliant on the use of surrogate markers, such as cycle cancellation and number of oocytes retrieved, as reference standards. Currently available prediction models are far from ideal; most are applicable only to subfertile women seeking assisted reproduction, and lack external validation. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of predictors of fertility are limited by their heterogeneity in terms of the population sampled, predictors tested and reference standards used. There is an urgent need for consensus in the design of these studies, definition of abnormal tests, and, above all, a need to use robust outcomes such as live birth as the reference standard. There are no reliable predictors of fertility that can guide women as to how long childbearing can be deferred.

  16. Modelling of catchment nitrogen concentrations response to observed varying fertilizer application intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Eutrophication is a serious environmental problem. Despite numerous experimental and modelling efforts, understanding of the effect of land use and agriculture practices on in-stream nitrogen fluxes is still not fully achieved. This study combined intensive field monitoring and numerical modelling using 30 years of surface water quality data of a drinking water reservoir catchment in central Germany. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% of agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. The geology of the Weida catchment is characterized by clay schists and eruptive rocks, where rocks have low permeability. The semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was used to reproduce the measured data. First, the model was calibrated for discharge and nitrate-N concentrations (NO3-N) during the period 1997-2000. Then, the HYPE model was validated successfully for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates (with lowest discharge prediction performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74%, considering calibration and validation periods). Results showed that the measured as well as simulated in-stream nitrate-N concentration respond quickly to fertilizer application changes (increase/decrease). This rapid response can be explained with short residence times of interflow and baseflow runoff components due to the hardrock geological properties of the catchment. Results revealed that the surface runoff and interflow are the most dominant runoff components. HYPE model could reproduce reasonably well the NO3-N daily loads for varying fertilizer application, when detailed input data in terms of crop management (field-specific survey) are considered.

  17. [Effects of soil fertility and nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and translocation, grain yield, and grain protein content of wheat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefu; Yu, Zhenwen; Li, Xiangxia; Yu, Songlie

    2003-11-01

    The results of this study showed that nitrogen application improved the nitrogen uptake by wheat, especially during its late growth stage. Although a higher nitrogen application rate could increase the amount of absorbed nitrogen, an excess of nitrogen would remain in vegetative organs at the stage after flowering, owing to the low translocation rate of nitrogen from these organs to the grain, and hence, the nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index were decreased. Compared with that on high fertility soil, the ratio of nitrogen absorbed from fertilizer to total absorbed nitrogen was higher when the wheat was grown on low fertility soil. On high fertility soil, wheat plant absorbed more nitrogen from top-dressed fertilizer than from basis fertilizer, and top-dressed fertilizer contributed more nitrogen to the grain. It was reversed on low fertility soil.

  18. Optimal fertilizer application for Panax notoginseng and effect of soil water on root rot disease and saponin contents

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pengguo; Guo, Hongbo; Zhao, Hongguang; Jiao, Jie; Deyholos, Michael K.; Yan, Xijun; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zongsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Blind and excessive application of fertilizers was found during the cultivation of Panax notoginseng in fields, as well as increase in root rot disease incidence. Methods Both “3414” application and orthogonal test designs were performed at Shilin county, Yunnan province, China, for NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and mineral fertilizers, respectively. The data were used to construct the one-, two-, and three-factor quadratic regression models. The effect of fertilizer deficiency on root yield loss was also analyzed to confirm the result predicted by these models. A pot culture experiment was performed to observe the incidence rate of root rot disease and to obtain the best range in which the highest yield of root and saponins could be realized. Results The best application strategy for NPK fertilizer was 0 kg/667 m2, 17.01 kg/667 m2, and 56.87 kg/667 m2, respectively, which can produce the highest root yield of 1,861.90 g (dried root of 100 plants). For mineral fertilizers, calcium and magnesium fertilizers had a significant and positive effect on root yield and the content of four active saponins, respectively. The severity of root rot disease increased with the increase in soil moisture. The best range of soil moisture varied from 0.56 FC (field capacity of water) to 0.59 FC, when the highest yield of root and saponins could be realized as well as the lower incidence rate of root disease. Conclusion These results indicate that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in these fields is excessive and that of potassium fertilizer is deficient. Higher soil moisture is an important factor that increases the severity of the root rot disease. PMID:26843820

  19. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production.

  20. Long-term manure incorporation with chemical fertilizers reduced environmental nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization in intensive farming systems are essential for sustainable agriculture and food security around the world. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of various fertilization...

  1. Community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria under long-term application of mineral fertilizer and organic manure in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a greater impact than organic manure, while N deficiency treatment (PK) had no significant effect. AOB community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the amoA gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DGGE profiles showed that the AOB community was more diverse in N-fertilized treatments than in the PK-fertilized treatment or the control, while one dominant band observed in the control could not be detected in any of the fertilized treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DGGE bands derived from N-fertilized treatments belonged to Nitrosospira cluster 3, indicating that N fertilization resulted in the dominance of Nitrosospira cluster 3 in soil. These results demonstrate that long-term application of N fertilizers could result in increased soil nitrification potential and the AOB community shifts in soil. Our results also showed the different effects of mineral fertilizer N versus organic manure N; the effects of P and K on the soil AOB community; and the importance of balanced fertilization with N, P, and K in promoting nitrification functions in arable soils.

  2. Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: a review of products and criteria for field applications.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

    2013-11-01

    About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and

  3. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    PubMed

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P < 0.01), while TN with cfPTN, ffPTN, iPTN and MTN (R(2) = 0.45-0.79, P < 0.01), but not with MBN, respectively. Principal component analyses explained 86.9-91.2% variance of SOC, TN, MBC, MBN, SOC and TN in each fraction. Our results demonstrated that cfPOC was a sensitive SOC indicator and manure addition was the best fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

  4. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

    2013-09-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 μg L-1 for NP and 100 μg L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 μg L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μg L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 μg L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

  6. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment.

  7. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P < 0.01). The total nematode abundance decreased in the order of PK > NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.

  8. Changes in fertility parameters and contents of heavy metals of soddy-podzolic soils upon the long-term application of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasbieva, M. T.; Kosolapova, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the long-term sewage sludge (SS) application on the chemical, agrophysical, and biological properties of a soddy-podzolic soil ( Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic) was studied. Regular SS application in the course of five crop rotations (1976-2013) ensured the improvement of the soil fertility parameters, i.e., a rise in the contents of humus, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium; a better state of the soil adsorption complex, bulk density, and aggregation; and higher cellulolytic, nitrification, and urease activities. The efficiencies of SS and the traditional organic fertilizer (cattle manure) were compared. The effect of the long-term application of SS on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils was also studied. It was found that the application of SS caused a rise in the bulk content of heavy metals and in the contents of their acid-extractable and mobile forms by 1.1-6.0 times. However, the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were not exceeded. In the soil subjected to the application of SS for more than 25 years, the cadmium concentration somewhat exceeded the maximum permissible concentration.

  9. Effects of perfluorinated chemicals on thyroid function, markers of ovarian reserve, and natural fertility.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie M; Fenton, Suzanne E; Strynar, Mark; Hines, Erin P; Pritchard, David A; Steiner, Anne Z

    2017-01-19

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but there has been limited study of their effects on ovarian reserve or fecundability. 99 women, 30-44 years old, without infertility were followed until pregnancy. Initially, serum was evaluated for Antimullerian hormone (AMH), thyroid hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), and triiodothyronine (T3), and PFCs: perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship between thyroid hormones, AMH, and PFCs. Fecundability ratios (FR) were determined for each PFC using a discrete time-varying Cox model and a day-specific probability model. PFC levels were positively correlated with each other (r 0.24-0.90), but there was no correlation with TSH (r 0.02-0.15) or AMH (r -0.01 to -0.15). FR point estimates for each PFC were neither strong nor statistically significant. Although increased exposure to PFCs correlates with thyroid hormone levels, there is no significant association with fecundability or ovarian reserve.

  10. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-16

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  11. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  12. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  13. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-08-09

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1 mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions.

  14. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  15. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md.; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0–20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25–1 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1 mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  16. Chemical fertilizers as a source of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and trace metal pollutant of the environment in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshahri, Fatimh; Alqahtani, Muna

    2015-06-01

    The specific activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (222)Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study, 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabian markets. The specific activities of (238)U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kg(-1); (226)Ra ranged from 5.60 ± 2.80 to 392 ± 18 Bq kg(-1); and (40)K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16,476 ± 820 Bq kg(-1). The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.20 ± 1.20 to 1532 ± 160 Bq m(-3) and from 1.60 to 774 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for six local samples (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) and single superphosphate (SSP)) and one imported sample (Sulfate of Potash (SOP)) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kg(-1). The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample diammonium phosphate (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy h(-1). The highest annual effective dose was in triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers (2.1 mSv y(-1)). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP, and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg, and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

  17. Electron Beam Applications in Chemical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Dragusin, M.; Radoiu, M.; Moraru, R.; Oproiu, C.; Cojocaru, G.; Margarit, C.

    1997-05-01

    Our recent results in the field of polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation are presented. Two types of polymeric flocculants and three hydrogels are described. The effects of radiation absorbed dose and chemical composition of the irradiated solutions upon the polymeric materials characteristics are discussed. The required absorbed dose levels to produce the polymeric flocculants are in the range of 0.4 kGy to 1 kGy, and 4 kGy to 12 kGy for hydrogels. Experimental results obtained by testing polymeric flocculants with waste water from food industry are given. Plymeric materials processing was developed on a pilot small scale level with a 0.7 kW and 5.5 MeV linac built in Romania. A new facility for application of combined electron beam and microwave irradiation in the field of polymeric materials preparation is presently under investigation. Preliminary results have demonstrated that some polymeric flocculants characteristics, such as linearity, were improved by using combined electron beam and microwave irradiation. Also, the absorbed dose levels decreases in comparison with those required when only electron beam irradiation was used.

  18. Development of a web-based runoff forecasting tool to guide fertilizer and manure application in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the land application of fertilizers and manures is critical to protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While modern nutrient management tools are designed to help farmers with their long-term field management planning, they do not support daily decisions such as when to a...

  19. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF.

  20. Effects of chlorimuron-ethyl application with or without urea fertilization on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huanbo; Xu, Mingkai; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhang, Chenggang

    2013-09-15

    Chlorimuron-ethyl (CE) has been widely used in modern agriculture, but little is known regarding the influence of CE on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) populations in soils. In this study, microcosm incubation of aquic brown soil was conducted for 60 d. Associated changes in the population sizes of AOB and AOA in response to CE application with or without urea fertilization were examined via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). The half-life of CE ranged from 11.80 d to 14.54 d in the tested soil. Compared to the untreated control, the application of CE alone had no strong effects on soil pH, and urea fertilization temporarily increased soil pH in the first 7 days. The abundance of the AOA amoA gene was greater than the abundance of the AOB amoA gene in all treatments, but both were significantly suppressed by CE application in a dose-dependent manner. Urea fertilization generally increased AOB and AOA amoA gene abundances, except that the AOA amoA gene level was slightly reduced at the early stage of the incubation period. AOB and AOA preferred different N levels for growth, with AOB only growing significantly at high NH4(+) levels and AOA growing substantially at low NH₄(+) levels. The stimulation effects of urea fertilization on AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances were strongly suppressed by the CE application. This study indicated that the CE application substantially suppressed soil nitrification via inhibiting the AOB and AOA population regardless of urea fertilization, which resulted in significant changes in the soil NH₄(+)-N and NO₃(-)-N levels. Furthermore, AOB and AOA inhabiting separate ecological niches with different NH₄(+) levels played various roles in N cycling.

  1. The application of exogenous cellulase to improve soil fertility and plant growth due to acceleration of straw decomposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; He, Ming

    2010-05-01

    The effects of exogenous cellulase application on straw decomposition, soil fertility, and plant growth were investigated with nylon bag and pot experiments. Cellulase application promoted straw decomposition, and the decomposition rates of rice and wheat straw increased by 6.3-26.0% and 6.8-28.0%, respectively, in the nylon bag experiments. In pot experiments soil-available N and P contents, soil cellulase activity, and growth of rice seedlings increased. Soil respiration rate and microbial population were unaffected. Seventy Ug(-1) was the optimal cellulase concentration for plant growth. The exogenous cellulase persisted in soil for more than 100days. Although the data show that exogenous cellulase application can enhance soil fertility and plant growth in the short-term due to the acceleration of straw decomposition and has the potential to be an environment-friendly approach to manage straw, cellulase application to soil seems currently not economical.

  2. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to < 0.25 mm, but the distribution of water-stable aggregates did not follow this pattern. Compared with the chemical fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long

  3. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group.

  4. Influence of wastewater application and fertilizer use on growth, photosynthesis, nutrient homeostatis, yield and heavy metal accumulation in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Shahla; Kausar, Saima; Akhtar, Neelima

    2014-05-01

    The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl-, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW). The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra.

  5. Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

  6. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  7. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency.

  8. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nabakishore; Rath, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp. PMID:26038669

  9. EnviroAtlas - Synthetic N fertilizer application to agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Synthetic N fertilizer inputs in 2006 were estimated using county-level estimates of farm N fertilizer inputs. We acquired county-level data describing total farm-level inputs (kg N/yr) of synthetic N fertilizer to individual counties in 2006 from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5207/). These data were converted to per area rates (kg N/ha/yr) of synthetic N fertilizer application by dividing the total N input by the land area (ha) of combined cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands within a county as determined from county-level (http://cta.ornl.gov/transnet/Boundaries.html) summarization of the 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD; http://www.mrlc.gov/nlcd06_data.php). We distributed county-specific, annual per area N inputs rates (kg N/ha/yr) to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands (30 x 30 m pixels) within the corresponding county using the raster calculator tool in ArcMap 10.0 (ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA). Fertilizer data described here represent an average input to a typical agricultural land type within a county, i.e., they are not specific to individual crop types. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the us

  10. Methane oxidation in an intensively cropped tropical rice field soil under long-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, D R; Babu, Y Jagadeesh; Datta, A; Adhya, T K

    2007-01-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation is the only known biological sink process for mitigating atmospheric and terrestrial emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas. Methane oxidation in an alluvial soil planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under long-term application of organic (compost with a C/N ratio of 21.71), and mineral fertilizers was measured in a field-cum-laboratory incubation study. Oxidation rates were quantified in terms of decrease in the concentration of CH4 in the headspace of incubation vessels and expressed as half-life (t(1)2) values. Methane oxidation rates significantly differed among the treatments and growth stages of the rice crop. Methane oxidation rates were high at the maximum tillering and maturity stages, whereas they were low at grain-filling stage. Methane oxidation was low (t(1)2) = 15.76 d) when provided with low concentration of CH4. On the contrary, high concentration of CH4 resulted in faster oxidation (t(1)2) = 6.67 d), suggesting the predominance of "low affinity oxidation" in rice fields. Methane oxidation was stimulated following the application of mineral fertilizers or compost implicating nutrient limitation as one of the factors affecting the process. Combined application of compost and mineral fertilizer, however, inhibited CH4 oxidation probably due to N immobilization by the added compost. The positive effect of mineral fertilizer on CH4 oxidation rate was evident only at high CH4 concentration (t(1)2 = 4.80 d), while at low CH4 concentration their was considerable suppression (t(1) = 17.60 d). Further research may reveal that long-term application of fertilizers, organic or inorganic, may not inhibit CH4 oxidation.

  11. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  12. Analysis of broadcast and banded fertilizer applications for corn production on reconstructed coal mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.A.; Dumenil, L.C.; Henning, S.J.

    1980-12-01

    Multiple-regression analysis was used to analyze the data from a fertility experiment conducted on reconstructed soil at the Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine in Mahaska County, Iowa. In this experiment, the effects of broadcast and row-applied fertilizer on corn yield were compared. The corn yield responses to the fertilizer treatments were masked by variability caused by uncontrolled reclamation conditions and environmental factors. Only 12% of the yield variation (with block effects removed) could be explained by the fertilizer treatments with use of conventional analysis of variance procedures. When the regression technique was used with selected covariables, about 72% of the yield variation could be explained, and the effect of each fertility treatment on corn yield could be determined. The response of yield to each fertility treatment was influenced by the date of corn silking. At early silking, broadcast phosphorus and banded nitrogen fertilizer increased yield, but at late silking, they decreased yield. However, banded phosphorus fertilizer decreased and increased yield at early and late silking, respectively.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from a golf course fairway and rough following application of different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys stratospheric ozone. There is limited research of golf course N2O emission and the effects of frequent fertilization and irrigation. Three enhanced efficiency nitrogen fertilizers (EENFs) were applied to a Colorado golf course fairway and ...

  14. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  15. Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

  16. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linkun; Chen, Jun; Wu, Hongmiao; Qin, Xianjin; Wang, Juanying; Wu, Yanhong; Khan, Muhammad U.; Lin, Sheng; Xiao, Zhigang; Luo, Xiaomian; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere miobiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the 1st-year planted (FP), 2nd-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP) led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT) formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO) without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT) and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO), suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity. PMID:27899917

  17. Progress of Mimetic Enzymes and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Deng, Huan; Zhang, Lianming

    2016-11-01

    The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated.

  18. Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

  19. Computer Applications in Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses computer-based approaches to balancing chemical equations. Surveys 13 methods, 6 based on matrix, 2 interactive programs, 1 stand-alone system, 1 developed in algorithm in Basic, 1 based on design engineering, 1 written in HyperCard, and 1 prepared for the World Wide Web. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

    1999-06-01

    During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

  1. Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

  2. Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingkai; Zhu, Wangzhao; Wang, Zijian; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2002-07-03

    Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer. When maize entered the vigorous vegetation growth stage (e.g. early stem-elongation stage), rare earth-containing fertilizer was applied to the soil with irrigation water. At 10 days after application of the rare earths, significantly dose-dependent accumulative effects of individual rare earth concentrations in the roots and the plant tops of maize were observed, with the exception of Sc and Lu. At the level of 2 kg rare earths ha(-1), accumulative concentrations of most light rare earths (e.g. La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and Gd in the plant tops were much larger than those in the control. Concentrations of individual rare earths in a field-grown maize after application of rare earths decreased in the order of root>leaf>stem>grain. During the maize growth period, selective accumulation of individual rare earths (e.g. La, Ce) in the roots seemed to be in dynamic equilibrium, and the distribution of these elements in the plant tops was variable. At a dosage of less than 10 kg rare earths ha(-1), no apparent accumulative concentrations of individual rare earths appeared in the maize grains. Under the experimental conditions, application of rare earth-containing fertilizer did not induce an increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the grains. We conclude that the present dosage of rare earths (<0.23 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) currently applied in China can hardly affect the safety of maize grains in arable soil, even over a long period.

  3. Quantitative physical and chemical variables used to assess erosion and fertility loss in tropical Dominican and Haitian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Vizcayno, C.; Hernández, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    physical and chemical erosion in this region. The main types of clay are: hematite, kaolin, bohemite (the most abundant) gibbsite and calcite. Textures range from sandy-silty to clayey. Sand and clay fractions seem more abundant than silt ones. Soil pHs are generally in the basic range with infrequent acid soils. OM and total Nitrogen levels are not low, especially OM in the dry forest and N in the latifoliated forest. Available K contents are low in mountain forests and high in dry forests. Available P contents are generally low to very low. The topsoil layers (0-20 cm) of different types of wet and dry tropical forests and agroecosystems were assessed in terms of several physical factors related to erosion. These factors were: particle size, aggregate structural instability index (Is), and soil physical degradation index, erodibility index and erosionability index. This study reports also fertility loss, OM and heavy metal data obtained in the topsoil samples from both natural ecosystems and agroecosystems. Soil fertility also needs to be assessed since has been severely compromised by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the soil induced by the felling and burning of trees to make way for crops. Acknowledgements: Projects CTM2005-02165/TECNO (MEC) & CTM2008-04827/TECNO (MceI). Program EIADES S-0505/AMB/0296 (CAM) and Project "Promoción de la calidad educativa y el desarrollo local en la provincia de Pedernales, R. Dominicana" (CAM & Centro Cultural Poveda of Sto. Domingo, Dominican Republic).

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha−1 yr−1, respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000–250, 250–53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000–250 μm > 250–53μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient

  5. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

  6. [Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years' fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Dong-Po; Liu, Xing-Bin; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Du, Jian-Xiong

    2010-05-01

    The infrared spectrum was used to discuss structure change of soil humus and components of chemical groups in soil humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from soils in different fertilization treatment after 26 year's fertilization. The result indicated that using the infrared spectroscopy method for the determination of humus, humus fractions (HA and FA) and their structure is feasible. Fertilization affected the structure and content of soil humus and aromatization degree. After 26 years' fertilization, the infrared spectrum shapes with different treatments are similar, but the characteristic peak intensity is obviously different, which reflects the effects of different fertilization treatments on the structure and amounts of soil humus or functional groups. Compared with no fertilization, little molecule saccharides decreased and aryl-groups increased under application of inorganic fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer. The effect was greater in Treatment NPK and M+NPK than in Treatment M1 N and M2 N. Organic and NPK fertilizer increased the development of soil and increased soil quality to a certain extent. Results showed that organic fertilization increased aromatization degree of soil humus and humus fractions distinctly. The authors could estimate soil humus evolvement of different fertilization with infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Integrated Microreactor for Chemical and Biochemical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwesinger, N.; Dressler, L.; Frank, Th.; Wurmus, H.

    1995-01-01

    A completely integrated microreactor was developed that allows for the processing of very small amounts of chemical solutions. The entire system comprises several pumps and valves arranged in different branches as well as a mixing unit and a reaction chamber. The streaming path of each branch contains two valves and one pump each. The pumps are driven by piezoelectric elements mounted on thin glass membranes. Each pump is about 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm x 0.7 mm. A pumping rate up to 25 microliters per hour can be achieved. The operational voltage ranges between 40 and 200 V. A volume stroke up to 1.5 millimeter is achievable from the membrane structures. The valves are designed as passive valves. Sealing is by thin metal films. The dimension of a valve unit is 0.8 x 0.8. 07 mm. The ends of the separate streaming branches are arranged to meet in one point. This point acts as the beginning of a mixer unit which contains several fork-shaped channels. The arrangement of these channels allows for the division of the whole liquid stream into partial streams and their reuniting. A homogeneous mixing of solutions and/or gases can be observed after having passed about 10 of the fork elements. A reaction chamber is arranged behind the mixing unit to support the chemical reaction of special fluids. This unit contains heating elements placed outside of the chamber. The complete system is arranged in a modular structure and is built up of silicon. It comprises three silicon wafers bonded together by applying the silicon direct bonding technology. The silicon structures are made only by wet chemical etching processes. The fluid connections to the outside are realized using standard injection needles glued into v-shaped structures on the silicon wafers. It is possible to integrate other components, like sensors or electronic circuits using silicon as the basic material.

  8. Response of hydrolytic enzyme activities and nitrogen mineralization to fertilizer and organic matter application in subtropical paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Driving controllers of nitrogen (N) mineralization in paddy soils, especially under anaerobic soil conditions, remain elusive. The influence of exogenous organic matter (OM) and fertilizer application on the activities of five relevant enzymes (β-glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, L-glutaminase, urease and arylamidase) was measured in two long-term field experiments. One 18-years field experiment was established on a weathered terrace soil with a rice-wheat crop rotation at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) having five OM treatments combined with two mineral N fertilizer levels. Another 30-years experiment was established on a young floodplain soil with rice-rice crop rotation at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) having eight mineral fertilizer treatments combined with organic manure. At BSMRAU, N fertilizer and OM amendments significantly increased all enzyme activities, suggesting them to be primarily determined by substrate availability. At BAU, non-responsiveness of β-glucosidase activity suggested little effect of the studied fertilizer and OM amendments on general soil microbial activity. Notwithstanding probably equal microbial demand for N, β-glucosaminidase and L-glutaminase activities differed significantly among the treatments (P>0.05) and followed strikingly opposite trends and correlations with soil organic N mineralization. So enzymatic pathways to acquire N differed by treatment at BAU, indicating differences in soil N quality and bio-availability. L-glutaminase activity was significantly positively correlated to the aerobic and anaerobic N mineralization rates at both field experiments. Combined with negative correlations between β-glucosaminidase activity and N mineralization rates, it appears that terminal amino acid NH2 hydrolysis was a rate-limiting step for soil N mineralization at BAU. Future investigations with joint quantification of polyphenol accumulation and binding of N, alongside an

  9. Quantifying Uncertainties in N2O Emission Due to N Fertilizer Application in Cultivated Areas

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO2. In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N2O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N2O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable “applied N”, (ii) the function relating N2O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N2O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N2O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha−1. Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

  10. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  11. [Effects of irrigation mode and N application rate on cotton field fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Chang-Zhou; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qi-Chao; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and different N application rates (0, 240, 360 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) on the fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses in a cotton field in Xinjiang, Northwest China. The main N cycling pathways, such as the N uptake by cotton plant, NO3(-)-N residual in soil, NH3 volatilization, NO3(-)-N leaching, and nitrification-denitrification, were quantitatively monitored. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation increased the seed cotton yield, plant N uptake, and fertilizer N use efficiency significantly. The NO3(-)-N residual in soil was significantly greater under furrow irrigation than under drip irrigation. With the application of fertilizer N, the N loss from NH3 volatilization under drip irrigation occupied 0.06% -0.14% of applied N, and was significantly greater than that under furrow irrigation. The N loss from NO3(-)-N leaching under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 4.4% and 8.8% of the applied N, respectively. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation could significantly decrease the NO3(-)-N leakage rate in leakage water. The nitrification-dinetrification loss under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 17.9% and 16.8% of the applied N, respectively. It was suggested that NO3(-)-N leaching and nitrification-denitrification were the main N losses in the cotton fields of Xinjiang.

  12. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  13. [Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen

  14. A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

  15. [Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong

    2013-04-01

    Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.

  16. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Kaźmierczak, Justyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process. PMID:25861358

  17. [Effects of different application rates of humic acid compound fertilizer on pepper and its mechanism of anti-senility and incremental yield].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhimei; Xue, Shichuan; Liang, Wenju; Liu, Yuzhu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different application rates of humic acid compound fertilizer (HA) on the yield and physiological characteristics of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in this paper. The results showed that different application rates of (HA) could affect the physiological activities and yield of pepper. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and peroxidase (POD) activity were improved with increasing application rate, but the change rate of NRA was reduced gradually. POD activity in inorganic compound fertilizer treatment was improved significantly when the application rate of fertilizer was higher than 0.3 g.kg-1, but that in HA treatment changed smoothly. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was improved significantly when the application rate of fertilizer was lower than 0.2 g.kg-1, and decreased gradually when the application rate was higher than 0.2 g.kg-1. The change of transpiration rate was consistent with that of SOD activity. The relationship between the application rate of fertilizer and the yield of pepper could be described with quadratic curve regression model. According to the equation, the highest application rate of HA should be 0.27 g.kg-1, and the highest yield of pepper could reach 165.22 g per pot.

  18. The applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research during the past four decades is presented with an emphasis on chemical equilibrium models and thermochemical kinetics. Several current problems in planetary atmospheres research such as the origin of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, atmosphere-surface interactions on Venus and Mars, deep mixing in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, and the origin of the atmospheres of outer planet satellites all require laboratory data on the kinetics of thermochemical reactions for their solution.

  19. Chemically Modified Graphene for Sensing and Nanomechanical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    chemical vapors at parts-per-billion concentrations,5 although these sensors require somewhat sophisticated electronics to realize their full...chemically (e.g., with hydrazine , N2H4) or thermally (e.g., by annealing in H2), providing a knob with which to tune the sensor response. These devices are...and mechanical devices. CMG can be fine-tuned to its specific application and has been used to produce sensors of extraordinary sensitivity

  20. Application of microbial inoculants as tools for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are increasing due to several factors, including increased use of nitrogen fertilizers. New management tools are needed to reduce N2O emissions from production agriculture. One potential such tool is the use of microbial inoculants, which are increasingly being used ...

  1. Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from an irrigated dairy forage rotation as influenced by fertilizer and manure applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer source on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from irrigated semiarid agricultural soils. In this study, conducted in south-central Idaho, we report nitrous oxide emissions along with carbon dioxide and methane fro...

  3. Derivation of a Variable Rate Nitrogen Application Model for In-Season Fertilization of Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizers used in crop production contribute to pollution of groundwater by nitrate and occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Economic and environmental pressures are forcing producers to improve nitrogen use efficiency. The objective of this study was to develop a production-based...

  4. A comparison between fertigation and granular fertilizer applications on yield and leaf nitrogen in red raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2011-2012 to compare the effects of applying N by fertigation or as granular fertilizer on yield and leaf N in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. The planting was established in Apr. 2006 at site located in western Oregon. Plants were irrigated by drip or sprinklers and grown with or w...

  5. [Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe.

  6. [Fertility and Environmental Impacts of Urban Scattered Human Feces Used as Organic Granular Fertilizer for Leaf Vegetables].

    PubMed

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Qiao, Yu-xiang; Yu, Ning; Shi, Rong-hua; Wang, Guang-ming

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of urban scattered human feces has become a difficult problem for the management of modern city. In present study, the scattered human feces underwent the collection, scum removal, flocculation and dehydration, finally became the granular fertilizer; the effects of the ratio of fertilizer to soil on the growth of the pakchoi and the quality of soil and leaching water were evaluated, and the feasibility of granular fertilizer manuring the pakchoi was discussed by pot experiments. The results showed that the granular fertilizer significantly enhanced the production of the pakchoi which were not polluted by the intestinal microorganisms under the experiment conditions; meanwhile, at the proper ratio of fertilizer to soil, the concentration of these microorganisms in the leaching water was lower than that in the control check. Chemical analyses of soil revealed that the nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters in soil became much richer in all treatments. In addition, the granular fertilizer improved the physical- chemical properties of soil, including raising the level of soil porosity and reducing the volume weight of soil. Application of granular fertilizer won't pollute the soil or leaching water; instead, it can also prevent nitrogen, potassium and intestinal microorganisms from leaching inio ground water at the proper ratio of granular fertilizer to soil.

  7. Application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for fertilization and development in birds.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kiyoshi; Ono, Tamao; Mizushima, Shusei

    2014-01-15

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology in birds has been hampered due to opacity of oocyte. We developed ICSI-assisted fertilization and gene transfer in quail. This paper reviews recent advances of our ICSI experiments. The oocyte retrieved from the oviduct and a quail sperm was injected into the oocyte under a stereomicroscope. The oocyte was cultured for 24h at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. The fertilization and development was assessed by microscopic observation. The fertility rate ranged 12-18% and development varied from stage II to V in trials. To improve the fertility rate, phospholipase C (PLC) zeta was injected with a sperm. It was increased to 37-50%. Furthermore, injection of inositol trisphosphate increased to over 85%. Quail oocyte can be fertilized with chicken sperm and so can testicular elongated spermatid. To extend embryonic development, chicken eggshell was used as a surrogate culture at 37°C after the 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. It survived up to 2days thereafter. Finally, gene transfer was attempted in quail egg. The sperm membrane was disrupted with Triton X-100 (TX-100) and was injected with PLCzeta cRNA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in oocyte. The GFP expression was evaluated at 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air in the embryos. While the expression was not detected in the control oocytes, the experimental treatment induced blastoderm development (44%) of the oocytes and 86% of blastoderm showed fluorescent emission. In addition, PCR analysis detected EGFP fragments in 50% of GFP-expressing blastoderm. Our ICSI method may be the first step toward the production of transgenic birds.

  8. Applications of direct chemical oxidation to demilitarization

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Research is reported concerning an aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes, including ongoing work relevant to demilitarization This process uses acidified ammonium- or sodium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at temperatures of 80- 100 C The oxidant may be regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by- product at Pt anodes at roughly 80% coulombic efficiency, even in the presence of inorganic contaminants (e g , nitrate, phosphate or chloride) found in the original waste and entrained in the recycle stream Integral rate constants have been determined for the oxidation of diverse organic compounds at low concentrations (50 ppm, C), with rate constants (based on equivalents) of 0 004-O 02 miri Higher concentrations generally react at a 2-4X higher rate. The process has been carried through full- scale laboratory tests and initial pilot plant tests on chlorinated solvents, using a hydrolysis pretreatment Integral rate data indicate throughput rates of about 200 kg- C/m3-day The process may benefit the demilitarization efforts in various specialized applications destruction of solvents; destruction of trace propellants and explosives in shell casings remaining after bulk removal, destruction of red and pink waters, in situ remediation of soils at open pit burning/detonation sites; and as a regenerative filter for offgas carrying toxic or explosive substances.

  9. Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

    1983-10-01

    The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. As an example the singlet-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on our VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX is discussed. Since CH2 has only eight electrons, most of the loops in this application are fairly short. The longest inner loops run over the set of atomic basis functions. The CPU time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures. Finally, preliminary work on restructuring the algorithm to compute the separate Monte Carlo realizations in parallel is discussed.

  10. Application Specific Chemical Information Microprocessor (ASCI mu P)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Application Specific Chemical Information Microprocessor (ASCI µP) David Fries U. South Florida, Marine Science Dept, 140 7TH Ave So. St. Petersburg...00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application Specific Chemical Information Microprocessor (ASCI μP) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  11. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk.

  12. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  13. 40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section 430.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The provisions... paper at semi-chemical mills....

  14. 40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section 430.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The provisions... paper at semi-chemical mills....

  15. Greenhouse gas fluxes from a grazed grassland soil after slurry injections and mineral fertilizer applications under the Atlantic climatic conditions of NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Louro, Aránzazu; Cárdenas, Laura M; García, María Isabel; Báez, Dolores

    2016-12-15

    The number of studies that investigate how agricultural practices on dairy farms in the North West (NW) of Spain affect greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from soils is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the application of mineral fertilizers and cattle slurry injections on GHG fluxes from a grassland soil with grazing dairy cattle, in Galicia (NW Spain). We also aimed to identify the type of fertilizer associated with high grass production and low GHG fluxes. To achieve this, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), grass yields and soil mineral nitrogen (N) contents were monitored after three applications (in spring, summer and autumn) of surface broadcasted mineral fertilizer (MN) and injected cattle slurry (CS) and compared with no fertilization (zero N). Dry soil conditions (<60% water-filled pore space (WFPS)) were observed during the spring and summer, contrasting with the higher soil WFPS (>60%) in autumn due to the more frequent rainfall. Overall, total cumulative N2O fluxes from CS were similar than from MN (P>0.05), indicating that denitrification in this C-rich soil was not stimulated by slurry-carbon applications. Large losses of CH4 and CO2 were related to CS, but overall only total cumulative CH4 fluxes were larger with respect to MN (P<0.05). Dry weather conditions would have stimulated organic matter mineralization in this soil, which resulted in the low efficiency of both fertilizers to increase yields. As we obtained similar total CO2 equivalents to produce same yields with both types of fertilization (P>0.05), this study did not show a clear type of fertilization related to low GHG fluxes and high yields. We believe that longer-term studies are required to provide more robust estimations and conclusions about the effect of fertilizer applications on GHG fluxes from grassland soils in NW Spain.

  16. The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure.

  17. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  18. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  19. [Soil biological activities at maize seedling stage under application of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Liang, Chenghua; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Weicheng; Yang, Defu

    2006-06-01

    With pot experiment and simulating field ecological environment, this paper studied the effects of different slow/ controlled release N fertilizers on the soil nitrate - reductase and urease activities and microbial biomass C and N at maize seedling stage. The results showed that granular urea amended with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-bultyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) induced the highest soil nitrate-reductase activity, granular urea brought about the highest soil urease activity and microbial biomass C and N, while starch acetate (SA)-coated granular urea, SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD, methyl methacrylate (MMA) -coated granular urea amended with DCD, and no N fertilization gave a higher soil urease activity. Soil microbial C and N had a similar variation trend after applying various kinds of test slow/controlled release N fertilizers, and were the lowest after applying SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD and NBPT. Coated granular urea amended with inhibitors had a stronger effect on soil biological activities than coated granular urea, and MMA-coating had a better effect than SA-coating.

  20. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1; 20mg NO3--N kg-1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3- and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg-1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3- pools, and spatial separation of NO3- formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to total N2O

  1. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric aerosol chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock production. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. This study provides the first online estimate of NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China, using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system which couples a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, or CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, or EPIC). This method improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emissions from this sector. We combined the cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rates and methods for different crops were collected at provincial or agricultural region levels. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics were input into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emissions were calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emissions in this study were approximately 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July. Compared with previous researches, this study considers an increased number of influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emissions with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  2. Effect of application of phosphate and organic manure-based fertilizers on arsenic transformation in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Sisr, Ludek; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav; Sebek, Ondrej

    2007-12-01

    The mobility of arsenic in Cambisol under the influence of added barnyard manure and application of a phosphate solution to the soil was described on the basis of column experiments. A soil sample containing 126 mg/kg total As and 3.72 mg/kg specifically-sorbed As was extracted using demineralized water (DIW) or a 28 micromol/l phosphate solution in a column containing untreated soil and in a column with added barnyard fertilizer. The pH, Eh, alkalinity, main components, including DOC, and selected trace elements (Al, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Ba and As) were determined in the extracts. Hydrodynamic tests of the flow and transport of the substances in the columns were carried out. The addition of barnyard manure was manifested in elevated concentrations of the main inorganic components, DOC and Al and a decrease in the Eh value and Mn concentration. Application of a phosphate solution was manifested in a decrease in the NO(3) and SO(4) concentrations, probably as a result of the effect of increased biological fixation. The As concentration in extracts varied from 8.8 to 15.5 microg/l and was not dependent on the composition of the extracting solution or the addition of barnyard fertilizer.

  3. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 °C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  4. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  5. Pharmaceutical applications of vibrational chemical imaging and chemometrics: a review.

    PubMed

    Gendrin, C; Roggo, Y; Collet, C

    2008-11-04

    The emergence of chemical imaging (CI) has gifted spectroscopy an additional dimension. Chemical imaging systems complement chemical identification by acquiring spatially located spectra that enable visualization of chemical compound distributions. Such techniques are highly relevant to pharmaceutics in that the distribution of excipients and active pharmaceutical ingredient informs not only a product's behavior during manufacture but also its physical attributes (dissolution properties, stability, etc.). The rapid image acquisition made possible by the emergence of focal plane array detectors, combined with publication of the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for process analytical technology in 2001, has heightened interest in the pharmaceutical applications of CI, notably as a tool for enhancing drug quality and understanding process. Papers on the pharmaceutical applications of CI have been appearing in steadily increasing numbers since 2000. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview of infrared, near-infrared and Raman imaging in pharmaceutics. Sections 2 and 3 deal with the theory, device set-ups, mode of acquisition and processing techniques used to extract information of interest. Section 4 addresses the pharmaceutical applications.

  6. [Effects of long-term mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on canopy apparent photosynthesis and yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Ji-wang; Zhao, Bin

    2015-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted using the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety Shimai 15. The source of organic nitrogen was cow manure, and four fertilization treatments were included, i.e., no N fertilizer application, single application of urea, single application of cow manure, and mixed application of urea and cow manure. The effects of different applications of inorganic and organic nitrogen on canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), photosynthetic rate of flag leaves (Pn), leaf area index (LAI), florescence parameters and grain yield of winter wheat were determined. The results showed that urea had the largest effect on the early growth period, as at this stage the CAP, Pn and LAI of the single application of urea were the highest, which was followed by the mixed application and the single application of cow manure. However, 10 days after anthesis, the single application of cow manure and the mixed application delayed the leaf senescence process when compared with the single application of urea. This could be due to the two treatments having higher anti-oxidant enzyme activity and promoting a longer green leaf duration, which could maintain a higher photosynthetic capability. What' s more, the mixed application had a better performance and got the highest grain yield. Consequently, the mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could delay leaf senescence and maintain a better canopy structure and higher photosynthesis capability at the late grain filling stage, which resulted in a higher grain yield.

  7. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  8. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  9. Effects of crop rotation, tillage, and fertilizer applications on sorghum head insects.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Matocha, John E

    2007-02-01

    Rotations, tillage, and fertilizer treatments can affect yield, costs, and profitability in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depending on their effects on pests. Rotation or planting different crops reduces soil erosion and pests that build up when a field is planted to the same crop each year. Minimum tillage reduces the number of trips over a field, lessening soil compaction and reducing costs. We examined the effects of fertilizer, tillage, and rotation with cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., on sorghum head insects during three sampling periods each year from 2000 to 2003. We found that fertilizer treatments did not affect pests or predators. Also, predators were unaffected by rotation and tillage, which some years affected Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Oebalus pugnax (F.), both pests that feed on developing sorghum kernels, thereby reducing yield. In 2000, H. zea densities were greater in continuous sorghum, regardless of tillage practice, than in sorghum-cotton rotation. However, in 2003, H. zea densities were greater in minimum tillage plots within sorghum- cotton rotation than minimum tillage plots within continuous sorghum. In 2000, in sorghum- cotton rotation, O. pugnax densities were greater in minimum tillage than conventional tillage plots, whereas in continuous sorghum the opposite was true, O. pugnax were greater in conventional tillage. Also, O. pugnax were greater in sorghum- cotton rotation than in continuous sorghum. In 2002, O. pugnax densities were greater in conventional than minimum tillage plots. These results suggest that rotation of sorghum with cotton can sometimes reduce H. zea, but this reduction may occur with increased density of O. pugnax. Also, reducing tillage may reduce O. pugnax in some instances.

  10. Nanostructured conjugated polymers in chemical sensors: synthesis, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Correa, D S; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E; Paterno, L G; Mattoso, Luiz C

    2014-09-01

    Conjugated polymers are organic materials endowed with a π-electron conjugation along the polymer backbone that present appealing electrical and optical properties for technological applications. By using conjugated polymeric materials in the nanoscale, such properties can be further enhanced. In addition, the use of nanostructured materials makes possible miniaturize devices at the micro/nano scale. The applications of conjugated nanostructured polymers include sensors, actuators, flexible displays, discrete electronic devices, and smart fabric, to name a few. In particular, the use of conjugated polymers in chemical and biological sensors is made feasible owning to their sensitivity to the physicochemical conditions of its surrounding environment, such as chemical composition, pH, dielectric constant, humidity or even temperature. Subtle changes in these conditions bring about variations on the electrical (resistivity and capacitance), optical (absorptivity, luminescence, etc.), and mechanical properties of the conjugated polymer, which can be precisely measured by different experimental methods and ultimately associated with a specific analyte and its concentration. The present review article highlights the main features of conjugated polymers that make them suitable for chemical sensors. An especial emphasis is given to nanostructured sensors systems, which present high sensitivity and selectivity, and find application in beverage and food quality control, pharmaceutical industries, medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and homeland security, and other applications as discussed throughout this review.

  11. Effect of foliar application of zinc, selenium, and iron fertilizers on nutrients concentration and yield of rice grain in China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Wang, Lin; Xin, Zhihong; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Hu, Qiuhui

    2008-03-26

    Zn, Se, and Fe levels in 65 Chinese rice samples were investigated, and the results indicated that these micronutrients contents of rice products from different location varied considerably. The mean contents of Zn, Se and Fe in these rice samples were 21.5+/-1.8, 0.020+/-0.012, and 12.4+/-4.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, which were too low to meet the micronutrient demands for the population feeding on the rice as staple. A field orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)) was conducted on rice cultivar Wuyunjing 7, to evaluate the effect of Zn, Se, and Fe foliar fertilization on the concentration of these micronutrients, yield, and protein and ash content of rice grain. The results indicated that Zn and Se were the main variables influencing the Zn, Se, and Fe content of rice, and the optimal combination of fertilization for enhancing these micronutrients was 0.90 kg ha(-1) Zn, 0.015 kg ha(-1) Se, and 0.90 kg ha(-1) Fe. Under the optimal application condition, Zn, Se, and Fe content of rice could be significantly increased by 36.7%, 194.1%, and 37.1%, respectively, compared with the control, without affecting grain yield and protein and ash content of rice products. Moreover, in the confirmation experiment on rice cultivar Ninggeng 1, the optimal fertilization could increase the Zn, Se, and Fe content of rice up to 17.4, 0.123, and 14.2 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  12. Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry

    PubMed Central

    Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1 N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50 kg·ha−1 N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150 kg·ha−1 N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44–50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg·ha−1 N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg·L−1) and electrical conductivity (>3 dS·m−1) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

  13. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  14. Phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glycosides of organic and mineral-base fertilized cassava tubers.

    PubMed

    Omar, Nur Faezah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Sinniah, Umarani

    2012-02-27

    A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer) and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian). The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K(2)O ha-1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.

  15. Fertilizer nitrogen isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D

    2007-09-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the potential application of nitrogen isotope analysis in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops. A prerequisite of this approach is that there is a difference in the nitrogen isotope compositions of the fertilizers used in organic and conventional agriculture. We report new measurements of delta15N values for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and present a compilation of the new data with existing literature nitrogen isotope data. Nitrogen isotope values for fertilizers that may be permitted in organic cultivation systems are also reported (manures, composts, bloodmeal, bonemeal, hoof and horn, fishmeal and seaweed based fertilizers). The delta15N values of the synthetic fertilizers in the compiled dataset fall within a narrow range close to 0 per thousand with 80% of samples lying between-2 and 2 per thousand and 98.5% of the data having delta15N values of less than 4 per thousand (mean=0.2 per thousand n=153). The fertilizers that may be permitted in organic systems have a higher mean delta15N value of 8.5 per thousand and exhibit a broader range in delta15N values from 0.6 to 36.7 per thousand (n=83). The possible application of the nitrogen isotope approach in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops is discussed in light of the fertilizer data presented here and with regard to other factors that are also important in determining crop nitrogen isotope values.

  16. Allele-specific chemical genetics: concept, strategies, and applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kabirul

    2015-02-20

    The relationship between DNA and protein sequences is well understood, yet because the members of a protein family/subfamily often carry out the same biochemical reaction, elucidating their individual role in cellular processes presents a challenge. Forward and reverse genetics have traditionally been employed to understand protein functions with considerable success. A fundamentally different approach that has gained widespread application is the use of small organic molecules, known as chemical genetics. However, the slow time-scale of genetics and inherent lack of specificity of small molecules used in chemical genetics have limited the applicability of these methods in deconvoluting the role of individual proteins involved in fast, dynamic biological events. Combining the advantages of both the techniques, the specificity achieved with genetics along with the reversibility and tunability of chemical genetics, has led to the development of a powerful approach to uncover protein functions in complex biological processes. This technique is known as allele-specific chemical genetics and is rapidly becoming an essential toolkit to shed light on proteins and their mechanism of action. The current review attempts to provide a comprehensive description of this approach by discussing the underlying principles, strategies, and successful case studies. Potential future implications of this technology in expanding the frontiers of modern biology are discussed.

  17. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on (137)Cs and (133)Cs uptake in paddy rice fields.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on (137)Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ((133)Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting (137)Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil (137)Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between (137)Cs and (133)Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period enhances

  18. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  19. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liong-Yu; Neudeck, Phil G.; Knight, Dale; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, Darby; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  20. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.; Hall, G.

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  1. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  2. Organic and inorganic fertilizer effect on soil CO2 flux, microbial biomass, and growth of Nigella sativa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Aliyeh; Fallah, Seyfollah; Sourki, Ali Abasi

    2017-01-01

    Cattle manure has a high carbon/nitrogen ratio and may not decompose; therefore, full-dose application of urea fertilizer might improve biological properties by increasing manure decomposition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of combining cattle manure and urea fertilizer on soil CO2 flux, microbial biomass carbon, and dry matter accumulation during Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) growth under field conditions. The treatments were control, cattle manure, urea, different levels of split and full-dose integrated fertilizer. The results showed that integrated application of cattle manure and chemical fertilizer significantly increased microbial biomass carbon by 10%, soil organic carbon by 2.45%, total N by 3.27%, mineral N at the flowering stage by 7.57%, and CO2 flux by 9% over solitary urea application. Integrated application increased microbial biomass carbon by 10% over the solitary application and the full-dose application by 5% over the split application. The soil properties and growth parameters of N. sativa L. benefited more from the full-dose application than the split application of urea. Cattle manure combined with chemical fertilizer and the full-dose application of urea increased fertilizer efficiency and improved biological soil parameters and plant growth. This method decreased the cost of top dressing urea fertilizer and proved beneficial for the environment and medicinal plant health.

  3. Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering: Hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. ); Grizzaffi, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems are known to be useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, and process advisory. However, expert system applications are traditionally limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks, on the other hand, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in providing in-depth solutions and typically do not promote full understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. Hence, applications of neural networks have certain limitations. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of chemical engineering areas where neural networks might be utilized by incorporating expert systems and neural networks into the same application, a process called hybridization. In addition, hybrid applications are compared with those using more traditional approaches, the results of the different applications are analyzed, and the feasibility of converting the preliminary prototypes described herein into useful final products is evaluated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production--Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time.

  5. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  6. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    PubMed

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

  7. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

  8. Comparative response of varied irrigated maize to organic and inorganic fertilizer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandika, I. R.; Kadyampakeni, D.; Bottomani, C.; Kakhiwa, H.

    The response of varied irrigated maize (Zea mays) to organic and inorganic fertilizer N, was evaluated at Kasinthula Agricultural Station (2003-2006), Malawi to determine the optimum nutrient and irrigation frequency combinations for soil-water and nutrient management which will address water stress and low soil fertility problem. Hybrid maize variety (DK 8031) was planted on ridges spaced at 0.75 × 0.25 m in a split-plot design replicated three times, with four irrigation frequencies as main plots and fertilizer sources as subplots. Irrigation frequencies comprised: water balance scheduling at 40% depletion, and irrigating 40 mm every 3-4 days, 7 days and 14 days. The nitrogen sources were compost (C), farmyard manure (FYM), urea (U) and their mixtures [(2U:C); (U:2C); (2U:FYM); and (U:2FYM)]. Organic manure was banded three weeks before planting. Data on grain yield was collected and subjected to ANOVA using the Genstat and LSD 0.05 test separating statistical significant means. There was positive ( P < 0.01) and highly significant interactions between maize grain yield, crop water productivity (CWP) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The water balance scheduling at 40% soil moisture depletion had highest grain yields, CWP and NUE among the four irrigation frequencies that was not significantly different to 40 mm every 3-4 days and every 7 days obtained with nitrogen sourced from sole Urea which were not significantly different to mean grain yields, CWP and NUE from (2U:C) and (2U:FYM). CWP was optimally maximised in sole urea (9.8, 8.8 kg mm -1 ha -1) and mixed treatments of 2U:C (8.2, 7.2 kg mm -1 ha -1) or 2U:FYM (8.2-8.9 kg mm -1 ha -1) for maize irrigated every 7 days and at 40% depletion using soil water balance schedule respectively. The greatest NUE of 53.5 kg kg N -1 under (2U:FYM) treatments was experienced at 40% depletion irrigation schedule and was also not significantly different to sole urea and (2U:FYM) treatments (52.8 and 51.6 kg kg N -1

  9. [Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium.

  10. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction and slurry sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Aline R.; Becker, Emilene M.; Dessuy, Morgana B.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Welz, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    In this work, chemical modifiers in solution (Pd/Mg, NH4H2PO4 and NH4NO3/Pd) were compared with permanent modifiers (Ir and Ru) for the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples using slurry sampling and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction. The analytical line at 283.3 nm was used due to some spectral interference observed at 217.0 nm. The NH4H2PO4 was abandoned due to severe spectral interference even at the 283.3-nm line. For Pd/Mg and NH4NO3/Pd the optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 °C and 1900 °C, respectively. For Ru and Ir, the integrated absorbance signal was stable up to pyrolysis temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively, and up to atomization temperature of 1700 °C. The limit of detection (LOD) was 17 ng g- 1 using Pd/Mg and 29 ng g- 1 using NH4NO3/Pd. Among the permanent modifiers investigated, the LOD was 22 ng g- 1 Pb for Ir and 10 ng g- 1 Pb for Ru. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the certified reference material NIST SRM 695. Although Ru provided lower LOD, which can be attributed to a lower blank signal, only the modifiers in solution showed concordant values of Pb concentration for the NIST SRM 695 and the most of analyzed samples. Moreover, the Pd/Mg modifier provided the highest sensitivity and for this reason it is more suitable for the determination of Pb in fertilizers samples in slurry; besides this it presented a better signal-to-noise ratio than NH4NO3/Pd.

  11. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches, because they can be considered both emerging "chemicals" of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging, and critical elements in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and to outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. The present paper focuses on the adaptability of existing hazard and exposure assessment approaches to engineered nanomaterials as well as strategies to design inherently safer nanomaterials. We argue that alternatives assessment for nanomaterials is complicated by the sheer number of nanomaterials possible. As a result, the inclusion of new data tools that can efficiently and effectively evaluate nanomaterials as substitutes is needed to strengthen the alternatives assessment process. However, we conclude that with additional tools to enhance traditional hazard and exposure assessment modules of alternatives assessment, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:177-187. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nakamura, Yuki; Harwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular components, and play numerous essential functions. As well as their physiological roles, oils stored in biomass are useful commodities for a variety of biotechnological applications including food, chemical feedstocks, and fuel. Due to their agronomic as well as economic and societal importance, lipids have historically been subjected to intensive studies. Major current efforts are to increase the energy density of cell biomass, and/or create designer oils suitable for specific applications. This chapter covers some basic aspects of what one needs to know about lipids: definition, structure, function, metabolism and focus is also given on the development of modern lipid analytical tools and major current engineering approaches for biotechnological applications. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a primer for all subsequent chapters in this book outlining current development in specific areas of lipids and their metabolism.

  13. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  14. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, R. S.; Brandon, J. R.; Clewes, S. L.; Dhillon, H. K.; Dodson, J. M.; Friel, I.; Inglis, P. N.; Madgwick, T. D.; Markham, M. L.; Mollart, T. P.; Perkins, N.; Scarsbrook, G. A.; Twitchen, D. J.; Whitehead, A. J.; Wilman, J. J.; Woollard, S. M.

    2009-09-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  15. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  16. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijie; Zhang, Lili; Yu, Chunxiao; Li, Dongpo; Gong, Ping; Xue, Yan; Song, Yuchao; Cui, Yalan; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK), N fertilizer (NF) and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS). We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment) increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed.

  17. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao; Li, Dongpo; Gong, Ping; Xue, Yan; Song, Yuchao; Cui, Yalan; Doane, Timothy A.; Wu, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK), N fertilizer (NF) and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS). We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment) increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed. PMID:28045989

  18. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  19. Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkalčec, Biserka; Murković Steinberg, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument.

  20. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  1. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  2. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM Canola.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin; Hayter, Katrina; Cresswell, James E

    2007-10-01

    Cross-pollination from fields of transgenic crops is of great public concern. Although cross-pollination in commercial canola (Brassica napus) fields has been empirically measured, field trials are expensive and do not identify the causes of cross-pollination. Therefore, theoretical models can be valuable because they can provide estimates of cross-pollination at any given site and time. We present a general analytical model of field-to-field gene flow due to the following competing mechanisms: the wind, bees, and autonomous pollination. We parameterize the model for the particular case of field-to-field cross-pollination of genetically modified (GM) canola via the wind and via bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). We make extensive use of the large data set of bee densities collected during the recent U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations. We predict that canola approaches almost full seed set without pollinators and that autonomous pollination is responsible for > or = 25% of seed set, irrespective of pollinator abundance. We do not predict the relative contribution of bees vs. the wind in landscape-scale gene flow in canola. However, under model assumptions, we predict that the maximum field-to-field gene flow due to bumble bees is 0.04% and 0.13% below the current EU limit for adventitious GM presence for winter- and spring-sown canola, respectively. We predict that gene flow due to bees is approximately 3.1 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, and due to the wind, 1.3 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, for both winter- and spring-sown canola. Bumble bee-mediated gene flow is approximately 2.7 times higher and wind-mediated gene flow approximately 1.7 times lower in spring-sown than in winter-sown canola, regardless of the degree of male-sterility. The model of cross-pollination due to the wind most closely predicted three previously published observations: field-to-field gene flow is low; gene flow increases with

  3. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  4. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  5. The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

  6. Peptide protected gold clusters: chemical synthesis and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Ru; Gao, Fuping; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xueyun

    2016-06-01

    Bridging the gap between atoms and nanoparticles, noble metal clusters with atomic precision continue to attract considerable attention due to their important applications in catalysis, energy transformation, biosensing and biomedicine. Greatly different to common chemical synthesis, a one-step biomimetic synthesis of peptide-conjugated metal clusters has been developed to meet the demand of emerging bioapplications. Under mild conditions, multifunctional peptides containing metal capturing, reactive and targeting groups are rationally designed and elaborately synthesized to fabricate atomically precise peptide protected metal clusters. Among them, peptide-protected Au Cs (peptide-Au Cs) possess a great deal of exceptional advantages such as nanometer dimensions, high photostability, good biocompatibility, accurate chemical formula and specific protein targeting capacity. In this review article, we focus on the recent advances in potential theranostic fields by introducing the rising progress of peptide-Au Cs for biological imaging, biological analysis and therapeutic applications. The interactions between Au Cs and biological systems as well as potential mechanisms are also our concerned theme. We expect that the rapidly growing interest in Au Cs-based theranostic applications will attract broader concerns across various disciplines.

  7. Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

  8. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  9. Soil Warming and Fertilization Effects on Growth Ring Widths of Arctic Shrubs - Application of a Novel Dendroecological Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate Garcia, M.; Heijmans, M.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Niklaus, P. A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is suggested as the main driver of shrub expansion in arctic tundra regions. Shrub expansion may have consequences on biodiversity and climate, especially through its feedbacks with the energy budget. A better understanding of shrub expansion mechanisms, including growth rate patterns and stem anatomy changes, and their sensitivity to climate is needed in order to quantify related feedbacks. We present a novel dendroecological approach to determine the response of three arctic shrub species to increased soil temperature and nutrients. A full factorial block-design experiment was run for four years with a total of thirty plots. Six individuals of each species were sampled from each plot to test for treatment effects on growth rate and stem anatomy. We compared the ring width of the four years of experiment with the one of the four previous years. The preliminary results for Betula nana and Salix pulchra suggest a significant effect of the treatments on the growth ring width. The response is stronger in Salix pulchra than in Betula nana individuals. And, while Salix pulchra is more sensitive to the combined soil warming and fertilization treatment, Betula nana is to the fertilization treatment. We could not observe an effect of treatment on the stem anatomy, likely because bark thickness co-varies with age. We found significant positive correlations of cork, cortex and phloem thickness with xylem thickness (used as a proxy of age), and a significant difference in stem anatomy between species. The results suggest species-specific growth sensitivity to soil warming and nutrient enhancement. The use of experimental dendroecology by manipulating environmental conditions according to future climate scenarios and testing effects on shrub anatomy and annual growth will increase our understanding on shrub expansion mechanisms. Ongoing plant trait analysis and consecutive application in a 3D radiative transfer model will allow to quantify the feedback of

  10. Loblolly pine productivity and water relations in response to throughfall reduction and fertilizer application on a poorly drained site in northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, Maxwell G.; Martin, Timothy A.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; Jokela, Eric J.; Cropper, Jr., Wendell P.; Ward, Eric J.

    2016-09-26

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests are of great ecological and economic value in the southeastern United States, where nutrient availability frequently limits productivity. The impact of fertilizer application on the growth and water relations of loblolly pine has been investigated by numerous studies; however, few field experiments have examined the effects of drought. Drought is of particular interest due to the potential for climate change to alter soil water availability. In this study, we investigated the impact of fertilizer application and a 30% reduction in throughfall on loblolly pine productivity, transpiration, hydraulic conductance, and stomatal conductance. The study was installed in a ten-year-old loblolly pine plantation on a somewhat poorly drained site in northern Florida. Throughfall reduction did not impact tree productivity or water relations of the trees. This lack of response was attributed to abundant rainfall and the ability of trees to access the shallow water table at this site. Fertilizer application increased basal area production by 20% and maximum leaf area index by 0.5 m2 m 2, but it did not affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance or the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. During the spring, when leaf area and vapor pressure deficit were high, the fertilizer-only treatment increased monthly transpiration by 17% when compared to the control. This relationship, furthermore, was not significant during the rest of the year.

  11. Loblolly pine productivity and water relations in response to throughfall reduction and fertilizer application on a poorly drained site in northern Florida

    DOE PAGES

    Wightman, Maxwell G.; Martin, Timothy A.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; ...

    2016-09-26

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests are of great ecological and economic value in the southeastern United States, where nutrient availability frequently limits productivity. The impact of fertilizer application on the growth and water relations of loblolly pine has been investigated by numerous studies; however, few field experiments have examined the effects of drought. Drought is of particular interest due to the potential for climate change to alter soil water availability. In this study, we investigated the impact of fertilizer application and a 30% reduction in throughfall on loblolly pine productivity, transpiration, hydraulic conductance, and stomatal conductance. The study wasmore » installed in a ten-year-old loblolly pine plantation on a somewhat poorly drained site in northern Florida. Throughfall reduction did not impact tree productivity or water relations of the trees. This lack of response was attributed to abundant rainfall and the ability of trees to access the shallow water table at this site. Fertilizer application increased basal area production by 20% and maximum leaf area index by 0.5 m2 m 2, but it did not affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance or the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. During the spring, when leaf area and vapor pressure deficit were high, the fertilizer-only treatment increased monthly transpiration by 17% when compared to the control. This relationship, furthermore, was not significant during the rest of the year.« less

  12. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

  13. LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

  14. Chemical nonequilibrium for interacting bosons: Applications to the pion gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Fraile, D.; Gómez Nicola, A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider an interacting pion gas in a stage of the system evolution where thermal but not chemical equilibrium has been reached, i.e., for temperatures between thermal and chemical freeze-out Ttherchemical potential μπ within a diagrammatic thermal field-theory approach, valid in principle for any bosonic field theory in this regime. The resulting Feynman rules are derived here and applied within the context of chiral perturbation theory to discuss thermodynamical quantities of interest for the pion gas such as the free energy, the quark condensate, and thermal self-energy. In particular, we derive the μπ≠0 generalization of Luscher and Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner-type relations. We pay special attention to the comparison with the conventional kinetic theory approach in the dilute regime, which allows for a check of consistency of our approach. Several phenomenological applications are discussed, concerning chiral symmetry restoration, freeze-out conditions, and Bose-Einstein pion condensation.

  15. Characterization of a new fertilizer during field trials by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Trella, Agata; Garcia Izquierdo, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the LIFE RESAFE Project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/000356) "Innovative fertilizer from urban waste, bio-char and farm residues as substitute of chemical fertilizers". The aim of RESAFE project is the production of a new fertilizer from waste for agricultural practices. The new fertilizer was tested on 5 different crops during field trials carried out in Spain: barley, corn, tomato, potato and melon. For each crop six different treatments were applied and compared to verify the quality of RESAFE fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The possibility to apply hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to perform soil evolution monitoring and characterization in respect to the fertilizer utilization and quality of the resulting crops was investigated. Soil samples were acquired by HSI in the near infrared field (1000-1700 nm) and on the same samples classical chemical analyses were carried out with reference to total nitrogen, total organic carbon, C/N ratio, total organic matter. Hyperspectral data were analyzed adopting a chemometric approach through application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory purposes and Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS) for estimation of chemical parameters. The results showed as the proposed hardware and software integrated architecture allows to implement low cost and easy to use analytical procedures able to quantitatively assess soil chemical-physical attributes according to different fertilization strategies, in respect of different environmental conditions and selected crops.

  16. Studies on a chemically defined medium for in vitro culture of in vitro matured and fertilized porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Kimura, E; Totsukawa, K

    1999-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of various components in a chemically defined medium on the development of IVM/IVF porcine embryos. The investigated components included energy substrates (lactate, pyruvate or glucose, alone or in various combinations), amino acids (glutamine, glycine or alanine), PVP and HEPES buffer. The effects of each energy substrate were the same as the control. However, a mixture of lactate with either of the other energy substrates increased the development rate. Glutamine tended to decrease rate of the development more than other amino acids, and this inhibition was dose dependent. Both PVP and HEPES buffer did not affect development rate. However, more than 35 mM HEPES buffer induced fragmentation From the above results, a new culture medium was designed (supplemented with 0.276 mM glycine, 0.176 mM alanine, 15 mM HEPES buffer and 1% (wt/vol) PVP in BSA-free Whitten's medium with or without glucose). The new medium resulted in a higher embryo development rate (20.4 and 16.3%) than that obtained with the control medium (10.0%).

  17. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth.

  18. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  19. Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianhong

    1998-02-23

    The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

  20. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer and urea applications in two rice planted paddy soils in a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Jiang, X; Yang, X L; Song, Y

    2010-01-15

    Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for HCB degradation, the applications of organic materials and nitrogen can alter microbial activity and redox potential of soils, thus probably influence HCB dechlorination. To evaluate hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer (OF) and urea applications in planted paddy soils, a pot experiment was conducted in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). After 18 weeks of experiment, HCB residues decreased by 28.2-37.5% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 42.1-70.9% in An. The amounts of HCB metabolites showed that dechlorination rates in An were higher than in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. Both in Ac and An, the additions of 1% and 2% OF had negative effect on HCB dechlorination, which was probably because excessive nitrogen in OF decreased degraders' activity and the degradation of organic carbon in OF accepted electrons. The application of 0.03% urea could enhance HCB dechlorination rates slightly, while 0.06% urea accelerated HCB dechlorination significantly both in Ac and An. It could be assumed that urea served as an electron donor and stimulated degraders to dechlorinate HCB. In addition, the methanogenic bacteria were involved in dechlorination process, and reductive dechlorination in planted paddy soil might be impeded for the aerenchyma and O(2) supply into the rhizosphere. Results indicated that soil types, rice root system, methanogenic bacteria, OF and urea applications all had great effects on dechlorination process.

  1. The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models.

    PubMed

    Haynes, S E

    1983-10-01

    It is widely known that linear restrictions involve bias. What is not known is that some linear restrictions are especially dangerous for hypothesis testing. For some, the expected value of the restricted coefficient does not lie between (among) the true unconstrained coefficients, which implies that the estimate is not a simple average of these coefficients. In this paper, the danger is examined regarding the additive linear restriction almost universally imposed in statistical research--the restriction of symmetry. Symmetry implies that the response of the dependent variable to a unit decrease in an expanatory variable is identical, but of opposite sign, to the response to a unit increase. The 1st section of the paper demonstrates theoretically that a coefficient restricted by symmetry (unlike coefficients embodying other additive restrictions) is not a simple average of the unconstrained coefficients because the relevant interacted variables are inversly correlated by definition. The next section shows that, under the restriction of symmetry, fertility in Finland from 1885-1925 appears to respond in a prolonged manner to infant mortality (significant and positive with a lag of 4-6 years), suggesting a response to expected deaths. However, unscontrained estimates indicate that this finding is spurious. When the restriction is relaxed, the dominant response is rapid (significant and positive with a lag of 1-2 years) and stronger for declines in mortality, supporting an aymmetric response to actual deaths. For 2 reasons, the danger of the symmetry restriction may be especially pervasive. 1st, unlike most other linear constraints, symmetry is passively imposed merely by ignoring the possibility of asymmetry. 2nd, modles in a wide range of fields--including macroeconomics (e.g., demand for money, consumption, and investment models, and the Phillips curve), international economics (e.g., intervention models of central banks), and labor economics (e.g., sticky wage

  2. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when ovulation happens. Couples use a calendar, a thermometer to measure body temperature, the thickness of cervical ... fertility awareness — such as ovulation detection kits and thermometers, for example — are available in drugstores. But they ...

  3. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... time the couple using only fertility awareness for birth control who does not want to get pregnant should ... period. In general, how well each type of birth control method works depends on a lot of things. ...

  4. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of alpha

  5. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic–inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of

  6. Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL

  7. PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSS RISK ASSESSMENT FOR UNINCORPORATED MANURE AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wisconsin’s cropland phosphorus loss risk assessment for nutrient management planning (P Index) has been revised to account for the probability and potential volume of runoff events following manure applications. This P Index uses a simplified modeling approach to estimate annual unit area phosphoru...

  8. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  9. [Sustainable production of bulk chemicals by application of "white biotechnology"].

    PubMed

    Patel, M K; Dornburg, V; Hermann, B G; Shen, Li; van Overbeek, Leo

    2008-12-01

    Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the

  10. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  11. [Nitrate nitrogen leaching and residue of humic acid fertilizer in field soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-chun; Xing, Shang-jun; Duan, Chun-hua; Du, Zhen-yu; Ma, Hai-lin; Ma, Bing-yao

    2010-07-01

    To elucidate the potential influence of humic acidfertilizer on groundwater and soil quality in clay soil (CS) and sandy soil (SS), nitrate nitrogen leaching and residue of different fertilizers in field soil were studied using a self-made leaching field device. Nitrate nitrogen concentration in leaching water of fertilizer treatments was 28.1%-222.2% higher than that of non-nitrogen treatment in different times, but humic acid fertilizer could prevent nitrate nitrogen leaching both in CS and SS, especially in CS. Nitrate nitrogen concentration of leaching water in CS was 41.2%-59.1% less than that in SS and the inhibiting effect in CS was greater than that in SS. Nitrate nitrogen could be accumulated in soil profile by fertilizer application. The residue of nitrate nitrogen retained in 0-40 cm soil layer of humic acid fertilizer treatment was 59.8% and 54.4% respectively, higher than that of urea and compound fertilizer treatments. Nitrate nitrogen amount of humic acid, urea and compound fertilizer treatments in SS was significantly less than that in CS, being 81.7%, 81.1% and 47.6% respectively. Compared with the conventional fertilizer, humic acid fertilizer treatment improved the contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of upper layer soil as well as cation exchange capacity. Besides, total amount of water-soluble salts in humic acid fertilizer treatment was decreased by 24.8% and 22.5% in comparison to urea and compound fertilizer treatments in CS, respectively. In summary, the application of humic acid fertilizer could improve physical and chemical properties of upper layer soil and reduce the risk of potential pollution to groundwater.

  12. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers.

  13. 40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section 721.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... General Provisions § 721.11 Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is...: SNUR Bonafide submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

  14. 40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section 721.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... General Provisions § 721.11 Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is...: SNUR Bonafide submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

  15. 40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section 721.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... General Provisions § 721.11 Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is...: SNUR Bonafide submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section 721.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... General Provisions § 721.11 Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is...: SNUR Bonafide submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

  17. 40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section 721.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... General Provisions § 721.11 Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is...: SNUR Bonafide submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

  18. 40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section 430.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory... of pulp and paper at semi-chemical mills....

  19. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic chemicals subcategory. 414.70 Section 414.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.70 Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals...

  20. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  1. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic chemicals subcategory. 414.70 Section 414.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.70 Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals...

  2. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organic chemicals subcategory. 414.70 Section 414.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.70 Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals...

  3. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organic chemicals subcategory. 414.70 Section 414.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.70 Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals...

  4. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  5. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  6. Fertilizer-derived uranium and sulfur in rangeland soil and runoff: A case study in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Orem, W.H.; Simmons, K.R.; Bohlen, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fertilizer applications to rangeland and pastures in central Florida have potential impact on the nutrient-sensitive ecosystems of Lake Okeechobee and the Northern Everglades. To investigate the effects of fertilizer applications, three soil profiles from variably managed and improved rangeland, and four samples of surface runoff from both fertilized and unfertilized pasture were collected. In addition to determining nutrient concentrations, isotopic analyses of uranium (U) and sulfur (S) were performed to provide isotopic evidence for U derived from historically applied phosphate (P)-bearing fertilizer ( 234 U 238U activity ratio =1.0 ?? 0.05), and Sderived from recently applied ammonium sulfate fertilizer(??34 S=3.5permil).The distribution and mobility of fertilizer-derived U in these samples is considered to be analogous to that of fertilizer-derived phosphate.Variations of U concentrations and 234 U/238 U activity ratios in soils indicate contribution of fertilizer-derived U in the upper portions of the fertilized soil (15-}34 percent of total U). The U isotope data for runoff from the fertilized field also are consistent with some contribution from fertilizer-derived U. Parallel investigations of S showed no consistent chemical or isotopic evidence for significant fertilizer-derived sulfate in rangeland soil or runoff. Relatively abundant and isotopically variable S present in the local environment hinders detection of fertilizer-derived sulfate. The results indicate a continuing slow-release of fertilizer-derived U and, by inference, P, to the P-sensitive ecosystem, and a relatively rapid release of sulfate of possible natural origin. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. Proposal of a defense application for a chemical oxygen laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, K.

    2015-05-01

    Defense application for a chemical oxygen laser (COL) is explained. Although a COL has not yet been successful in lasing, the oscillator was estimated to produce a giant pulse with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~0.05ms which makes the damage threshold for the mirrors several-order higher than that for a typical solid-state laser with a ~10ns pulse width. Therefore it has a potential to produce MJ class output considering the simple scalability of being a chemical laser. Since within 0.05ms a supersonic aircraft can move only a few centimeters which is roughly equal to the spot size of the focused beam at ~10km away using a large-diameter focusing mirror, a COL has a potential to make a damage to an enemy aircraft by a single shot without beam tracking. But since the extracted beam can propagate up to a few kilometers due to the absorption in the air, it may be suitable to use in space. While a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) can give a pulsed output with a width of ~2 ms using a high-pressure singlet oxygen generator (SOG). Therefore a pulsed COIL may also not require beam tracking if a target aircraft is approaching. Another advantage for these pulsed high-energy lasers (HELs) is that, in case of propagating in cloud or fog, much less energy is required for a laser for aerosol vaporization (LAV) than that of a LAV for a CW HEL. Considerations to use a COL as a directed energy weapon (DEW) in a point defense system are shown.

  8. Application of chemical graph theory for automated mechanism generation.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Artur; Truong, Thanh N

    2003-01-01

    We present an application of the chemical graph theory approach for generating elementary reactions of complex systems. Molecular species are naturally represented by graphs, which are identified by their vertices and edges where vertices are atom types and edges are bonds. The mechanism is generated using a set of reaction patterns (sub-graphs). These subgraphs are the internal representations for a given class of reaction thus allowing for the possibility of eliminating unimportant product species a priori. Furthermore, each molecule is canonically represented by a set of topological indices (Connectivity Index, Balaban Index, Schulz TI Index, WID Index, etc.) and thus eliminates the probability for regenerating the same species twice. Theoretical background and test cases on combustion of hydrocarbons are presented.

  9. Impact of fertilizer application and urban wastes on the quality of groundwater in the Cambrai Chalk aquifer, Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serhal, Hani; Bernard, Daniel; Khattabi, Jamal El; Sabine, Bastin-Lacherez; Shahrour, Isam

    2009-06-01

    Since 1975, Europe sets up its policy to limit the degradation and the pollution of the aquatic environments through 30 directives and regulations. In the north of France, the nitrate concentrations measured in the groundwater exceed the water drinking limit fixed at 50 mg/L by the European framework directive in the field of water (2000/60/EC). This high concentration is due to intensive agriculture, industrialization and demographic growth. Several programs were launched in order to resolve this situation: “Ferti-better” or the use of fertilizer in moderation and installation and amelioration of wastewater collect and treatment systems. In order to estimate the influence of the anthropic activities on the quality of groundwater in the “Artois-Picardy” basin, a preliminary validation on parcel and district scale were necessary. The impact of these programs in the “Cambrai district” was evaluated using an integrated approach, which is based on the use of four numerical models: AgriFlux, VS2DT, Modflow and MT3D. The results illustrate an improvement due to the “Ferti-Better” program initiated in 1990 and punctual degradation under urbanized areas. Predictions (2015) show a spatial evolution of nitrates concentration varying with the thickness of unsaturated layer. The integrated model constitutes an efficient tool for predicting the evolution of the groundwater quality. This approach is important to control the application of the new European laws in the water field.

  10. Demetalation of Fe, Mn, and Cu chelates and complexes: application to the NMR analysis of micronutrient fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Lucena, Juan J; Laghi, Luca; Cremonini, Mauro A

    2011-12-28

    The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the quality control of fertilizers based on Fe(3+), Mn(2+), and Cu(2+) chelates and complexes is precluded by the strong paramagnetism of metals. Recently, a method based on the use of ferrocyanide has been described to remove iron from commercial iron chelates based on the o,o-EDDHA [ethylenediamine-N,N'bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic)acid] chelating agent for their analysis and quantification by NMR. The present work extended that procedure to other paramagnetic ions, manganese and copper, and other chelating, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), IDHA [N-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-d,l-aspartic acid], and complexing agents, gluconate and heptagluconate. Results showed that the removal of the paramagnetic ions was complete, allowing us to obtain (1)H NMR spectra characterized by narrow peaks. The quantification of the ligands by NMR and high-performance liquid chromatography showed that their complete recovery was granted. The NMR analysis enabled detection and quantification of unknown impurities without the need of pure compounds as internal standards.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  12. Application of new physical chemical methods in soil ecological investigations.

    PubMed

    Motuzas, Algirdas; Vaisvalavicius, Rimantas; Prosycevas, Igoris

    2002-01-01

    The article discusses methodological investigations for the improvement and unification of soil testing in combination with the application of complex physico-chemical methods. An analytical procedure involving different extractions was used in order to determine the total and mobile amount of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc.) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in soil and its fine-dispersive fraction (< 0.005 mm). The average samples (effected upon by background pollution) of Calcari Epihypogleyic Luvisol, (Lvg-p-w-cc, FAO-Unesco, 1998) has been taken from the rotation field of the experimental station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture Subsequently, a fine-dispersive fraction was separated by a principle of peptization in distilled water. The investigation results obtained have shown a substantial dependence on the extractor used and the amount of fine-dispersive fraction in soil as well. It was found that the greatest reliability of the mobile heavy metal form is by using 1N CH3 COONH4 extractor and an HCl+HF mixture extractor for their total amount. Additionally, for the first time in Lithuania, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) it has been applied for the interpretation of soil chemical composition.

  13. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals Inc... 16, 2012, Chattem Chemicals Inc., 3801 St. Elmo Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37409,...

  14. 78 FR 39337 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ..., Notice of Application, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34(a), this is notice that on May 31, 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, 2820 N. Normandy...

  15. Chemical evaluation of HBED/Fe(3+) and the novel HJB/Fe(3+) chelates as fertilizers to alleviate iron chlorosis.

    PubMed

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Hernández, Diana; Lucena, Juan J

    2009-09-23

    Iron chelates such as ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (o,o-EDDHA) and their analogues are the most efficient soil fertilizers to treat iron chlorosis in plants growing in calcareous soil. A new chelating agent, HJB (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethylendiamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) may be an alternative to o,o-EDDHA since its synthesis yields a purer product, but its chemical behavior and efficiency as chlorosis corrector should be evaluated. In this research, a known analogous HBED (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylendiamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) has also been considered. First, an ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been tested for the HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+) determination. The ability of HJB and HBED to maintain Fe in solution has been compared with respect to o,o-EDDHA. Theoretical modelization for HBED and HJB in agronomic conditions has been done after the determination of the protonation and Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III), and Cu(II) stability constants for HJB. Also, batch interaction experiments with soils and soil materials have been conducted. According to our results, HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+) present high stability, even when competing cations (Cu(2+), Ca(2+)) are present, and have low reactivity with soils and soil components. The chelating agent HJB dissolves a higher amount of Fe than o,o-EDDHA, and it seems as effective as o,o-EDDHA in keeping Fe in solution. These results indicate that these chelates may be very efficient products to correct Fe chlorosis, and additional plant experiments should demonstrate plants' ability to assimilate Fe from HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+).

  16. Effect of urea fertilizer application on soluble protein and free amino acid content of cotton petioles in relation to silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) populations.

    PubMed

    Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Madore, M A

    2003-03-01

    The impact of urea nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, population dynamics was examined in field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Five urea nitrogen treatments were tested, consisting of soil applications of 0, 112, 168, and 224 kg nitrogen per hectare, and acombined soil-foliar application of 112:17 kg nitrogen per hectare. A positive response was observed between N application rates and the measured levels of nitrate N in petioles from mature cotton leaves. Similarly, a positive response was observed between N application rates and the numbers of adult and immature whiteflies appearing during population peaks. To determine whether these positive responses were related, we measured the levels of dietary N compounds (proteins and free amino acids) that would be available for insect nutrition in cotton petioles at the different N application rates. Sampling dates and N application treatments affected levels of soluble proteins in cotton petioles, and interactions between sampling dates and treatments were significant. Across all sampling dates, the relationship between N application rates and levels of soluble proteins was linear. Sampling dates also affected levels of total and individual free amino acids. Fertilizer treatments only affected levels of total amino acids, aspartate, asparagine, and arginine plus threonine. Levels of aspartate or asparagine and the N application rates were linearly correlated. No significant correlations were observed between levels of dietary N compounds in cotton petioles and numbers of whiteflies, either adults or immatures, on the cotton plants.

  17. Applications of molecular Rydberg states in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Softley, T. P.

    Molecules in high Rydberg states, in which one electron has been excited into a hydrogenic orbital of large mean radius, have many unusual properties compared to ground state molecules. These properties, which are reviewed in this article, make them suitable for a diverse and growing number of applications in chemical dynamics. The most recent methods for studying molecular Rydberg states using high-resolution spectroscopy and theory, including effects of electric fields, are described here. An important feature is the high susceptibility of Rydberg states to external field perturbation which not only has a profound effect on the observable energy levels, spectroscopic intensities and lifetimes, but is also useful for state-selective detection through field ionization. The large dipole moment that can be created in a field is also useful for controlling the motion of molecules in Rydberg states. The applications reviewed here include: ZEKE (zero kinetic energy), MATI (mass-analyzed threshold ionization) and PIRI (photo-induced Rydberg ionization) spectroscopy; pulsed-field recombination of ions and electrons; the state selection and reaction of molecular ions; collisions of Rydberg states with neutrals, ions and metallic surfaces; Rydberg tagging and imaging of products of photodissociation; and the control of translational motion and orientation via the use of inhomogeneous fields.

  18. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  19. Chemically directed assembly of nanoparticles for material and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Hwan

    The unique electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) make them useful building blocks for nanodevices and biofabrication. Site-selective immobilization/deposition of NPs on surfaces at desired positions is an important fabrication step in realizing the potential of nanomaterials in these applications. In this thesis, my research has focused on developing new strategies for mono- and multilayered-NP deposition on surfaces, increasing the stability of NP-assembles upon various surfaces for practical use of NP-based devices. Chemically directed dithiocarbamate binding of amine groups to NPs in the presence of CS2 was used for enhancing the robustness of NP assembles. Such patterning methodologies have allowed me to use site-directed NP immobilization in applications as diverse as microcontact printing, nanomolding in capillaries, nanoimprint lithography, and photolithography. Also, I have developed a simple and reliable one-step technique to form robust dendrimer-NP nanocomposites using dithiocarbamate-based chemistry. These composites are able to encapsulate and release various therapeutics, providing controllable sustained release and to separate small molecules and biomacromolecules.

  20. Soft chemical synthesis of silicon nanosheets and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hideyuki; Ikuno, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional silicon nanomaterials are expected to show different properties from those of bulk silicon materials by virtue of surface functionalization and quantum size effects. Since facile fabrication processes of large area silicon nanosheets (SiNSs) are required for practical applications, a development of soft chemical synthesis route without using conventional vacuum processes is a challenging issue. We have recently succeeded to prepare SiNSs with sub-nanometer thicknesses by exfoliating layered silicon compounds, and they are found to be composed of crystalline single-atom-thick silicon layers. In this review, we present the synthesis and modification methods of SiNSs. These SiNSs have atomically flat and smooth surfaces due to dense coverage of organic moieties, and they are easily self-assembled in a concentrated state to form a regularly stacked structure. We have also characterized the electron transport properties and the electronic structures of SiNSs. Finally, the potential applications of these SiNSs and organic modified SiNSs are also reviewed.

  1. Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

  2. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha(-1) for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha(-1) in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha(-1), respectively). NO3(-) contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO3(-) loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg(-1) silage) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that in the other fertilization treatments. Therefore, the use of composted dairy manure should be increased and that of inorganic fertilizer decreased to reduce N leaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain.

  3. Effect of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the reproduction and development of the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeding on green coleus.

    PubMed

    Hogendorp, Brian K; Cloyd, Raymond A; Swiader, John M

    2009-12-01

    Mealybugs are major insect pests of greenhouses, interiorscapes, and conservatories because they feed on a wide-range of horticultural crops. Furthermore, mealybugs are difficult to regulate with insecticides due to the presence of a nearly impervious protective waxy covering, which means that alternative management strategies are required. As such, this study, involving two replicated experiments, was designed to determine the value of applying silicon-based fertilizers, as potassium silicate, to coleus, Solenstemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants as a way to prevent outbreaks of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The first experiment evaluated the effects of different application methods (foliar and drench), at 50 ppm silicon, using the commercially-available product, ProTek 0-0-3 The Silicon Solution. The second experiment entailed applying the silicon-based fertilizer as a drench to the growing medium at different rates (0, 100, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm silicon). We determined the effects of the silicon-based fertilizer treatments on citrus mealybug life history parameters including number of eggs laid by the adult female, body size, and developmental time from first instar to ovipositing adult female. Furthermore, we used a plant alkaline fusion technique to assess the concentration (milligrams per kilogram or ppm) of silicon in the coleus plant tissues at variable time intervals (days). In general, this technique involved dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colormetric analysis. The silicon-based fertilizer application treatments, in both experiments, did not negatively affect any of the citrus mealybug life history parameters measured. In the first experiment, citrus mealybug female egg load ranged from 199.5 (drench application) to 219.4 (combination spray and drench application), and developmental time (days) from first instar crawler to ovipositing female ranged from

  4. Review of chemical vapor deposition of graphene and related applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-10-15

    Since its debut in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous interest because of its unique properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as an important method for the preparation and production of graphene for various applications since the method was first reported in 2008/2009. In this Account, we review graphene CVD on various metal substrates with an emphasis on Ni and Cu. In addition, we discuss important and representative applications of graphene formed by CVD, including as flexible transparent conductors for organic photovoltaic cells and in field effect transistors. Growth on polycrystalline Ni films leads to both monolayer and few-layer graphene with multiple layers because of the grain boundaries on Ni films. We can greatly increase the percentage of monolayer graphene by using single-crystalline Ni(111) substrates, which have smooth surface and no grain boundaries. Due to the extremely low solubility of carbon in Cu, Cu has emerged as an even better catalyst for the growth of monolayer graphene with a high percentage of single layers. The growth of graphene on Cu is a surface reaction. As a result, only one layer of graphene can form on a Cu surface, in contrast with Ni, where more than one layer can form through carbon segregation and precipitation. We also describe a method for transferring graphene sheets from the metal using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). CVD graphene has electronic properties that are potentially valuable in a number of applications. For example, few-layer graphene grown on Ni can function as flexible transparent conductive electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. In addition, because we can synthesize large-grain graphene on Cu foil, such large-grain graphene has electronic properties suitable for use in field effect transistors.

  5. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-08

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture.

  6. The impact of long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns over food security and global climate change require an improved understanding of how to achieve optimal crop yields whilst minimizing net greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. In the semi-arid Loess Plateau region of China, as elsewhere, fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs are necessary to increase yields and improve local food security. In a dryland annual cropping system, we evaluated the effects of N fertilizers on crop yield, its long term impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and stock sizes, and the distribution of carbon (C) within various aggregate-size fractions. A current version (RothC) of the Rothamsted model for the turnover of organic C in soil was used to simulate SOC measurements. Five N application rates [0 (N0), 45 (N45), 90 (N90), 135 (N135), and 180 (N180) kg N ha-1] were applied to plots for 25 years (1984-2009) on a loam soil (Cumulic Haplustoll) at the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, China. Crop yield varied with year, but increased over time in the fertilized plots. Average annual grain yields were 1.15, 2.46, 3.11, 3.49, and 3.55 Mg ha-1 with the increasing N application rates, respectively. Long-term N fertilizer application significantly (P<0.05) increased SOC concentrations and stocks in the 0-20 cm horizon. Using RothC, the calculated annual inputs of plant C (in roots, stubble, root exudates, etc.) to the soil were 0.61, 0.74, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.97 t C ha-1 year-1 in N0, N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments, respectively. The modeled turnover time of SOC (excluding inert organic C) in the continuous wheat cropping system was 26 years. The SOC accumulation rate was estimated to be 40.0, 48.0, 68.0, and 100.0 kg C ha-1 year-1 for the N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments over 25 years, respectively. As aboveground biomass was removed, the increases in SOC stocks with higher N application are attributed to increased inputs of root biomass and root exudates. Increasing N application rates

  7. Chemical kinetic modeling of H{sub 2} applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Cloutman, L.D.

    1995-09-01

    Work being carried out at LLNL has concentrated on studies of the role of chemical kinetics in a variety of problems related to hydrogen combustion in practical combustion systems, with an emphasis on vehicle propulsion. Use of hydrogen offers significant advantages over fossil fuels, and computer modeling provides advantages when used in concert with experimental studies. Many numerical {open_quotes}experiments{close_quotes} can be carried out quickly and efficiently, reducing the cost and time of system development, and many new and speculative concepts can be screened to identify those with sufficient promise to pursue experimentally. This project uses chemical kinetic and fluid dynamic computational modeling to examine the combustion characteristics of systems burning hydrogen, either as the only fuel or mixed with natural gas. Oxidation kinetics are combined with pollutant formation kinetics, including formation of oxides of nitrogen but also including air toxics in natural gas combustion. We have refined many of the elementary kinetic reaction steps in the detailed reaction mechanism for hydrogen oxidation. To extend the model to pressures characteristic of internal combustion engines, it was necessary to apply theoretical pressure falloff formalisms for several key steps in the reaction mechanism. We have continued development of simplified reaction mechanisms for hydrogen oxidation, we have implemented those mechanisms into multidimensional computational fluid dynamics models, and we have used models of chemistry and fluid dynamics to address selected application problems. At the present time, we are using computed high pressure flame, and auto-ignition data to further refine the simplified kinetics models that are then to be used in multidimensional fluid mechanics models. Detailed kinetics studies have investigated hydrogen flames and ignition of hydrogen behind shock waves, intended to refine the detailed reactions mechanisms.

  8. Net Mineralization Response to Fertilizer Application and Site-Specific Setting in a No-Till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem in the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Emily A.; Brown, David J.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is pivotal to maintaining agricultural productivity. Nutrient management is typically guided by a combined assessment of crop yield requirements, residual soil inorganic N concentration, and predicted N supply from organic matter. However, laboratory assays employed to forecast mineralization potential do not reflect in situ processes occurring in soils, processes that can vary spatially within a field. Furthermore, fertilizer application alters biogeochemical cycles through a variety of mechanisms including priming effects and microbial community alterations. This study investigates in-situ ammonification/nitrification rates utilizing mineralization cores as part of a five-year Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project. In-depth accounting of nitrate and ammonium production and flux was possible via a six bag mixed-bed ion exchange resin system. Soil cores (7.5 cm diameter by 15 cm deep) were isolated from the surrounding soil by three resin bags sealed in the top and bottom of individual plastic cylinders. Fifteen locations were selected across a commercial direct-seed wheat field based on statistical clustering of primary and secondary topographic variables. In each location surface soil-resin cores were installed in fertilized and unfertilized plots immediately after spring planting and removed before harvest. In situ ammonification/nitrification rates will be analyzed as a function of both fertilizer application and site-specific environmental characteristics as determined from soil moisture monitoring, soil characterization, and crop analysis at each measurement location. This site-specific information on N transformations and availability can then be used to guide site-specific crop management.

  9. Terahertz spectroscopy for chemicals and biological sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Bo

    probe their functional 3D conformation states. Owing to the high sensitivity of differential THz-TDS, it was successfully used to sense the minute change of biological cell monolayers. The results point to a new way for biosensing applications via differential THz-TDS. As a powerful sensing technique, THz spectroscopy will continue to make profound contribution to the understanding of basic physics, chemistry and biology problems, as well as to the technological applications in chemical and biomedicine sensing areas.

  10. [Changes of crop yield and soil fertility under long-term fertilization and nutrients-recycling and reutilization on a black soil: IV. Soil organic carbon and its fractions].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Whan, Xiaozeng; Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Hongxiang; Li, Haibo; Miao, Shujie; Ang, Feng

    2006-05-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted on a black soil of Northeast China to study the effects of applying chemical fertilizers and recycled organic manure (ROM) on the changes of soil organic carbon and its fractions. The results showed that from 1985 to 2004, soil total organic carbon (TOC) decreased by 7.83% in control,4.56% in N application, 1.61% in N + P application, and 5.56% in ROM application, but increased by 0.33% in N + P + K application. Comparing with single application of ROM, its application with chemical fertilizers, i. e., N + ROM, N + P + ROM, and N + P + K + ROM, increased the TOC concentration by 0.35%, 1.05% and 0.64%, respectively. The readily oxidized carbon (ROC) in fertilization treatments was increased by 8.64% to approximately 28.4%, and the increment was higher in treatments of chemical fertilizers plus ROM than in treatments of chemical fertilizers. The ROC was significantly correlated with soil TOC (Y = 14.192X + 23.9, R2 = 0.802) and stalk yields (Y = 19032X - 7950.6, R2 = 0.759). Light fraction organic carbon (LF-C) had the same trends with ROC. After 20 years fertilization, the organic carbon in soil humic acid and fulvic acid was decreased by 1.64% to approximately 26.23% and 2.33% to approximately 28.68%, respectively, but in treatments of chemical fertilizers plus ROM, the decreasing trend was slowed down.

  11. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  12. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  13. Phosphorus content in long-term fertilized soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzeghello, D.; Morari, F.; Berti, A.; Nardi, S.; Giardini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Phosphorous (P) is often considered a limiting nutrient in crop production. However, particularly in intensive livestock and pig farming areas large surplus of P inputs associated with manure application to agricultural soils may result in an excessive P accumulation and a consequent gradual saturation of the soil P-sorption capacity. This event must be discouraged in order to contain possible eutrophication. In this study we investigated the impact of a long-term fertilization experiment on the accumulation in soil of different form of P. The experiment has been underway since 1964 on the University of Padova Experimental farm. The treatments derived from the factorial combination of 3 types of soil (clay, sandy and peaty) with 3 types of mineral, organic or mixed fertilization, organized in two randomized blocks. A total of 36 lysimeters (surface of 4 m2 and 80 cm deep) were cultivated. Fertilization rates were as follows: 0, no fertilization; F1 manure (20 t ha-1 y-1); M1, mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F1M1, manure (20 t ha-1 y-1) + mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F2 manure (40 t ha-1 y-1); M2, mineral fertilization (200 kg ha-1 y-1 N - 100 P2O5 - 280 K2O). Soil samples were taken using a 2-cm diameter auger from 0 to 100 cm depth, every 10 cm. P was analysed in term of total, organic and available (Olsen) phosphorus. Only treatments 0, M2 and F2 were subjected to soil sampling and chemical analyses. Results showed as the variables were affected by all the factors considered (treatment, soil and depth). Both farmyard manure and mineral fertilization increased the P content in function of soil types. In particular, as concerning the interaction between fertilization and depth, manure as well as mineral fertilization influenced the available P along soil profiles. The long-term fertilizer applications increased the P content at a level which resulted potentially hazardous for the environment.

  14. Chemical modification of porous silicon mirror for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palestino Escobedo, G.; Legros, R.; de la Mora Mojica, B.; del Río Portilla, J. A.; Pérez López, J. E.; Gergely, C.

    2007-05-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) nanostructures have remarkable optical properties that can be used for biosensing applications. In this paper we report first on the fabrication of heavily doped p-type PSi with pore diameters in the range of 400-4000 nm. The nonspecific and specific binding of the Glucose Oxidase protein (GOX) was then studied onto the PSi mirrorlike substrate. Adsorption of GOX was tuned by the pH of the protein solution (pI = 4.2) depending of the surface charge. PSi matrixes were first stabilized by thermal oxidation and GOX adsorption was performed once directly on the oxidized PSi surface, and also on previously functionalized PSi surfaces. In the latter case the GOX was coupled to the PSi via the S-H group of the 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS). The silane-GOX and GOX interactions on the PSi surface were monitored by the Fourier Transformed Infrared spectra that display characteristic bands of the linked molecules. The interference spectrum shows a large blue shift in the Fabry-Perot interference pattern caused by the change in the refractive index of the medium implying a decrease in the effective optical thickness. Quantitative analysis shows that chemically modified PSi samples admit approximately 24% of GOX. Activity assay proved that the protein preserves its catalyst properties under these adsorption conditions.

  15. Direct chemical oxidation: applications to demilitarization and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Balazs, B.; Lewis, P.

    1998-04-01

    The applicability of using aqueous solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate in the destruction of mustard gas surrogates has been demonstrated. This technique, known as Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO), resulted in oxidative destruction of these surrogates, and a refinement was added to prevent the formation of slow-to-oxidize intermediates. Specifically, it was shown that `one-armed mustard` gas could be hydrolyzed to thiodiethanol and free chloride ion, and this species could then be partially oxidized to either the sulfoxide or sulfone depending on oxidant stoichiometry. Hydrolysis was accomplished on a mild basic solution at ambient temperature over a number of hours; oxidation was carried out at 90{degrees}C using peroxydisulfate solutions, Partial oxidation of thiodiethanol in the presence of chloride under basic conditions resulted in a a substantially pure mixture of the corresponding sulfone and sulfoxide, with no formation of chlorine gas. Analogous experiments in acid solutions produced a more complex mix of products and some oxidant was consumed in the evolution of chlorine. Complete destruction of the surrogates (to ppm level of detection) was achieved in either acid or base solution with less than a 7-fold excess of oxidant.

  16. A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

    2013-10-01

    Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

  17. 77 FR 60144 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories..., made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a...

  18. [Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production.

  19. Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Hall, G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  20. 40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability; description of the specialty organic...

  1. 40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60 Section 413.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling... chemical milling or etching of ferrous or nonferrous materials....

  2. 40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60 Section 413.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling... chemical milling or etching of ferrous or nonferrous materials....

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60 Section 413.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling... chemical milling or etching of ferrous or nonferrous materials....

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60 Section 413.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling... chemical milling or etching of ferrous or nonferrous materials....

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of... Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability; description of the specialty organic...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability; description of the specialty organic...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  13. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability; description of the specialty organic...

  17. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability; description of the commodity organic...

  18. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 5. Applications of chemical metadata in RSS aggregators.

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Williamson, Mark J; Willighagen, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    Examples of the use of the RSS 1.0 (RDF Site Summary) specification together with CML (Chemical Markup Language) to create a metadata based alerting service termed CMLRSS for molecular content are presented. CMLRSS can be viewed either using generic software or with modular opensource chemical viewers and editors enhanced with CMLRSS modules. We discuss the more automated use of CMLRSS as a component of a World Wide Molecular Matrix of semantically rich chemical information.

  19. 77 FR 40086 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Chattem Chemicals Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Chattem Chemicals Inc... Chemicals Inc., 3801 St. Elmo Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37409, made application by renewal to the...

  20. 78 FR 52801 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals, Inc... Chemicals, Inc., 3801 St. Elmo Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37409, made application by renewal to the Drug... to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417(2007). Any bulk manufacturer who...

  1. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  2. [Effects of fertilization on the P accumulation and leaching in vegetable greenhouse soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-jie; Zhao, Mu-qiu; Lu, Cai-yan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    A packed soil column experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different fertilization practices on phosphorus (P) accumulation and leaching potential in a vegetable greenhouse soil with different fertility levels. The results showed that the leaching loss of total P in the leachates elevated with the increment of leaching time while the accumulative leaching loss of total P was relatively low, indicating P was mainly accumulated in the soil instead of in the leachate. At the end of the leaching experiment, soil fertility and fertilization treatment affected the content of total phosphorus and Olsen-P significantly. Compared with the low-level-fertility soil, the contents of total P and Olsen-P increased by 14.3% and 12.2% in the medium-level-fertility soil, 33.3% and 37.7% in the high-level-fertility soil. Total P in the combined application of poultry manure and chemical fertilizer (M+NPK) was elevated by 5.7% and 4.3%, compared with the NPK and M treatment. Compared with NPK treatment, Olsen-P in M and M + NPK treatments augmented by 13.0% and 3.1%, respectively. Soil total P and Olsen-P mainly accumulated in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, and much less in the 20-40 cm soil layer.

  3. Ab initio Quantum Chemical Reaction Kinetics: Recent Applications in Combustion Chemistry (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-28

    Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2015-June 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AB INITIO QUANTUM CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS: RECENT APPLICATIONS IN...Unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Briefing Charts presented at 9th Int. Conf. Chemical Kinetics; Ghent, Belgium; 28 Jun 2015. PA#15351. 14. ABSTRACT...ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil Ab initio Quantum Chemical Reaction Kinetics: Recent Applications in Combustion Chemistry Ghanshyam L. Vaghjiani* DISTRIBUTION A

  4. Application of Photoacoustic Effect to Chemical Kinetics in Solution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huy-Zu.

    The application of the pulsed photoacoustic technique (PA) to the study of chemical kinetics in very dilute solutions is demonstrated with three different reactions: A bidental ligand substitution of 1,2-bi(diphenylphosphino) ethane on the five-coordinate cobalt dithiolene complex, a nucleophilic addition of tributyl phosphite to (p-(dimethylamino)triphenyl)methyl cation, and an enzyme catalyzed reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by glucose-6-phosphate. Photoacoustic detection is shown to be 100 times more sensitive than spectrophotometric detection. As a consequence, it allows one to use lower reactant concentrations so that the time scale for the corresponding fast reactions can be lengthened. The pulsed PA technique also provides an alternative method for the direct determination of reverse rate constants and equilibrium constants of reactions. Moreover, Michaelis constants of biochemical reactions, especially for enzymes whose K_{rm m} values is below 1.0 muM, can be measured more accurately using photoacoustic detection than using spectrophotometric detection. Additionally, the pulsed PA method can be very valuable for the study of reactions that are restricted by the low solubility, availability, or high cost of reactants. The sensitivity of the PA method is found to be limited by the background signal resulting from solvents. Photoacoustic signals generated in strongly absorbing media are also studied and results are in agreement with the theory developed by G. J. Diebold. From the time profile of the acoustic signal, the absorption coefficient of strongly absorbing medium can be determined provided the sound speed is known. Since the pulse shape of the acoustic transient depends upon the relative density and the acoustic velocity of the transparent and the strongly absorbing media, the physical properties of the transparent medium can also be determined with the use of the PA technique.

  5. Characterization of ammonia borane for chemical propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismiller, Michael

    Ammonia borane (NH3BH3; AB), which has a hydrogen content of 19.6% by weight, has been studied recently as a potential means of hydrogen storage for use in fuel cell applications. Its gaseous decomposition products have a very low molecular weight, which makes AB attractive in a propulsion application, since specific impulse is inversely related to the molecular weight of the products. AB also contains boron, which is a fuel of interest for solid propellants because of its high energy density per unit volume. Although boron particles are difficult to ignite due to their passivation layer, the boron molecularly bound in AB may react more readily. The concept of fuel depots in low-earth orbit has been proposed for use in deep space exploration. These would require propellants that are easily storable for long periods of time. AB is a solid at standard temperature and pressure and would not suffer from mass loss due to boil-off like cryogenic hydrogen. The goal of this work is to evaluate AB as a viable fuel in chemical propulsion. Many studies have examined AB decomposition at slow heating rates, but in a propellant, AB will experience rapid heating. Since heating rate has been shown to affect the thermolysis pathways in energetic materials, AB thermolysis was studied at high heating rates using molecular dynamics simulations with a ReaxFF reactive force field and experimental studies with a confined rapid thermolysis set-up using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Experimental results showed the formation of NH3, H2NBH2, H2, and at later times, c-(N3B3H6) in the gas phase, while polymer formation was observed in the condensed phase. Molecular dynamics simulations provided an atomistic description of the reactions which likely form these compounds. Another subject which required investigation was the reaction of AB in oxidizing environments, as there were no previous studies in the literature. Oxygen bond descriptions were

  6. P-31 NMR characterization of fertilizer residual P in cotton/corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. However, over application of P to soils has raised concerns because excess P in runoff could result in eutrophication of fresh water bodies. A field experiment of poultry litter (PL) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to a Cecil soil used for cotton and corn...

  7. Abundant and stable char residues in soils: Implications for soil fertility and carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale soil application of biochar might enhance soil fertility and increase crop production, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. Reaching these outcomes requires an undertanding of the chemical structure of biochar. Using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

  8. Runoff, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from purple slope cropland soil under rating fertilization in Three Gorges Region.

    PubMed

    Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou; He, Binghui; Tian, Taiqiang

    2016-03-01

    Soil erosion along with soil particles and nutrients losses is detrimental to crop production. We carried out a 5-year (2010 to 2014) study to characterize the soil erosion and nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by rainfall under different fertilizer application levels in order to provide a theoretical evidence for the agricultural production and coordinate land management to improve ecological environment. The experiment took place under rotation cropping, winter wheat-summer maize, on a 15° slope purple soil in Chongqing (China) within the Three Gorges Region (TGR). Four treatments, control (CK) without fertilizer, combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1), chemical fertilization (T2), and chemical fertilizer with increasing fertilization (T3), were designed on experimental runoff plots for a long-term observation aiming to study their effects on soil erosion and nutrients losses. The results showed that fertilization reduced surface runoff and nutrient losses as compared to CK. T1, T2, and T3, compared to CK, reduced runoff volume by 35.7, 29.6, and 16.8 %, respectively and sediment yield by 40.5, 20.9, and 49.6 %, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that there were significant relationships between soil loss and runoff volume in all treatments. The combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1) treatment highly reduced total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses by 41.2 and 33.33 %, respectively as compared with CK. Through this 5-year experiment, we can conclude that, on the sloping purple soil, the combined application of manure with fertilizer is beneficial for controlling runoff sediments losses and preventing soil erosion.

  9. Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology.

    PubMed

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

    2014-09-16

    Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments.

  10. Cars applications in chemical reactors, combustion and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, D. A.; Porter, F. M.

    1986-08-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the CARS technique in the fields of Chemical Reactor engineering, combustion and Heat Transfer. Examples of recent results from a catalytic chemical reactor, an operating production petrol engine and an oil spray furnace are given. The experimentally determined accuracy of CARS nitrogen thermometry for both mean and single pulse measurements is presented.

  11. The effect of phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) on the growth of marigold.

    PubMed

    Zaredost, Fatemeh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Ziyabari, Maryam Barari; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Solimandarabi, Maryam Jadid; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to study the individual and combined effect of bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and chemical phosphate fertilizer on the floral quality of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). A factorial experiment was carried out which consisted of two factors: i) inoculation of seed, root and seed + root with bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and control; application of chemical phosphorus at 100 mg I(-1), 200 mg l(-1), 300 mg l(-1) and 400 mg l(-1) levels. In this study, flowering time, display life, fresh and dry weight of flower, available soil phosphorus, shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content were evaluated. Results showed that the combined effect of bio- and chemical fertilizer was insignificant (p < 1 and 5%) for most of the characteristics studied except for shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content in petals. The lowest time to flowering (64.67 days) was obtained in seeds and transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. Maximum display life (25.35), fresh weight (16.20 g), carotenoid content (3.903 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and concentration of P in shoots (0.352%) were observed in transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P.

  12. Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

    2012-11-01

    Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

  13. [The agronomical and radiological estimation of application of different kinds and dozes of organic fertilizers at improvement waterless valley types meadows contamination 137Cs and 90Sr].

    PubMed

    Podoliak, A G; Bogdevich, I M; Timofeev, S F; Grebeshchekova, N V

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of agronomical, economic and radiological estimations of results of long-term researches with organic fertilizers (peat, sapropel, manure, mixes manure and peat) it is established, that is effective at improvement of the waterless meadows on sod-podsolic sandy soils contaminated by radionuclides to bring in 40-60 t/ha mixes manure and peat or covering the manure, on a background liming and mineral fertilizers (level of profitability--4.8-8.7%), providing reception of the maximal increase of a crop (6.0-7.5 t/ha of hay) and decrease to 10 times of size of transfer factors of 137Cs and to 3.0 times 90Sr in a crop of long-term cereal herbs (size of the prevented collective doze, deltaD - 0.0060-0.0065 man-Sv per one year; cost of the prevented collective doze, deltaepsilon--11500-13000 $ on 1 man-Sv annually. The application of 40 and 60 t/ga of peat and sapropel in the pure state on a background liming and mineral fertilizers is not expedient, as cost of additional production does not cover total expenses for their entering (level of profitability--20-32.0%), the and cost of the prevented collective doze exceeds 20000 $ US per 1 man-Sv annually.

  14. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

    2013-05-01

    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high

  15. Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on activity and structure of the methanotrophic community in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Seghers, Dave; Top, Eva M; Reheul, Dirk; Bulcke, Robert; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Siciliano, Steven D

    2003-10-01

    Agricultural practices, such as mineral nitrogen fertilization, have an impact on the soil's ability to oxidize methane, but little is known about the shifts in the methanotrophic community composition associated with these practices. Therefore, the long-term effect of both mineral (NH4NO3) and organic (manure and GFT-compost) fertilizer applications on the soil methanotrophic community activity and structure were investigated. Both high and low affinity methane oxidation rates were lower in the soil treated with mineral fertilizer compared to the other soils. An enhanced nitrate concentration was observed in the mineral fertilized soil but nitrate did not show a direct affect on the high affinity methane oxidation. In contrast, the low affinity methane oxidation was slowed down by increased nitrate concentrations, which suggests a direct effect of nitrate on low affinity methane oxidation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments specific for methanotrophs revealed a distinct community between the mineral and organic fertilized soils as extra Type I methanotrophic bands (phylotypes) became visible in the organic fertilized soils. These phylotypes were not visible in the patterns of the added organic fertilizers suggesting an indirect effect of the organic fertilizers on the methanotrophic community. Additionally, a molecular analysis was performed after the low affinity methane oxidation test. The enhanced methane concentrations used in the test enriched certain low affinity methanotrophs in the organic fertilized soils but not in the mineral fertilized soil. Supporting the molecular and functional observations, fatty acids characteristic for methanotrophs were less abundant in the soil treated with mineral fertilizer compared to the soil treated with compost. In conclusion, the function and molecular and chemical composition of the methanotrophic community are all altered in soil fertilized with mineral fertilizer.

  16. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  17. A portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, S P; Rusczek, R A; Mickelsen, R L

    1987-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisopropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals: nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however, provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protection clothing for its intended use.

  18. Effect of manure under different nitrogen application rates on winter wheat production and soil fertility in dryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Q.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhai, B. N.; Jin, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Exploring an effective fertilization practice is crucial for achieving a sustainable dryland winter wheat cropping system. Following a split-plot design, this study was conducted to investigate the combined effect of manure (-M or +M; main plot) and various rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg N ha-1; sub plot) on grain yield, water and N use efficiencies of winter wheat, and soil nutrients. The results showed that the treatments with manure improved the grain yield by 8%, and WUE by 10% relative to that without manure throughout the study years. The highest winter wheat yield and WUE were both recorded in the M+N225 treatment, which were not significantly different from those for M+N75 and M+N150 treatment. In contrast, high levels of N fertilizer (> 150 kg N ha-1) combined with manure not only caused a reduction in the N use efficiency (NUE), but it also caused an increase in the soil residual nitrate-N (from 43.7 to 188.9 kg ha-1) relative to without manure. After three years of continuous cropping, the treatment combining manure with 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer had the highest SOM, available P and available K, which was 24%, 379% and 102% higher than that for unfertilized treatment (CK), and 10%, 267%, and 55% higher than that for without manure, respectively. Thus, the combination of manure (17.5 t ha-1 poultry or 30 t ha-1 pig manure) with 75-150 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer is recommended for improving winter wheat yield, water and N use efficiencies, and reducing soil nitrate-N residue as well.

  19. Soil with a short history of poultry litter fertilization remains superior to normally fertilized soil for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton and other row crops. The productivity of soil that had received poultry litter as a fertilizer is not known after cessation of litter application and returning to conventional fertilization with inorganic fertilizers. This study ...

  20. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  1. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  2. Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Weston Lewis

    This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA

  3. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (...

  4. Quantifying the effects of green waste compost application, water content and nitrogen fertilization on nitrous oxide emissions in 10 agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xia; Silva, Lucas C R; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Ning; Horwath, William R

    2013-01-01

    Common management practices, such as the application of green waste compost, soil moisture manipulation, and nitrogen fertilization, affect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from agricultural soils. To expand our understanding of how soils interact with these controls, we studied their effects in 10 agricultural soils. Application of compost slightly increased NO emissions in soils with low initial levels of inorganic N and low background emission. For soils in which compost caused a decrease in emission, this decrease was larger than any of the observed increases in the other soils. The five most important factors driving emission across all soils, in order of increasing importance, were native dissolved organic carbon (DOC), treatment-induced change in DOC, native inorganic N, change in pH, and soil iron (Fe). Notable was the prominence of Fe as a regulator of NO emission. In general, compost is a viable amendment, considering the agronomic benefits it provides against the risk of producing a small increase in NO emissions. However, if soil properties and conditions are taken into account, management can recognize the potential effect of compost and thereby reduce NO emissions from susceptible soils, particularly by avoiding application of compost under wet conditions and together with ammonium fertilizer.

  5. Chemically-induced Mouse Lung Tumors: Applications to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state-of-the-science workshop on chemically-induced mouse lung tumors was conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to better understand the mouse lung tumor data’s role in human health assessments. Three environmental chemicals - naphthalene, styrene, and ethylbenzene were chosen for the analysis due to the commonality of mouse lung tumors in all three chemicals. The goals of the workshop were to: identify the evidence, from multiple scientific disciplines, regarding formation of chemically-induced lung tumors in mice; discuss analysis and interpretation of the evidence; discuss how such evidence informs human health assessments; and identify commonalities, linkages, or differences between the evidence from various disciplines and across the chemicals. Evidence informing the association between occupational exposure to styrene, ethylbenzene, or naphthalene and lung cancer; comparative biology of mouse lung tumors, associated pathologic effects, issues related to tissue and species concordance; mode of action analysis and biological mechanisms including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and evidence from cellular, genetic and molecular toxicity was discussed. In summary, although consensus was not sought, the panelists agreed that available mouse lung tumor data should be considered for human health risk evaluation on an individual chemical basis. Key data gaps were identified that would assist in further understanding the mechanism and relevan

  6. Application of toxicity identification procedures to the echinoderm fertilization assay to identify toxicity in a municipal effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H.C.; Miller, J.L.; Miller, M.J.; Dhaliwal, B.S.

    1995-12-01

    Toxicity was detected in a municipal effluent with the echinoderm fertilization assay. Dendraster excentricus appeared more sensitive to the effluent than did Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. A Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted using procedures adapted to the echinoderm fertilization bioassay. The Phase 1 TIE implicated cationic metals as the cause of toxicity, and follow-up investigations suggested that copper was the primary cation responsible. As part of the TIE, bioassays were conducted on ammonia and several cations. No-observable-effect concentrations for D. excentricus were > 13.4 {micro}g/L (Ag), > 9.4 {micro}g/L (Cd), 3.8 to 13.1 {micro}g/L (Cu), > 0.7 {micro}g/L (Hg), and 10 mg/L (N, as total ammonia). The data also suggested that interspecific differences in sensitivity to copper and ammonia exist between Dendraster excentricus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of ion exchange resin as a slow-release fertilizer for wheat cultivation in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowei; Dong, Chen; Chu, Zhengpei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Xie, Beizhen

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the bio-regenerative air revitalization, water recycling and waste management systems and their associated challenges, enhancing the crop yield with less fertilizer input for sustainable food production in space is also a challenge that needs to be overcome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying ion exchange resin as a slow-release fertilizer for wheat cultivation in space. Strong-acid cationic exchange resins and weak-base anion exchange resins soaked in 1X, 5X, 10X and 15X Hoagland nutrient solutions, respectively, were used as fertilizers in clinoptilolite to cultivate wheat plants, and the morphological and physiological characteristics of the wheat plants were studied and compared with that of the wheat planted in vermiculite and nutrient solutions. The results showed that more ions were attached on the surface of the ion exchange resins as the solution concentration increased. After 14 days, the fresh weight of wheat planted in the ion exchange resin-clinoptilolite (IER-clinoptilolite) treated with 10X and 15X solutions were 190% and 192% higher than that of wheat planted in nutrient solution with the same concentration. Chlorophyll content of wheat plants cultivated in the two kinds of solid medium is significantly higher than that of liquid cultivation. The lowest peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of wheat plants cultivated in the IER-clinoptilolite appeared on the 14th day. According to all the experimental data, it's promising to produce slow-release nutrient fertilizer by using strong-acid cationic exchange resins and weak-base anion exchange resins for wheat cultivation in space.

  8. [Application of ICP-MS to determination of heavy metal content of heavy metals in two kinds of N fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo

    2008-10-01

    Environmental safety has been the focus worldwide, where involved are the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants. Fertilizer has become one of the polluting sources of heavy metals, which are very deleterious to human health and environmental safety. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body and very harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is considered increasingly important. The pollution sources of heavy metals include waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The heavy metals in fertilizer can endanger the human body by the crop containing heavy metals. Two kinds of nitrogen fertilizer were analyzed in terms of the content of heavy metals by ICP-MS, and the results showed that the content of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Al, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in (NH4)2SO4 was 1345.13, 35.12, 2539.27, 287.26, 674.05, 270.79, 42.54, 22.13, 27.20 and 123.87 ng x g(-1) respectively; and in CO(NH2)2 it is 71.59, 5.36, 1167.71, 188.60, 7.46, 64.45, 10.55, 0.00, 0.09 and 3.71 ng x g(-1) respectively. All the data showed that CO(NH2)2 contained much less heavy metals than (NH4)2SO4, so we should select CO(NH2)2 as the nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production.

  9. Laser applications to chemical analysis: an introduction by the feature editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Jay B.; Ramsey, J. Michael; Lucht, Robert P.

    1995-06-01

    This issue of Applied Optics features papers on the application of laser technology to chemical analysis. Many of the contributions, although not all, result from papers presented at the Fourth OSA Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, which was held at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, March, 1994. This successful meeting, with nearly one hundred participants, continued the tradition of earlier LACA meetings to focus on the optical science of laser-based measurements of temperature and trace chemical assays in a wide variety of practical applications.

  10. Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

    2013-12-01

    1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water

  11. Phosphorus availability to rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum estivum L.) in a Vertisol after eight years of inorganic and organic fertilizer additions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Muneshwar; Reddy, K Sammi; Singh, V P; Rupa, T R

    2007-05-01

    Integrated use of inorganic fertilizer N and well decomposed cattle manure (CM) or 30-35 days old Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), a weed grown off site as green manure (GM) under repeated applications of fertilizer P and urea N for eight years in a rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum estivum L.) sequence was studied on transformation of fertilizer P applied to soil at the National Research Center for Weed Science, Jabalpur, India. Based on the results, it appeared that, repeated applications of 52 kg super-phosphate P resulted in a marked increase in Olsen P linearly with time. Conjunctive use of urea fertilizer N with organic manure resulted in a larger increase in Olsen P in the Vertisol. Studies further revealed that the greater accumulation of fertilizer P applied in excess to crop removal occurred in inorganic P in the plots receiving only fertilizer N. However, plots receiving fertilizer N along with organic manures led to P accumulation predominantly in organic forms. The study suggests that these two pools of P acted as a sink when fertilizer P was applied in excess to crop removal and are bio-chemically active. The Olsen P status after 8 cycles of rice-wheat crops revealed that the average amount of fertilizer P required after adjusting for crop uptake to increase Olsen P by 1 mg kg(-1) soil was 7.2 kg Pha(-1) in the plots receiving only fertilizer N. Whereas, application of 5t FYM or 6t GM reduced it to 4.6 kg Pha(-1). The plots receiving manure always maintained a greater concentration of Olsen P. The application of CM or GM with fertilizer N enriched short-term inorganic P as well as long-term organic P fertility. After eight years, larger concentrations of organic P in the subsurface layer (16-30 cm), compared to initial values, indicates downward movement of P in organic forms.

  12. Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed.

  13. A chemical route to graphene for device applications.

    PubMed

    Gilje, Scott; Han, Song; Wang, Minsheng; Wang, Kang L; Kaner, Richard B

    2007-11-01

    Oxidation of graphite produces graphite oxide, which is dispersible in water as individual platelets. After deposition onto Si/SiO2 substrates, chemical reduction produces graphene sheets. Electrical conductivity measurements indicate a 10000-fold increase in conductivity after chemical reduction to graphene. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy measurements show one to two layer graphene steps. Electrodes patterned onto a reduced graphite oxide film demonstrate a field effect response when the gate voltage is varied from +15 to -15 V. Temperature-dependent conductivity indicates that the graphene-like sheets exhibit semiconducting behavior.

  14. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    PubMed

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha(-1)) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha(-1)) and in Iran (66 kg ha(-1)), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  15. Economics of dairy waste use as fertilizer in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Murali; Paudel, Krishna P; Martin, Neil R; Gauthier, Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    Dairy manure is an unavoidable natural, but negative, byproduct of milk production. Its nitrogen, phosphate, and potash contents represent a potential substitute for commercial fertilizers on field crops. In the absence of subsidies, manure transportation and land application costs limit its utilization as a substitute for chemical fertilizer. The results from a study of the economics of manure use in Central Texas suggest that, at the current costs for loading, hauling, and spreading, dairy manure cannot be economically transported from surplus to deficit areas within the study area. The estimated breakeven transport distance for manure application to four crops varied from 28 to 41 km; however, the distances between manure-surplus and manure-deficit counties in the study region varied from 40 to 90 km. An analysis of potential subsidies paid by the government or dairy farmers showed that the breakeven distance could increase by up to 30 km. A decrease in the assumed moisture content of the manure from 50% to 40% is shown to increase the breakeven distance by 10 km. The study suggests that dairy manure loading, transportation, and land application, with appropriate subsidies or reductions in moisture content, has the potential to be profitably substituted for chemical fertilizers.

  16. TCRC Fertility Page

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually ... Orchiectomy: As I mentioned, many men who have testicular cancer also already have fertility problems. In some, the ...

  17. Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asit; Patra, Ashok K; Singh, Dhyan; Swarup, Anand; Ebhin Masto, R

    2007-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of six long-term (34-year) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) treatments (Control, N, NP, NPK, NPK+S, NPK+FYM) and three physiological stages of wheat growth on the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN) and dehydrogenase, mineralizable N and phosphatase activities in soil. It was found that a balanced application of NPK+FYM gave the highest values for the measured parameters and lowest at the control. Values were generally highest at tillering, followed by the flowering and dough stages. A significant positive interaction between fertilizer treatments and physiological stages of wheat growth was observed, being highest at maximum tillering due to application of NPK+FYM. Stepwise regressions have revealed that grain yield of wheat was significantly associated with mineralizable N at tillering (R(2)=0.80), MBC at flowering (R(2)=0.90) and alkaline phosphatase activity (R(2)=0.70) at dough stages of wheat growth.

  18. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils.

  19. Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

  20. Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

    1979-01-01

    A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

  1. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  2. 78 FR 51210 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals... manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid... Tapentadol (9780) II Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances...

  3. A REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. Luminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. Also, examples of rece...

  4. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  5. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  6. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  7. Changes of the content of oil products in the oil-polluted peat soil of a high-moor bog in a field experiment with application of lime and fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkenova, M. I.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Aptikaev, R. S.; Lazarev, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    A field model experiment on stimulating the activity of native oil microorganisms-decomposers was performed on an oil-polluted area in a high-moor bog under its total flooding in the northern taiga (Western Siberia). For two summer months, the doses of lime and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers applied have caused a decrease in the oil products (OP) content by 54% relative to their initial amount. The decrease of the OP content in the soil profiles was nonuniform, and at the depth of 30-50 cm it was accompanied by the acidification of peat. The stimulation of the activity of aboriginal microorganisms by applying lime and mineral fertilizers led to the development of migration processes with the participation of oil and products of its transformation. These processes differed from those in the soil without application of lime and fertilizers. An original technology of applying lime and fertilizers providing minimal disturbances the upper 50-cm peat layer is suggested.

  8. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  9. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  10. Effects of Fertilization on Tomato Growth and Soil Enzyme Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhen; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-qing

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on soil enzyme activity, tomato plant growth and tomato yield and quality, a field experiment on tomato cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Three fertilizer treatments, chemical fertilizer (CF) (N, 260 g/kg; P, 25.71g/kg; K, 83.00g/kg), rapeseed cake manure (CM) (N, 37.4 g/kg; P, 9.0 g/kg; K, 8.46 g/kg), crop-leaf fermenting manure (FM) (N, 23.67 g/kg; P, 6.39 g/kg; K 44.32 g/kg), and a control without using any fertilizers (CK), were designed. The total amounts of fertilizer application to each plot for the CF, CM, FM and CK were 0.6 kg, 1.35 kg, 3.75 kg and 0 kg, respectively, 50% of which were applied as base fertilizer, and another 50% were applied after the first fruit picking as top dressing. Each experimental plot was 9 m2 (1 m × 9 m) in area. Each treatment was replicated for three times. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire period of tomato growth to prevent their disturbance to soil microbial activities. Soil enzyme activities at each plot were constantly tested during the growing period; the tomato fruit quality was also constantly analyzed and the tomato yield was calculated after the final harvesting. The results were as follows: (1) Urease activity in the soils treated with the CF, CM and FM increased quickly after applying base fertilizer. That with the CF reached the highest level. Sucrase activity was inhibited by the CF and CM to some extent, which was 32.4% and 11.2% lower than that with the CK, respectively; while that with the FM was 15.7% higher than that with the CK. Likewise, catalase activity with the CF increased by 12.3% - 28.6%; that with the CM increased by 87.8% - 95.1%; that with the FM increased by 86.4% - 93.0%. Phosphatase activity with the CF increased rapidly and reached a maximum 44 days after base fertilizer application, and then declined quickly. In comparison, that with the CM and FM increased slowly and reached a maximum

  11. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    aragonite is 8.18 and 3.5). As a result of ocean fertilization, 10 years from now, the depth of saturation horizon (the depth below which ocean water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate) for aragonite in the Southern Ocean shoals from its present average value of about 700 m to 100 m. In contrast, no significant change in the depth of aragonite saturation horizontal is seen in the scenario without fertilization for the corresponding period. By year 2100, global mean calcite saturation horizon shoals from its present value of 3150 m to 2965 and 2534 m in the case without fertilization and with it. In contrast, if the sale of carbon credits from ocean fertilization leads to greater CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (e.g., if carbon credits from ocean fertilization are used to offset CO2 emissions from a coal plant), then there is the potential that ocean fertilization would further acidify the deep ocean without conferring any chemical benefit to surface ocean waters.

  12. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-07-07

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  13. [Effects of application time and basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer on the spatiotemporal variation of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents and the grain yield and its quality of wheat].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Guo, Xi-sheng; Yang, Xiao-hu; Huang, Xiao-rong

    2008-11-01

    Field trials were conducted to study the effects of different application time and basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer on the spatiotemporal variation of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents and the grain yield and its quality of wheat. The results showed that soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents decreased with increasing soil depth. Both the application time and the basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer had significant effects on the NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents in 0-20 cm soil layer. Compared with basal application, later fertilization and higher topdressing ratio could promote the nitrogen uptake by wheat plant and increase the plant nitrogen recovery significantly, decrease the soil nitrogen recovery during wheat growth, and improve the grain quality significantly, while had less effects on the grain yield. Topdressing too much nitrogen fertilizer at booting stage could result in a significant decrease of grain yield. Under the condition of this experiment, the optimal nitrogen fertilization mode for good wheat grain yield and its quality and good ecological benefits was 5:3:2 of basal application: topdressing at jointing stage: topdressing at booting stage.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition coating of fibers using microwave application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Hoover, Gordon (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition coating is carried out in a cylindrical cavity. The fibers are heated by a microwave source that is uses a TM0N0 mode, where O is an integer, and produces a field that depends substantially only on radius. The fibers are observed to determine their heating, and their position can be adjusted. Once the fibers are uniformly heated, a CVD reagent is added to process the fibers.

  15. Chemical modification: the key to clinical application of RNA interference?

    PubMed Central

    Corey, David R.

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference provides a potent and specific method for controlling gene expression in human cells. To translate this potential into a broad new family of therapeutics, it is necessary to optimize the efficacy of the RNA-based drugs. As discussed in this Review, it might be possible to achieve this optimization using chemical modifications that improve their in vivo stability, cellular delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, potency, and specificity. PMID:18060019

  16. X-ray chemical analyzer for field applications

    DOEpatents

    Gamba, Otto O. M.

    1977-01-01

    A self-supporting portable field multichannel X-ray chemical analyzer system comprising a lightweight, flexibly connected, remotely locatable, radioisotope-excited sensing probe utilizing a cryogenically-cooled solid state semi-conductor crystal detector for fast in situ non-destructive, qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in solid, powder, liquid or slurried form, utilizing an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry technique.

  17. Metrology and characterization of application specific chemical mechanical polishing pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantye, Parshuram B.; Mudhivarthi, S.; Kumar, Ashok; Obeng, Yaw

    2005-09-01

    There is a need for metrology, characterization, and optimization of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad architecture before being put into service. A polishing pad which is made up of polyolefin material instead of conventional polyurethane has been developed. The surface of the pad has been modified to match the hardness of the surface of the material that is being polished. In this research, we coated the pad with tetraethylorthosilicate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for varying durations of time for optimum pad output. The pad was then extensively characterized using the several standard metrology techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation, etc. The CMP performance evaluation of all the candidate pads along with in situ measurement of dynamic coefficients of friction, material removal rate, and acoustic emission was done using CETR CP-4™ bench top CMP tester. There was a correlation and interdependence of the pad coating time and surface chemical, micromechanical, and tribological properties. However, their impact on the pad CMP performance was found to be indirect. Based upon these findings, suggestions were given for final pad architecture for commercialization. The demonstrated methodology can also be implemented for parametric optimization of novel polishing pads in the future.

  18. Amorphous photonic membranes for broadband chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Sonja P.; Whaley, Ralph D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    While there has been extensive development on integrated sensors in the near-IR region due to the maturation of Si, SOI, and III-V materials, these technologies are not easily translated into the visible and near-UV regions which are critical for the detection of many chemicals of environmental and security interest. This work focuses on the use of wide bandgap, amorphous materials, specifically, amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO), amorphous hafnium oxide (a-HfO2) and amorphous beryllium zinc oxide (a-BeZnO), in the development of broadband chemical sensors operating at critical absorption lines spanning the near-UV (200 nm) to the near-IR (1.55 μm). The architecture employed for this research is a nanoscale membrane (typically 40 - 100 nm thick) that supports a guided low optical overlap mode (LOOM) - an optical mode in which approximately 1% of the electric field is confined to the lossy core region. The resulting extended mode has a greatly enhanced analyte overlap, yielding a device sensitivity (~70%) that is over an order of magnitude higher than current high-performance, dielectric evanescent wave sensors (~2%) as modeled by analytical and finite element methods. Due to the extended nature of the LOOM, sensing across the entire spectral range can be achieved with a single waveguide design - critical for multi-point chemical sensing architectures.

  19. Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Chemical Oxidation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes recent pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that either treat soil and ground water in place or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies.

  20. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  1. Soil fertilization with wastewater biosolids - monitoring changes in the 'soil-fertilizer-plant' system and phosphorus recovery options.

    PubMed

    Kathijotes, Nicholas; Zlatareva, Elena; Marinova, Svetla; Petrova, Vera

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to establish changes that may occur after a prolonged application of wastewater sludge treated to biosolids, in the 'soil-fertilizer-plant' system. Thirteen experimental plots with different soil types planted with experimental crops were investigated in order to evaluate the suitability of these biosolids as soil conditioners and fertilizers. The biosolids were incorporated in soil starting in 2006 in different quantities (from 6 tons per ha) for various arrays. The rate of application was calculated on the basis of imported nitrogen and was consistent with the characteristics of the sludge, soil diversity, growing crop requirements, and other factors. In 2013 (after 7 years of land use) average soil samples from the same arrays were taken and analyzed. No chemical fertilizer was applied during the experimental period. The results show that the use of sewage biosolids as a soil improver in accordance with local legislation does not pose any serious environmental risks but can maintain and improve soil fertility and crop yield. A slight increase in Cu and Zn in plants was detected, however the content of heavy metals in all soil samples was below maximum allowable limits and no signs of phytotoxicity were observed.

  2. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  3. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied.

  4. Improving continuous monitoring of VOC emissions from alternative fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of alternative fertilizers, such as biosolids, to agricultural fields is an environmentally beneficial practice. Biosolids provide producers with a ready source of organic matter and plant nutrients instead of using commercial fertilizers. However, concerns regarding nuisance odors cause...

  5. Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for crop management system scenarios

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for CMAQ is a high-end computer interface that simulates daily fertilizer application information for any gridded domain. It integrates the Weather Research and Forecasting model and CMAQ.

  6. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from spray application of organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Spray applicators of organic coatings may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist appliers of organic coatings in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  7. Practices, perceptions, and implications of fertilizer use in East-Central China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoying; Fang, Shubo

    2015-11-01

    Face-to-face interviews (n = 553) were conducted in five counties in East-Central China to study farmers' fertilizer application behaviors, decision-making processes, attitudes towards adopting better fertilizer application technologies, and environmental consciousness. The survey results revealed widespread fertilizer misapplication and highly variable application behaviors in the study regions. The lack of scientific knowledge on fertilizers and the absence of guidance from agricultural extension services have forced the farmers to rely on personal judgment and advice from fertilizer dealers and friends to make decisions in fertilizer application. Overall, farmers have been idiosyncratic in fertilizer application with limited adoption of better fertilizer application technologies. There are great potentials for reducing pollutant load from agricultural runoff through promoting scientific fertilizer application in the regions. However, farmers' diverse preferences over agricultural extension programs necessitate an integrated approach emphasizing farmer involvement throughout the development of such programs for promoting better fertilizer application practices.

  8. Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

  9. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  10. 77 FR 60145 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMPAC Fine Chemicals..., California 95670, made application by letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered...

  11. 21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants. 1309.25 Section 1309.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.... The exemption will remain in effect for each person who has made such application until...

  12. 21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants. 1309.25 Section 1309.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.... The exemption will remain in effect for each person who has made such application until...

  13. RMP Guidance for Chemical Distributors - Chapter 1: General Applicability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Risk Management Program rule covers you if you are: the owner/operator of a stationary source, that has more than a threshold quantity, of a regulated substance, in a process. Follow the flowchart, definitions, and Q & A's to determine applicability.

  14. Merging Applicability Domains for in Silico Assessment of Chemical Mutagenicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    molecular fingerprints as descriptors for developing quantitative structure−activity relationship (QSAR) models and defining applicability domains with...mutagenicity and use different characteristics of the molecular fingerprints to achieve high levels of prediction accuracies. Thus, while RF flags...as measured by fingerprint -based Tanimoto distances between molecules. We showed that the extended connectivity fingerprints could intuitively be

  15. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  16. Changes in soil organic carbon in croplands subjected to fertilizer management: a global meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pengfei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Guocheng; Sun, Wenjuan; Huang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cropland soil organic carbon (SOC) is undergoing substantial alterations due to both environmental and anthropogenic changes. Although numerous case studies have been conducted, there remains a lack of quantification of the consequences of such environmental and anthropogenic changes on the SOC sequestration across global agricultural systems. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of SOC changes under different fertilizer managements, namely unbalanced application of chemical fertilizers (UCF), balanced application of chemical fertilizers (CF), chemical fertilizers with straw application (CFS), and chemical fertilizers with manure application (CFM). We show that topsoil organic carbon (C) increased by 0.9 (0.7–1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)) g kg−1 (10.0%, relative change, hereafter the same), 1.7 (1.2–2.3) g kg−1 (15.4%), 2.0 (1.9–2.2) g kg−1 (19.5%) and 3.5 (3.2–3.8) g kg−1 (36.2%) under UCF, CF, CFS and CFM, respectively. The C sequestration durations were estimated as 28–73 years under CFS and 26–117 years under CFM but with high variability across climatic regions. At least 2.0 Mg ha−1 yr−1 C input is needed to maintain the SOC in ~85% cases. We highlight a great C sequestration potential of applying CF, and adopting CFS and CFM is highly important for either improving or maintaining current SOC stocks across all agro–ecosystems. PMID:27251021

  17. Changes in soil organic carbon in croplands subjected to fertilizer management: a global meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Guocheng; Sun, Wenjuan; Huang, Yao

    2016-06-01

    Cropland soil organic carbon (SOC) is undergoing substantial alterations due to both environmental and anthropogenic changes. Although numerous case studies have been conducted, there remains a lack of quantification of the consequences of such environmental and anthropogenic changes on the SOC sequestration across global agricultural systems. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of SOC changes under different fertilizer managements, namely unbalanced application of chemical fertilizers (UCF), balanced application of chemical fertilizers (CF), chemical fertilizers with straw application (CFS), and chemical fertilizers with manure application (CFM). We show that topsoil organic carbon (C) increased by 0.9 (0.7–1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)) g kg‑1 (10.0%, relative change, hereafter the same), 1.7 (1.2–2.3) g kg‑1 (15.4%), 2.0 (1.9–2.2) g kg‑1 (19.5%) and 3.5 (3.2–3.8) g kg‑1 (36.2%) under UCF, CF, CFS and CFM, respectively. The C sequestration durations were estimated as 28–73 years under CFS and 26–117 years under CFM but with high variability across climatic regions. At least 2.0 Mg ha‑1 yr‑1 C input is needed to maintain the SOC in ~85% cases. We highlight a great C sequestration potential of applying CF, and adopting CFS and CFM is highly important for either improving or maintaining current SOC stocks across all agro–ecosystems.

  18. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  19. Alleviation of water stress effects on MR220 rice by application of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zain, Nurul Amalina Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Mahmood, Maziah; Puteh, Adam; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz

    2014-02-05

    The use of periodical water stress and potassium fertilization may enhance rice tolerance to drought stress and improve the crop's instantaneous water use efficiency without much yield reduction. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different periodical water stress combined with potassium fertilization regimes on growth, yield, leaf gas exchanges and biochemical changes in rice grown in pots and compare them with standard local rice grower practices. Five treatments including (1) standard local grower's practice (control, 80CF = 80 kg K2O/ha + control flooding); (2) 120PW15 = 120 kg K2O/ha + periodical water stress for 15 days; (3) 120DS15V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the vegetative stage; (4) 120DS25V = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 25 days and (5) 120DS15R = 120 kg K2O/ha + drought stress for 15 days during the reproductive stage, were evaluated in this experiment. Control and 120PW15 treatments were stopped at 100 DAS, and continuously saturated conditions were applied until harvest. It was found that rice under 120PW15 treatment showed tolerance to drought stress evidenced by increased water use efficiency, peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and proline levels, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and lower minimal fluorescence (fo), compared to other treatments. Path coefficient analysis revealed that most of parameters contribute directly rather than indirectly to rice yield. In this experiment, there were four factors that are directly involved with rice yield: grain soluble sugar, photosynthesis, water use efficiency and total chlorophyll content. The residual factors affecting rice yield are observed to be quite low in the experiment (0.350), confirming that rice yield was mostly influenced by the parameters measured during the study.

  20. Chemical kinetic modeling of H{sub 2} applications

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.K.; Marinov, N.; Pitz, W.J.; Curran, H.

    1996-10-01

    This project is intended to develop detailed and simplified kinetic reaction mechanisms for the combustion of practical systems fueled by hydrogen, and then to use those mechanisms to examine the performance, efficiency, pollutant emissions, and other characteristics of those systems. During the last year, a H2/NOx mechanism has been developed that gives much improved predictions of NOx emissions compared to experimental data. Preliminary chemical kinetic and equilibrium calculations have been performed in support of Br2-H2O experiments to be conducted at NREL. Hydrogen, hydrogen/methane and hydrogen/natural gas mixtures have been investigated in a knock-rating engine to assess their automotive knock characteristics. The authors are currently developing the simplified analog reaction mechanisms that are computationally simple, yet still reproduce many of the macroscopic features of flame propagation.

  1. Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baer, DR; Gaspar, DJ; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, SD; Castner, DG

    2010-01-01

    The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties. PMID:20052578

  2. Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium

  3. [Use efficiency and fate of fertilizer N in tomato field of Nanjing suburb].

    PubMed

    Cao, Bing; He, Fayun; Xu, Qiuming; Cai, Guixin

    2006-10-01

    Field plot and micro-plot experiments were conducted to investigate the use efficiency (UE) , fate, and loss of chemical fertilizer N in tomato field of Nanjing suburb. The results showed that the application of chemical fertilizer N did not show any benefit to the tomato yield, due to the adequate N supply from native soil and organic manure amendment. The UE of fertilizer N calculated by difference method ranged from 14.5% to 22.5%. In micro-plot experiment, 16.6% - 28.8% of applied urea 15N was recovered by the plant, and 34. 2% - 46.0% of it was lost. Applying fertilizer N increased the nitrate content in 0-100 cm soil layer, and 10% - 10.2% of urea 15N was leached to the depth below 40 cm at harvest time. N application increased the denitrification loss and N2O emission significantly, which occupied 5.50% - 6.01 % and 2. 62% - 4. 92% of the applied N, respectively. No ammonia volatilization was detected during the whole growth season. Reducing N application rate or applying coated urea could decrease the environmental risks of N application in vegetable fields, especially the risks from nitrate leaching and nitrification-denitrification loss.

  4. Baseflow and peakflow chemical responses to experimental applications of ammonium sulphate to forested watersheds in north-central West Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Pamela J.; Wood, Frederica; Kochenderfer, James N.

    2002-08-01

    Stream water was analysed to determine how induced watershed acidification changed the chemistry of peakflow and baseflow and to compare the relative timing of these changes. Two watersheds in north-central West Virginia, WS3 and WS9, were subjected to three applications of ammonium sulphate fertilizer per year to induce acidification. A third watershed, WS4, was the control. Samples were collected for 8 years from WS9 and for 9 years from WS3. Prior to analyses, concentration data were flow adjusted, and the influence of natural background changes was removed by accounting for the chemical responses measured from WS4. This yielded residual values that were evaluated using robust locally weighted regression and Mann-Kendall tests. On WS3, analyte responses during baseflow and peakflow were similar, although peakflow responses occurred soon after the first treatment whereas baseflow responses lagged 1-2 years. This lag in baseflow responses corresponded well with the mean transit time of baseflow on WS3. Anion adsorption on WS3 apparently delayed increases in SO4 leaching, but resulted in enhanced early leaching losses of Cl and NO3. Leaching of Ca and Mg was strongly tied, both by timing and stoichiometrically, to NO3 and SO4 leaching. F-factors for WS3 baseflow and peakflow indicated that the catchment was insensitive to acid neutralizing capacity reductions both before and during treatment, although NO3 played a large role in reducing the treatment period F-factor. By contrast, the addition of fertilizer to WS9 created an acid sensitive system in both baseflow and peakflow. On WS9, baseflow and peakflow responses also were similar to each other, but there was no time lag after treatment for baseflow. Changes in concentrations generally were not as great on WS9 as on WS3, and several ions showed no significant changes, particularly for peakflow. The lesser response to treatment on WS9 is attributed to the past abusive farming and site preparation before larch

  5. Formulation of engineered particulate systems for chemical mechanical polishing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basim, Gul Bahar

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is widely used in the microelectronics industry to achieve planarization and patterning of metal and dielectric layers for microelectronic device manufacturing. Rapid advances in the microelectronics industry demand a decrease in the sizes of the devices, resulting in the requirement of a very thin layer of material removal with atomically flat and clean surface finish by CMP. Furthermore, new materials, such as copper and polymeric dielectrics, are introduced to build faster microprocessors, which are more vulnerable to defect formation and also demand more complicated chemistries. These trends necessitate improved control of the CMP that can be achieved by studying the slurry chemical and particulate properties to gain better fundamental understanding on the process. In this study, the impacts of slurry particle size distribution and stability on pad-particle-surface interactions during polishing are investigated. One of the main problems in CMP is the scratch or pit formation as a result of the presence of larger size particles in the slurries. Therefore, in this investigation, impacts of hard and soft (transient) agglomerates on polishing performance are quantified in terms of the material removal rate and the quality of the surface finish. It is shown that the presence of both types of agglomerates must be avoided in CMP slurries and robust stabilization schemes are needed to prevent the transient agglomerate formation. To stabilize the CMP slurries at extreme pH and ionic strength environments, under applied shear and normal forces, repulsive force barriers provided by the self-assembled surfactant structures at the solid/liquid interface are utilized. A major finding of this work is that slurry stabilization has to be achieved by controlling not only the particle-particle interactions, but also the pad-particle-substrate interactions. Perfect lubrication of surfaces by surfactants prevented polishing. Thus, effective

  6. New Chemical and Stereochemical Applications of Organoiron Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Fatiadi, Alexander J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a current overview of the rapidly developing chemistry of organometallic complexes and particularly organoiron complexes useful in asymmetric and stereoselective reactions. Also covered are stereoselective reactions of α, β-unsaturated acyl ligands bound to the chiral auxiliary [(η5-C5H5) Fe(CO)(PPh3)] and new applications of organoiron complexes in the synthesis of natural products. The mechanistic aspects and stabilizing effects of the Fe(CO)3 group for alkenes or conjugated dienes are discussed. A brief summary of recent work on the special role of iron in biological reactions is also included. PMID:28184103

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table... Chemical Manufacturing Operations As required in § 63.11494(a), chemical manufacturing operations...

  8. Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-30

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs.

  9. Application of chemical vapor composites (CVC) to terrestrial thermionics

    SciTech Connect

    Miskolczy, G.; Reagan, P.

    1995-01-20

    Terrestrial flame fired thermionics took a great leap forward in the earlier 1980`s with the development of reliable long-lived hot shells. These results were presented by Goodale (1981). The hot shell protects the fractory emitter from oxidizing in the combustion environment. In earlier efforts with supralloys emitters it was found that superalloys were poor thermionic emitters since they operated at too low a temperature for practical and economical use as discussed by Huffman (1978). With the development of Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) silicon carbide and CVD tungsten, it became possible to fabricate long-lived thermionic converters. These results were shown by Goodale (1980). Further improvements were achieved with the use of oxygen additives on the electrodes. These developments made thermionics attractive for topping a power plant or as the energy conversion part of a cogeneration plant as described by Miskolczy (1982) and Goodale (1983). The feasibility of a thermonic steam boiler and a thermionic topped gas turbine plant become a possibility, as shown by Miskolczy (1980). {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  10. Chemically modified IR-transparent fibers and their application as chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kellner, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    With the advent of chalcogenide- (As-Se-Te), Silverhalide- (AgBrCl) and TeXAs-fibers, the optical window available for analytical chemistry was significantly extended into the MID- and FAR-IR range (2 to 20 {mu}m) recently. These fibers have been chemically modified in our laboratory at 10 cm-distances of their surfaces (A) by covering them with 10-100 {mu}m thick layers of a suitable polymer such as LDPE ({open_quotes}Thickfilm-Sensor{close_quotes}) and (B) by immobilizing specifically reacting enzyme-layers such as GOx ({open_quotes}Thinfilm-Sensor{close_quotes}). In the first case, where the penetration depth of the IR-beam is smaller than the thickness of the polymer layer, a sensor for the simultaneous in situ-determination of chlorinated hydrocarbon traces in water down to 500 ppb could be developed and tested. In the second case, a system for the determination of glucose in complex aqueous solutions was developed, based on the catalytic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide by the immobilized enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) in the physiological range. The GOx-density at the fibers could be significantly enlarged by using S-Layers instead of silanes for immobilization. Secondly, a flow injection-approach was developed recently, which allowed for an even further increase of the enzyme density by separating the reaction- and detection-part of our sensor, using controlled pore glass as carrier for the GOx and tapered chalcogenide fibers for detection. With this system, which works perfectly linear in the physiological range also for urea (with urease) a practical (multi)enzyme-based IR-sensor system is presented for the first time.

  11. [Effect of long-term fertilization practices on mobility of phosphorus in a Huangnitu paddy soil receiving low P input in the Taihu Lake region, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Pan, Genxing; Jiao, Shaojun; Li, Lianqing; Xu, Xiangdong; Qiu, Duosheng; Xu, Xiaobo; Chu, Qiuhua; Zhao, Hongxiang

    2003-05-01

    Analysis of mobile forms of phosphorus of a Huangnitu, a typical paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region, Jiangsu was conducted. The soil has been put into a scheme of longterm fertilization treatments for 13 years. Total P content varied in arrange of 0.3-0.5 g.kg-1 under a range of total P fertilizer input of 0-53 kg/(hm2.a). As estimated from the total P pool values by mass balance principle, the soil had been subjected to water loss of P 2-8 kg/(hm2.a), with that under chemical fertilizers only being the biggest. The ratio of soluble P to the total was in a range of 0.2%-0.4%, without significant influence by the different fertilization schemes. While chemical fertilizer plus pig slurry manure applications had remarkably enhanced the resin-P pool by 20-40 mg.kg-1, P mobilization was not observed due to combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw amendments despite of the increase of the SOM. Therefore, P water loss in paddy soils might have active under continuous chemical fertilization alone in agriculture of this region and could not be accounted for by dissolution in water and subsequent runoff migration. For reducing the present prominent non point source pollution of N and P in the region, it is suggested that chemical fertilizers are applied in combination with an appropriate amount of manure or straw return for reducing soil P loss and, in turn, the non-point source pollution loading.

  12. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications.

    PubMed

    Suleimanov, Yury V; Aoiz, F Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-11-03

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques for calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.

  13. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

    1996-09-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

  14. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Suleimanov, Yury V.; Aoiz, F. Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-11-03

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques formore » calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.« less

  15. Variations in the natural ¹⁵N abundance of Brassica chinensis grown in uncultivated soil affected by different nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-11-26

    To further investigate the method of using δ(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the δ(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p < 0.05) with manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N value of vegetables varied among three growing stages and ranged from +8.6‰ to +11.5‰ for the control, from +8.6‰ to +12.8‰ for the compost chicken manure treatment, from +2.8‰ to +7.7‰ for the chemical fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the δ(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High δ(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a δ(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical

  16. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, J.; Baert, Y.; Faes, K.; Goossens, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. SEARCH METHODS An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. OUTCOMES The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23

  17. Copper chelators: chemical properties and bio-medical applications.

    PubMed

    Tegoni, M; Valensin, D; Toso, L; Remelli, M

    2014-01-01

    Copper is present in different concentrations and chemical forms throughout the earth crust, surface and deep water and even, in trace amounts, in the atmosphere itself. Copper is one of the first metals used by humans, the first artifacts dating back 10,000 years ago. Currently, the world production of refined copper exceeds 16,000 tons/year. Copper is a micro-element essential to life, principally for its red-ox properties that make it a necessary cofactor for many enzymes, like cytochrome-c oxidase and superoxide dismutase. In some animal species (e.g. octopus, snails, spiders, oysters) copper-hemocyanins also act as carriers of oxygen instead of hemoglobin. However, these red-ox properties also make the pair Cu(+)/Cu(2+) a formidable catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species, when copper is present in excess in the body or in tissues. The treatment of choice in cases of copper overloading or intoxication is the chelation therapy. Different molecules are already in clinical use as chelators or under study or clinical trial. It is worth noting that chelation therapy has also been suggested to treat some neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular disorders. In this review, after a brief description of the homeostasis and some cases of dyshomeostasis of copper, the main (used or potential) chelators are described; their properties in solution, even in relation to the presence of metal or ligand competitors, under physiological conditions, are discussed. The legislation of the most important Western countries, regarding both the use of chelating agents and the limits of copper in foods, drugs and cosmetics, is also outlined.

  18. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Ting, Yen-Peng; Koh, Shin Nuo; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Neoh, Koon Gee

    2017-01-05

    In this work, carbon black waste - a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries - was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i.e. up to 95% nickel and 98% vanadium were removed via treatment with 2M nitric acid for 1h at 20°C), whereas alkali leaching by using NaOH under the same condition was not effective for removal of nickel (less than 10% nickel was removed). Human lung cells (MRC-5) were then used to investigate the toxicity of the carbon black waste before and after leaching. Cell viability analysis showed that the leachate from the original carbon black waste has very high toxicity, whereas the leachate from the treated samples has no significant toxicity. Finally, the efficacy of the carbon black waste treated with HNO3 as an absorbent for dye removal was investigated. This treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼361.2mg dye/g carbonblack), which can be attributed to its high specific surface area (∼559m(2)/g). The treated carbon black waste with its high adsorption capacity and lack of cytotoxicity is a promising adsorbent material. Moreover, the carbon black waste was found to show high electrical conductivity (ca. 10S/cm), making it a potentially valuable source of conductive material.

  19. Application of a microcoil probe head in NMR analysis of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Vanninen, Paula

    2008-07-15

    A 1.7-mm microcoil probe head was tested in the analysis of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a high mass sensitivity in the detection of traces of organophosphorus compounds in samples. Methylphosphonic acid, the common secondary degradation product of sarin, soman, and VX, was detected at level 50 ng (0.52 nmol) from a 30-microL water sample using proton-observed experiments. Direct phosphorus observation of methylphosphonic acid with (31)P{(1)H} NMR experiment was feasible at the 400-ng (4.17 nmol) level. Application of the microcoil probe head in the spiked sample analysis was studied with a test water sample containing 2-10 microg/mL of three organophosphorus compounds. High-quality (1)H NMR, (31)P{(1)H} NMR, 2D (1)H-(31)P fast-HMQC, and 2D TOCSY spectra were obtained in 3 h from the concentrated 1.7-mm NMR sample prepared from 1 mL of the water solution. Furthermore, a 2D (1)H-(13)C fast-HMQC spectrum with sufficient quality was possible to measure in 5 h. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a considerable sensitivity improvement and reduction of measurement times for the NMR spectroscopy in identification of chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention.

  20. Pulsed Power, Plasma, and Interior Ballistic Simulations for Application to Electrothermal-Chemical Guns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY ........ Pulsed Power, Plasma, and Interior Ballistic Simulations for Application to Electrothermal- Chemical Guns Gary L...ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 1996 Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Pulsed P