Science.gov

Sample records for chemical industry

  1. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  2. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  3. Prioritizing industrial chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Bratt, Gary M

    This article describes the approach used to develop a prioritized list of toxic and hazardous industrial chemical hazards considered to pose substantial risk to deployed troops and military operations. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine published the prioritized list in November 2003. The work was performed as part of a multinational military effort supported by Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Previous chemical priority lists had been developed to support military as well as homeland defense research, development, and acquisition communities to determine enhanced detection and protection needs. However, there were questions as to the adequacy of the methodologies and focus of the previous efforts. This most recent effort is a more extensive evaluation of over 1700 industrial chemicals, with a modified methodology that includes not only the assessment of acute inhalation toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), but also chemicals/compounds that pose substantial physical risk (from fire/explosion) and those that may pose acute ingestion risks (such as in water supplies). The methodology was designed to rank such hazards from a strategic (global) military perspective, but it may be adapted to address more site/user specific needs. Users of this or any other chemical priority list are cautioned that the derivation of such lists is largely influenced by subjective decisions and significant variability in chemical-specific data availability and quality.

  4. Chemical Educators Stress Industry Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1975-01-01

    Describes various courses and programs designed to better prepare graduates to enter the chemical industry, including courses which stress the chemistry of industrial processes, and the economics of the chemical industry. (MLH)

  5. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  6. The U.S. Chemical Industry, Foreign Chemical Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry provides data on the chemical production of Japan, West Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and France, including the output of major chemical products in these nations. (PR)

  7. GHGRP Chemicals Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Chemicals industry.

  8. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  9. [Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals].

    PubMed

    Labie, Dominique

    2007-10-01

    "A Silent Pandemic : Industrial Chemicals Are Impairing the Brain Development of Children Worldwide" Fetal and early childhood exposures to industrial chemicals in the environment can damage the developing brain and can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs)--autism, attention deficit disorder (ADHD), and mental retardation. In a new review study, published in The Lancet, Philip Grandjean and Philip Landrigan from the Harvard School of Public Health systematically examined publicly available data on chemical toxicity in order to identify the industrial chemicals that are the most likely to damage the developing brain. The researchers found that 202 industrial chemicals have the capacity to damage the human brain, and they conclude that chemical pollution may have harmed the brains of millions of children worldwide. The authors conclude further that the toxic effects of industrial chemicals on children have generally been overlooked. In North Amercia, the commission for environmental cooperation, and in European Union the DEVNERTOX projects had reached to the same conclusions. We analyse this review and discuss these rather pessimistic conclusions.

  10. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P; Landrigan, P J

    2006-12-16

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy are common, costly, and can cause lifelong disability. Their causes are mostly unknown. A few industrial chemicals (eg, lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], arsenic, and toluene) are recognised causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Exposure to these chemicals during early fetal development can cause brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult brain function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of lead additives in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful, most were initiated only after substantial delays. Another 200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence of systematic testing, many additional chemicals have been shown to be neurotoxic in laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known and they are not regulated to protect children. The two main impediments to prevention of neurodevelopmental deficits of chemical origin are the great gaps in testing chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation. New, precautionary approaches that recognise the unique vulnerability of the developing brain are needed for testing and control of chemicals.

  11. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  12. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  13. Chemical arms treaty's effect on industry noted

    SciTech Connect

    Lois Ember

    1993-08-16

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is unique among arms control regimes in terms of its intrusive reach on private industry, especially chemical manufacturers. It requires, among other things, extensive reporting and, in some cases, on-site inspections of commercial facilities. Yet a surprising majority of affected companies are unaware of their obligations under the treaty that could become effective January 1995. A newly released background paper from the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) intends to correct this situation by fully documenting the effects of the treaty on the U.S. chemical industry. This paper summarizes some of the findings and outlines the legislation required to comply with the Chemical Weapons Convention while still protecting confidential business information and not creating a bureaucratic nightmare for the US chemical industry.

  14. [Evaluating health state of chemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Mogilenkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    The article presents structural and functional model based on systemic approach to improve evaluation of health state of workers engaged into chemical industry. The author specified hygienic criteria of work conditions and health state criteria to evaluate health risks due to chemical factors.

  15. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  16. Platform biochemicals for a biorenewable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Nikolau, Basil J; Perera, M Ann D N; Brachova, Libuse; Shanks, Brent

    2008-05-01

    The chemical industry is currently reliant on a historically inexpensive, petroleum-based carbon feedstock that generates a small collection of platform chemicals from which highly efficient chemical conversions lead to the manufacture of a large variety of chemical products. Recently, a number of factors have coalesced to provide the impetus to explore alternative renewable sources of carbon. Here we discuss the potential impact on the chemical industry of shifting from non-renewable carbon sources to renewable carbon sources. This change to the manufacture of chemicals from biological carbon sources will provide an opportunity for the biological research community to contribute fundamental knowledge concerning carbon metabolism and its regulation. We discuss whether fundamental biological research into metabolic processes at a holistic level, made possible by completed genome sequences and integrated with detailed structural understanding of biocatalysts, can change the chemical industry from being dependent on fossil-carbon feedstocks to using biorenewable feedstocks. We illustrate this potential by discussing the prospect of building a platform technology based upon a concept of combinatorial biosynthesis, which would explore the enzymological flexibilities of polyketide biosynthesis.

  17. Facts and Figures, The U.S. Chemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Introduces the annual compilation of the essential statistics of the chemical industry, presented in eight sections (SE 506 182 to 506 189): products of the industry; sales, earnings, and other financial data; chemical company performance; industry employment; chemical R&D spending; U.S. chemical trade; raw materials for the industry; and foreign…

  18. Chemical hazards in the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Ducatman, A M; Coumbis, J J

    1991-01-01

    The modern biotechnology industry employs thousands of people and is growing rapidly. The numbers of toxic chemicals encountered are substantial and the applications are largely novel. Health care professionals face a formidable task in identifying occupational hazards and safeguarding the health of employees.

  19. The Microbiological Production of Industrial Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    Compares traditional and newer methods by which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Includes a discussion of economic considerations and new genetic methods in programing microorganisms. Details methods for producing enzymes, aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids, ethanol, n-butanol, and alkene oxides. (CS)

  20. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Way It Performs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Data on the performance of chemical companies are presented in this section of the annual report on the chemical industry, including: productivity, unit labor costs, chemical company performance, wholesale prices, shipments and inventories, and industrial production. (PR)

  1. Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes in Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Speculates about the future responsiveness of chemical engineering curricula to changes in the chemical industry. Focuses on changes in the chemical industry, the status of academia, and possible curricular changes. (DDR)

  2. Electrochemical degradation of specialty chemical industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Basha, C Ahmed; Soloman, P A; Velan, M; Miranda, Lima Rose; Balasubramanian, N; Siva, R

    2010-04-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment techniques are inefficient to manage large quantities of refractory organics discharged by specialty chemical industries. It is aimed in the present investigation to compare overall performance of the basic electrochemical reactor configurations such as batch, batch recirculation and continuous recycle reactors, in removing the organic part of wastewater from a medium-scale, specialty chemical industry. The effects of current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, electrolysis duration and fluid flow rate on the pollutant removal and energy consumption performances were critically evaluated. Continuous recycle reactor is found to be the better configuration, because of its flexibility of operation. Circulation flow rate and withdrawal flow rate enable control on transfer coefficients and treatment duration respectively. The ability of artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting the performance of the batch electrochemical treatment has also been demonstrated.

  3. Facts & Figures for the Chemical Industry at a Glance--3. Employment in the Chemical Industry: Chemical Employment Growth Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Notes that the number of workers employed in the U.S. chemical industry rose again in 1988. Provides information for the years 1978-88 for the areas of industrial employment, scientist and engineer employment, corporation employment, wages, and industrial productivity. (MVL)

  4. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  5. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  6. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  7. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Money It Earns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on industry earnings, sales, and spending related to: rates of return, stock prices, 50 largest chemical makers, ten-year record, funds, debt, capital spending, industry and company data. (PR)

  8. Commuting accidents in the German chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Zepf, Kirsten Isabel; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Wriede, Ulrich; Husemann, Britta; Escobar Pinzón, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Due to accident severity and the extent of claim payments commuting accidents are a significant expense factor in the German industry. Therefore the aim of the present study was the identification of risk factors for commuting accidents in a German chemical company. A retrospective analysis of commuting accidents recorded between 1990 and 2003 was conducted in a major chemical company in Germany. A logistic regression-model was calculated in order to determine factors influencing the duration of work inability as a result of commuting accidents. The analysed data included 5,484 employees with commuting accidents. Cars (33.1%) and bicycles (30.5%) were the most common types of vehicles used by commuters who had an accident. The highest number of commuting accidents was observed in the age group under 26 yr. Accidents on the route from the work site to the worker's residence were less frequently observed, but they caused longer periods of work inability than accidents on the way to the work site. The longest periods of work inability were found in the groups of motorcyclists and older employees. The present study identifies specific groups at risk for commuting accidents. The data of the present investigation also underline the need for developing group specific prevention strategies.

  9. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the People It Employs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Employment data are presented in this section of the annual report on the chemical industry. Data are provided for: sales per employee, employment by company, industry employment, work week, earnings, unemployment of professionals, and employment of women. (PR)

  10. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  11. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Watson, Keith J

    2011-08-23

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade — ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals — threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  12. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  13. Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

  14. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry.

  15. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to and summaries of the manufacturing methods and uses of chemicals 51-75 on the list of chemicals arranged in order of decreasing production in the United States. Gives production in pounds, annual growth, average price per pound, and organization according to the seven basic organic chemicals. (CW)

  16. The chemical industry, a novel market NICHE for fuel cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Grievink, J.; Luteijn, C.P.; Weijnen, M.P.C.

    1996-12-31

    The chemical industry may be seen as a market for fuel cells. Fuel cells can be applied to upgrade by-product hydrogen. Fuel cell stacks may be fully integrated in the process system design to enhance the chemical process performance. In this case the arrangement of stacks is one of the unit operations which the chemical process is composed of. Finally trigeneration systems may be designed to produce chemicals, power and heat simultaneously, as equally important commercial products. Identification of novel market opportunities in the chemical industry can be done by a three-step method. The economic feasibility largely depends on stack lifetime and stack capital cost.

  17. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  18. [Evaluation of the embryotoxic risk of industrial chemicals in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H

    1986-06-01

    For the first time exposure levels during pregnancy have been evaluated for industrial chemicals in the German list of "Maximal occupational exposure limits and biological tolerance levels of occupational chemicals 1985" (MAK-Werte-Liste). According to this evaluation only a single substance (methylmercury) is embryotoxic in man, a prenatal risk cannot be excluded for eight chemicals, and 18 chemicals are safe at occupational exposure limits (MAK-Werte). Furthermore, pregnant women should avoid exposure to any of the 112 carcinogenic chemicals of the list and to 26 substances which are under evaluation for embryotoxic properties. Occupational chemicals are subdivided into four pregnancy riskgroups and discussed with respect to prenatal counselling.

  19. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  20. Profit opportunities for the chemical process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Papers given at a seminar designed to assist industry in the utilization of NASA-developed technology are presented. The topics include the following: the Technology Utilization program, NASA patent policy changes, transfer of Hysttl resin technology, nonflammable cellulosic materials development, nonflammable paper technology, circuit board laminates and construction, polymide resins and other polymers, and intumescent coatings.

  1. A Framework for the Environmental Professional in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priesing, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    Addresses four areas of environmental concern in the chemical industry: (1) needs and responsibilities of environmental protection; (2) organization and distribution of environmental affairs within the corporate structure; (3) functions and operations associated with industrial environmental management; and (4) origins and tasks of the…

  2. Technology Vision 2020. The U.S. Chemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1996-12-01

    Technology Vision 2020 is a call to action, innovation, and change for the U.S. chemical industry. The body of this report outlines the current state of the industry, a vision for tomorrow, and the technical advances needed to make this vision a reality.

  3. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  4. Employment in the U.S. Chemical Industry. Chemical Work Force Tops 1.1 Million.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The annual census of industrial employment, production workers, women, the workweek, scientists and engineers, chemical employment, wages, and productivity in the chemical industry is presented. Trends in the numbers of workers, productivity, and unit labor costs are illustrated in graphs. (CW)

  5. Research and Development and the Chemical Industry: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pam

    This paper describes the research and development (R & D) strategy employed in a major chemical manufacturing corporation and compares the strategy to that which is generally used in educational R & D efforts. The paper underscores development practices in the chemical industry as they relate to devleopment activities in education. Some of the…

  6. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  7. News from Online: Industrial Chemicals and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-02-01

    of the American Chemical Society Divisions of Polymer Chemistry and Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering and General Electric Corporation. The POLYED site, http:/ /chemdept.uwsp.edu/polyed/index.htm, is hosted by the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point. This National Center for Polymer Education is another good place to go for information. More education is available at the Ziegler Research Group Home Page at http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/index.html . Go to Metallocene as Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: An Introduction ( http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/met_intro.html ) for historical accounts of metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Movies are available here too. This Canadian site is well-documented and educational. Back at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, The Why Files site at http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu helps bring important chemical and technology news to the public. Go to the archived files of October 1997 ( http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/shorties/catalyst.html ) to find information about the importance of low-temperature metallocene catalysts. The Why Files received funding from the National Science Foundation. Go here for science information in an easy-to-read format. One of the driving forces toward better catalysis is the attempt to reach 100% product, combining efficiency with lowered pollution. Companies can look to the Environmental Protection Agency for information: Environsense at http://es.epa.gov/ is pledged to offer "Common Sense Solutions to Environmental Problems". So where can we get these polymers? The American Chemical Society can help. Go to Chemcylopedia at http://pubs.acs.org/chemcy99/ for great information. Both purchasers and users of chemicals can benefit from this site. Searches can be made on the chemical or on the supplier. Information provided includes CAS Registry Numbers and special shipping requirements as well as potential applications. Do you remember that we started with paper? Let

  8. Real World of Industrial Chemistry. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Completes a report from a previous article by presenting the important manufacture and uses of industrial chemicals. Gives structural formulas and percentages of each major use as well as the typical method of manufacture. (CW)

  9. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Ethylene: The Organic Chemical Industry's Most Important Building Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conrad, Ed.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The value of ethylene, as the organic chemical industry's most important building block, is discussed. The discussion focuses on the source of ethylene, its various forms and functions, and the ways in which the forms are made. (SA)

  10. Perspective on opportunities in industrial biotechnology in renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brent; Nelson; Winters, Paul

    2012-02-01

    From biomass to renewable chemicals: while industrial biotechnology offers a clear value proposition, a number of hurdles need to be addressed to fully realize the commercial potential of bio-based products and chemicals over the coming decade. A review of an early roadmap for biological production of chemicals from renewable sugars reveals a focus on those that would provide co-products for integrated biorefineries producing biofuels and bioenergy. A growing number of companies are now focusing on specialty chemicals as an entry point to build the bio-based economy.

  11. Sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment of chemical industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Daga, Kailash; Pallavi, V; Patel, Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Treatment technologies needed to reduce the pollutant load of chemical industry effluent have been found to involve exorbitantly high costs. The present investigation aimed to treat the wastewater from chemical industry by cost effective sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment. Wastewaters from chemical industry that are rich in biodegradable organics are tested for anaerobic treatability. The efficiency of anaerobic reactor is relatively lower 79.3%, and therefore post treatment of effluent was done by adsorption using Poly vinyl alcohol coated Datura stramonium (PVAC-DS) as an adsorbent. An overall COD removal of 93.8 % was achieved after sequential Anaerobic-Adsorption treatment, which lead to a better final effluent and a more economical treatment system.

  12. Microalgae: The chemical industry of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, M.E.

    1999-07-01

    Microalgae are the fastest growing plants on earth. The estimated 30,000 species possess extraordinary biochemical diversity that remains largely unexploited. The products they are known to contain are already worth approximately $10 billion in global trade. Lack of appropriate cultivation technology is the only reason that microalgae remain unexploited as a major biological resource. This barrier is now being broken, with new advances in photobioreactor technology. Many of the largest chemical companies in the world are currently divesting their traditional chemical production facilities and transforming themselves into life science companies. This transformation is correct in acknowledging organisms as the optimal source of biologically useful chemicals. However, the authors contents that the transformation is wrong in focusing on terrestrial plants as the principal source of the new chemical industry. Microalgae are by far the best plants upon which the life science industry could rely for its success.

  13. A multivariate chemical map of industrial chemicals--assessment of various protocols for identification of chemicals of potential concern.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Mia; Linusson, Anna; Tysklind, Mats; Andersson, Patrik L

    2009-08-01

    In present study the Industrial chemical map was created, and investigated. Molecular descriptors were calculated for 56072 organic substances from the European inventory of existing commercial chemical substances (EINECS). The resulting multivariate dataset was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), giving five principal components, mainly reflecting size, hydrophobicity, flexibility, halogenation and electronical properties. It is these five PCs that form the basis of the map of organic, industrial chemicals, the Industrial chemical map. The similarities and diversity in chemical characteristics of the substances in relation to their persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B) and long-range transport potential were then examined, by superimposing five sets of entries obtained from other relevant databases onto the Industrial chemical map. These sets displayed very similar diversity patterns in the map, although with a spread in all five PC vectors. Substances listed by the United Nations Environment Program as persistent organic pollutants (UNEP POPs) were on the other hand clearly grouped with respect to each of the five PCs. Illustrating similarities and differences in chemical properties are one of the strengths of the multivariate data analysis method, and to be able to make predictions of, and investigate new chemicals. Further, the results demonstrate that non-testing methods as read-across, based on molecular similarities, can reduce the requirements to test industrial chemicals, provided that they are applied carefully, in combination with sound chemical knowledge.

  14. Chemical dosing for sulfide control in Australia: An industry survey.

    PubMed

    Ganigue, Ramon; Gutierrez, Oriol; Rootsey, Ray; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-12-01

    Controlling sulfide (H(2)S) production and emission in sewer systems is critical due to the corrosion and malodour problems that sulfide causes. Chemical dosing is one of the most commonly used measures to mitigate these problems. Many chemicals have been reported to be effective for sulfide control, but the extent of success varies between chemicals and is also dependent on how they are applied. This industry survey aims to summarise the current practice in Australia with the view to assist the water industry to further improve their practices and to identify new research questions. Results showed that dosing is mainly undertaken in pressure mains. Magnesium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and nitrate are the most commonly used chemicals for sewers with low flows. In comparison, iron salts are preferentially used for sulfide control in large systems. The use of oxygen injection has declined dramatically in the past few years. Chemical dosing is mainly conducted at wet wells and pumping stations, except for oxygen, which is injected into the pipe. The dosing rates are normally linked to the control mechanisms of the chemicals and the dosing locations, with constant or profiled dosing rates usually applied. Finally, key opportunities for improvement are the use of mathematical models for the selection of chemicals and dosing locations, on-line dynamic control of the dosing rates and the development of more cost-effective chemicals for sulfide control.

  15. Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

  16. New trends in (heterogeneous) catalysis for the fine chemicals industry.

    PubMed

    Bonrath, Werner

    2014-01-01

    New catalytic methods and modern trends for the synthesis of fine chemicals, especially vitamins, carotenoids, flavoring and fragrance compounds are presented. In particular the application of heterogeneous catalysis in the formation and production on industrial scale of these classes of organic compounds will be highlighted and its use in the replacement of former stoichiometric processes.

  17. Concepts in health evaluation of commercial and industrial chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for determining no toxic effect exposure levels based on short-term testing of industrial and commercial chemicals. Procedures for monitoring all organs and body functions for the presence or absence of toxicological effects are demonstrated using various laboratory animals.

  18. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  19. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Synthetic Organic Chemical... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Synthetic Organic Chemical... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Synthetic Organic Chemical... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Synthetic Organic Chemical... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Synthetic Organic Chemical... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part...

  5. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular chemical firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry and mechanisms for stimulating interest; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based on extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  6. Skill Development of Plant Operators in the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Kouichi

    In the chemical industry, most of the chemical products are manufactured by operating equipment and changing raw materials chemically and physically. Knowledge and skills regarding the raw materials and the products are required to manufacture the products of good quality safely. Furthermore the knowledge and skills concerning the chemical process, the equipment and other treated materials are needed to operate plant appropriately. The way of plant operation partially depends on the type of process such as continuous process and batch process. As a plant operator is promoted to an upper position, required to improve one's skills. To operate plant safely, the base action to prevent an error of judgment, and the adaptive action based on the rule and principle i.e. KNOW-WHY are also required. In this paper, it reports on some cases of the skill development of plant operators in Omuta Works.

  7. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  8. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  9. New frontiers for encapsulation in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brenda; Song, Ziyuan; Li, Jun; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    Encapsulation of actives comprises an area of exploration undergoing rapid growth in both academic and industrial research settings. Encapsulation processes are employed as a part of product synthesis processes for improved efficiency, enhanced stability, active ingredient compatibility, increased safety, targeted delivery, and novel performance of the end product. Such technical benefits enable producers to offer products with increased formulation complexity, access new markets, differentiate products, and improve compatibility and stability, while meeting consumer demands with improved performance, reduced costs, and new actives. In this review, we highlight several emerging academic areas of encapsulation that we believe have specific relevance to industrial formulation, with a focus on three primary areas: supramolecular encapsulation, aqueous self-assembled systems, and emulsion-based capsules. The goal of this review is to help identify the major challenges facing encapsulation technology adoption in the chemical industry, bringing focus and maximizing the potential value of ongoing research efforts.

  10. GRP vessels and pipework for the chemical and process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Plastic can be reinforced by an appreciable number of materials, the most commonly used is glass-fibre. Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) has been used in the chemical and process industries for 25 years. In the course of its use and development, much data has been gathered on the material, its chemistry, mechanical properties, methods of fabrication and moulding, its behaviour in service and the methods and mathematics of the analysis of plant constructed from it. The importance of the material in industry was reflected by the large response to a symposium organised by UMIST, the Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include GRP piping - a multi-sponsored research project; inspection authority views; failure of attachments to GRP cylinders due to local loads; aspects of GRP service failure in the chemical and process industries; stress corrosion of GRP in relation to design stress and service performance; design of GRP pipe bends in relation to internal pressure tests to destruction; and acoustic emission monitoring: a complementary inspection method for fibre-reinforced plastic components.

  11. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness.

  12. Biological monitoring IX: Concomitant exposure to medications and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.

    1994-05-01

    A significant proportion of workers may be receiving prescription or nonprescription medications. In two surveys, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, 15 to 30 percent of workers reported current use of pharmaceuticals. In a viscose rayon factory in Belgium, 31 percent of 129 workers exposed to carbon disulfide and 19.8 percent of 81 control workers from other factories reported use of some medication. Some of the drugs may affect the relationship between the external exposure (dose) of a chemical and the concentration of that chemical or its metabolite(s) in a sampled biological medium (internal dose), and/or the relationship between external exposure and concentration at a receptor site. They may also modulate the response of the receptor, as suggested by the increased reports of neurological symptoms in carbon disulfide-exposed workers taking certain medications. There are two obvious differences between drugs and industrial chemicals: (1) The effects of drugs cover a wider spectrum and include effects not known to be the result of any industrial chemicals. Examples include selective destructive inhibition of hepatic enzymes (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, indomethacin) and alteration of hepatic blood flow (adrenergic agents, cimetidine). (2) Drugs are administered to produce specific therapeutic effects. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon.

  14. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Foreign Trade It Generates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The foreign trade of the United States chemical industry is reviewed in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data presented for: U.S. chemical trade, U.S. trade as per cent of world trade, total U.S. trade, chemical trade growth, and U.S. chemical trade partners. (PR)

  15. Mapping human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of chemical industry parks.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengying; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei; Qu, Changsheng; Yang, Jie; Bu, Quanmin

    2010-07-15

    China is suffering from severe pollution accidents which may have catastrophic impacts on the local population and environment. Some questions are unclear to local governments and industry operators like "who are vulnerable to the chemical risks?" and "what is the magnitude of vulnerability?". This paper concentrates on exploring the concepts of human vulnerability and the methodology of analyzing human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of chemical industry parks. A conceptual model of human vulnerability to chemical accidents is developed, revealing the roots of human vulnerability and emphasizing its role in risk management. A geographical information system (GIS)-based methodology for mapping vulnerability is proposed and applied to the Nanjing Chemical Industry Park in China. By combining physical vulnerability and social vulnerability spatially, the total vulnerability is revealed to better respond to accidents. It is proposed to improve traffic lines and allocation of medical services, and include vulnerability assessment in land-use planning to reduce future risks. In other words, it seems feasible and effective to reveal physical, social and total vulnerability of residents in the vicinity of chemical risk sources.

  16. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    PubMed

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

  17. Two Decades of Laccases: Advancing Sustainability in the Chemical Industry.

    PubMed

    Cannatelli, Mark D; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2 O as the sole by-product. The following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.

  18. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production.

  19. Nanotechnology in the Chemical Industry - Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu Zhao, Qian; Boxman, Arthur; Chowdhry, Uma

    2003-12-01

    The traditional chemical industry has become a largely mature industry with many commodity products based on established technologies. Therefore, new product and market opportunities will more likely come from speciality chemicals, and from new functionalities obtained from new processing technologies as well as new microstructure control methodologies. It is a well-known fact that in addition to its molecular structure, the microstructure of a material is key to determining its properties. Controlling structures at the micro- and nano-levels is therefore essential to new discoveries. For this article, we define nanotechnology as the controlled manipulation of nanomaterials with at least one dimension less than 100nm. Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the principal areas of investigation that is integrating chemistry and materials science, and in some cases integrating these with biology to create new and yet undiscovered properties that can be exploited to gain new market opportunities. In this article market opportunities for nanotechnology will be presented from an industrial perspective covering electronic, biomedical, performance materials, and consumer products. Manufacturing technology challenges will be identified, including operations ranging from particle formation, coating, dispersion, to characterization, modeling, and simulation. Finally, a nanotechnology innovation roadmap is proposed wherein the interplay between the development of nanoscale building blocks, product design, process design, and value chain integration is identified. A suggestion is made for an R&D model combining market pull and technology push as a way to quickly exploit the advantages in nanotechnology and translate these into customer benefits.

  20. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  1. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.

  2. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    DOE PAGES

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets whenmore » it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.« less

  3. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p < 0.05). Under the combined action of hazardous substances, the incidence of digestive diseases was 1.7-fold greater (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects and 1.2-fold greater in those under isolated action. The odd ratio and relative risk for digestive diseases in the workers exposed to a combination of noxious substances were 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  4. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro

  5. In Situ Sensors for the Chemical Industry- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J D; Knittel, Trevor

    2006-06-30

    The project focused on analytical techniques that can be applied in situ. The innovative component of this project is the focus on achieving a significant breakthrough in two of the three primary Process Analytical (PA) fields. PA measurements can roughly be broken down into:Single component measurements, Multiple component measurements and Multiple component isomer analysis. This project targeted single component measurements and multiple component measurements with two basic technologies, and to move these measurements to the process, achieving many of the process control needs. During the project the following achievements were made: Development of a low cost Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) Analyzer system for measurement of 1) Oxygen in process and combustion applications, 2) part per million (ppm) H2O impurities in aggressive service, 3) ppm CO in large scale combustion systems. This product is now commercially available Development of a process pathlength enhanced (high sensitivity) Laser Based Analyzer for measurement of product impurities. This product is now commercially available. Development of signal processing methods to eliminate measurement errors in complex and changing backgrounds (critical to chemical industry measurements). This development is incorporated into 2 commercially available products. Development of signal processing methods to allow multi-component measurements in complex chemical streams. This development is incorporated into 2 commercially available products. Development of process interface designs to allow in-situ application of TDL technology in aggressive (corrosive, high temperature, high pressure) commonly found in chemical processes. This development is incorporated in the commercially available ASI TDL analyzer. Field proving of 3 laser-based analyzer systems in process control and combustion applications at Dow Chemical. Laser based analyzers have been available for >5yrs, however significant product price/performance issues have

  6. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  7. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gage, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Gage, J. C. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 1-18. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals. The inhalation toxicity of 109 substances has been studied by exposing experimental animals to known concentrations in air for periods of about three weeks. The toxic properties of these substances are reviewed in relation to the effects of similar compounds on animals and on man. Provisional operational limits are suggested to assist in the design of new plant and in the establishment of codes for safe manufacturing practice. PMID:5418916

  8. [Guides to chemical risk assessment in the construction industry].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Scapellato, M L; Butera, R; Bartolucci, G B

    2012-01-01

    The presence of chemical agents in construction is certainly relevant in terms of quality, quantity and toxicity. Their manipulation can result in potential exposure as inhaled and/or through the skin. It is therefore possible and necessary to identify a list of substances to be considered relevant for the risk assessment and the possible environmental monitoring to verify the adequacy of the estimate made. The many variables inherent in construction make it extremely difficult to apply the usual methods of the industrial hygiene because it would not very significant conclusions in terms of space-time representation. SIMLII in one of its guidelines have proposed a "indexes" method that can provide useful information to the figures of prevention for the actions of their competence. The subsequent introduction of the REACH Regulation and exposure scenarios may help to further sharpening the assessment of chemical hazards in construction.

  9. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  10. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fry, D M

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent.

  11. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p`-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. 85 refs.

  12. A Survey of Industrial Organic Chemists: Understanding the Chemical Industry's Needs of Current Bachelor-Level Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Justin D.; Kleist, Elyse M.; Stoy, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted of companies from the chemical industry with an emphasis on the organic division. The data include results from 377 respondents from more than 100 different companies. More than half of all undergraduates gain fulltime work in the chemical industry or government after graduating with a bachelor's degree in chemistry.…

  13. Comprehensive chemical characterization of industrial PM2.5 from steel industry activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Alexandre; Mizzi, Aurélie; Mathiot, Sébastien; Masson, Fanny; Jaffrezo, Jean L.; Dron, Julien; Mesbah, Boualem; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Industrial sources are among the least documented PM (Particulate Matter) source in terms of chemical composition, which limits our understanding of their effective impact on ambient PM concentrations. We report 4 chemical emission profiles of PM2.5 for multiple activities located in a vast metallurgical complex. Emissions profiles were calculated as the difference of species concentrations between an upwind and a downwind site normalized by the absolute PM2.5 enrichment between both sites. We characterized the PM2.5 emissions profiles of the industrial activities related to the cast iron (complex 1) and the iron ore conversion processes (complex 2), as well as 2 storage areas: a blast furnace slag area (complex 3) and an ore terminal (complex 4). PM2.5 major fractions (Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC), major ions), organic markers as well as metals/trace elements are reported for the 4 industrial complexes. Among the trace elements, iron is the most emitted for the complex 1 (146.0 mg g-1 of PM2.5), the complex 2 (70.07 mg g-1) and the complex 3 (124.4 mg g-1) followed by Al, Mn and Zn. A strong emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), representing 1.3% of the Organic Matter (OM), is observed for the iron ore transformation complex (complex 2) which merges the activities of coke and iron sinter production and the blast furnace processes. In addition to unsubstituted PAHs, sulfur containing PAHs (SPAHs) are also significantly emitted (between 0.011 and 0.068 mg g-1) by the complex 2 and could become very useful organic markers of steel industry activities. For the complexes 1 and 2 (cast iron and iron ore converters), a strong fraction of sulfate ranging from 0.284 to 0.336 g g-1) and only partially neutralized by ammonium, is observed indicating that sulfates, if not directly emitted by the industrial activity, are formed very quickly in the plume. Emission from complex 4 (Ore terminal) are characterized by high contribution of Al (125.7 mg

  14. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2005-05-01

    A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

  15. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field.

  16. Hydrogen fuel cells in chemical industry: The assemini project

    SciTech Connect

    Caserza, G.; Bozzoni, T.; Porcino, G.; Pasquinucci, A.

    1996-12-31

    Chemical and petrochemical industries generate large quantities of hydrogen-rich streams, in the range 50%-100% H{sub 2} concentration by volume, as by-products of electrochemical or dehydrogenation processes, or exhausts/purging in hydrogenation processes. Due to safety aspects, and because of the low density, which makes difficult transportation and storage, such streams often constitute a problem for plant managers. In most cases recycling within the plant processes is not possible, and transportation to other sites, generally by truck after compression in cylinders, is not economical. Many of these streams arc therefore simply co-burned in plant boilers, and in some cases even wasted by venting or flaring. Their value ranges from zero (if vented), to the value of the fuel used in the boiler, where they are co-burned.

  17. Biotechnology-a sustainable alternative for chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Chisti, Yusuf

    2005-11-01

    This review outlines the current and emerging applications of biotechnology, particularly in the production and processing of chemicals, for sustainable development. Biotechnology is "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents". Some of the defining technologies of modern biotechnology include genetic engineering; culture of recombinant microorganisms, cells of animals and plants; metabolic engineering; hybridoma technology; bioelectronics; nanobiotechnology; protein engineering; transgenic animals and plants; tissue and organ engineering; immunological assays; genomics and proteomics; bioseparations and bioreactor technologies. Environmental and economic benefits that biotechnology can offer in manufacturing, monitoring and waste management are highlighted. These benefits include the following: greatly reduced dependence on nonrenewable fuels and other resources; reduced potential for pollution of industrial processes and products; ability to safely destroy accumulated pollutants for remediation of the environment; improved economics of production; and sustainable production of existing and novel products.

  18. Oilseed crops as renewable sources of industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    McKeon, T.A.; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M.

    1995-12-01

    The presence of specific functional groups on a fatty acid confers value for industrial uses. The plant kingdom contains numerous examples of plants that produce seed oils containing fatty acids with epoxy groups, hydroxyl groups, triple bonds or with unusual double bond positions. These fatty acids can be used directly or are readily modified for use in specialty lubricants, plastics and coatings. Many of these plants are not cultivated in the U.S. due to unsuitable climate or growth habit. Such plants provide a source of genes coding for enzymes that will carry out the desired fatty acid modification. Genetic technology allows the transfer of these genes into domestically grown crops such as rapeseed or soybean, with consequent production of the desired fatty acid in the seed oil. One biotechnology company has commercialized a transgenic oilseed crop with an altered fatty acid composition. This talk will review current and projected plans for developing oilseed crops to serve as renewable resources that meet current industrial needs or provide chemical feedstocks for new uses.

  19. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL... REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.4 Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries. The following... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overview of scheduled chemicals...

  20. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  1. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  2. Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design. From Fundamentals to Function

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    Vision2020 agreed to join NNI and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) in sponsoring the "Nanomaterials and the Chemical Industry Roadmap Workshop" on September 30-October 2, 2002. This roadmap, Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function, is based on the scientific priorities expressed by workshop participants from the chemical industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  3. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  4. Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 μgm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

  5. A methodology for overall consequence modeling in chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Arunraj, N S; Maiti, J

    2009-09-30

    Risk assessment in chemical process industry is a very important issue for safeguarding human and the ecosystem from damages caused to them. Consequence assessment is an integral part of risk assessment. However, the commonly used consequence estimation methods involve time-consuming complex mathematical models and simple assimilation of losses without considering all the consequence factors. This lead to the deterioration of quality of estimated risk value. So, the consequence modeling has to be performed in detail considering all major losses with optimal time to improve the decisive value of risk. The losses can be broadly categorized into production loss, assets loss, human health and safety loss, and environment loss. In this paper, a conceptual framework is developed to assess the overall consequence considering all the important components of major losses. Secondly, a methodology is developed for the calculation of all the major losses, which are normalized to yield the overall consequence. Finally, as an illustration, the proposed methodology is applied to a case study plant involving benzene extraction. The case study result using the proposed consequence assessment scheme is compared with that from the existing methodologies.

  6. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.

  7. Chemical Industry: A New Interdisciplinary Course for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Nehemia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school course which incorporates an industrial approach into the chemistry curriculum. Presents three case studies as examples taken from the local chemistry industry--the production of copper, bromine, and plastics. (CS)

  8. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the R & D It Conducts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The section on research and development (R and D) of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data related to: chemical R and D spending, R and D as per cent of sales, R and D employment, company R and D spending, R and D costs, and all industrial R and D employment. (PR)

  9. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  10. Trends and innovations in industrial biocatalysis for the production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Panke, Sven; Held, Martin; Wubbolts, Marcel

    2004-08-01

    Biocatalysis has become an established technology for the industrial manufacture of fine chemicals. In recent years, a multitude of chemical companies have embraced biocatalysis for the manufacture of desired stereoisomers, and new or improved methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure alpha- and beta-amino acids, amines, amides, peptides, nitriles, alcohols, organic acids and epoxides have emerged. Furthermore, the selectivity and mild operational conditions of biocatalysts are increasingly applied in industry to modify complex target molecules. These recent innovations in the manufacture of industrial fine chemicals using biocatalysis are discussed from an industrial perspective.

  11. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  12. Chemistry in Action: How to Plan a Visit to the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Hemi; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents guidelines for field trips to chemical industries. Includes examples of objectives, administrative aspects (time off from school, contact persons, transportation, pre/post-trip discussions, and guides at the industrial facility). Includes an evaluation of trips taken to industrial plants in Israel. (JN)

  13. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

  14. [Development of the chemical industry in the Kingdom of Poland till 1914].

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2010-01-01

    The chemical industry in the Kingdom of Poland developed on the turn of the 19th century. Earlier, in the field of industry in the Kingdom one could observe only two lines of the chemical industry: aliphatic and soap, and gas-producing and coal gas. The beginnings of the first mentioned line appeared on the turn of the 18th century, and the second branch--in the half of the 19th century. The development of chemical industry was stimulated by foreign capital expenditure, mainly by German capital. A significant impact on foreign capital expenditures within chemical industry on territories of Russian Empire, and also in the Kingdom as the most industrialized part of Empire, had tariffs. Thanks to the direct capital expenditures in the Kingdom foreign investors got an access to the receptive Russian market using the potential and technological thought of their establishments--'mother' firms. In 1913 a share of foreign capital in chemical industry in the Kingdom was 20, 30%. By dint of foreign capital expenditures in the years 1900-1913 production's value in chemical industry rose from 12 to 40 millions and 900 thousands roubles. The foreign capital, however, used to invest only in the most industrialized provinces of the Kingdom--Warsaw and Piotrków. And the greatest concentration of chemical industry could be observed just in the above-mentioned provinces. In the years 1904-1913 a number of establishments fluctuated there from 88.09 to 81.18%, and the employment--from 91.83 to 91.09%. This tendency could be observed till the outbreak of World War I. The Polish and Jewish capital that invested in chemical industry, did not have such financial resources. The investors' establishments were not large and technologically under-developed. However, the Polish and Jewish capital invested in the local market, particularly in agricultural provinces of the Kingdom.

  15. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  16. Evaluating the environmental hazard of industrial chemicals from data collected during the REACH registration process.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Mikael B; Hellohf, Andreas; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Registration dossiers for 11,678 industrial chemicals were retrieved from the database of the European Chemicals Agency, of which 3566 provided a numerical entry for the corresponding predicted no effect concentration for the freshwater environment (PNEC). A distribution-based examination of 2244 of these entries reveals that the average PNEC of an industrial chemical in Europe is 238nmol/L, covering a span of 9 orders of magnitude. A comparison with biocides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and WFD-priority pollutants reveals that, in average, industrial chemicals are least hazardous (hazard ranking: industrial chemicals≪pharmaceuticalsindustrial chemicals have a lower environmental threshold than the median pesticide and 73 have a lower environmental threshold than even the median biocide. Industrial chemicals produced and/or imported in higher tonnages have, on average, higher PNECs which most likely is due to the lower assessment factors used for the PNEC determination. This pattern indicates that the initial AF of 1000 comprises a measure of conservatism. The vast majority of PNEC values are driven by EC50 and NOEC data from tests with Daphnia magna. Tests with marine species are rarely provided for the hazard characterization of industrial chemicals.

  17. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Struijs, J; van de Meent, D; Schowanek, D; Buchholz, H; Patoux, R; Wolf, T; Austin, T; Tolls, J; van Leeuwen, K; Galay-Burgos, M

    2016-09-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for application to industrial sewage treatment plants (I-STP). The intended use of this re-parametrized model is focused on risk assessment during manufacture and subsequent uses of chemicals, also in the framework of REACH. The results of an inquiry on the operational characteristics of industrial sewage treatment installations were used to re-parameterize the model. It appeared that one property of industrial sewage, i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in combination with one parameter of the activated sludge process, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is satisfactory to define treatment of industrial wastewater by means of the activated sludge process. The adapted model was compared to the original municipal version, SimpleTreat 4.0, by means of a sensitivity analysis. The consistency of the model output was assessed by computing the emission to water from an I-STP of a set of fictitious chemicals. This set of chemicals exhibit a range of physico-chemical and biodegradability properties occurring in industrial wastewater. Predicted removal rates of a chemical from raw sewage are higher in industrial than in municipal STPs. The latter have typically shorter hydraulic retention times with diminished opportunity for elimination of the chemical due to volatilization and biodegradation.

  18. A Corporate Venture--Chemical Industry and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    Cites the need for educational materials dealing with recent technological advancements. Discusses "an Alaskan Adventure," a multi-media resource packet on the discovery, extraction, and transportation of North Slope crude which was produced by the petroleum industry. (CP)

  19. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  20. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  1. Implementation Plan for Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials by Design

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop an implementation plan to realize the vision and goals identified in the Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function.

  2. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet on the national air toxics standards issued October 16, 2009 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the chemical manufacturing industry.

  3. [Impact of the industrial enzyme progress on the production of chemicals].

    PubMed

    Duan, Gang

    2009-12-01

    Industrial enzymes play dual roles for the production of chemicals and biochemicals, one is to act as direct catalyst for the reaction, the other is to participate in the fermentation process to convert substrates to fermentable sugars or to make it more efficient. The review briefs the applications of industrial enzymes for chemical productions, with emphasis on direct conversion of starch and their roles in bioethanol production process, also analyzes the benefits by using new enzymes and prospects for future development.

  4. Roles of chemical metrology in electronics industry and associated environment in Korea: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Namgoo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Joung Hae

    2015-03-01

    Chemical metrology is gaining importance in electronics industry that manufactures semiconductors, electronic displays, and microelectronics. Extensive and growing needs from this industry have raised the significance of accurate measurements of the amount of substances and material properties. For the first time, this paper presents information on how chemical metrology is being applied to meet a variety of needs in the aspects of quality control of electronics products and environmental regulations closely associated with electronics industry. For a better understanding of the roles of the chemical metrology within electronics industry, the recent research activities and results in chemical metrology are presented using typical examples in Korea where electronic industry is leading a national economy. Particular attention is paid to the applications of chemical metrology for advancing emerging electronics technology developments. Such examples are a novel technique for the accurate quantification of gas composition at nano-liter levels within a MEMS package, the surface chemical analysis of a semiconductor device. Typical metrological tools are also presented for the development of certified reference materials for fluorinated greenhouse gases and proficiency testing schemes for heavy metals and chlorinated toxic gas in order to cope properly with environmental issues within electronics industry. In addition, a recent technique is presented for the accurate measurement of the destruction and removal efficiency of a typical greenhouse gas scrubber.

  5. A FLUORESCENCE-BASED SCREENING ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY GENOTOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of deliberate or accidental release of toxic chemicals in industrial, commercial or residential settings has indicated a need for rapid, cost-effective and versatile monitoring methods to prevent exposures to humans and ecosystems. Because many toxic industrial c...

  6. VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, MAYNARD; CLARK, RAYMOND M.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT BELOW THE MANUFACTURING LEVEL IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN. NINE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED IN THE INDUSTRY WERE LISTED--RESEARCH, TRANSPORTATION, PROCESSING, PUBLIC RELATIONS, SALES, SERVICE, OFFICE RECORDS AND MANAGEMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND…

  7. Introducing the Chemical Industry into the Science Curriculum in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnamperuma, A. C. W.; Palmer, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a young, developing nation, achieving independence in 1975. Industries which can be classified as chemical industries by western standards, are almost non-existent in Papua New Guinea. As yet, most of the raw materials it produces are exported to other countries to be processed or manufactured into useful products. However,…

  8. The approach to risk analysis in three industries - Nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick, B. J.

    A review is presented of how safety and risk analysis is conducted in the three major industries of space flight, nuclear power, and chemical and petroleum processes. This review is presented in the belief that safety enhancements and efficiencies may result from a greater exchange of risk assessment technology between these industries. The focus of this review relates to the engineered systems involved in the three industries.

  9. [Sensitization to chemical substances in workers of the rubber industry].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, E N; Kozintseva, P V; Vlasiuk, M G; Vlasiuk, I A

    1989-06-01

    A study of workers engaged in the production of rubber and latex articles revealed allergic diseases in 28.7%, mainly dermatoses. However, the etiological role of professional factors was not proved because the revealed positive reactions to chemical substances were not clearly pronounced and did not always correspond with the contact.

  10. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  11. Chemical and Physical Sensing in the Petroleum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disko, Mark

    2008-03-01

    World-scale oil, gas and petrochemical production relies on a myriad of advanced technologies for discovering, producing, transporting, processing and distributing hydrocarbons. Sensing systems provide rapid and targeted information that can be used for expanding resources, improving product quality, and assuring environmentally sound operations. For example, equipment such as reactors and pipelines can be operated with high efficiency and safety with improved chemical and physical sensors for corrosion and hydrocarbon detection. At the interface between chemical engineering and multiphase flow physics, ``multi-scale'' phenomena such as catalysis and heat flow benefit from new approaches to sensing and data modeling. We are combining chemically selective micro-cantilevers, fiber optic sensing, and acoustic monitoring with statistical data fusion approaches to maximize control information. Miniaturized analyzers represent a special opportunity, including the nanotech-based quantum cascade laser systems for mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specific examples for use of these new micro-systems include rapid monocyclic aromatic molecule identification and measurement under ambient conditions at weight ppb levels. We see promise from emerging materials and devices based on nanotechnology, which can one day be available at modest cost for impact in existing operations. Controlled surface energies and emerging chemical probes hold the promise for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for current fuels and future transportation and energy technologies.

  12. Towards novel processes for the fine-chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Gjalt W; Gray, David

    2002-08-01

    In response to the need in the pharmaceutical industry for more complex, chiral molecules, fine-chemical companies are embracing new manufacturing technologies to produce compounds of these specifications. In particular, recent developments in biocatalysis combined with novel process engineering are providing improved methods for the production of valuable chemical intermediates.

  13. Urinary screening for potentially genotoxic exposures in a chemical industry.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlborg, G; Bergström, B; Hogstedt, C; Einistö, P; Sorsa, M

    1985-01-01

    Mutagenic activity, measured by the bacterial fluctuation assay and thioether concentration in urine from workers at a chemical plant producing pharmaceuticals and explosives, was determined before and after exposure. Of 12 groups only those exposed to trinitrotoluene (n = 14) showed a significant increase in mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without any exogenous metabolic system. The same strain responded only weakly when the S-9 mix was used; with Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA no effect of exposure was observed. Urinary thioether concentration was higher among smokers than among non-smokers, but occupational exposure had no effect. Urinary mutagenicity testing may be a useful tool for screening potentially genotoxic exposures in complex chemical environments. PMID:3899158

  14. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  15. Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

    2001-01-01

    The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl.

  16. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  17. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nakamura, Yuki; Harwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular components, and play numerous essential functions. As well as their physiological roles, oils stored in biomass are useful commodities for a variety of biotechnological applications including food, chemical feedstocks, and fuel. Due to their agronomic as well as economic and societal importance, lipids have historically been subjected to intensive studies. Major current efforts are to increase the energy density of cell biomass, and/or create designer oils suitable for specific applications. This chapter covers some basic aspects of what one needs to know about lipids: definition, structure, function, metabolism and focus is also given on the development of modern lipid analytical tools and major current engineering approaches for biotechnological applications. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a primer for all subsequent chapters in this book outlining current development in specific areas of lipids and their metabolism.

  18. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  19. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  20. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  1. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 204 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Tailor-made biocatalysts enzymes for the fine chemical industry in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tao, Rongsheng; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The Center of Industrial Biotechnology (CIBT) was established in Huzhou for fine chemicals in 2006 and CIBT Shanghai was founded for bulk chemicals in 2008. CIBT is a non-profit organization under auspices of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Huzhou Municipal Government. CIBT is affiliated with the CAS, which enables it to take advantage of the rich R&D resources and support from CAS; yet CIBT operates as an independent legal entity. The goal of CIBT is to incubate industrial biotechnologies and accelerate the commercialization of these technologies with corporate partners in China.

  5. Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical, Drug, and Paper and Allied Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in refining and industrial chemical, drug, and paper manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in…

  6. Implementation of responsible care in the chemical industry: evidence from Greece.

    PubMed

    Evangelinos, K I; Nikolaou, I E; Karagiannis, A

    2010-05-15

    The chemical industry can be held accountable for numerous large-scale accidents which have led to the release of dangerous hazardous materials, pollutants and toxic chemicals into the environment, two well-known examples being the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster and the Three Mile Island tragedy). To ensure environmental protection and the Health and Safety (H&S) of communities, the chemical industry has voluntarily adopted integrated management programs such as the Responsible Care Program. The theoretical body of relevant literature attempts to explain the origin of the Responsible Care Program (RCP) through socio-political and economic theories. At the same time, the empirical research examines the ways in which various factors affect the choice of the chemical industry in their adoption of the RCP. This paper contributes to the debate by examining the challenges and barriers faced by the Greek chemical industry when adopting RCP, the environmental and H&S issues that prevail and finally, the extent of participation of stakeholders in the planning of RCP in the sector.

  7. Quantitative Estimation of Trace Chemicals in Industrial Effluents with the Sticklet Transform Method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N C; Scharlemann, E T; Stevens, C G

    2001-04-02

    Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform is a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that they can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper they address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. They show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume/off-plume measurements that represent atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.

  8. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P<2 and ΔE >9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  9. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  10. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Maili; Karilainen, Topi; Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  11. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water. PMID:25473947

  12. The Impact of Chemical Probes in Drug Discovery: A Pharmaceutical Industry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Garbaccio, Robert M; Parmee, Emma R

    2016-01-21

    Chemical probes represent an important component of both academic and pharmaceutical drug discovery research. As a complement to prior reviews that have defined this scientific field, we aim to provide an industry perspective on the value of having high-quality chemical probes throughout the course of preclinical research. By studying examples from the internal Merck pipeline, we recognize that these probes require significant collaborative investment to realize their potential impact in clarifying the tractability and translation of a given therapeutic target. This perspective concludes with recommendations for chemical probe discovery aimed toward maximizing their potential to identify targets that result in the successful delivery of novel therapeutics.

  13. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against major chemical classes of inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous toxic chemical compounds liberated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit subsequent microbial fermentation that pose a significant challenge to a sustainable and renewable bio-based fermentation industry. Toxin removal procedures by physical or chemical means are essentially imp...

  14. PORTABLE IMAGING DEVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL LEAK DETECTION AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) pro...

  15. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  16. The challenges of solar hydrogen in chemical industry: how to provide, and how to apply?

    PubMed

    Setoyama, Tohru; Takewaki, Takahiko; Domen, Kazunari; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2017-03-09

    Curbing anthropogenic CO2 emissions is one of the most important issues in the 21st century in order to mitigate climate change. Although the installation of solar cells for energy supply is in progress and these are becoming popular as an efficient use of sunlight, they are mostly used by energy-related industrial sectors. In the common chemical industry, various fossil resources are used to emit a huge amount of CO2. We believe that the chemical industry can make an effort to curb CO2 emissions by changing its resources to more environmentally benign ones. Solar hydrogen (hydrogen obtained by catalytic water splitting under sunlight) is an ideal sustainable resource and can be utilized as a chemical resource via combination with CO2. The 10 year program named "Artificial Photo Synthetic Chemical Process (ARPChem)" has been in progress under the support of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan since 2012. We introduce the strategy of ARPChem and the progress of the investigations including water splitting, hydrogen/oxygen separation, and olefin synthesis from solar hydrogen and CO2. We also argue that a realistic strategy to actualize "ARPChem" technologies in the society would be their combination with better fossil resources such as lower alkanes from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) point of view.

  17. NONPROCESS SOLVENT USE IN THE FURNITURE REFINISHING AND REPAIR INDUSTRY: EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL STRIPPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of using alternatives to high volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant (VOC/HAP) solvent-based, chemical strippers that are currently used in the furniture repair and refinishing industry to remove both traditi...

  18. CHEMISTRY FOR THE SAFETY MAN. SAFETY IN INDUSTRY--ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARDS SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CESTRONE, PATRICK F.

    THIS BULLETIN, ONE OF A SERIES ON SAFETY IN INDUSTRY, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE BACKGROUND WHICH WILL ENABLE THE SAFETY MAN TO UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE PRINCIPLES APPLIED IN CONTROLLING CHEMICAL HAZARDS. IT WAS PREPARED IN THE OFFICE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, DIVISION OF PROGRAMING AND RESEARCH, BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS. TOPICS INCLUDE (1) WHAT IS…

  19. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  20. Communicating CSR and Business Identity in the Chemical Industry through Mission Slogans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboven, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's (2006) CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans. By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…

  1. A two-scale system to identify environmental risk of chemical industry clusters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Wan, Wenbo; Li, Fengying; Li, Bing; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2011-02-15

    Recent reform policies in China have spurred rapid industrial development. This has led to a large increase in chemical accidents, which may have catastrophic impacts on the local population and environment. As industrial facilities become more complex, it becomes more difficult to control and mitigate the risks associated with chemical accidents. In this study, we propose a two-scale system for assessing the environmental risk level of chemical industry clusters. A series of risk early warning indices for both the plant-specific level and regional clusters level are used in this system. Firstly, at the enterprise scale, a risk early warning index is constructed using inputs such as the presence of hazardous materials, the operation of critical plant equipment and the efficiency of extant management techniques. Secondly, an index for quantifying risks on regional scales depends on environmental, economic, and social conditions as well as the specific enterprises' components. As an illustration, the system is applied to a case study involving a five-plant chemical industry cluster in Jiangsu province, China. A geographical information system-based methodology is used to obtain a composite index score for each mesh of the five plants. The results prove that the proposed two-scale early warning system can efficiently identify environmental risk and help guide emergency responses at both the enterprise and cluster level.

  2. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  3. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  4. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Chinese Inter-Provincial Industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianjin; Liu, Yibo

    2012-01-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran’s I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity. PMID:22829788

  5. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  6. Wet air oxidation for the treatment of industrial wastes. Chemical aspects, reactor design and industrial applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Debellefontaine, H.; Foussard, J.N.

    2000-07-01

    Aqueous wastes containing organic pollutants can be efficiently treated by wet air oxidation (WAO), i.e., oxidation (or combustion) by molecular oxygen in the liquid phase, at high temperature (200--325 C) and pressure (up to 175 bar). This method is suited to the elimination of special aqueous wastes from the chemical industry as well as to the treatment of domestic sludge. It is an enclosed process, with a limited interaction with the environment, as opposed to incineration. Usually, the operating cost is lower than 95 Euro M{sup {minus}3} and the preferred COD load ranges from 10 to 80 kg m{sup {minus}3}. Only a handful of industrial reactors are in operation world-wide, mainly because of the high capital investment they require. This paper reviews the major results obtained with the WAO process and assess its field of possible application to industrial wastes. In addition, as only a very few studies have been devoted to the scientific design of such reactors (bubble columns), what needs to be known for this scientific design is discussed. At present, a computer program aimed at determining the performance of a wet air oxidation reactor depending on the various operating parameters has been implemented at the laboratory. Some typical results are presented, pointing out the most important parameters and the specific behavior of these units.

  7. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM 10 in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, C.; Kouimtzis, Th; Tsitouridou, R.; Kanias, G.; Simeonov, V.

    Ambient PM 10 were sampled at three sites in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece during June 1997-June 1998 and analyzed for 17 chemical elements, 5 water-soluble ions and 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, chemical source profiles consisting of the same particulate components were obtained for a number of industrial activities (cement, fertilizer and asphalt production, quarry operations, metal electroplating, metal welding and tempering, steel manufacture, lead and bronze smelters, metal scrap incineration), residential oil burning, non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped passenger cars, diesel fuelled taxis and buses, as well as for geological fugitive sources (paved road dust and soil from open lands). Ambient and source data were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model for source identification and apportionment. Results of CMB modeling showed that major source of ambient PM 10 at all three sites was diesel vehicle exhaust. Significant contribution from industrial oil burning was also evidenced at the site located closest to the industrial area.

  8. Chemical characterization of odors due to some industrial and urban facilities in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    The relationship between odor concentrations (olfactometry) and chemical concentrations (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) was studied for the odorous air compositions of a rendering plant, a sanitary landfill and an industrial area with large petroleum and petrochemical industries. Samples taken from the university campus located in a non-industrial and non-urban area were also studied for several organic components for comparison. Ambient air samples were taken into special bags by using an odor sampling device designed for field sampling of odors. In the laboratory odorous chemicals in the samples were transferred into adsorbent tubes and analyzed using a combination of thermal desorption and GC-MS. Results point to different characteristics of the odorous gases and air in and around the urban and industrial sources. Among the 64 specific compounds studied, 49 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in rendering plant, 53 VOCs were detected in sanitary landfill and 44 VOCs were detected in petroleum and petrochemical industries. The compounds measured in the odorous gas composition are the alkanes, alkenes, carbonyls, arenes, chlorinated and other halogenated compounds and organic chlorides as well as the volatile fatty acids.

  9. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... revising the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  10. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals in water supplies using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Clauson, Susan L.

    2010-04-01

    An effective method to create fear in the populace is to endanger the water supply. Homeland Security places significant importance on ensuring drinking water integrity. Beyond terrorism, accidental supply contamination from a spill or chemical residual increases is a concern. A prominent class of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) is pesticides, which are prevalent in agricultural use and can be very toxic in minute concentrations. Detection of TICs or warfare agents must be aggressive; the contaminant needs to be rapidly detected and identified to enable isolation and remediation of the contaminated water while continuing a clean water supply for the population. Awaiting laboratory analysis is unacceptable as delay in identification and remediation increases the likelihood of infection. Therefore, a portable or online water quality sensor is required that can produce rapid results. In this presentation, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a viable fieldable sensor that can be immersed directly into the water supply and can provide results in <5 minutes from the time the instrument is turned on until analysis is complete. The ability of SERS to detect several chemical warfare agent degradation products, simulants and toxic industrial chemicals in distilled water, tap water and untreated water will be shown. In addition, results for chemical warfare agent degradation products and simulants will be presented. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves will also be presented.

  11. The impact of biotechnology on the chemical industry in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Nagarajan, V

    2000-05-01

    Although the overall size of the industrial chemicals business is US$1.4 trillion worldwide, growth has slowed in some market segments. In order to reestablish and sustain growth, materials with higher information content and improved economics based on renewable resources will be required. These challenges have motivated the pursuit of biotechnology by several traditional chemical companies, such as DuPont, Dow, BASF and Monsanto. Even though each company might differ in their strategic approach, their common goal is the same: to create high-value materials using biotechnology.

  12. [Chemical risk assessment in the construction industry: principles and critical issues].

    PubMed

    Manno, M

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment (RA) represents the first step to ensure the protection of the workers' health in all work sectors, production and services included. For this reason RA has become a legal duty for the occupational physician in his/her professional activity. The basic concepts of RA have been developed as a formal procedure for the management of chemical risks but they are currently applied to protect human health against all types of occupational and environmental risk factors. In the construction industry, in particular, chemical risk assessment is specially difficult due to the complexity of the working condition, and the variability and multiplicity of exposure. The critical aspects of RA in the construction industry will be discussed here, in the attempt to highlight how the occupational physician, making use of traditional and new tools, including biological monitoring, can address and partly overcome them.

  13. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  14. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  15. Genotoxicity--threshold or not? Introduction of cases of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2003-04-11

    Many industrially and environmentally important industrial carcinogens display effects that lead them to be viewed and regulated as 'genotoxic compounds'. Some of these chemicals cause experimental tumours only at high or toxic doses. The current view is that non-threshold principles should be applied for risk assessments and to define permissible exposure values. The toxicological impact of underlying mechanisms is frequently not well investigated and understood. The classification of carcinogens is now in a state of discussion. In Germany, the 'MAK-Commission' has issued new recommendations to distinguish between 5 groups of proven and suspected carcinogens. This proposal includes a category of 'substances with carcinogenic potential for which genotoxicity plays no or at most a minor role'. Another category comprises 'substances with carcinogenic and genotoxic potential, the potency of which is considered so low that, provided that the MAK-value is observed, no significant contribution to human cancer risk is to be expected'. There is also a number of apparently genotoxic carcinogens where the existence of 'practical thresholds' is at least debated. One outstanding example is vinyl acetate, which must be viewed against the background of discussions on other industrial high-volume chemicals like formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, acrylamide and trichloroethylene. Main arguments in favour or against thresholds of carcinogenicity of these individual compounds are summarised. Current instruments of regulation should be adjusted to allow adequate consideration of carcinogenic effects of chemicals that are practically relevant at high doses only. Also, research into this field is encouraged.

  16. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; ...

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  17. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  18. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  19. Chemical composition, mass closure and sources of atmospheric PM10 from industrial sites in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Du, Xin; Wu, Xuefang; Fu, Xiao; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Zongshuang; Bai, Zhipeng

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric PM10 and chemical components (including twenty-one elements, nine ions, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) were measured at five sites in a heavily industrial region of Shenzhen, China in 2005. Results showed that PM10 concentrations exhibited the highest values at 264 microg/m3 at the site near a harbor with the influence of harbor activities. Sulfur exhibited the highest concentrations (from 2419 to 3995 ng/m3) of all the studied elements, which may be related to the influence of coal used as fuel in this area for industrial plants. This was verified by the high mass percentages of SO4(2-), which accounted for 34.3%-39.7% of the total ions. NO3-/SO4(2-) ratios varied from 0.64-0.71, which implies coal combustion was predominant compared with vehicle emission. The anion/cation ratios range was close to 0.95, indicating anion deficiency in this region. The harbor site showed the highest OC and EC concentrations, with the influence of emission from vessels. Secondary organic carbon accounted for about 22.6%-38.7% of OC, with the highest percentage occurring at the site adjacent to a coal-fired power plant and wood plant. The mass closure model performed well in this heavily industrial region, with significant correlation obtained between chemically determined and gravimetrically measured PM10 mass. The main constituents of PM10 were found to be organic materials (30.9%-69.5%), followed by secondary inorganic aerosol (7.9%-25.0%), crustal materials (6.7%-13.8%), elemental carbon (3.5%-10.8%), sea salt (2.4%-6.2%) and trace elements (2.0%-4.9%) in this heavily industrialized region. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources for particulate matter in this industrial region were crustal materials and coal/wood combustion, oil combustion, secondary aerosols, industrial processes and vehicle emission.

  20. Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-12-03

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.

  1. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  2. Analysis of the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools at the industrial workplace.

    PubMed

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Mohd Mokhtar, Hj Anuar Bin; Ismail, Azmir Bin; Abu Yazid, Mohd Fadhil Bin Hj

    2010-01-01

    Chemical classification and labelling systems may be roughly similar from one country to another but there are significant differences too. In order to harmonize various chemical classification systems and ultimately provide consistent chemical hazard communication tools worldwide, the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) was endorsed by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Several countries, including Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Malaysia, are now in the process of implementing GHS. It is essential to ascertain the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools that are described in the GHS documents, namely the chemical labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Comprehensibility Testing (CT) was carried out with a mixed group of industrial workers in Malaysia (n=150) and factors that influence the comprehensibility were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The ability of the respondents to retrieve information from the SDS was also tested in this study. The findings show that almost all the GHS pictograms meet the ISO comprehension criteria and it is concluded that the underlying core elements that enhance comprehension of GHS pictograms and which are also essential in developing competent persons in the use of SDS are training and education.

  3. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  4. Toxicity identification and high-efficiency treatment of aging chemical industrial wastewater from the Hangu Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Hua, Tao; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Shuguang; Rong, Weiying

    2011-01-01

    The Hangu Reservoir, located in Binhai New Area, Tianjin, China, receives mixed wastewater from a chemical industrial park. The aging chemical industrial wastewater is less biodegradable and contains complex hazardous substances, thus having an adverse effect on local ecological service function of the reservoir and on local economic and social development. In this study, key toxicants in the aging chemical industrial wastewater from the Hangu Reservoir were systematically identified by the toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs), and the treatment efficiency of the aging chemical industrial wastewater was examined and optimized by a municipal wastewater treatment process simulated in a laboratory. According to the TIE results using and wheat seeds as tested organisms, Cl, Cu, Pb, and Zn were identified as key toxicants in the aging chemical industrial wastewater, with concentrations of 7349.11, 0.01, 0.07, and 0.07 mg L, respectively, which were confirmed by subsequent spiking approaches. Based on the TIE results, the aging chemical industrial wastewater could be classified as high-salinity wastewater. The co-treatment of the aging chemical industrial wastewater and municipal wastewater may be an effective and low-cost method. The treatment efficiency of the mixed wastewater increased with an increase in the volume ratio of municipal wastewater to aging chemical industrial wastewater. When the volume ratio was 10:1, the best removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total N, and total P were up to 85.1, 89.3, and 96.5%, respectively, whereas the toxicity unit of the treated wastewater was reduced to 0.50.

  5. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  6. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  7. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  8. Estimated Energy Savings and Financial Impacts of Nanomaterials by Design on Selected Applications in the Chemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, Gary R.; Roach, J. Fred; Dauelsberg, Lori

    2006-03-01

    This study provides a preliminary analysis of the potential impact that nanotechnology could have on energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, waste reduction, and productivity, in the chemical and related industries.

  9. Advanced oxidation treatment of physico-chemically pre-treated olive mill industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added.

  10. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  11. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  12. Colorimetric sensor array for determination and identification of toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J; Kemling, Jonathan W; Lim, Sung H; Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-11-15

    A low-cost yet highly sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has been developed. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Clear differentiation among 20 different TICs has been easily achieved at both their IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration within 2 min of exposure and PEL (permissible exposure limit) concentration within 5 min of exposure with no errors or misclassifications. Detection limits are generally well below the PEL (in most cases below 5% of PEL) and are typically in the low ppb range. The colorimetric sensor array is not responsive to changes in humidity or temperature over a substantial range. The printed arrays show excellent batch to batch reproducibility and long shelf life (greater than 3 months).

  13. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  14. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  15. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

  16. Thermodynamic properties for applications in chemical industry via classical force fields.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of fluids are of key importance for the chemical industry. Presently, the fluid property models used in process design and optimization are mostly equations of state or G (E) models, which are parameterized using experimental data. Molecular modeling and simulation based on classical force fields is a promising alternative route, which in many cases reasonably complements the well established methods. This chapter gives an introduction to the state-of-the-art in this field regarding molecular models, simulation methods, and tools. Attention is given to the way modeling and simulation on the scale of molecular force fields interact with other scales, which is mainly by parameter inheritance. Parameters for molecular force fields are determined both bottom-up from quantum chemistry and top-down from experimental data. Commonly used functional forms for describing the intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented. Several approaches for ab initio to empirical force field parameterization are discussed. Some transferable force field families, which are frequently used in chemical engineering applications, are described. Furthermore, some examples of force fields that were parameterized for specific molecules are given. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of transport properties and vapor-liquid equilibria are introduced. Two case studies are presented. First, using liquid ammonia as an example, the capabilities of semi-empirical force fields, parameterized on the basis of quantum chemical information and experimental data, are discussed with respect to thermodynamic properties that are relevant for the chemical industry. Second, the ability of molecular simulation methods to describe accurately vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of binary mixtures containing CO(2) is shown.

  17. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A < 37 μm, and 37 < B < 50 μm) before elemental analysis. Major, minor and trace elements namely, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from <0.3 μg g-1 (Sb) to 14.6 ± 0.6% (Ca). Ions concentrations in the soluble fraction measured at mg g-1 levels were in the order Cl- > Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  18. Mobility in the European Chemicals Industry Sector: The Role of Transparency and Recognition of Vocational Qualifications. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Heather

    Research was conducted in Europe to determine the following: (1) the current situation in the chemicals industry in regard to transparency, recognition, and transfer of qualifications; (2) the obstacles to transparency and recognition of qualifications in the industry; and (3) the key areas for future action and possible measures to promote…

  19. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  20. Application of pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process to an industrial incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Won-Suk; Choi, Yu-Ri; Oh, Jong-Seok; Jang, Sung-Duck; Son, Yoon-Gyu; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Namkung, Won; Koh, Dong-Jun; Mok, Young-Sun; Chung, Jae-Woo

    2003-06-01

    Pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process (PPCP) has been investigated for the simultaneous removal of NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) from the flue gas emission. It is one of the world's largest scales of PPCP for treating NO(x) and SO2 simultaneously. A PPCP unit equipped with an average 120 kW modulator has been installed and tested at an industrial incinerator with the gas flow rate of 42 000 m3/h. To improve the removal efficiency of SO2 and NO(x), ammonia (NH3) and propylene (C3H6) were used as chemical additives. It was observed that the pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process made significant NO(x) and SO2 conversion with reasonable electric power consumption. The ammonia injection was very effective in the enhancement of SO2 removal. NO removal efficiency was significantly improved by injecting a C3H6 additive. In the experiments, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO(x) were approximately 99 and 70%, respectively. The specific energy consumption during the normal operation was approximately 1.4 Wh/m3, and the nanopulse conversion efficiency of 64.3% was achieved with the pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process.

  1. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  2. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals and bacterial endotoxins via electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammu, Srikanth

    The first decade of the 21st century has been labeled by some as the "Sensor Decade." With a dramatic increase in sensor R&D and applications over the past 20 years, sensors are certainly on the brink of a revolution similar to what was in the field of computers in 1980s, information technology in the 1990s and wireless communication at the turn of the century. Just in the pharmaceutical industry alone, sensing needs are growing by leaps and bounds, and the sensing technologies used are as varied as the applications. Tremendous advances have been made in sensor technology and many more are on the brink of commercialization. In this work, I have attempted to balance breadth and depth in a single, practical and up-to-date resource. Understanding sensor design and operation typically requires a cross-disciplinary background, as it draws basic concepts from both engineering (chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc.), and science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.). This work is an attempt to pull together the most crucial information utilized in designing, fabricating and application of this relatively novice field of Nanomaterials. While it would be impossible to cover each and every sensor in use today, I have attempted to provide as broad a range of sensor types and applications as possible. Current industrial standards, latest techniques for fabrication and assembly, followed by their application in safeguarding the human race against from possible chemical and biological threats are discussed in detail.

  3. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  4. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  5. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  6. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  7. [Plastic industry and exposure to carcinogenic chemical agents: an Italian Multicentric Study in Lombardy].

    PubMed

    Cirla, P E; Castoldi, M R; Marchese, E; Cavallo, D M; Fustinoni, S; Cattaneo, A; Martinotti, I; Foà, V; Tiso, C

    2007-01-01

    The potential carcinogenic risk at the workplaces is a primary interest of occupational health, but some questions are also controversially discussed. Particularly, in the plastic forming industry a great attention was directed to the hot processing and their possible exposure to monomers, some of which were classified as carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and/or the European Union (EU). In Lombardy, a study on occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens in the plastic forming industry was planned during last years. The aim was to recognize and promote preventive technical and medical solutions, basing on efficacy. By an investigation at workplace supported with standardized questionnaires, the presence of chemical carcinogens was registered in 59% of a representative sample of firms; but an effective possibility of exposure was found only for 34% of cases. The evaluation of exposure to monomers by air monitoring (acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, formaldehyde), involving a representative sample of factory with ABS and formaldehydic resins processing, showed low level exposure, because the common hygienic prevention measures were applied; some particular occupation shoved greater exposure to formaldehyde.

  8. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  9. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy.

  10. Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Majumdar, Chandrajeetbalo; Roy, Partha

    2008-09-01

    The leather tanning industry is characterized by the production of different kinds of effluents, generated in each step of leather processing. These effluents have various chemical compounds which may cause toxicity and endocrine disruption and are thus known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This study was aimed to examine the androgenic potential of leather industry effluents collected from northern region of India. Hershberger assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues of castrated rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change (p<0.05) in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testes namely, cytochrome P450scc, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydorgenase in castrated and intact rats. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile demonstrated a dose dependent increase in testicular and adrenal testosterone productions in intact and castrated rats, respectively. This was further supported by decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones (LH and FSH) in treated groups of animals. Further, the effluent treatment resulted in the development of hyperplasia in seminiferous tubules of testes in treated rats as evident from histopathological studies and about two-fold increases in daily sperm production. On analysis of water samples using GC-MS, it was found to contain various aromatic compounds (nonylphenol, hexaclrobenzene and several azo dyes) some of which independently demonstrated similar effects as shown by water samples. Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities.

  11. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  12. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H₂, HCOOH, NH₃, O₂, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO₂ deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein.

  13. An Investigation of the Potential Uses of Plasma Processing in the United States Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estey, Paul Norman

    This thesis describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for high pressure (thermal) plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs of a plasma-based processing system. This model consists of an empirical model of an electric arc heater and an analytical model of the reaction chamber into which the arc heater gas flows. The reaction chamber model comprises the conservation equations of one-dimensional fluid flow including the effects of chemical kinetics, particle and gas injection, and convective and radiative heat transfer. These complex equations were solved numerically. An engineering economic analysis of the plasma process was performed when favorable results existed for the mass and energy flows to and from the plasma arc heater/reaction chamber model. This analysis was used to determine if the plasma process is or can be competitive with conventional technology. Five cases were studied as examples of plasma -based chemical processing: nitric acid production, hydrogen cyanide synthesis, silicon refining, titanium dioxide production, and reductant gas synthesis from residual fuel oil.

  14. Chemical and microbiological stability of waste sludge from paper industry intended for brick production.

    PubMed

    Cernec, Franc; Zule, Janja; Moze, Adolf; Ivanus, Alenka

    2005-04-01

    Due to its chemical composition, waste sludge generated in the paper industry may be used as a raw material for brick production. Brick manufacture is limited to the warmer months of the year whereas sludge is produced continuously by different effluent treatment devices. Therefore, it has to be stored until further processing. For this reason, it is essential that it is not subject to significant chemical and microbiological decomposition during storage. In the experiment, sludge from a tissue paper mill was tested for its stability. It was stored for several weeks during winter and summer periods in a pile, 2 m in height, in an open but covered store. Different leachable organic and inorganic compounds indicating possible ongoing deterioration processes, as well as pH value, redox potential, temperature, humidity and dry matter content were evaluated weekly in water extracts of homogenized sludge samples. According to the test results, the material may be considered to be chemically and microbiologically stable as there was practically no emission of odorous and toxic compounds such as H2S, NH3 and butyric acid despite prolonged storage times and elevated environmental temperatures. All the microbial species identified in the sludge during storage belong to the typical microflora of the environment.

  15. Potential for the increased efficiency in motors in the chemical and processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, P.

    1996-08-01

    Refineries and chemical plants make up a large portion of the process industry in Louisiana. Detailed surveys of motors and motor loads were done for 2 refineries and 5 chemical plants. In addition, surveys of motor failures were done for 1 refinery and 4 chemical plants. Categories of < 20hp, 20hp--250hp, 250hp--500hp and > 500hp were used to reflect the horsepower ranges sued by utilities nationwide in DSM rebate programs. The 20hp--250hp range being a target for replacement or retrofit scenarios; this is also the horsepower range where users have a choice of energy efficient or standard efficient motors. The data are presented in different graphs to emphasize different characteristics. A raw motor count is given that is an actual count in every hp; this is then organized in the hp ranges listed above. The total horsepower in each category is also given to show the concentration of the plant`s installed hp. the loads are divided into pumps, fans, compressors and others in the case of refineries. in the case of chemical plants, additional categories had to be used, depending on the plant, like agitators, centrifuges etc. A realistic tariff structure is then used to determine the potential for efficiency improvements with the resultant energy, demand and cost savings. The results of metering of motors are then presented. Results of a 50hp motor driving a pump, a 200 hp motor driving a pump, a 100 hp motor driving a fan, and a 30hp motor driving an agitator are included. An examination of variable speed drive efficiency is included, using detailed models of the power electronic devices. 20 refs., 180 figs., 82 tabs.

  16. Nonclinical reproductive toxicity testing requirements for drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals in India and China.

    PubMed

    Rao, K S; Dong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed and run to ICH principles are generally acceptable for submission. The Chinese guidelines take into consideration traditional Chinese medicines, which are usually mixtures. Likewise, the specific recommendations of India and China for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals and pesticides differ from those of the OECD and the USEPA. Again, studies performed in accordance with internationally recognized principles are usually acceptable for submission in both countries. The Chinese guideline for the reproductive toxicity testing of agrochemicals is currently under revision; the new version is expected to resemble more closely the requirements of the OECD and the USEPA. As a member of the OECD, India has conducted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection, accreditation, and monitoring activities since 2004. China has made several attempts to join the Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals since 2005. Currently 47 laboratories in China have been certified by the national GLP authorities. Several laboratories in China have also been recently been certified by OECD member countries as GLP compliant. In India, there are currently 23 GLP-Certified laboratories; about six of these are also AALAC accredited. The specific study designs specified in the guidelines of China and India for reproductive toxicity studies are described in detail in this chapter.

  17. Environmental Cracking of Corrosion Resistant Alloys in the Chemical Process Industry - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-04

    A large variety of corrosion resistant alloys are used regularly in the chemical process industry (CPI). The most common family of alloys include the iron (Fe)-based stainless steels, nickel (Ni) alloys and titanium (Ti) alloys. There also other corrosion resistant alloys but their family of alloys is not as large as for the three groups mentioned above. All ranges of corrosive environments can be found in the CPI, from caustic solutions to hot acidic environments, from highly reducing to highly oxidizing. Stainless steels are ubiquitous since numerous types of stainless steels exist, each type tailored for specific applications. In general, stainless steels suffer stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hot chloride environments while high Ni alloys are practically immune to this type of attack. High nickel alloys are also resistant to caustic cracking. Ti alloys find application in highly oxidizing solutions. Solutions containing fluoride ions, especially acid, seem to be aggressive to almost all corrosion resistant alloys.

  18. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  19. Ultrastructural Analysis of the Prostate Gland under the Effect of Factors of Chemical Industry.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lapiy, G A; Nikityuk, D B; Neimark, A I; Kiptilov, A V; Molodykh, O P

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed ultrastruciture of the cell populations in the prostate gland in chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in a chemical industry worker. It was shown that ultrastructural reorganization of the epithelium consisted in reduction of the secretory compartment of the cytoplasm and dystrophic-degenerative changes in cell organelles. Endothelial cells of the capillaries showed signs of significant degeneration and low intensity of micropinocytosis. Most of the smooth muscle cells underwent dystrophic-degenerative modifications of ultrastructural elements. The dominance of degenerative cell changes in the epithelial and stromal cell populations along with intensification of collagen formation in the absence of inflammatory elements allows us to interpret this pathological condition of the prostate gland as prostate pathology of occupational or mixed genesis.

  20. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  1. [Clinical and pathomorphological features of chronic prostatitis in chemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Kiptilov, A V; Lapiy, G A

    2015-12-01

    During periodic screening on the chemical industry, an increased incidence of chronic prostatitis in workers at sulfuric acid section was revealed. Detailed examination has revealed features of the clinical picture of the pathological process that develops in the prostate gland of workers exposed to harmful labor conditions. Complex pathomorphologic analysis of prostate biopsies of workers with chronic abacterial prostatitis found fundamental differences of morphological manifestations observed in other forms of chronic prostatitis. They include the prevalence of dystrophic and atrophic changes of glandular components with the presence of focuses of simple and small acinar atrophy, reduction of the microvasculature vessels, progressive fibrosis of the stroma with the phenomena of periglandular and perivascular sclerosis, as a rule, in the absence of inflammatory cell infiltration. Doppler ultrasound data indicated a change in hemodynamics, accompanied by a decrease in blood flow in the prostate gland.

  2. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  3. High-Throughput Industrial Coatings Research at The Dow Chemical Company.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzu-Chi; Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Drumright, Ray; Cesaretti, Richard; Bishop, Matthew T

    2016-09-12

    At The Dow Chemical Company, high-throughput research is an active area for developing new industrial coatings products. Using the principles of automation (i.e., using robotic instruments), parallel processing (i.e., prepare, process, and evaluate samples in parallel), and miniaturization (i.e., reduce sample size), high-throughput tools for synthesizing, formulating, and applying coating compositions have been developed at Dow. In addition, high-throughput workflows for measuring various coating properties, such as cure speed, hardness development, scratch resistance, impact toughness, resin compatibility, pot-life, surface defects, among others have also been developed in-house. These workflows correlate well with the traditional coatings tests, but they do not necessarily mimic those tests. The use of such high-throughput workflows in combination with smart experimental designs allows accelerated discovery and commercialization.

  4. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-10-31

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this

  5. Effect of a high strength chemical industry wastewater on microbial community dynamics and mesophilic methane generation.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Harish; Tan, Youming; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Pathak, Santosh; Sendjaja, Antonius Yudi; Li, Dongzhe; Liu, Jerry Jian Lin; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2014-04-01

    A high strength chemical industry wastewater was assessed for its impact on anaerobic microbial community dynamics and consequently mesophilic methane generation. Cumulative methane production was 251 mL/g total chemical oxygen demand removed at standard temperature and pressure at the end of 30 days experimental period with a highest recorded methane percentage of 80.6% of total biogas volume. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) analysis revealed that acetic acid was the major intermediate VFAs produced with propionic acid accumulating over the experimental period. Quantitative analysis of microbial communities in the test and control groups with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction highlighted that in the test group, Eubacteria (96.3%) was dominant in comparison with methanogens (3.7%). The latter were dominated by Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales while Methanosarcinaceae in test groups increased over the experimental period, reaching a maximum on day 30. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile was performed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Eubacteria and Archaea, with the DNA samples extracted at 3 different time points from the test groups. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the sequences using the neighborhood joining method. The analysis revealed that the presence of organisms resembling Syntrophomonadaceae could have contributed to increased production of acetic and propionic acid intermediates while decrease of organisms resembling Pelotomaculum sp. could have most likely contributed to accumulation of propionic acid. This study suggested that the degradation of organic components within the high strength industrial wastewater is closely linked with the activity of certain niche microbial communities within eubacteria and methanogens.

  6. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Borg Warner Chemicals, Inc. , Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.

    1986-08-01

    Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene, a walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility, Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybutadiene latex and styrene butadiene rubber latex. In September 1981, a butadiene recovery system was added to the process vent streams. Of the total work force, 54 employees have potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 23 personal samples collected during several periods in 1983 and 1985 was 4.5 parts per million (ppm). Analysis of a bulk sample showed traces of 1,3-butadiene, in the 0.04 to 0.2 nanograms/milligram range. The exposures to 1,3-butadiene were greater than 10ppm for two job classifications, control room and high heat operators. The company has accurate records on terminated and current employees. The author concludes that the facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth industrial hygiene survey regarding 1,3-butadiene. Recommendations were given.

  7. Pesticides, chemical and industrial exposures in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests exposure to chemicals and industrial pollutants may increase risk of SLE. Here we review research on SLE associations with occupational and industrial exposures, primarily drawing on studies in human populations and summarizing epidemiologic research published in the past decade. The association of occupational silica exposure with SLE is well established, but key questions remain, including the required dose and susceptibility factors, and SLE risk due to other silicate exposures. Research on SLE and other exposures is less well developed, though several potential associations merit further consideration due to the consistency of preliminary human findings, experimental animal research, and biologic plausibility. These include pesticides and solvents, for which experimental findings also support investigation of specific agents, including organochlorines and trichloroethylene. Experimental findings and biologic plausibility suggest research on SLE and occupational exposure to hydrocarbons (i.e., mineral oils) is warranted, especially given the widespread exposures in the population. Experimental and limited human findings support further investigation of SLE related to mercury exposure, especially in dental occupations. Research on environmental risk factors in risk-enriched cohorts (family based) is recommended, as is further investigation of exposures in relation to intermediate markers of effect (e.g., antinuclear antibodies), clinical features (e.g., nephritis) and outcomes. PMID:24763537

  8. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  9. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  10. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (<10 to 420 μg/L) and flushed plumbing systems (<10 to 96 μg/L) and sometimes concentrations differed among faucets within each home. All waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  11. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud-Erik Bach; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno; Adlercreutz, Herman; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Ɨman, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, compared to wheat bran, regarding structure and content of nutrients as well as a number of presumably bioactive compounds. Design Six different rye brans from Sweden, Denmark and Finland were analysed and compared with two wheat brans regarding colour, particle size distribution, microscopic structures and chemical composition including proximal components, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds. Results Rye brans were generally greener in colour and smaller in particle size than wheat brans. The rye brans varied considerably in their starch content (13.2–;28.3%), which reflected variable inclusion of the starchy endosperm. Although rye and wheat brans contained comparable levels of total dietary fibre, they differed in the relative proportions of fibre components (i.e. arabinoxylan, β-glucan, cellulose, fructan and Klason lignin). Generally, rye brans contained less cellulose and more β-glucan and fructan than wheat brans. Within small variations, the rye and wheat brans were comparable regarding the contents of tocopherols/tocotrienols, total folate, sterols/stanols, phenolic acids and lignans. Rye bran had less glycine betaine and more alkylresorcinols than wheat brans. Conclusions The observed variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods. PMID:19412350

  12. Glymes as Versatile Solvents for Chemical Reactions and Processes: from the Laboratory to Industry

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaokun; Zhao, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Glymes, also known as glycol diethers, are saturated non-cyclic polyethers containing no other functional groups. Most glymes are usually less volatile and less toxic than common laboratory organic solvents; in this context, they are more environmentally benign solvents. However, it is also important to point out that some glymes could cause long-term reproductive and developmental damages despite their low acute toxicities. Glymes have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic characters that common organic solvents are lack of. In addition, they are usually thermally and chemically stable, and can even form complexes with ions. Therefore, glymes are found in a broad range of laboratory applications including organic synthesis, electrochemistry, biocatalysis, materials, and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), etc. In addition, glyme are used in numerous industrial applications, such as cleaning products, inks, adhesives and coatings, batteries and electronics, absorption refrigeration and heat pumps, as well as pharmaceutical formulations, etc. However, there is a lack of comprehensive and critical review on this attractive subject. This review aims to accomplish this task by providing an in-depth understanding of glymes’ physicochemical properties, toxicity and major applications. PMID:24729866

  13. Impact of the 11 March, 2011, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011, at 14:46:23 Japan Standard Time (5:46:23 UTC). It generated a tsunami 130 km off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan, which inundated over 400 km2 of land. The death toll has reached >15,800 according to the Japan National Policy Agency with over 3,700 still missing as of 26 October 2011. Significant damage to or complete collapse of houses also resulted. The earthquake generated strong ground motion; nevertheless most damage was caused by the tsunami, which is a tribute to the effectiveness of Japan's earthquake damage reduction measures in saving lives and property. Nonetheless, the direct losses amount to more than 200 billion US dollars (not counting the costs of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant). The earthquake and tsunami had a significant impact on all types of industry, and in particular on the petrochemical and chemical industry in the affected areas, resulting in hazardous-materials releases, fires and explosions and forcing businesses to interrupt production. These so-called Natech accidents pose an immediate or even long-term threat to the population and the environment, and can also interrupt the supply chain. Overall, the earthquake and tsunami took over 30% of Japan's oil production offline, and two refineries are still not or only partially in operation to repair the damage caused by the fires and explosions. The fire-fighting efforts could only be started 4 days after the disaster due to the absence of personnel that had been evacuated and because of the continuing tsunami alerts. In one of the affected refineries the fires could only be extinguished 10 days after the disasters. Many petrochemical and chemical companies reported problems either due to damage to facilities or because of power outages. In fact, in facilities that suffered no or only minor damage the resuming of operations was hampered by continuous

  14. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  15. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Schut, Gerrit J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Menon, Angeli L; Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J; Leuko, Therese T; Thorgersen, Michael P; Nixon, William J; Hawkins, Aaron S; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2013-04-09

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100°C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73°C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30°C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide.

  16. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, MW; Schut, GJ; Lipscomb, GL; Menon, AL; Iwuchukwu, IJ; Leuko, TT; Thorgersen, MP; Nixon, WJ; Hawkins, AS; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2013-04-09

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful. products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100 degrees C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73 degrees C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide.

  17. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove.

  18. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

    Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil

  19. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, April 1--July 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-07-08

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. Progress on three tasks are described: Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase--improved activity and stability; Directed evolution of subtilisin E to enhance thermostability; and Methods for invitro recombination.

  20. Industrial biotechnology for the production of bio-based chemicals--a cradle-to-grave perspective.

    PubMed

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Törnvall, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Linda; Börjesson, Pål

    2007-03-01

    Shifting the resource base for chemical production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials provides exciting possibilities for the use of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. This review gives an indication of the current developments in the transition to bio-based production, with a focus on the production of chemicals, and points out some of the challenges that exist in the large-scale implementation of industrial biotechnology. Furthermore, the importance of evaluating the environmental impact of bio-based products with respect to their entire life cycle is highlighted, demonstrating that the choice of the raw material often turns out to be an important parameter influencing the life cycle performance.

  1. Lessons learned from non-medical industries: root cause analysis as culture change at a chemical plant

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J; Rudolph, J; Hatakenaka, S

    2002-01-01

    

 Root cause analysis was introduced to a chemical plant as a way of enhancing performance and safety, exemplified by the investigation of an explosion. The cultural legacy of the root cause learning intervention was embodied in managers' increased openness to new ideas, individuals' questioning attitude and disciplined thinking, and a root cause analysis process that provided continual opportunities to learn and improve. Lessons for health care are discussed, taking account of differences between the chemical and healthcare industries. PMID:12486993

  2. Empirical modelling of chemical exposure in the rubber-manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, H; Swuste, P; Boleij, J S

    1994-02-01

    As part of a study of working conditions chemical exposure was assessed in 10 rubber-manufacturing plants in The Netherlands. Personal exposures to airborne particulates, rubber fumes and solvents, and also dermal contamination, were measured. To identify factors affecting exposure the personal exposure levels and information on tasks performed, ventilation characteristics and production variables were used in multiple linear regression models. The exposure was generally very variable. The specific circumstances in each department of each plant determined the actual levels of exposure to a large extent. The factors affecting exposure turned out to be different for each of the types of exposure considered. The model for exposure to airborne particulates explained 40% of the total variability and incorporating the actual time spent on a task only slightly improved the model (R2 = 0.42). The handling of chemicals in powder form was the main factor affecting exposure, forced ventilation having a negligible effect. The model for exposure to curing fumes (measured as the cyclohexane-soluble fraction of the particulate matter) explained 50% of the variability. Both curing temperature and pressure determined the level of rubber fumes. Local exhaust ventilation showed a significant exposure reducing effect. The effect of curing different elastomers was not statistically significant. Dermal exposure to cyclohexane-soluble matter could only be explained to a limited extent (R2 = 0.22). Tasks with frequent contact with (warm) compound and maintenance tasks in the engineering services departments resulted in high dermal exposure. Tasks in which solvents were directly used explained 56% of the variation in solvent exposures. Exposure data, together with information on tasks, methods of work, ventilation and production throughout a branch of industry, can be used to derive empirical statistical models which occupational hygienists can apply to study factors affecting exposure

  3. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  4. Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.

    PubMed

    DeMatteo, Robert; Keith, Margaret M; Brophy, James T; Wordsworth, Anne; Watterson, Andrew E; Beck, Matthias; Ford, Anne Rochon; Gilbertson, Michael; Pharityal, Jyoti; Rootham, Magali; Scott, Dayna Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about the harmful effects of substances contained in various plastic consumer products, little attention has focused on the more heavily exposed women working in the plastics industry. Through a review of the toxicology, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology literatures in conjunction with qualitative research, this article explores occupational exposures in producing plastics and health risks to workers, particularly women, who make up a large part of the workforce. The review demonstrates that workers are exposed to chemicals that have been identified as mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals, and that the work environment is heavily contaminated with dust and fumes. Consequently, plastics workers have a body burden that far exceeds that found in the general public. The nature of these exposures in the plastics industry places women at disproportionate risk, underlining the importance of gender. Measures for eliminating these exposures and the need for regulatory action are discussed.

  5. Bioflocculation: chemical free, pre-treatment technology for the desalination industry.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Belkin, Natalia; Liberman, Boris; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Berman, Tom

    2013-06-01

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF), proceeded by chemical coagulation and flocculation, is a commonly used, effective pretreatment in the desalination industry. We designed and tested a novel, large pilot-scale, two-stage granular Rapid Bioflocculation Filter (RBF) based on a first-stage Bioflocculator (BF) unit followed by a mixed-media bed filter (MBF). The BF filter bed consisted of an extremely porous volcanic Tuff granular medium which provided an enlarged surface area for microbial development and biofilm proliferation. We compared the efficiency of the pilot RBF to that of a full-scale RSF, operating with upstream chemical coagulation, by measuring the removal from the same untreated seawater feed of key factors related to membrane clogging: SDI, turbidity, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). After 2 weeks of operation, the Tuff grains were colonized extensively by coccoid bacteria that formed biofilm along the entire BF. With bacterial colonization and biofilm development, numerous aggregates of bacteria and some algal cells embedded in an amorphous organic matrix were formed on and within the Tuff grains. By 1-3 months, the biotic diversity within the Tuff filter bed had increased to include filamentous bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, protista and even crustaceans and marine worms. During and for ≈ 24 h after each cleaning cycle (carried out every 5 to 7 days by upward flushing with air and water), large numbers of floc-like particles, from ≈ 15 μm to ≈ 2 mm in size were observed in the filtrate of the BF unit. Microscopic examination of these flocs (stained with Alcian Blue and SYTO(R) 9) showed that they were aggregates of many smaller particles with associated bacteria and algae within a polysaccharide gel-like matrix. These biogenic flocs (bioflocs) were observed to form during normal operation of the RBF, accumulating as aggregates of inorganic and organic material on the Tuff surfaces. With each flush cleaning cycle

  6. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  7. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S M; Lage, J; Fernández, B; Garcia, S; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM10 levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM10 were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM10. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH4(+), K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%).

  8. Heavy metal pollution in soils from abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone in Zhejiang province.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Tao; Mou, Yijun; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution in soils from an abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone (TCIZ) was investigated. By analysing soils, including sediments, collected from the study zone, the main pollutants were quantitatively identified and their spatial distribution patterns were clearly displayed. Eleven types of HM pollutants were obtained and the results indicated a significant correlation in most of the elements of the soil and sediment. A pollution index Pi was employed to classify the degree of contamination and characterize the main pollutant, which was controlled with the evaluation standard value instead of background one. As was characterized to be one of the main pollutants with the mean concentrations at the pollution source, in the surrounding area, and in the sediment of 603, 20.4, and 22.5 mg/kg, respectively. Our study suggested that the contaminated area of TCIZ may necessitate remediation before it can be considered for reuse. Pollution index method could be a useful tool for assessing soils quality to provide comparable criteria.

  9. Chemical profiles of PM emitted from the iron and steel industry in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yangyang; Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Tingyu; Luo, Lei; Zheng, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Source-level sampling methods were adopted in this study to sample six iron and steel plants referring four main manufacturing processes, with over 150 samples collected and measured in this study, the latest data for iron and steel industry in China has been demonstrated. The emission factors of CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, TSP, PM2.5 and PM10 were calculated, and the majority of pollutants were emitted from the sintering process. The virtual impactor divided the PM sample into three size fractions for chemical profiles and the profiles indicate that SO42-, NH4+ and OC distribute more into fine particles. The elements in PM from the sintering, pelletizing, puddling and steelmaking processes were measured and compared using the coefficient of divergence. The divergence between PM2.5 and PM10 for the same process is not obvious, with CD values ranging from 0.1697 to 0.2578. PM2.5 profiles of four process were notably different from one another, with CD values ranging from 0.4802 to 0.7500. More efforts are needed to update the PM profiles in China. PAHs in PM were investigated, and most of the PAHs in PM are from the sintering process. The total PAH concentration in PM2.5 from the sintering process is 73.28 ± 1.45 μg/m3 with a BaPE value calculated at 9.92 μg/m3.

  10. Applying the three R's: Reduce, reuse, and recycle in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamed K; Peters, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) assessment was conducted by applying the three R's, reduce, reuse, and recycle, in a chemical industry for the purpose of reducing the amount of wastewater generated, reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks, recycling cooling water, and improving water usage efficiency. The results of this study showed that the annual wastewater flow generated from the paint manufacturing can be reduced from 1,100 m(3) to 488.4 m(3) (44.4% reduction) when a high-pressure hose is used. Two mixtures were prepared. The first mixture (A) contains cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, Addicrete BVF, and clean water. The second mixture (B) contains the same components used in the first mixture, except that paint wastewater was used instead of the clean water. The prepared samples were tested for water absorption, toxicity, reactivity, compressive strength, ignitability, and corrosion. The tests results indicated that using paint wastewater in the manufacture of the cement bricks improved the mechanical properties of the bricks. The toxicity test results showed that the metals concentration in the bricks did not exceed the U.S. EPA limits. This company achieved the goal of zero liquid discharge (ZLD), especially after recycling 2,800 m(3) of cooling water. The total annual saving could reach $42,570 with a payback period of 41 days.

  11. A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B.; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z.

    1998-02-01

    A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

  12. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  13. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management: A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John, Randy C.; Young, Arthur L.; Pelton, Arthur D.; Thompson, William T.; Wright, Ian G.

    2008-10-10

    The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment

  14. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  15. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  16. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  17. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  18. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Dougall, James

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  19. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process. PMID:25836969

  20. Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.

  1. Factors affecting the chemical durability of glass used in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Iacocca, Ronald G; Toltl, Nick; Allgeier, M; Bustard, B; Dong, Xia; Foubert, M; Hofer, J; Peoples, S; Shelbourn, T

    2010-09-01

    Delamination, or the generation of glass flakes in vials used to contain parenteral drug products, continues to be a persistent problem in the pharmaceutical industry. To understand all of the factors that might contribute to delamination, a statistical design of experiments was implemented to describe this loss of chemical integrity for glass vials. Phase I of this study focused on the effects of thermal exposure (prior to product filling) on the surface chemistry of glass vials. Even though such temperatures are below the glass transition temperature for the glass, and parenteral compounds are injected directly into the body, data must be collected to show that the glass was not phase separating. Phase II of these studies examined the combined effects of thermal exposure, glass chemistry, and exposure to pharmaceutically relevant molecules on glass delamination. A variety of tools was used to examine the glass and the solution contained in the vial including: scanning electron microscopy and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the glass; and visual examination, pH measurements, laser particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for the analysis of the solution. The combined results of phase I and II showed depyrogenation does not play a significant role in delamination. Terminal sterilization, glass chemistry, and solution chemistry are the key factors in the generation of glass flakes. Dissolution of silica may be an effective indicator that delamination will occur with a given liquid stored in glass. Finally, delamination should not be defined by the appearance of visible glass particulates. There is a mechanical component in the delamination process whereby the flakes must break away from the interior vial surface. Delamination should be defined by the observation of flakes on the interior surface of the vial, which can be detected by several other analytical techniques.

  2. Toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions modeling for pressurized liquefied gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britter, Rex; Weil, Jeffrey; Leung, Joseph; Hanna, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report current toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions formulas appropriate for use in atmospheric comprehensive risk assessment models so as to represent state-of-the-art knowledge. The focus is on high-priority scenarios, including two-phase releases of pressurized liquefied gases such as chlorine from rail cars. The total mass released and the release duration are major parameters, as well as the velocity, thermodynamic state, and amount and droplet sizes of imbedded aerosols of the material at the exit of the rupture, which are required as inputs to the subsequent jet and dispersion modeling. Because of the many possible release scenarios that could develop, a suite of model equations has been described. These allow for gas, two-phase or liquid storage and release through ruptures of various types including sharp-edged and "pipe-like" ruptures. Model equations for jet depressurization and phase change due to flashing are available. Consideration of the importance of vessel response to a rupture is introduced. The breakup of the jet into fine droplets and their subsequent suspension and evaporation, or rainout is still a significant uncertainty in the overall modeling process. The recommended models are evaluated with data from various TIC field experiments, in particular recent experiments with pressurized liquefied gases. It is found that there is typically a factor of two error in models compared with research-grade observations of mass flow rates. However, biases are present in models' estimates of the droplet size distributions resulting from flashing releases.

  3. The future of discovery chemistry: quo vadis? Academic to industrial--the maturation of medicinal chemistry to chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    At Roche, we set out to think about the future role of medicinal chemistry in drug discovery in a project involving both Roche internal stakeholders and external experts in drug discovery chemistry. To derive a coherent strategy, selected scientists were asked to take extreme positions and to derive two orthogonal strategic options: chemistry as the traditional mainstream science and chemistry as the central entrepreneurial science. We believe today's role of medicinal chemistry in industry has remained too narrow. To provide the innovation that industry requires, medicinal chemistry must play its part and diversify at pace with our increasing understanding of chemical biology and network pharmacology.

  4. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 14, Petroleum/Chemical Industries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    Potential employment opportunities for displaced aerospace and defense technical personnel in the petroleum industry were studied for the U.S. Department of Labor. A relatively small, but increasing number of ex-aerospace and defense personnel can be absorbed by the industry, beginning with from 40 to 100 jobs in 1972 and increasing each year to…

  5. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P<0.05) . The level of noise exposure≥85 dB (A) (OR=5.79, 95%CI 3.70-8.81) , working years with noise exposure (OR=1.57, 95%CI 1.05-2.43) , and 25 years (OR=3.29, 95%CI 2.08-5.71) were risk factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  6. [The environment as a risk factor of coronary heart disease in urbanized region with developed chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Artamonova, G V; Shapovalova, E B; Maksimov, S A; Skripchenko, A E; Ogarkov, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    Tendency to growth of prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) occurring in Russian Federation despite application of preventive measures designates necessity of search for novel nontraditional factors of risk. Among other studied factors of genesis of cardiovascular diseases in general and of IHD in particular is the role of xenobiotics - chemical pollutants, substances foreign to the body. In this paper we present results of a number of epidemiological studies on the problem of xenobiotics and IHD. Special attention is given to the difficulty of isolation of the leading chemical pollutant and as a consequence of pathogenetic link what leads to underestimation of pathological states caused by ecological factors especially in such urbanized region with developed chemical industry as Kusbass.

  7. Contribution of the industrial chemical processing of pitchblende in Jáchymov to the first isolation of radium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecký, M.

    1999-01-01

    The uranium ore chemical processing plant in Jáchymov (St. Joachimstal) started the industrial production of uranium yellow (sodium diuranate) in 1853. This technology was developed by a talented metallurgical chemist Adolf Patera. The insoluble residue from uranium leaching was enriched by radium226Ra. During more than forty years before discovery of radioactivity, a worthless waste was accumulated in this uranium plant. This waste as radium preconcentrate was present in a suitable chemical form for the subsequent separation of radium. The occurence of this material significantly facilitated the separation and isolation of the first pure weighable amount of radium, necessary to prove the existence of a new chemical element, discovered in 1898 by M. and P. Curie and G. Bémont.

  8. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  9. Proceedings of the first international conference on pervaporation processes in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bakish, R.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers given at conference on chemical pervaporation processes. Topics include: evaporation and evaporators; fermentation and distillation; biomass conversion and waste processing.

  10. Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Via Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Senior Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, York R.; Fuchs, Alan; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Senior year chemical engineering students designed a process to produce 10 000 tonnes per annum of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and also conducted bench-top experiments to synthesize SWNTs via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition techniques. This was an excellent pedagogical experience because it related to the type of real world design…

  11. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  12. School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s Investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tinney, Veronica A.; Denton, Jerad M.; Sciallo-Tyler, Lucy; Paulson, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the 17 April 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries, and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades kindergarten–12, a nursing care facility, and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries. Objectives: The goal of this commentary is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous chemicals, and highlight the need for additional regulations to prevent future siting of schools near these facilities. Discussion: We summarize the findings of the CSB’s investigation related to the damaged school buildings and the lack of regulation surrounding the siting of schools near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Conclusions: In light of the current lack of federal authority for oversight of land use near educational institutions, state and local governments should take a proactive role in promulgating state regulations that prohibit the siting of public receptors, such as buildings occupied by children, near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Citation: Tinney VA, Denton JM, Sciallo-Tyler L, Paulson JA. 2016. School siting near industrial chemical facilities: findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion. Environ Health Perspect 124:1493–1496; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP132 PMID:27483496

  13. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area.

  14. Differences in Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of Italian Burrata Cheeses Made in Artisanal and Industrial Plants of Apulia Region

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Stefano; Marino, Leonardo; Stocchi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Loschi, Anna Rita; Miraglia, Dino; Ranucci, David

    2016-01-01

    The burrata cheese is a traditional product from Southern Italy, consisting of an envelope of pasta filata (stretched curd) filled with cream and pasta filata strips (usually leftovers from mozzarella production). Physical [water activity (aw), pH], chemical (moisture, NaCl content) and microbiological [total viable count (TVC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci] characteristics of burrata cheeses manufactured in artisanal and industrial plants were evaluated. The artisanal burrata showed lower aw values in the filling and the final product. The same was recorded in the filling for the moisture, probably due to differences between the types of cream used in the artisanal and the industrial cheesemaking. The pH value of the filling differed between the two groups but no difference was recorded in the final product. Microbiological differences were also recorded, with higher values for TVC and E. coli in artisanal than industrial burrata. All samples were negative for the other microbial determinations, with the exception of coagulase-positive staphylococci and Y. enterocolitica, which were detected in artisanal burrata. Differences in cheesemaking process were probably responsible for the strong variability of the physical and chemical data between the two cheeses; furthermore, differences in the hygienic features were also recorded. Even though artisanal products showed lower aw and pH values and higher NaCl concentration, the higher E. coli loads highlighted the need for a more accurate compliance with hygienic procedures along the artisanal cheesemaking process. PMID:27853715

  15. Final Report: Technical Support for Innovative Energy Systems the U.S. Chemical Industry -- Innovative Energy Systems Pilot Project - Chemicals Project Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    John Cuttica - Principal Investigator; Dr Steffen Mueller - Lead Engineer

    2008-10-30

    The University of Illinois at Chicago Energy Resources Center (UIC/ERC) was originally selected to carry out the role of project integrator for a planned solicitation calling for proposals for innovative concepts for energy efficient systems in the chemical industry. The selection was made as a result of a DOE Announcement of Funding Opportunity issued by the DOE Golden Field Office. The U.S. DOE, due to funding constraints, decided to change the role of project integrator into one of technical support to DOE and the Vision 2020 Steering Committee in carrying out the oversight and management of the projects selected from the planned innovative concepts solicitation. This project, initiated in April, 2005, was established to provide that technical support to the U.S. DOE Innovative Energy Systems Pilot Project for the US Chemical Industry. In the late summer of 2006, and as a continuation of the baseline technology analysis conducted by UIC/ERC under this project, DOE requested that UIC/ERC assist in the development of “technology briefs” in support of the DOE Save Energy Now program. The 100 technology briefs developed under this contract were utilized by the Energy Experts as part of their Energy Saving Assessments (ESA).

  16. Chemical contaminants and their effects in fish and wildlife from the industrial zone of Sumgayit, Republic of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Carol D; Donnelly, K C; Islamzadeh, Arif; Rowe, Gilbert T; Rogers, William J; Palatnikov, Grigoriy M; Mekhtiev, Arif A; Kasimov, Rafik; McDonald, Thomas J; Wickliffe, Jeffery K; Presley, Bobby J; Bickham, John W

    2003-12-01

    Sediment from a wetland adjacent to an industrial wastewater treatment plant in Sumgayit contained concentrations of total PAHs, total PCBs, aldrin, biphenyl, chlordane, DDT, mercury, beta-endosulfan, heptachlor, alpha-hexacyclohexane (alpha-HCH), gamma-HCH, and several individual PAH congeners that were elevated relative to published sediment quality guidelines. Chemical analyses of tissues from European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) had increased levels of many of the same chemicals including aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, alpha-HCH, total PCBs, total PAHs, and mercury, compared to reference turtles. In addition, turtle tissues contained elevated levels of DDD, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and pentachlorobenzene that were not elevated in the sediment sample. Some differences were observed in contaminant levels between European pond turtles and Caspian turtles (Mauremys caspica) taken from the ponds in Sumgayit. Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assays on pond sediments were negative or weakly positive. Micronuclei in European pond turtles were statistically correlated with tissue levels of mercury, heptachlor, DDD, HCB, and trans-nonachlor. Microcosm experiments using Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) showed a positive dose-response relationship between exposure to suspended contaminated pond sediment and acute toxicity. Chemical and biological assays used in this study show the industrial area of Sumgayit is heavily contaminated with a complex mixture of toxic pollutants. Exposure to contaminated sediments produced acute effects in Russian sturgeon, but genotoxic effects appear to be slight.

  17. On the use of in silico tools for prioritising toxicity testing of the low-volume industrial chemicals in REACH.

    PubMed

    Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina; Andersson, Patrik L

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a selection of commercially and freely available non-testing tools and to analyse how REACH registrants can apply these as prioritisation tool for low-volume chemicals. The analysis was performed on a set of organic industrial chemicals and pesticides with extensive peer-reviewed risk assessment data. Analysed in silico model systems included Derek Nexus, Toxtree, QSAR Toolbox, LAZAR, TEST and VEGA, and results from these were compared with expert-judged risk classification according to the classifying, labelling and packaging (CLP) regulation. The most reliable results were obtained for carcinogenicity; however, less reliable predictions were derived for mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. A group of compounds frequently predicted as false negatives was identified. These were relatively small molecules with low structural complexity, for example benzene derivatives with hydroxyl-, amino- or aniline-substituents. A rat liver S9 metabolite simulator was applied to illustrate the importance of considering metabolism in the risk assessment procedure. We also discuss outcome of combining predictions from multiple model systems and advise how to apply in silico tools. These models are proposed to be used to prioritise low-volume chemicals for testing within the REACH legislation, and we conclude that further guidance is needed so that industry can select and apply models in a reliable, systematic and transparent way.

  18. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Byproducts Reporting for the Printed Circuit Board Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on existing Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to byproducts reporting by persons who manufacture printed circuit boards and may be subject to CDR.

  19. Biomass fly ashes as low-cost chemical agents for Pb removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Günther, Annika; Dias, Diogo; Mendes, Benilde

    2014-06-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the removal efficiency of Pb from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using biomass fly ashes. The biomass fly ashes were produced in a biomass boiler of a pulp and paper industry. Three concentrations of Pb(2+) were tested in the synthetic wastewater (1, 10 and 1000 mg Pb/L). Moreover, two different wastewaters were collected in an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) of an industry of lead-acid batteries: (i) wastewater of the equalization tank, and (ii) IWWTP effluent. All the wastewaters were submitted to coagulation-flocculation tests with a wide range of biomass fly ashes dosage (expressed as Solid/Liquid - S/L - ratios). All supernatants were characterized for chemical and ecotoxicological parameters. The use of biomass fly ashes has reduced significantly the Pb concentration in the synthetic wastewater and in the wastewaters collected in the IWWTP. For example, the definitive coagulation-flocculation assays performed over the IWWTP effluent presented a very low concentration of Pb (0.35 mg/L) for the S/L ratio of 1.23 g/L. Globally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the supernatants resulting from the coagulation-flocculation assays of all wastewaters has indicated an overall reduction on the ecotoxicity of the crude wastewaters, due to the removal of Pb.

  20. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  2. Industrial Mineral Aggregate Amendment Affects Physical and Chemical Properties of Pine Bark Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source effluent containing nitrate N (NO3-N) and phosphorus (P) from containerized nursery production has garnered local, regional, and national concern. Industrial minerals have long been used as absorbents, agrochemical carriers, and barriers to retain heavy metals. Our objective was to d...

  3. Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses the views on science and society held among PhD students working in two different industrially and environmentally driven research programmes in the broad area of green chemistry. It is based on thirteen in-depth interviews. The analysis shows three main ways of handling the situation as "post-academic"…

  4. CHEMICAL SUBSTITUTION FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE AND METHANOL IN AN INDUSTRIAL CLEANING OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous wastes are generated from cold solvent degreasing operations used in many industrial processes. The spent solvents are managed under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). With the land ban of spent solvents, disposal has become increasingly di...

  5. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  6. [The physical development and psychophysiological status of children born to mothers engaged in gas-chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Setko, N P; Skripko, I V

    2006-01-01

    The study has ascertained that the adaptive capacities of the body reflect the level of its health and the resistance to the influence of environmental factors. The organism of a child and his/her functional capacities of the basic systems may be regarded as an indicator of the quality of life in a mother exposed to poor factors of gas-chemical industry; and there is likely to be a long-term impact of gas-processing factors on the child through the maternal body.

  7. VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.

    PubMed

    Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed.

  8. Remote chemical monitoring in an industrial environment using eyesafe IR laser radar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Guerman A.; Shklovsky, E. J.; Freidman, Gennady I.; Lozhkarev, Vladimir V.; Matveyev, Alexander Z.; Shilov, Alexander A.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Peterson, Darrel G.; Partin, Judy K.

    1997-07-01

    The brief description of new lidar prototype for remote chemical monitoring and profiling in the 8 - 12 micron range is given. The lidar includes a Nd:YAG laser (1 J per pulse) source, optical parametrical oscillator (0.2 J per pulse), and four-wave Raman emitter (20 mJ output per pulse). The receiver consists of the hydrogen SRS cells, pumped by an additional OPO pulse. Sensitivity of this receiver reaches approximately 1000 photons per pixel. The applications of this lidar for remote detection of chemicals in atmosphere will also be discussed.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  10. Detecting Industrial Chemicals in Water With Microbial Fuel Cells and Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Peak Height ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million RO reverse osmosis SR Subsidence Rate 1 DETECTING INDUSTRIAL...solutions was purified through reverse osmosis (RO). 4.3 Enrichment All MFCs were inoculated with activated sludge as a source of bacteria. Previous...since reverse osmosis has the capability of filtering out many of the trace metals often needed by bacteria. 60 Figure 25. Operating History

  11. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    PubMed

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  12. The Cooperation Between Poison Control Center and Organized Industrial District for Chemical Disaster Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    prevention efforts. A hotline line between center and district was established, while Tomes Plus and Intox Programmes adding Micromedex Computer Programme...to be 10342. Questionnaires revealed 47 different chemical agents. Two Safety discettes for each plant were prepared with reference to Micromedex Tomes

  13. INVESTIGATION OF FAILURE MECHANISMS AND MIGRATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AT WILSONVILLE, ILLINOIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In late 1981, ground water contamination was discovered in a monitoring well at the Earthline disposal facility near Wilsonville, Illinois. This meant that organic chemicals had migrated at a rate of 100 to 1000 times the rate predicted when the site was given its permit i...

  14. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Myers, T J; Kytömaa, H K; Smith, T R

    2007-04-11

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future.

  15. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass product...

  16. Kinetics of the biodegradation of phenol in wastewaters from the chemical industry by covalently immobilized Trichosporon cutaneum cells.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Lyubov; Tzibranska, Irene; Tileva, Filadia; Markx, G H; Georgieva, Nelly

    2009-03-01

    A simple method for the preparation of the biocatalyst with whole cells is presented, and the applicability of the technique for biodegradation of phenol in wastewater from the chemical industries using the basidomycetes yeast Trichosporon cutaneum is explored. Kinetic studies of the influence of other compounds contained in wastewater as naphthalene, benzene, toluene and pyridine indicate that apart from oil fraction, which is removed, the phenol concentration is the only major factor limiting the growth of immobilized cells. Mathematical models are applied to describe the kinetic behavior of immobilized yeast cells. From the analysis of the experimental curves was shown that the obtained values for the apparent rate parameters vary depending on the substrate concentration (mu(maxapp) from 0.35 to 0.09 h(-1) and K (sapp) from 0.037 to 0.4 g dm(-3)). The inhibitory effect of the phenol on the obtained yield coefficients was investigated too. It has been shown that covalent immobilization of T. cutaneum whole cells to plastic carrier beads is possible, and that cell viability and phenol degrading activity are maintained after the chemical modification of cell walls during the binding procedure. The results obtained indicate a possible future application of immobilized T. cutaneum for destroying phenol in industrial wastewaters.

  17. Distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Chen, Liang; Huang, Linxian; Wang, Yongseng; Li, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China. At least one VOC was detected in each of the 20 sampling sites, and the maximum number of VOCs detected in the surface water, groundwater, and soil were 13, 16, and 14, respectively. Two of the 10 VOCs with elevated concentrations detected in surface water, groundwater, and soil were chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The characteristics of VOCs, which include volatility, boiling point, and solubility, could significantly affect their distribution in surface water, soil, and groundwater. However, due to the direct discharging of chemical industry wastewater into surface water, higher concentrations of VOCs (except chloroform) were detected in surface water than in soil and groundwater. Fortunately, the higher volatility of VOCs prevents the VOCs from impacting groundwater, which helps to maintain a lower concentration of VOCs in the groundwater than in both surface water and soil. This is because pollutants with relatively higher boiling points and lower solubilities have higher detection frequencies in soil, and contaminants with relatively lower boiling points and higher solubilities have higher detection frequencies in water, notably in surface water.

  18. In Vitro Screening of 1877 Industrial and Consumer Chemicals, Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals in up to 782 Assays: ToxCast Phase I and II (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase II of the ToxCast program, the U.S. EPA and Tox21 partners screened 1,877 chemicals, including pesticides; food, cosmetics and personal care ingredients; pharmaceuticals; and industrial chemicals. Testing used a 782 in vitro assays across 7 technologies and multiple bi...

  19. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  20. Evaluation of Titania Nanotubes for the Removal of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    2008). As summarized in Table 1, the nanotubes consist of both micropores and large mesopores , possibly providing adsorption sites for chemicals of...cause of the hysteresis seen in Figure 6. Data presented in Figure 7 show that over most of the relative pressure range, ASZM-TEDA provides more...Additionally, hysteresis data can be used to determine pore interconnectivity. The AE data for the titania nanotubes and baseline samples are shown in

  1. Impregnated Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Removal of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    with various chemicals for enhanced reactivity. Specifically, MOF-5 (IRMOF- l ) was impregnated with citric acid, copper acetate, copper oxide, and...177, MOF-199, and ZIF-8 and provided recommendations for future material syntheses . The present report describes an initial effort aimed at...PROCESS 2.1 Materials MOF-5 (IRMOF-1) was synthesized at UCLA and subsequently sent to Guild Associates, Inc. (Dublin, Ohio) for impregnation. The

  2. Industrial cogeneration case study No. 2: American Cyanamid Chemical Company, Bound Brook, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Within a project for evaluating the economics of cogeneration for industrial plants with an electrical capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 kW, the American Cyanamid plant at Bound Brook, NJ was selected for study. Built between 1915 and 1920 this power plant was converted in the 1960's from coal-fueling to oil and natural gas. Information is presented on the plant site, fuel usage, generation costs, comparative cost of purchasable electric power, equipment used, performance, and reliability and capital and maintenance costs. (LCL)

  3. Virtual screening for environmental pollutants: structure-activity relationships applied to a database of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Tomas

    2006-04-01

    The current risk paradigm calls for individual consideration and evaluation of each separate environmental pollutant, but this does not reflect accurately the cumulative impact of anthropogenic chemicals. In the present study, previously validated structure-activity relationships were used to estimate simultaneously the baseline toxicity and atmospheric persistence of approximately 50,000 compounds. The results from this virtual screening indicate fairly stable statistical distributions among small anthropogenic compounds. The baseline toxicity was not changed much by halogen substitution, but a distinct increase seemed to occur in the environmental persistence with increased halogenation. The ratio of the atmospheric half-lives to the median lethal concentrations provides a continuous scale with which to rank and summarize the incremental environmental impacts in a mixture-exposure situation. Halogenated compounds as a group obtained a high ranking in this data set, with well-known pollutants at the very top: DDT metabolites and derivatives, polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenyl ethers and dibenzofurans, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated benzenes and derivatives, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and dichlorononylphenol. Environmentally friendly chemicals that obtained the lowest rank are nearly all hydroxylated and water-soluble. Virtual screening can assist with "green chemistry" in designing safe and degradable products and enable assessment of the efficiency in chemicals risk management.

  4. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution.

    PubMed

    Amoore, J E; Hautala, E

    1983-12-01

    The body of information in this paper is directed to specialists in industrial health and safety, and air and water pollution, who need quantitative data on the odor thresholds of potentially hazardous chemical vapors and gases. The literature, largely unorganized, has been reviewed for 214 compounds and condensed into tables based on consistent units. Data on the volatility, solubility, ionization and water-air distribution ratio at 25 degrees C are included. From the currently recommended threshold limit value (TLV), a safe dilution factor and an odor safety factor are calculated for each compound. The equivalent data are presented for both air and water dilutions of the chemicals. Available data are summarized on the variability of odor sensitivities in the population, and the increased odor concentrations that are required to elicit responses from persons whose attention is distracted, or who are sleeping. This information is reduced to calibration charts that may be used to estimate the relative detectability, warning potential and rousing capacity of the odorous vapors. Each compound has been assigned a letter classification, from A to E, to indicate the margin of safety, if any, that may be afforded by the odor of the compound as a warning that its threshold limit value is being exceeded.

  5. Novel low cost chemical texturing for very large area industrial multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, U.; Dhungel, S. K.; Kim, K.; Manna, U.; Basu, P. K.; Kim, H. J.; Karunagaran, B.; Lee, K. S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yi, J.

    2005-09-01

    Multi-crystalline silicon surface etching without grain-boundary delineation is a challenging task for the fabrication of high efficiency solar cells. The use of sodium hydroxide-sodium hypochlorite (NaOH-NaOCl) solution for texturing a multi-crystalline silicon wafer surface in a solar cell fabrication line is reported in this paper. The optimized etching solution of NaOH-NaOCl does not have any effect on multi-crystalline silicon grain boundaries and it also has excellent isotropic etch characteristics, which ultimately helps to achieve higher values of performance parameters, especially the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), than those in the case of conventional silicon texturing. Easy control over the reaction of the NaOH-NaOCl solution is also one of the major advantages due to which sophistication in controlling the temperature of the etching bath is not required for the industrial batch process. The FTIR analysis of the silicon surface after etching with the current approach shows the formation of Si-Cl bonds, which improves the quality of the diffused junction due to chlorine gettering during diffusion. We are the first to report 14-14.5% efficiency of very large area (150 mm × 150 mm) multi-crystalline silicon solar cells using a NaOH-NaOCl texturing approach in an industrial production line with a yield greater than 95%.

  6. Chemical substitution for 1,1,1,-trichloroethane and methanol in an industrial-cleaning operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Springer, J.; Bower, M.

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous wastes are generated from cold solvent degreasing operations used in many industrial processes. The spent solvents are managed under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). With the land ban of spent solvents, disposal has become increasingly difficult. As a result, industries have begun investigating ways to avoid using RCRA listed cleaning solvents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Pollution Prevention Research Branch along with APS Materials, Inc., a small metal finishing company, participated in a joint research project to evaluate the substitution of a dilute, terpene-based cleaner for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and methanol, hazardous wastes F001 and F003 respectively, in their degreasing operations. The paper presents the results of a study evaluating the waste reduction/pollution prevention that can be achieved by substituting dilute limonene solutions for TCA and methanol in the cleaning of orthopedic implants (e.g. metal knee and hip joint replacements). The paper describes the original cleaning process, the modifications made to the process in using the dilute limonene solution, and the sampling plan used in evaluating the effectiveness of the solution. The paper presents qualitative results of the sampling tests and an economic evaluation of plant modifications. (Copyright (c) 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.).

  7. AOX removal from industrial wastewaters using advanced oxidation processes: assessment of a combined chemical-biological oxidation.

    PubMed

    Luyten, J; Sniegowski, K; Van Eyck, K; Maertens, D; Timmermans, S; Liers, Sven; Braeken, L

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the abatement of adsorbable halogenated organic compounds (AOX) from an industrial wastewater containing relatively high chloride concentrations by a combined chemical and biological oxidation is assessed. For chemical oxidation, the O(3)/UV, H(2)O(2)/UV and photo-Fenton processes are evaluated on pilot scale. Biological oxidation is simulated in a 4 h respirometry experiment with periodic aeration. The results show that a selective degradation of AOX with respect to the matrix compounds (expressed as chemical oxygen demand) could be achieved. For O(3)/UV, lowering the ratio of O(3) dosage to UV intensity leads to a better selectivity for AOX. During O(3)-based experiments, the AOX removal is generally less than during the H(2)O(2)-based experiments. However, after biological oxidation, the AOX levels are comparable. For H(2)O(2)/UV, optimal operating parameters for UV and H(2)O(2) dosage are next determined in a second run with another wastewater sample.

  8. Sequential chemical-biological processes for the treatment of industrial wastewaters: review of recent progresses and critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Guieysse, Benoit; Norvill, Zane N

    2014-02-28

    When direct wastewater biological treatment is unfeasible, a cost- and resource-efficient alternative to direct chemical treatment consists of combining biological treatment with a chemical pre-treatment aiming to convert the hazardous pollutants into more biodegradable compounds. Whereas the principles and advantages of sequential treatment have been demonstrated for a broad range of pollutants and process configurations, recent progresses (2011-present) in the field provide the basis for refining assessment of feasibility, costs, and environmental impacts. This paper thus reviews recent real wastewater demonstrations at pilot and full scale as well as new process configurations. It also discusses new insights on the potential impacts of microbial community dynamics on process feasibility, design and operation. Finally, it sheds light on a critical issue that has not yet been properly addressed in the field: integration requires complex and tailored optimization and, of paramount importance to full-scale application, is sensitive to uncertainty and variability in the inputs used for process design and operation. Future research is therefore critically needed to improve process control and better assess the real potential of sequential chemical-biological processes for industrial wastewater treatment.

  9. Resistance of two temperate Lactobacillus paracasei bacteriophages to high pressure homogenization, thermal treatments and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, D J; Guglielmotti, D M; Patrignani, F; Reinheimer, J A; Quiberoni, A

    2012-02-01

    Temperate bacteriophages ф iLp84 and ф iLp1308, previously isolated from mitomycin C-induction of Lactobacillus paracasei strains 84 and CNRZ1308, respectively, were tested for their resistance to several physical and chemical treatments applied in dairy industry. Long-term survival at 4 °C, -20 °C and -80 °C, resistance to either thermal treatments of 63 °C, 72 °C and 90 °C, high pressure homogenization (HPH, 100 MPa) or classic (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid) and new commercial sanitizers, namely A (quaternary ammonium chloride), B (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and peroctanoic acid), C (alkaline chloride foam), D (p-toluensulfonchloroamide, sodium salt) and E (ethoxylated nonylphenol and phosphoric acid), were determined. Phages were almost completely inactivated after eight months of storage at 25 °C, but viability was not affected at 4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C. Both phages tolerated well HPH treatments. Phage iLp1308 showed higher thermal resistance than ф iLp84, but neither resisted 90 °C for 2 min. Best chemical inactivation was accomplished using peracetic acid or biocides A, C and E, whereas biocides B and D were completely ineffective. These results help to improve selection of chemical agents and physical treatments to effectively fight against phage infections in dairy plants.

  10. Challenges and recommendations for obtaining chemical structures of industry-provided repurposing candidates.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Williams, Antony J; Ekins, Sean

    2013-01-01

    There is an expanding amount of interest directed at the repurposing and repositioning of drugs, as well as how in silico methods can assist these endeavors. Recent repurposing project tendering calls by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (USA) and the Medical Research Council (UK) have included compound information and pharmacological data. However, none of the internal company development code names were assigned to chemical structures in the official documentation. This not only abrogates in silico analysis to support repurposing but consequently necessitates data gathering and curation to assign structures. Here, we describe the approaches, results and major challenges associated with this.

  11. Biomarker of Exposure and Mechanism of Action of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    primary chemicals used, 10 employee 37 samples with a rank of 1 and 10 with a rank of 6. In addition, since AN is a constituent of tobacco smoke and...toxicity of AN. First is that it can be metabolized in the body to cyanide , a well-known acute toxin. However, we have previously shown that...blocking cyanide production with inhibitors of the enzyme(s) that convert AN to cyanide does not prevent acute toxicity but only delays the time to death

  12. Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: An extended observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.; Langard, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another 8 years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85, 95% CI 44-158). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma (ICD, 7th revision 162-163) versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256, 95% CI71-654). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588, 95% CI 118-1,725).

  13. A scheme for the classification of explosions in the chemical process industry.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Pasman, H J; Abbasi, S A

    2010-02-15

    All process industry accidents fall under three broad categories-fire, explosion, and toxic release. Of these fire is the most common, followed by explosions. Within these broad categories occur a large number of sub-categories, each depicting a specific sub-type of a fire/explosion/toxic release. But whereas clear and self-consistent sub-classifications exist for fires and toxic releases, the situation is not as clear vis a vis explosions. In this paper the inconsistencies and/or shortcomings associated with the classification of different types of explosions, which are seen even in otherwise highly authentic and useful reference books on process safety, are reviewed. In its context a new classification is attempted which may, hopefully, provide a frame-of-reference for the future.

  14. Industry-wide studies report of an in-depth industrial-hygiene survey of the Dow Chemical, Michigan Division, Midland, Michigan, September 11-13, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Greife, A.

    1985-08-01

    An indepth survey was conducted at Dow Chemical Company. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the acrylamide and polyacrylamide production facilities as part of an industry-wide assessment of acrylamide exposures. Three production facilities were involved in the production of acrylamide monomer or polymer. Breathing-zone, general-area, and wipe samples were collected in all three facilities for a single day shift and analyzed for acrylamide. The highest airborne acrylamide concentrations (breathing zone, 0.119 cu m and general area, 0.054mg/cu m, were found in the monomer facility. Most of the general air samples were below the limit of detection, 0.002mg/cu m. All but two of the wipe samples were below the limit of detection, 0.5 microgram (microg) per sample. The author concludes that all samples collected during the survey were below any standard or recommended evaluation criteria for acrylamide. Evaluating work practices to reduce potential dermal exposure is recommended.

  15. Assessing homeland chemical hazards outside the military gates: industrial hazard threat assessments for department of defense installations.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S; Howard, Jacqueline M; Reed, David A

    2002-04-08

    As part of comprehensive joint medical surveillance measures outlined by the Department of Defense, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) is beginning to assess environmental health threats to continental US military installations. A common theme in comprehensive joint medical surveillance, in support of Force Health Protection, is the identification and assessment of potential environmental health hazards, and the evaluation and documentation of actual exposures in both a continental US and outside a continental US setting. For the continental US assessments, the USACHPPM has utilized the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database for risk management plans in accordance with Public Law 106-40, and the toxic release inventory database, in a state-of the art geographic information systems based program, termed the Consequence Assessment and Management Tool Set, or CATS, for assessing homeland industrial chemical hazards outside the military gates. As an example, the US EPA toxic release inventory and risk management plans databases are queried to determine the types and locations of industries surrounding a continental US military installation. Contaminants of concern are then ranked with respect to known toxicological and physical hazards, where they are then subject to applicable downwind hazard simulations using applicable meteorological and climatological data sets. The composite downwind hazard areas are mapped in relation to emergency response planning guidelines (ERPG), which were developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association to assist emergency response personnel planning for catastrophic chemical releases. In addition, other geographic referenced data such as transportation routes, satellite imagery and population data are included in the operational, equipment, and morale risk assessment and management process. These techniques have been developed to assist military medical planners and operations

  16. Threshold of toxicological concern values for non-genotoxic effects in industrial chemicals: re-evaluation of the Cramer classification.

    PubMed

    Kalkhof, H; Herzler, M; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2012-01-01

    The TTC concept employs available data from animal testing to derive a distribution of NOAELs. Taking a probabilistic view, the 5th percentile of the distribution is taken as a threshold value for toxicity. In this paper, we use 824 NOAELs from repeated dose toxicity studies of industrial chemicals to re-evaluate the currently employed TTC values, which have been derived for substances grouped according to the Cramer scheme (Cramer et al. in Food Cosm Toxicol 16:255-276, 1978) by Munro et al. (Food Chem Toxicol 34:829-867, 1996) and refined by Kroes and Kozianowski (Toxicol Lett 127:43-46, 2002), Kroes et al. 2000. In our data set, consisting of 756 NOAELs from 28-day repeated dose testing and 57 NOAELs from 90-days repeated dose testing, the experimental NOAEL had to be extrapolated to chronic TTC using regulatory accepted extrapolation factors. The TTC values derived from our data set were higher than the currently used TTC values confirming the safety of the latter. We analysed the prediction of the Cramer classification by comparing the classification by this tool with the guidance values for classification according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of the United Nations (GHS). Nearly 90% of the chemicals were in Cramer class 3 and assumed as highly toxic compared to 22% according to the GHS. The Cramer classification does underestimate the toxicity of chemicals only in 4.6% of the cases. Hence, from a regulatory perspective, the Cramer classification scheme might be applied as it overestimates hazard of a chemical.

  17. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  18. Combined physical-chemical and biological treatment of poorly biodegradable industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; Zaror, Claudio; Carrasco, Virginia; Mondaca, Maria Angelica; Mansilla, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be implemented. In this context, this paper presents experimental results on the application of a combined sequential ozonation-activated carbon-biological system to treat effluents containing chlorinated aromatic contaminants from chlorine based pulp bleaching. The experimental system consisted of an ozone bubble column reactor (0.3 dm3), an activated carbon fixed bed reactor (0.2 dm3), and an aerobic bioreactor (20 dm3). Ozone was produced from pure O2 using a generator rated at 2 mmol O3 h(-1). The bleaching effluent was pretreated and fed into the aerated sequencing batch bioreactor containing preconditioned biological sludge (3-4 g VSS dm(-3)), and cultured for 24 h. Samples of raw and treated effluents were assayed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), using standard techniques. The presence of potential genotoxic activity in untreated and treated samples was assessed using the Ames tests. Results show that biological treatment of raw samples could not remove mutagenic activity on its own. On the other hand, ozonation followed by activated carbon treatment and biological treatment successfully removed genotoxicity in all cases. Reductions in BOD, COD, TOC, AOX, and phenols by biological treatment increased when samples were pretreated with ozone/activated carbon.

  19. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  20. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; del Río, José C

    2006-03-22

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by GC/MS of the hemp fibers extracts were series of n-alkanes, free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, waxes, and long-chain n-fatty acids. Other compounds such as n-aldehydes, n-fatty alcohols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones as well as steryl glycosides were also found.

  1. Detection of industrial gaseous chemical plumes using hyperspectral imagery in the emissive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Michael D., Jr.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2005-08-01

    For the past ten years, much of the research in hyperspectral image data exploitation techniques has been focused on detection of ground targets. As a passive remote sensing technique, hyperspectral imagers have performed reasonably well in detecting the presence of a variety of objects; from crop species to land mines to mineral deposits to vehicles under camouflage. These often promising results have prompted new studies of hyperspectral remote sensing for other applications - including atmospheric monitoring. Should technologies like hyperspectral imaging prove effective in emission source monitoring, organizations interested in environmental assessment could transition from inspection using hand-held analytical instruments to a truly standoff technique. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of a set of hyperspectral exploitation techniques applied to the task of gas detection. This set of techniques is a sampling of approaches that have appeared in the literature, and all of the methods discussed have demonstrated utility in the reflective regime. Specifically, we look at signature-based detection, anomaly detection, transformations (i.e. rotations) of the spectral space, and even dedicated band combinations and scatter plots. Using real LWIR hyperspectral data recently collected on behalf of the US Environmental Protection Agency, we compare performance in detecting three different industrial gases.

  2. Welding duplex stainless steels for maximum corrosion resistance in chemical process industry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, T.G.; Gunn, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication of process plant, pipework etc in ferritic-austenitic steels commonly entails fusion welding. The weld thermal cycle can significantly influence material corrosion behavior and hence service performance. The paper reviews the situation, with emphasis on arc welding as most commonly employed by industry. An outline is given of the major metallurgical changes due to welding which take place in the heat affected zone in base steel and in the fused weld metal. The weld thermal cycle experienced alters the ferrite/austenite structure from that in the parent material, and can induce intermetallic precipitation. Nitrogen may also be lost from the weld metal. These changes affect corrosion resistance, and must be controlled to achieve optimum service properties. The consequences of surface oxidation in the weld area and of local residual stresses are also considered, and it is pointed out that resistance to stress corrosion cracking in chloride or sour, H{sub 2}S media is dependent on ferrite/austenite balance. The main factors in formulating a welding procedure are described. Depending on the material composition and joint heat sink, arc energy should be held between minimum and maximum levels to promote adequate austenite formation in the weld area without inducing intermetallic formation. Nitrogen loss should be minimized, and adequate filler should be added: slight overalloying of the consumable is preferred, provided that intermetallic precipitation is avoided.

  3. Physico-chemical characterisation of glass soiling in rural, urban and industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, T; Chabas, A; Verney-Carron, A; Cachier, H; Triquet, S; Darchy, S

    2014-01-01

    Glass materials are broadly used in the built environment (windows, facades, roofs, museum showcases, and solar panels) due to their optical (transparency) and thermal properties. Their interaction with the multiphase atmospheric medium results in a more or less pronounced transparency loss called soiling. This phenomenon leads to a loss of amenity of artefacts; consequently, high cleaning costs have to be supported by public and private entities. Complete understanding of the nature of surface deposit appears thus extremely important for addressing strategies to control it. The present research is based on the sheltered exposure, in different environments, of durable glass panels during 1 year. At these different locations, airborne pollutant concentrations have also been monitored. Three environments have been investigated: rural (R), urban (U) and industrial (I). Results show that the mass of the deposit and the optical impairment of the glass (haze) are too spread to allow discriminating between different environments. However, the analyses of soluble species and particulate organic matter allow identifying factors responsible for soiling and highlighted the reactivity of deposit to relative humidity which favours post-deposit evolution.

  4. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, D.; Maggioni, S.; Boriani, E.; Gemma, S.; Molteni, M.; Lombardo, A.; Colombo, A.; Bordonali, S.; Rotella, G.; Lodi, M.; Benfenati, E.

    2011-05-15

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. - Research highlights: {yields} We study the toxicity of leachate from a non-hazardous industrial waste landfill. {yields} We perform chemical analyses, risk assessments and in vitro assays on HepG2 cells. {yields} Risk models suggest toxic effects due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. {yields} In vitro assays show that leachate inhibits cell proliferation at low doses. {yields} Leachate can induce cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells at high doses.

  5. [Pollution status of phenolic compounds in the soil and sediment from a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexia; Wei, Enze; Xian, Qiming

    2014-08-01

    A determination method of 12 phenolic compounds in soil and sediment samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for clean-up was developed. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0. 410 μg/kg to 13. 1 μg/kg (dry weight), and the average recoveries ranged from 70. 7% to 122% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1. 2% to 16%. Based on this method, the levels of 12 phenolic compounds were investigated in 17 soil surrounding a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River and seven sediment samples collected in the river. It was found that 11 of the 12 phenolic compounds were detected in all of the 24 samples, and only hydroquinone was below the MDL. The contents of the total 12 phenolic compounds were 10. 16-30. 66 mg/kg in the soil and 18. 00-29. 83 mg/kg in the sediment, with the average contents of 18. 26 and 22. 51 mg/kg respectively. It showed that 4-nitro- phenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6- trichlorophenol were five major phenolic contaminants in the soil and sediment in this study. The pollution levels of the 12 phenolic compounds were low in the soil of the chemical industrial park as well as in the sediment of the Yangtze River, which implied a comparatively low risk for the environment.

  6. A chemical and microbiological characterization and toxicity assessment of the Pančevo industrial complex wastewater canal sediments, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Čučak, Dragana I; Spasojević, Jelena M; Babić, Olivera B; Maletić, Snežana P; Simeunović, Jelica B; Rončević, Srđan D; Dalmacija, Božo D; Tamaš, Ivica; Radnović, Dragan V

    2017-02-10

    The wastewater canal Vojlovica of the Pančevo industrial area, Serbia, is the main collector of the effluents from the local industrial complex. The canal is directly connected to the Europe's second largest river, the Danube. Here, we present a chemical and microbiological analysis of the sediment in order to determine the fate of pollutants over the years, as well as its current condition. Dry matter, clay and organic matter content, a Kjeldahl ammonia, phosphorus, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations were measured. Microbiological analysis included heterotrophic and oil-degrading bacterial counts, isolation of the phenanthrene-degrading bacteria, and identification of cyanobacteria. Generally, in comparison to the results from previous studies, concentrations of the measured pollutants have been in a decline. Specifically, the metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were reduced whereas microbial counts and toxicity tests did not indicate significant pollution. The obtained results are probably a consequence of an improved wastewater treatment and microbial degradation of pollutants.

  7. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-11-16

    Enzymes have enormous potential for reducing energy requirements and environmental problems in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. The explosion of tools that has come out of molecular biology during the last 20 years has made it possible to evolve enzymes for features never required in nature. Scientists can speed up the rate and channel the direction of evolution by controlling mutagenesis and the accompanying selection pressures. Darwinian evolution carried out in the test tube offers a unique opportunity for biotechnology: the ability to tailor enzymes for optimal performance in a wide range of applications. Thus it is possible, for example, to evolve enzymes that carry out reactions on nonnatural substrates or even to carry out reactions for which there is no counterpart in nature. Due to the vast size of the potential sequence space, however, explorations by directed evolution must be guided by sound principles and workable strategies. During the course of this group, this laboratory has continued to make significant progress in the evolution of industrial enzymes as well as in developing general methods for in vitro evolution.

  8. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, September 29--December 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-01-15

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. In this report attention is focused on random mutagenesis of pNB esterase -- improved activity and stability. The most thermostable esterases obtained by sequential random mutagenesis (6H7) and random mutagenesis plus recombination (6sF9) each contain 9 amino acid mutations and a number of silent mutations, relative to the wild-type sequence. Eight of the mutations are present in both genes, for a total of ten potentially adaptive mutations. Because several of these mutations occurred in the same generation, it is difficult to identify the mutations responsible for the increases in activity and stability. In order to aid in this identification, the thermostable genes were recombined with the wild-type gene, in hopes of removing neutral mutations. The gene from the first-generation variant, with five amino acid substitutions was also recombined with wild-type.

  9. Carbon-supported platinum alloy catalysts for phenol hydrogenation for making industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, S.T.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Phenol is available in large quantities in liquids derived from coal and biomass. Phenol hydrogenation is an industrially important reaction to produce cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Cyclohexane, cyclohexene and benzene are obtained as minor products in this reaction. Cyclohexanone is an important intermediate in the production of caprolactam for nylon 6 and cyclohexanol for adipic acid production. In USA, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone are produced by benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane over nickel or noble metal catalysts, followed by oxidation of cyclohexane to produce a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Then cyclohexanol is dehydrogenated in the presence of Cu-Zn catalyst to cyclohexanone. Usually phenol hydrogenation is also carried out by using Ni catalyst in liquid phase. However, a direct single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol to give cyclohexanone selectively is more advantageous in terms of energy savings and process economics, since processing is simplified and the endothermic step of cyclohexanol dehydrogenation can be avoided, as demonstrated by Montedipe and Johnson Matthey using promoted Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. While it is not the purpose of this paper to dwell on the relative merits of these routes, it is necessary to mention that while using monometallic catalysts, generally the problem of catalyst deactivation of sintering as well as coking is frequently encountered. Addition and alloying of noble metal (e.g. Pt) with a second metal can result in a catalyst with better selectivity and activity in the reaction which is more resistant to deactivation. This paper presents the results on the single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol over carbon-supported Pt-M (M=Cr, V, Zr) alloy catalysts to yield mainly cyclohexanone or cyclohexanol.

  10. Chemical industry voluntary test program for phthalate esters: health effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Astill, B.; Barber, E.; Lington, A.; Moran, E.; Mulholland, A.; Robinson, E.; Scheider, B.

    1986-03-01

    The Chemical Manufacturers' Association voluntary test program on phthalate esters is described, and the results of certain key aspects of the program are presented. Representative phthalate esters were chosen for genotoxicity testing and peroxisome proliferation screening, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its initial metabolic products were tested in the genotoxicity battery. A comparative metabolism study was performed with DEHP in the mouse, rat, and cynomologus monkey, together with a study of the metabolism of DEHP in the rodent at several dose levels, and after prolonged feeding. A standard test for peroxisome proliferation in the rat, employing 21 days of feeding and several end points is described, based on DEHP as a reference compound. DEHP is shown to be nongenotoxic in the test battery, and its initial major metabolites are also nongenotoxic. A nonlinear dose response with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP in the rodent is demonstrated. Quantitative differences exist between the mouse and rat, and the cynomologus monkey with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP, beta-oxidation being a much less used pathway in the monkey. The significance of these results in interpreting the hepatocellular carcinogenesis of DEHP in the Fischer 344 rat is discussed.

  11. Detailed industrial hygiene survey formaldehyde production, Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. , Bishop, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.W.; Johnson, M.L.; Holmes, L.; Hedley, W.H.; Barrett, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A survey to assess techniques to control occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000) and methanol (67561) was conducted at the Celanese Chemical Company (SIC-2819) formaldehyde production unit at Bishop, Texas, in October 1982. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was expected to be low since the production process was isolated and enclosed, except for the process sample, and the loading and discharge points. Other control measures included water scrubbers on the formaldehyde storage tanks, enclosed ventilation systems, natural ventilation, and the use of personal protective equipment. The results of analysis of the formaldehyde samples were considered unreliable and were discarded. Breathing zone samples of methanol showed generally low concentrations. It was noted that since methanol was produced at the facility and the necessity of unloading trucks or rail cars was eliminated, a major source of methanol exposure was eliminated. The authors conclude that the workers are not overexposed to methanol on a short or long term basis. Due to the lack of analytical data, no conclusions concerning formaldehyde exposure could be drawn; however, engineering controls appear to be effective.

  12. Potential for chemical transport beneath a storm-runoff recharge (retention) basin for an industrial catchment in Fresno, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A wide variety of chemicals from urban runoff were found at elevated concentrations in sediment that accumulated in a storm-runoff recharge basin in an industrial part of the city of Fresno. The chemicals include as many as 20 inorganic elements and about the same number of organic compounds, primarily organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Most of these contaminants were found to be sorbed to the upper 4 centimeters of sediment, which also is the maximum depth to which atmospheric lead-210 penetrated. None of the contaminants were detected above background concentrations in the sediment at depths greater than 16 centimeters. In shallow sediment, zinc is the inorganic element that showed the greatest enrichment; its concentration was 38 times higher in surface sediment (0-1 centimeter) than in deeper strata (below 16 centi- meters). Organic carbon enrichment in the surface sediment was nearly 1,000 times. Although batch- elutriation experiments demonstrated the potential for leaching of contaminants attached to sediments, a sharp decrease in concentrations with increasing sediment depth, and the extremely low level of contaminants in two monitor wells adjacent to the basin, confirmed the absence of contaminant transport to the water table. Continued long-term protection for ground water is afforded by an approximately 8-meter-thick unsaturated zone beneath the basin. On the basis of its hundredfold-higher concentration in the recharge pond then in ground water, zinc is indicated as the most sensitive surrogate for monitoring possible ground-water degradation by inorganic cations.

  13. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer as a tool for passive sampling monitoring of hydrophobic chemicals in the salmon farm industry.

    PubMed

    Tucca, Felipe; Moya, Heriberto; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-11-15

    Current monitoring programs are focused on hydrophobic chemicals detection in aquatic systems, which require the collection of high volumes of water samples at a given time. The present study documents the preliminary use of the polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a passive sampler for the detection of a hydrophobic chemical used by salmon industries such as cypermethrin. Initially, an experimental calibration in laboratory was performed to determine the cypermethrin equilibrium between sampler and aquatic medium, which was reached after seven days of exposure. A logarithm of partitioning coefficient EVA-water (logKEVA-W) of 5.6 was reported. Field deployment of EVA samplers demonstrated average concentrations of cypermethrin in water to be 2.07 ± 0.7 ng L(-)(1) close to salmon cages, while near-shore was 4.39 ± 0.8 ng L(-)(1). This was a first approach for assessing EVA samplers design as a tool of monitoring in water for areas with salmon farming activity.

  14. Remediation of lignin and its derivatives from pulp and paper industry wastewater by the combination of chemical precipitation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    De los Santos Ramos, W; Poznyak, T; Chairez, I; Córdova R, I

    2009-09-30

    In the present work the degradation of the lignin and its derivatives in the residual water of a paper industry by simple ozonation was investigated. The remediation of lignin was realized using the combination of the pre-treatment with chemical precipitation, using concentrated sulfuric acid (97.1%) at the pH 1 and 3, and of the simple ozonation of the filtered residual water at the pH 1, 3, 8 and 12. Since the high residues content (the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 70,000 mg/L) in the experiments the diluted samples (1:10) were used. The previous precipitation has showed a significant effect on the reduction of the COD (77%) and color (96.1%). The sludge precipitated contents sulfolignin, which in the reaction with sulfuric acid was formed. In ozonation of the filtered residual water during 25 min at the pH 1, 3, 8 and 12 the follows by-products were formed: fumaric, maleic, malonic and formic acids. The biodegradability of the treated water in ozonation increases up 0.067-0.29. The effect of the precipitation and the ozonation conditions on the decolorization kinetics was evaluated.

  15. Chemical changes in an industrial waste liquid during post-injection movement in a limestone aquifer, Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Godsy, E.M.; Pascale, C.A.; Vecchioli, John

    1979-01-01

    An industrial waste liquid containing organonitrile compounds and nitrate ion has been injected into the lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida since June 1975. Chemical analyses of water from monitor wells and backflow from the injection well indicate that organic carbon compounds are converted to CO2 and nitrate is converted to N2. These transformations are caused by bacteria immediately after injection, and are virtually completed within 100 m of the injection well. The zone near the injection well behaves like an anaerobic filter with nitrate respiring bacteria dominating the microbial flora in this zone.Sodium thiocyanate contained in the waste is unaltered during passage through the injection zone and is used to detect the degree of mixing of injected waste liquid with native water at a monitor well 312 m (712 ft) from the injection well. The dispersivity of the injection zone was calculated to be 10 m (33 ft). Analyses of samples from the monitor well indicate 80 percent reduction in chemical oxygen demand and virtually complete loss of organonitriles and nitrate from the waste liquid during passage from the injection well to the monitor well. Bacterial densities were much lower at the monitor well than in backflow from the injection well.

  16. Chemical speciation in waters influenced by lead-zinc metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Tepavitcharova, Stefka; Todorov, Tihomir; Dassenakis, Manos; Paraskevopoulou, Vasiliki

    2010-10-01

    The Lead-Zinc Company region, Kardjali city, Bulgaria, is known to be highly polluted with heavy metals from its pyrometallurgical activities. The polluted levels and the chemical speciation in surface natural waters in the region as well as in the wastewaters of the factory were investigated in January 2008 by application of monitoring studies, thermodynamic modeling, and interpretation in terms of the "softness-hardness" factor. It was found that the levels of trace metals pollution of surface waters were lower than the legislation limits for the regions with Pb and Zn production. The wastewater treatment facilities of the company were found to operate properly, and the quality of the cleaned waters in station Kar4 was comparable to the other surface waters studied (e.g., station Kar5). The trace metals were divided into three groups: (1) Fe(3+) and Al(3+), being "hard" acids, existed in all the studied waters as hydroxy species Fe(OH)2(+), AlOH(2+), and Al(OH)2(+), followed by the phosphate species AlPO4(0) and Al(2)(OH)(2)PO4(0); (2) Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+) being "soft" acids with crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) = 0 were present in natural waters mainly as free Me(2+) ions. Small concentrations of their MeSO4(0), MeCO3(0) species, and of MeCl2(0) (Me = Zn, Cd) species were also calculated. In the wastewaters, two more species [Me(SO4)2(2-) and Me(SO4)3(4-)] of the softer Zn and Cd metals were also calculated; (3) Cu(2+) and Pb(2+), as "soft" acids with CFSE not equal to 0 preferentially coordinated with softer CO3(2-) ions and in natural waters existed mainly as MeCO3(0) and PbHCO3(+), followed by free Me(2+)ions and MeOH(+). In the wastewaters, MeSO4(0) and Pb(SO4)2(2-) species increased at the expense of the free Me(2+) ions. The highest self-cleaning capability of natural waters was found with respect to Al and Fe, followed by Mn and Cd. The lowest corresponded to Pb, Cu, and Zn.

  17. Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable

  18. Combined organic matter and nitrogen removal from a chemical industry wastewater in a two-stage MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Cao, S M S; Fontoura, G A T; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-producing factories generate highly polluting wastewaters containing toxic and hazardous compounds which should be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. In this study, a chemical industry wastewater was treated in a pre-denitrification moving-bed biofilm reactor system subjected to an increasing internal mixed liquor recycle ratio from 2 to 4. Although the influent wastewater characteristics substantially varied over time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon was quite stable and mostly higher than 90%. The highest fraction of the incoming organic matter was removed anoxically, favouring a low COD/N environment in the subsequent aerobic nitrifying tank and thus ensuring stable ammonium removal (90-95%). However, during pH and salt shock periods, nitrifiers were severely inhibited but gradually restored their full nitrifying capability as non-stressing conditions were reestablished. Besides promoting an increase in the maximum nitrification potential of the aerobic attached biomass from 0.34 to 0.63 mg [Formula: see text], the increase in the internal recycle ratio was accompanied by an increase in nitrogen removal (60-78%) and maximum specific denitrification rate (2.7-3.3 mg NOx(-)--N). Total polysaccharides (PS) and protein (PT) concentrations of attached biomass were observed to be directly influenced by the influent organic loading rate, while the PS/PT ratio mainly ranged from 0.3 to 0.5. Results of Microtox tests showed that no toxicity was found in the effluent of both the anoxic and aerobic reactors, indicating that the biological process was effective in removing residual substances which might adversely affect the receiving waters' ecosystem.

  19. Analysis of gaseous toxic industrial compounds and chemical warfare agent simulants by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Justes, Dina R; Nanita, Sergio C; Noll, Robert J; Mulligan, Christopher C; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-04-01

    The suitability of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry as sensing instrumentation for the real-time monitoring of low levels of toxic compounds is assessed, especially with respect to public safety applications. Gaseous samples of nine toxic industrial compounds, NH3, H2S, Cl2, CS2, SO2, C2H4O, HBr, C6H6 and AsH3, and two chemical warfare agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and methyl salicylate (MeS), were studied. API-MS proves highly suited to this application, with speedy analysis times (<30 seconds), high sensitivity, high selectivity towards analytes, good precision, dynamic range and accuracy. Tandem MS methods were implemented in selected cases for improved selectivity, sensitivity, and limits of detection. Limits of detection in the parts-per-billion and parts-per-trillion range were achieved for this set of analytes. In all cases detection limits were well below the compounds' permissible exposure limits (PELs), even in the presence of added complex mixtures of alkanes. Linear responses, up to several orders of magnitude, were obtained over the concentration ranges studied (sub-ppb to ppm), with relative standard deviations less than 3%, regardless of the presence of alkane interferents. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented to show the performance trade-off between sensitivity, probability of correct detection, and false positive rate. A dynamic sample preparation system for the production of gas phase analyte concentrations ranging from 100 pptr to 100 ppm and capable of admixing gaseous matrix compounds and control of relative humidity and temperature is also described.

  20. Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-09-01

    This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

  1. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  2. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  3. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries--Study on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Christoph; And Others

    A study focused on new occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the Federal Republic of Germany. A total of 22 interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 firms. The public debate on occupational requirements in the field of environmental protection and on…

  4. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the major chemical classes of inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at ARS developed tolerant industrial yeast that is able to reduce major chemical classes of inhibitors into less toxic or none toxic compounds while producing ethanol. Using genomic studies, we defined mechanisms of in situ detoxification involved in novel gene functions, vital cofactor r...

  5. Assessment of the toxicity of wastewater from the metalworking industry treated using a conventional physico-chemical process.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Matuella; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto; Arenzon, Alexandre; Curia, Ana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This article presents results from a toxicity reduction evaluation program intended to describe wastewater from the metalworking industry that was treated using a conventional physico-chemical process. The toxicity of the wastewater for the microcrustacean Daphnia magna was predominantly expressive. Alkaline cyanide wastewater generated from electroplating accounted for the largest number of samples with expressive toxicity. When the raw wastewater concentrations in the batches were repeated, inexpressive toxicity variations were observed more frequently among the coagulated-flocculated samples. At the coagulation-flocculation step, 22.2 % of the treatments had reduced acute toxicity, 30.6 % showed increased toxicity, and 47.2 % remained unchanged. The conductivity and total dissolved solids contents of the wastewater indicated the presence of salts with charges that were inappropriate for the survival of daphnid. The wastewaters treated by neutralization and coagulation-flocculation had average metallic compound contents that were greater than the reference toxic concentrations reported in other studies, suggesting that metals likely contributed to the toxic effects of the wastewater on freshwater microcrustaceans. Thus, alternative coagulants and flocculants should be assessed, and feasible doses should be determined to improve wastewater treatment. In addition, advanced treatment processes should be assessed for their abilities to remove dissolved toxic salts and ions.

  6. Chemical and functional properties of the different by-products of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) from industrial canning processing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; Frutos, María José; Arnao, Marino B; Espinosa, Cristóbal; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Castillo, Julián; Zamora, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the basic chemical composition and functional properties of six by-product fractions collected from different steps of artichoke industrial processing were evaluated. Fractions differed in thermal treatment, the bract position in the artichoke head and the cutting size. Contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, dietary fibre, inulin, total phenolics, total flavonoids, caffeoyl derivatives and flavones were analysed. Antioxidant activity values were also determined. All assessed artichoke by-product fractions contained high-dietary fibre (53.6-67.0%) and low fat (2.5-3.7%). Artichoke by-product fractions contained high levels of inulin, especially in the boiled inner bracts (30%). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity (153-729 μmol gallic acid equivalents, 6.9-19.2 μmol quercetin equivalents and 85-234 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of dry matter, respectively) varied widely with the bract positions in the artichoke head and the thermal treatments. The more interesting fractions for use as functional ingredients were those situated closer to the artichoke heart and thermally treated.

  7. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Dow Chemical, U. S. A. Allyn's Point Plant, Gales Ferry, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    A walkthrough industrial hygiene survey of the Dow Chemical Compay Allyn's Point styrene butadiene (SB) latex-producing facility in Gales Ferry, Connecticut, was performed. Bulk polymer samples were analyzed for free-monomer emanation at ambient, highest polymer process, and highest estimated end use temperatures. Quality-control testing included purity and dimer content of incoming 1,3-butadiene and residual 1,3-butadiene content of the latex. Of 164 workers, 20 production and 13 administrative personnel worked in the SB area where 1,3-butadiene was used. Personal monitoring conducted from 1975 to 1985 showed the mean 8-hour time-weighted average exposure was 0.25 parts per million (ppm). Area monitoring showed the highest concentration, 0.56 ppm, in a reactor and a stripper area. SB latex at ambient, process, and end-use temperatures showed free monomer to be below the 0.04 nanograms per milligram limit of detection. The authors conclude that this production facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth exposure survey regarding 1.3-butadiene.

  8. Combining U.S.-based prioritization tools to improve screening level accountability for environmental impact: the case of the chemical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2009-12-15

    There are two quantitative indicators that are most widely used to assess the extent of compliance of industrial facilities with environmental regulations: the quantity of hazardous waste generated and the amount of toxics released. These indicators, albeit useful in terms of some environmental monitoring, fail to account for direct or indirect effects on human and environmental health, especially when aggregating total quantity of releases for a facility or industry sector. Thus, there is a need for a more comprehensive approach that can prioritize a particular chemical (or industry sector) on the basis of its relevant environmental performance and impact on human health. Accordingly, the objective of the present study is to formulate an aggregation of tools that can simultaneously capture multiple effects and several environmental impact categories. This approach allows us to compare and combine results generated with the aid of select U.S.-based quantitative impact assessment tools, thereby supplementing compliance-based metrics such as data from the U.S. Toxic Release Inventory. A case study, which presents findings for the U.S. chemical manufacturing industry, is presented to illustrate the aggregation of these tools. Environmental impacts due to both upstream and manufacturing activities are also evaluated for each industry sector. The proposed combinatorial analysis allows for a more robust evaluation for rating and prioritizing the environmental impacts of industrial waste.

  9. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  10. Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-05-19

    In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a

  11. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  12. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2013-12-15

    Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum.

  13. 20150325 - Application of High-Throughput In Vitro Assays for Risk-Based Chemical Safety Decisions of Environmental and Industrial Chemicals (SOT presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple drivers shape the types of human-health assessments performed on chemicals by U.S. EPA resulting in chemical assessments are “fit-for-purpose” ranging from prioritization for further testing to full risk assessments. Layered on top of the diverse assessment n...

  14. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  15. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  16. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  17. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary.

  18. Fine and coarse particulate matter chemical characterization in a heavily industrialized city in central Mexico during Winter 2003.

    PubMed

    Vega, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Hugo; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Sosa, Gustavo; González-Avalos, Eugenio; Reyes, Elizabeth; García, José

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the first reported study on fine particulate matter (PM) chemical composition at Salamanca, a highly industrialized urban area of Central Mexico. Samples were collected at six sites within the urban area during February and March 2003. Several trace elements, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and six ions were analyzed to characterize aerosols. Average concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM10) and fine PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) ranged from 32.2 to 76.6 [g m(-3) and 11.1 to 23.7 microg m(-3), respectively. OC (34%), SO4= (25.1%), EC (12.9%), and geological material (12.5%) were the major components of PM2.5. For PM10 geological material (57.9%), OC (17.3%), and SO4= (9.7%) were the major components. Coarse fraction (PM,, -PM2.5), geological material (81.7%), and OC (8.6%) were the dominant species, which amounted to 90.4%. Correlation analysis showed that sulfate in PM2.5 was present as ammonium sulfate. Sulfate showed a significant spatial variation with higher concentrations to the north resulting from predominantly southwesterly winds above the surface layer and by major SO2 sources that include a power plant and refinery. At the urban site of Cruz Roja it was observed that PM2.5 mass concentrations were similar to the submicron fraction concentrations. Furthermore, the correlation between EC in PM2.5 and EC measured from an aethalometer was r(2) = 0.710. Temporal variations of SO2 and nitrogen oxide were observed during a day when the maximum concentration of PM2.5 was measured, which was associated with emissions from the nearby refinery and power plant. From cascade impactor measurements, the three measured modes of airborne particles corresponded with diameters of 0.32, 1.8, and 5.6 microm.

  19. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-05

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  20. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents. PMID:25198686

  1. Predicting the hazardous dose of industrial chemicals in warm-blooded species using machine learning-based modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Basant, N; Singh, K P

    2015-06-01

    The hazardous dose of a chemical (HD50) is an emerging and acceptable test statistic for the safety/risk assessment of chemicals. Since it is derived using the experimental toxicity values of the chemical in several test species, it is highly cumbersome, time and resource intensive. In this study, three machine learning-based QSARs were established for predicting the HD50 of chemicals in warm-blooded species following the OECD guidelines. A data set comprising HD50 values of 957 chemicals was used to develop SDT, DTF and DTB QSAR models. The diversity in chemical structures and nonlinearity in the data were verified. Several validation coefficients were derived to test the predictive and generalization abilities of the constructed QSARs. The chi-path descriptors were identified as the most influential in three QSARs. The DTF and DTB performed relatively better than SDT model and yielded r(2) values of 0.928 and 0.959 between the measured and predicted HD50 values in the complete data set. Substructure alerts responsible for the toxicity of the chemicals were identified. The results suggest the appropriateness of the developed QSARs for reliably predicting the HD50 values of chemicals, and they can be used for screening of new chemicals for their safety/risk assessment for regulatory purposes.

  2. Derived no-effect levels (DNELs) under the European chemicals regulation REACH--an analysis of long-term inhalation worker-DNELs presented by industry.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Linda; Deng, Uriell; Johanson, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    The European REACH regulation places responsibility for providing safety information, including derived no-effect levels (DNELs), on chemicals and chemical products on 'industry', i.e. manufacturers and importers. We compared long-term inhalation worker-DNELs (wDNELs) presented by industry with the corresponding Swedish occupational exposure limits (OELs), and for a subset, with wDNELs derived by us. Our wDNELs were derived using toxicological evaluations published by the Swedish Criteria Group and our interpretation of the REACH Guidance. On average, industry's wDNELs were the same as the Swedish OELs (median of wDNEL-OEL ratios: 0.98, n = 235). However, the variation was huge, the extremes being up to 450 times higher, and up to 230 times lower than the corresponding OEL. Nearly one-fifth of the wDNELs were ≥2 times higher and one-third ≥2 times lower than the OEL. No time trend was seen in the wDNEL/OEL ratios, suggesting that older OELs were not systematically higher than the more recent ones. Industry's wDNELs varied widely and were generally higher (median 4.2 times, up to 435 times higher, down to 13 times lower, n = 23) also compared to our wDNELs. Only five industry wDNELs were equal to or lower than ours. The choices of key studies, dose descriptors, and assessment factors all seemed to contribute to the discrepancies. We conclude that although the REACH guidance is detailed, many choices that will influence the wDNEL lack firm instructions. A major problem is that little advice is given on when and how to depart from default assessment factors.

  3. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  4. Detection of formaldehyde emissions from an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region of China using a proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Zhang, Bingjie; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Xinrong; Yang, Dongsen; Wang, Ming; Shi, Xiaowen; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PTR-ID-CIMS) equipped with a hydronium (H3+O) ion source was developed and deployed near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in spring 2015 to investigate industry-related emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO), aromatics, and other trace gases (O3 and CO) were simultaneously measured. Humidity effects on the sensitivity of the PTR-ID-CIMS for HCHO detection were investigated and quantified. The performances of the PTR-ID-CIMS were also validated by intercomparing with offline HCHO measurement technique using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) cartridges and the results showed fairly good agreement (slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.80). The PTR-ID-CIMS detection limit of HCHO (10 s, three-duty-cycle averages) was determined to be 0.9-2.4 (RH = 1-81.5 %) parts per billion by volume (ppbv) based on 3 times the standard deviations of the background signals. During the field study, observed HCHO concentrations ranged between 1.8 and 12.8 ppbv with a campaign average of 4.1 ± 1.6 ppbv, which was comparable with previous HCHO observations in other similar locations of China. However, HCHO diurnal profiles showed few features of secondary formation. In addition, time series of both HCHO and aromatic VOCs indicated strong influence from local emissions. Using a multiple linear regression fit model, on average the observed HCHO can be attributed to secondary formation (13.8 %), background level (27.0 %), and industry-related emissions, i.e., combustion sources (43.2 %) and chemical productions (16.0 %). Moreover, within the plumes the industry-related emissions can account for up to 69.2 % of the observed HCHO. This work has provided direct evidence of strong primary emissions of HCHO from industry-related activities. These primary HCHO sources can potentially have a strong impact on local and regional air pollution formation

  5. Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

    2005-09-01

    Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted.

  6. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda.

  7. The key role of biogenic manganese oxides in enhanced removal of highly recalcitrant 1,2,4-triazole from bio-treated chemical industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiqin; Wu, Haobo; Jiang, Xinbai; Shen, Jinyou; Faheem, Muhammad; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun; Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-03-10

    The secondary effluent from biological treatment process in chemical industrial plant often contains refractory organic matter, which deserves to be further treated in order to meet the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. In this study, the key role of biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) in enhanced removal of highly recalcitrant 1,2,4-triazole from bio-treated chemical industrial wastewater was investigated. BioMnOx production by acclimated manganese-oxidizing bacterium (MOB) consortium was confirmed through scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Pseudomonas and Bacillus were found to be the most predominant species in acclimated MOB consortium. Mn(2+) could be oxidized optimally at neutral pH and initial Mn(2+) concentration below 33 mg L(-1). However, 1,2,4-triazole removal by BioMnOx produced occurred optimally at slightly acidic pH. High dosage of both Mn(2+) and 1,2,4-triazole resulted in decreased 1,2,4-triazole removal. In a biological aerated filter (BAF) coupled with manganese oxidation, 1,2,4-triazole and total organic carbon removal could be significantly enhanced compared to the control system without the participation of manganese oxidation, confirming the key role of BioMnOx in the removal of highly recalcitrant 1,2,4-triazole. This study demonstrated that the biosystem coupled with manganese oxidation had a potential for the removal of various recalcitrant contaminants from bio-treated chemical industrial wastewater.

  8. Evaluating the "greenness" of chemical processes and products in the pharmaceutical industry--a green metrics primer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J C; Ponder, Celia S

    2012-02-21

    This tutorial review presents an overview of the main metrics that have been used to test and compare the 'greenness' of processes and products, primarily in the pharmaceutical industry. The green metrics cover areas of resources, materials, processing, cleaning, life cycle assessment, renewability, amongst others. Application examples of these metrics are also presented to illustrate key points and concepts.

  9. Economic-impact analysis of effluent-limitations guidelines and standards for the organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic-fibers industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report identifies and analyzes economic impacts that are likely to result from water-pollution-control regulations on the organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic fibers (OCPSF) industry. The regulations included EPA effluent limitations and standards. The report supplements technical studies supporting the issuance of the OCPSF regulations by estimating the broader economic effects that might result from the application of various control methods and technologies. The primary economic-impact variables assessed include the costs of the contemplated regulations, and the potential for these regulations to cause plant closure, unemployment, reductions in profitability, shifts in the balance of trade, and anticompetitive effects on small business and new facilities.

  10. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kunwar P. Gupta, Shikha

    2014-03-15

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R{sup 2} and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  11. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Dow Chemical, USA Allyn's Point Plant, Gales Ferry, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the SB latex production process and assess the potential for occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The information will be used in determining the suitability of inclusion of the facility in an in-depth survey regarding the substance. The Allyn's Point Plant employs 164 people; 33 work in the SB latex area where 1,3-butadiene is used. The weighted mean 8-hour time-weighted average for 93 samples was 0.25 ppm. The results of the NIOSH analysis of bulk samples of SB latex were nondetectable. The level of detection was 0.04 ng/mg by weight. Based on a review of historical industrial-hygiene data provided by Dow showing detectable 1,3-butadiene exposures for two job classifications, it is the decision of NIOSH to include Dow as a candidate for an in-depth industrial hygiene survey.

  12. Assessing Homeland Chemical Hazards Outside the Military Gates: Industrial Hazard Threat Assessments for Department of Defense Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Science of the Total Environment 288 (2002) 111–117 0048-9697/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII...Std Z39-18 112 J.S. Kirkpatrick et al. / The Science of the Total Environment 288 (2002) 111–117 1. Introduction Historically, toxic industrial...sal record locator http:yywww.epa.govy 113J.S. Kirkpatrick et al. / The Science of the Total Environment 288 (2002) 111–117

  13. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75μm range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis... FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A, Meth. 601 Appendix A to Part 136—Methods for Organic... Application 1.1This method covers the determination of 29 purgeable halocarbons. The following parameters...

  15. Monitoring toxicity of industrial wastewater and specific chemicals to a green alga, nitrifying bacteria and an aquatic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Eilersen, A M; Arvin, E; Henze, M

    2004-01-01

    Treatment plants may be exposed to a whole range of toxic organic and inorganic compounds that may inhibit the removal of organic matter and nitrogen. In order to secure maximum treatment efficiency, the plant manager has to monitor the toxicity of the influent sewage. With regard to the receiving water the manager also has to make sure that toxicity in the influent is significantly reduced during treatment. Because a whole range of chemicals may be present, chemical analysis may be insufficient and expensive as a control instrument. Instead, direct toxicity measurements are preferable to capture the complexity of the wastewater. The monitoring methods have to be relevant and sensitive for the processes in the treatment plant, i.e. removal of organic matter and nutrients. The methods also have to be simple and inexpensive. The paper reports on recent results from the application of nitrification, algae and Biotox tests, and summarises the experience with monitoring of toxicity. Although the sensitivity of the tests varies with respect to individual chemicals or group of chemicals, the application of a combination of the tests gives a high likelihood of detecting toxic impacts on treatment plants and receiving waters.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis... FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A, Meth. 601 Appendix A to Part 136—Methods for Organic.... Interferences 3.1Impurities in the purge gas and organic compounds outgassing from the plumbing ahead of...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis... FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A, Meth. 601 Appendix A to Part 136—Methods for Organic.... Interferences 3.1Impurities in the purge gas and organic compounds outgassing from the plumbing ahead of...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis... FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A, Meth. 601 Appendix A to Part 136—Methods for Organic.... Interferences 3.1Impurities in the purge gas and organic compounds outgassing from the plumbing ahead of...

  19. Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-07-01

    simultaneously during the sampling period from the Indian Meteorological Department, Kolkata. A simultaneous meteorological study was performed to assess the influence of air masses by measured meteorological parameters. Winter concentrations of PM 10 and its chemical constituents were mainly higher than in other seasons, irrespective of the monitoring sites. It indicates a longer residence time of particulates in the atmosphere during winter due to low winds and low mixing height. Winter to monsoon ratio for PM 10 is 1.6 and 2.3 for residential and industrial sites, respectively. Summer to monsoon ratio of PM 10 observed in the study period was 1.3 for the residential site, and 1.4 for the industrial site. The higher particulate pollution in the industrial area may be attributed to resuspension of road dust, soil dust, automobile traffic and nearby industrial emissions. Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis showed an inverse relationship between PM 10 and its chemical constituents with wind speed, temperature, rainfall and relative humidity.

  20. Is phycovolatilization of heavy metals a probable (or possible) physiological phenomenon? An in situ pilot-scale study at a leather-processing chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Hanumantha; Kumar, R Ranjith; Raghavan, B G; Subramanian, V V; Sivasubramanian, V

    2011-04-01

    Using algae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using other biosorbents and physical and chemical methods. In this study, effluent from a leather-processing chemical industry in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India, was treated for the removal of heavy metals using the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, which was isolated from the effluent itself. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the mass balance of a model parameter, lead, in laboratory conditions and estimate the lead adsorption capabilities of the microalga and (2) conduct pilot-scale studies for the removal of heavy metals, using the microalga, from the effluent and the solid waste accumulated over the years generated by conventional treatment methods. The results of the study show that after 8 hours, Chlorella vulgaris exhibited a better adsorption capacity under sunlight compared to laboratory conditions (i.e., 30.6 mg/g dry weight vs 10.5 mg/g dry weight, respectively). Similarly, reduction of heavy metals and mass balance in pilot-scale field studies conducted in a high-rate algal pond showed that the microalga, apart from adsorption, complexation, and entrapment mechanisms, is likely to possess phycovolatilization capability probably via biotransformation processes.

  1. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens.

  2. The PM2.5 chemical composition in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement: main sources and local background.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Visin, Flavia; Canal, Andrea; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Chemical analyses, receptor modeling and meteorological data were combined to determine the composition and sources of PM2.5 sampled daily in a large area in Italy characterized by a high number of heterogeneous industrial emissions and contiguous to a major urban center. The PM2.5 local background in the area, i.e. the common basic composition and concentrations of PM2.5, was determined. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression analysis (FA-MLRA) was used to identify and quantify the main PM sources. Groups of samples with similar source contributions were then sorted using cluster analysis. The potential source location and the influence of long range transport were investigated by using the conditional probability function (CPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) respectively. On an annual basis, five sources of PM were found relevant. Industrial emissions accounted for 3% of PM mass, whereas the main contribution to PM was related to a combination of ammonium nitrate, combustion (54%) and road traffic (36%), mainly related to urban emissions. The PM2.5 background was estimated to account for 20 μg m(-3). It comprises contributions of 55% ammonium nitrate and combustion, 46% road traffic, 6% fossil fuel combustion and 3% industrial emissions. Source contributions are influenced by both local atmospheric circulation and regional transport.

  3. Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, chemical, 210Pb dating, and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Blaha, U; Basavaiah, N; Deenadayalan, K; Borole, D V; Mohite, R D

    2011-01-15

    The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminated mudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data, metal contents, and the (210)Pb dating technique. The 1.8 m vertical section at Airoli (Navi Mumbai) reveals an increase of magnetic susceptibility (χ) from background values of (20-50) to (75-100) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] in the anthropogenically affected zone above ∼93 cm. A sharp rise of χ from (75-100) to (130-215) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] subdivides the anthropogenically affected zone at a depth of ∼63 cm. Characterization with rock magnetic parameters (SIRM, Soft IRM, and S-ratio) reveals a significant contribution of ferri(o)magnetic phases in the upper zone. Based on the magnetic classification sampling intervals for cost-intensive PAH and metal analyses were determined. Steadily increasing contents of PAH and metals of anthropogenic origin are observed above the boundary depth at ∼93 cm. A sediment accumulation rate of 1.2 ± 0.3 cm/yr provided by (210)Pb dating dates the ∼63 cm boundary to 1951. Increasing industrial activity, including the establishment of a coal-fired power plant in 1956, and refineries between 1955 and 1960, correlates well with the substantial increase of χ, PAH, and metal contents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation on magnetic extracts from the contaminated zone reveals the presence of magnetic spherules derived from industrial high-temperature processes.

  4. Host Response to Environmental Hazards: Using Literature, Bioinformatics, and Computation to Derive Candidate Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    respectively, and qualified some of these targets in independent animal studies. In particular, we developed panels of genes (25-50 genes per panel...regulatory agencies further increase risk to deployed personnel. Recent years have also seen an exponential advance in the development, distribution...medical roles I-IV. The reasons for this deficiency are multifactorial: (1) the number of potential chemical threats increases exponentially when

  5. Industrial microbial enzymes: their discovery by screening and use in large-scale production of useful chemicals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2002-08-01

    The application of microbial enzymes to large-scale organic synthesis is currently attracting much attention, and has been uniquely developed especially in Japan. The discovery of new microbial enzymes through extensive and persistent screening has brought about many new and simple routes for synthetic processes. The application of these enzymes in so-called 'hybrid processes' of enzymatic and chemical reactions, provide one possible way to solve environmental problems.

  6. [Inhalation exposure to welding fumes of arc welders in processing Cr-Ni steel in large chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Dyrba, B C; Richter, K H

    1989-05-01

    For clearing up the inhalative load by welding fumes and gases of arc welders in industrial workshops mainly working on Cr-Ni-steels the following welding processes were studied: tungsten inert-gas (TIG), electrode-by-hand (EH), metal inert-gas (MIG), and plasma cutting (plasma). From the total load by welding fumes follows the rank TIG less than EH less than plasma less than MIG. Observing the maximum allowable concentration (MACD) for the total welding fume, no MACD for Cr and Ni was found exceeded. Regarding the welding gases ozone and CO no limit values were exceeded. From the results conclusions were made.

  7. Effect of a residue after evaporation from industrial vitamin C fermentation on chemical and microbial properties of alkali-saline soil.

    PubMed

    Kong, Tao; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Hao; Wang, Lihua

    2014-07-01

    Residue after evaporation (RAE) from industrial vitamin C fermentation is emitted as a waste product at an amount of 60,000 tons per year in China. The disposal of RAE is difficult because of its high chemical oxygen demand (1.17×10(6) mg/l) and low pH (0.27). We hypothesized that RAE could be used as an ameliorant for alkali-saline soils, and tried to verify it by carrying out a pot experiment of pakchoi cultivation and to explore its effect on soil chemical and microbial properties. The results showed that pakchoi yield was increased by 28.13% and pakchoi quality was also enhanced under RAE treatment. The improved chemical and microbial properties of treated soil were also observed: soil pH was decreased from 9.19 to 9.03; total organic carbon, available phosphorus and available potassium were increased by 49.15%, 34.91% and 42.02%, respectively; number of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activity number were improved by 52.97%, 104.05%, 79.09%, 57.82% and 31.16%, respectively. These results suggested the residue application led to an improved soil quality and subsequently a higher yield and quality of pakchoi. This study provided a strong evidence for the feasibility of RAE as an ameliorant for alkali-saline soil.

  8. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  9. Column flotation: Processes, designs and practices. Process engineering for the chemical, metals and minerals industry, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, J.B. . Flotation Equipment and Process Engineering Dept.)

    1994-01-01

    Practically all mined ores of non-ferrous and rare metals and an increasing share of industrial minerals and coal are processed through flotation. This book presents the analysis of a wide range of problems in the process theory of flotation columns, including the first published analysis of models of flotation froths. The experience of pilot tests and commercial applications of column flotation for mineral processing and in waste water treatment circuits are also considered. This is the first book to consider column flotation design and operation experience and to present data on column parameters. Topics include: design of flotation columns; aerators in flotation columns; experimental methods of column aerohydrodynamics investigation; aerohydrodynamic characteristics of flotation columns; experimental investigation of the flotation process in columns; kinetics aspects of column flotation; scaling-up methods for flotation columns; structure and mass transfer in flotation froths; column flotation practice; and column flotation control.

  10. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  11. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  12. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness, and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  13. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  14. Geophysical and chemical investigations of ground water at five industrial or waste-disposal sites in Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1983-87

    SciTech Connect

    Kzonski, J.; Lacombe, P.J.; Hochreiter, J.J.; Lewis, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Five former or active industrial or waste disposal sites in Logan Township were identified by the Federal government and by the State of New Jersey as potential threats to the quality of groundwater there. The sites are: (1) Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. waste disposal site; (2) Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc.; (3) Chemical Leaman Tank Lines, Inc.; (4) Monsanto Company; and (5) Rollins Environmental Services, Inc. Quality of groundwater was determined by chemical analysis of samples from wells at four of the five sites and elsewhere in the township. Groundwater in the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-magothy aquifer system in Logan Township and surrounding areas is dominated by sodium and chloride ions and is slightly saline. Calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in the upper and middle aquifers; the concentration of dissolved solids is low. Concentrations of iron and manganese in the groundwater range from 6 to 73,000 microgm/L, and from 33 to 1,100 microgm/L. Concentrations of organic carbon range from 0.60 to 4.2 mg/L. Areas of high apparent conductivity were detected east of the waste oil lagoon at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc. site. Inorganic groundwater contamination at the site is characterized by concentrations of cadmium and lead that exceed Federal and State primary drinking water regulations. Groundwater at the Chemical Leaman site also is characterized by elevated concentrations of organic nitrogen, and concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, and Hg that exceed Federal primary drinking water regulations. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 339 to 3,530 mg/L at the Monsanto Site and typically are much higher than background levels, but the cause is unclear. 86 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ..., Industrial Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing, Industrial Organic Chemical Manufacturing, Inorganic Pigments Manufacturing, Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing, Plastic Materials and Resins Manufacturing... Intermediate Production, Industrial Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing, Industrial Organic Chemical...

  16. Development of waxy cassava with different Biological and physico-chemical characteristics of starches for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Dufour, Dominique; Sánchez, Teresa; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhang, Peng

    2011-08-01

    The quality of cassava starch, an important trait in cassava breeding programs, determines its applications in various industries. For example, development of waxy (having a low level of amylose) cassava is in demand. Amylose is synthesized by granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) in plants, and therefore, down-regulation of GBSSI expression in cassava might lead to reduced amylose content. We produced 63 transgenic cassava plant lines that express hair-pin dsRNAs homologous to the cassava GBSSI conserved region under the control of the vascular-specific promoter p54/1.0 from cassava (p54/1.0::GBSSI-RNAi) or cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S (35S::GBSSI-RNAi). After the screening storage roots and starch granules from field-grown plants with iodine staining, the waxy phenotype was discovered: p54/1.0::GBSSI-RNAi line A8 and 35S::GBSSI-RNAi lines B9, B10, and B23. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that there was no detectable GBSSI protein in the starch granules of plants with the waxy phenotype. Further, the amylose content of transgenic starches was significantly reduced (<5%) compared with the level in starch granules from the wild-type (about 25%). The inner structure of the waxy starch granules differed from that of the untransformed ones, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis as well as morphological changes in the iodine-starch complex. Endothermic enthalpy was reduced in waxy cassava starches, according to differential scanning calorimeter analysis. Except B9, all waxy starches displayed the A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Amylogram patterns of the waxy cassava starches were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer and found to have increased values for clarity, peak viscosity, gel breakdown, and swelling index. Setback, consistency, and solubility were notably reduced. Therefore, waxy cassava with novel starch in its storage roots was produced using the biotechnological approach, promoting its

  17. Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon; Park, Jeung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recovery of metal values from GaN, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) waste of GaN based power device and LED industry is investigated by acidic leaching. Leaching kinetics of gallium rich MOCVD waste is studied and the process is optimized. The gallium rich waste MOCVD dust is characterized by XRD and ICP-AES analysis followed by aqua regia digestion. Different mineral acids are used to find out the best lixiviant for selective leaching of the gallium and indium. Concentrated HCl is relatively better lixiviant having reasonably faster kinetic and better leaching efficiency. Various leaching process parameters like effect of acidity, pulp density, temperature and concentration of catalyst on the leaching efficiency of gallium and indium are investigated. Reasonably, 4 M HCl, a pulp density of 50 g/L, 100 °C and stirring rate of 400 rpm are the effective optimum condition for quantitative leaching of gallium and indium.

  18. Utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; Qureshi, Nasib; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Lindquist, Mitchell R

    2017-04-01

    Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.

  19. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  20. Chemical composition and mineralogy of borate from Rio Grande deposit, Uyuni (Bolivia) as raw materials for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillen Vargas, Julio; Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Parcerisa, David; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Bolivia has large tailings as a result of the historic and present-day Sn mining activity developed extensively in that country. Tailings produced in these mining activities have an appropriate composition to reprocess them and make silicate glass and glass-ceramics, obtaining the valorization of wastes and reducing the visual and chemical impact. Reprocessing the wastes to make glass and glass-ceramics prevents the leaching of heavy metals from those wastes because they are retained in the structure of the glass. Furthermore, an option to increase the economic value of these glasses is the introduction of boron and other additives to produce borosilicate glass. In this study a characterization of the Rio Grande borate deposit for its use in the manufacture of borosilicate glass is presented. Mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Rio Grande borate deposit is located in an area of about 50 km2 close to the south of the Salar of Uyuni, in the Río Grande de Lípez Delta. Borates occur in the contact between fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine sediments from water raising the surface by capillarity. The borates crop out in an extent area but towards the west they are covered by fluvio-deltaic sediments, which can be up to 2 m thick. These borates occur as lenses 50-100 m in diameter and layers up to 1 m thick. They usually form brittle nodules with a cotton-ball texture. Chemical composition of the Rio Grande borates is CaO, 11.82-13.83 wt%; Na2O, 13.50-19.35 wt%; K2O, 0.05- 1.04 wt%; MgO, 0.42-1.46 wt%; B2O3, 36.21-42.60 wt%; SiO2, up to 0.53 wt% and SO2, up to 0.60 wt%. Trace elements are low: Sr content is between 151-786 ppm, Al 12-676 ppm, Mn between 1-17 ppm, As 2-10 ppm and Fe between 9-376 ppm. The most abundant borate mineral in this

  1. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-07-11

    Optimized non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using acetonitrile-2-propanol gradient elution and the column coupling in the total length of 45 cm has been applied for the high resolution separation of plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics. Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is used for the unambiguous identification and also the reliable quantitation with the response factors approach. Based on the precise determination of individual triacyglycerol concentrations, the calculation of average parameters important in the nutrition is performed, i.e. average carbon number, average double bond number, relative concentrations of essential, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results are reported in the form of both chromatographic fingerprints and tables containing relative concentrations for all triacylglycerols and fatty acids in individual samples. In total, 264 triacylglycerols consisting of 28 fatty acids with the alkyl chain length from 6 to 26 carbon atoms and 0 to 4 double bonds have been identified in 26 industrial important plant oils.

  2. Central nervous defects in two children of mothers exposed to chemicals in the reinforced plastics industry. Chance or a causal relation?

    PubMed

    Holmberg, P C

    1977-12-01

    With the use of a specially designed questionnaire, with the emphasis on occupational exposure to chemical agents at work, a case-referent study was started on 1 June 1976. The series comprised mothers of all children with central nervous defects notified to the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations and their matched-pair referents. Information was gained by personal interview. By 1 March 1977 information had been gathered from 43 cases and their referents. Two case mothers had been employed in the reinforced plastics industry and had been exposed at work to a combination of styrene, polyester resin, organic peroxides, and acetone. When the number of fertile women in this industry is considered (some 250), along with the low rate of anencephaly and hydrochephalus in the general population--diagnoses made of the children of these case mothers (0.5/1,000 live births in Finland)--this occupational group is strongly overrepresented in the material. The paper is a more-detailed report regarding the two cases. Moreover a third case is mentioned in which the pregnant mother, a juvenile diabetic, had been exposed at home to styrene, polyester resin, and organic peroxides.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of quartz from industrial manufacturing and its cytotoxic effects on alveolar macrophages: The case of green sand mould casting for iron production.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Pardi, Luca A; Bronco, Simona; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Muniz Miranda, Maurizio; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario; Romanelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-15

    Industrial processing of materials containing quartz induces physico-chemical modifications that contribute to the variability of quartz hazard in different plants. Here, modifications affecting a quartz-rich sand during cast iron production, have been investigated. Composition, morphology, presence of radicals associated to quartz and reactivity in free radical generation were studied on a raw sand and on a dust recovered after mould dismantling. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the processed dust and ROS and NO generation were evaluated on MH-S macrophages. Particle morphology and size were marginally affected by casting processing, which caused only a slight increase of the amount of respirable fraction. The raw sand was able to catalyze OH and CO2(-) generation in cell-free test, even if in a lesser extent than the reference quartz (Min-U-Sil), and shows hAl radicals, conventionally found in any quartz-bearing raw materials. Enrichment in iron and extensive coverage with amorphous carbon were observed during processing. They likely contributed, respectively, to increasing the ability of processed dust to release CO2- and to suppressing OH generation respect to the raw sand. Carbon coverage and repeated thermal treatments during industrial processing also caused annealing of radiogenic hAl defects. Finally, no cellular responses were observed with the respirable fraction of the processed powder.

  4. Chemical manipulation of the mTORC1 pathway in industrially relevant CHOK1 cells enhances production of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Dadehbeigi, Nazanin; Dickson, Alan J

    2015-07-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is known as a central coordinator of protein synthesis and cell growth in response to the cellular environment. In this work, chemical manipulation of mTORC1 pathway was employed to enhance mAb production as well as increase understanding of intracellular pathways in GS-CHOK1 cells. Using the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 downstream targets, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, as read-outs of mTORC1 activity, we investigated the contribution of each target protein to growth and/or productivity. Inoculation of cultures in the presence of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTORC1, increased viability and final titer. The initial increase in specific productivity and inhibition of growth by rapamycin correlated with diminished phospho-S6K1. However, inhibition was transient and cells recovered by unknown mechanisms. In contrast, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was preserved in response to rapamycin. Finally, we examined the activity of mTORC1 after addition of a custom-designed feed. Feeding led to substantial increase in growth and productivity and the phosphorylation of both targets was elevated. Though many details of mTORC1 signaling in CHO cells remain to be clarified, we have provided evidence that environmental manipulation of the mTORC1 pathway correlates with changes in cell growth and recombinant protein production.

  5. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater.

  6. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  7. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  8. A paired comparison between human skin and hairless guinea pig skin in vitro permeability and lag time measurements for 6 industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Frasch, H Frederick; Barbero, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare permeability coefficients (k(p)) and lag times (tau) in human skin and hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. Paired experiments employed heat-separated epidermal membranes from human and HGP sources mounted on static in vitro diffusion cells. Infinite-dose, saturated aqueous solutions of 6 industrial chemicals were used as donors: aniline, benzene, 1,2- dichloroethane, diethyl phthalate, naphthalene, and tetrachloroethylene. No significant differences were found between human and HGP skin for either k(p) or tau for any of these chemicals (p >or= .24). HGP vs. human k(p) measurements, and HGP vs. human tau measurements, were highly correlated. For k(p), the slope of the linear correlation was close to unity (1.080 +/- 0.182) and the intercept close to 0 (0.015 +/- 0. 029 cm/h), with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) = 0.898. For tau, the slope was also close to unity (0.818 +/- 0.030) and the intercept close to 0 (-0.014 +/- 0.023 h), with r(2) = 0.994. These results suggest that HGP skin may serve as an excellent surrogate for human skin in in vitro dermal penetration studies.

  9. Industrial-hygiene report: preliminary plant visit of formaldehyde-production facility at Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. , Moncure, North Carolina, September 22, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-12

    An on-site visit was made to Reichhold Chemicals, located in Moncure, North Carolina to evaluate the effectiveness of methods used to control employee exposures to formaldehyde and other hazardous chemicals. Fourteen of the 29 employees of this company were involved in the production of formaldehyde and resin. Formaldehyde was manufactured by the patented Formox process, using a metal oxide catalyst. Harmful exposures could occur during methanol unloading and handling, and during the vaporizing and converting of methanol, during cooling of formaldehyde gases in the aftercooler, during entrance of the cooled formaldehyde gases to the absorber during transfer for storage, and during truck-loading operations. Each of these hazardous times was effectively controlled by the carefully engineered safety programs in place at this site. All leaks which were detected appeared to be minor. The industrial-hygiene program demonstrated a good awareness at the corporate level of the procedures needed to protect employees. Some problems did exist with worker cooperation with health and safety requirements. It was suggested that proper ventilation be installed in the quality-control laboratory and that eyewash and shower stations be added within the facility.

  10. Case studies on the physical-chemical parameters' variation during three different purification approaches destined to treat wastewaters from food industry.

    PubMed

    Ghimpusan, Marieta; Nechifor, Gheorghe; Nechifor, Aurelia-Cristina; Dima, Stefan-Ovidiu; Passeri, Piero

    2016-07-26

    The paper presents a set of three interconnected case studies on the depuration of food processing wastewaters by using aeration & ozonation and two types of hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (MBR) approaches. A secondary and more extensive objective derived from the first one is to draw a clearer, broader frame on the variation of physical-chemical parameters during the purification of wastewaters from food industry through different operating modes with the aim of improving the management of water purification process. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), total nitrogen, specific nitrogen (NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-)) total phosphorous, and total surfactants were the measured parameters, and their influence was discussed in order to establish the best operating mode to achieve the purification performances. The integrated air-ozone aeration process applied in the second operating mode lead to a COD decrease by up to 90%, compared to only 75% obtained in a conventional biological activated sludge process. The combined purification process of MBR and ozonation produced an additional COD decrease of 10-15%, and made the Total Surfactants values to comply to the specific legislation.

  11. Genotoxicological monitoring of 175 subjects living in the green belts, inner town or near chemical industrial estates in Greater Budapest agglomeration, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Major, J; Jakab, M G; Tompa, A

    1998-01-13

    We studied the effects of chronic low dose exposure to environmental pollutants on the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of subjects living in the green belts and the inner town, and/or working in the surrounding of industrial estates of Greater Budapest agglomeration, Hungary. The effects of some biological (gender, age, hematocrit and white blood cell counts), lifestyle (smoking, drinking habits and residential areas), and seasonal confounding factors were also considered. PBLs of 175 Hungarian donors of Budapest agglomeration, i.e. 45 subjects living in the green belts without significant genotoxic exposure (C1), 43 donors living in the inner town (C2), and 87 individuals living and/or working near chemical industrial estates (C3), were analysed for structural and numeric chromosome aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation indices (lectine stimulation, LI; and proliferation rate index, PRI), and UV-light-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). Each subject was interviewed personally and also investigated clinically. The three populations were matched for age, smoking and drinking habits. We excluded all donors with acute infectious and/or chronic non-infectious diseases, and/or with exposure to any known chemical hazard. For C1s, the base line CA and SCE frequencies were 0.25% and 6.41 per mitosis, respectively; in C2, these frequencies were 0.48% and 6.07 per mitosis, respectively, and in C3, these data were 1.60% and 5.71 per mitosis, respectively. A significant increase of CA due to chromosome type acentric fragments was demonstrated in the donors living in the inner town (C2), compared to those living in the green belts (C1). In C3s, significant (p < 0.05) elevations were found in the frequencies of gaps, aberrant cells, total aberrations (excluding gaps), chromatid and chromosome type aberrations, and in UDS, compared to C1s. Results indicate an increased genotoxicologic risk in donors living and/or working in industrial

  12. Modelling the multiphase chemical processing of Monoethanolamine from industrial CCS processes in tropospheric aqueous particles and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilgner, Andreas; Bräuer, Peter; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Using amine based solvent technology is an option to realise CO2 capture from the exhaust of power plants. Amines such as Monoethanolamine (MEA) may potentially be released in trace amounts during the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process. In order to investigate the tropospheric chemical fate of MEA from CO2 capturing processes and their oxidation products, multiphase modelling was performed and a reduced mechanism for future 3D model applications was developed in the present study. Based on former laboratory investigations and mechanism developments, an up-to-date multiphase mechanism describing the gas and aqueous phase chemistry of MEA has been developed in the present study. The developed multiphase phase oxidation scheme of MEA and its oxidation products, incl. nitrosamines, nitramines and amides, was coupled to the existing multiphase chemistry mechanism (RACM-MIM2ext-CAPRAM3.0i-red, Deguillaume et al. 2010) and the CAPRAM Halogen Module 2.0. Overall, the multiphase mechanism comprises 1276 chemical processes including 668 gas and 518 aqueous phase reactions as well as 90 phase transfers. The multiphase amine module contains in total 138 processes. The final mechanism was used in the Lagrangian parcel model SPACCIM (Wolke et al., 2005) to investigate e.g. the main oxidation pathways, the formation of hazardous oxidation products and seasonal differences. Simulations were performed using a meteorological scenario with non-permanent clouds, different environmental trajectories and seasonal conditions. The simulations revealed the importance of both cloud droplets and deliquescent particles to be an important compartment for the multiphase processing of MEA and its products. Due to the shifted partitioning of MEA towards the aqueous phase, the model investigations implicated that aqueous phase oxidation by OH radicals represents the main sink for MEA under daytime cloud summer conditions. Reaction flux analyses have shown that under deliquescent particle

  13. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry.

  14. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-15

    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  15. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry.

    PubMed

    Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Touzi, Abdelkader; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Pauss, André; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-03-01

    The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance. Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited decline in SRB growth, reduction in production of sulfides, with consumption of sulfate. The observed effect seems more important in comparison with the effect caused by the tested biocide (THPS). Strain B21, a dominant facultative aerobic species, has salt growth requirement always above 5% (w/v) salts with optimal concentration of 10-15%. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B21 is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis DQ115802 (94.0% sequence similarity), Bacillus aidingensis DQ504377 (94.0%), and Bacillus salarius AY667494 (92.2%). Comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data plus physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain B21 may represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, named Bacillus sp. (EMBL, FR671419). The results of this study indicate the application potential of Bacillus strain B21 as a biocontrol agent to fight corrosion in the oil industry.

  16. Valorization/Recognition of Environmental Protection Qualifications in the Chemical and Metal Industries. Synthesis of the National Reports: Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Catherine

    Reports on the development and recognition of environmental protection qualifications in the chemical and metal industries in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom were synthesized. The synthesis focused on companies' and social partners' current and planned strategies and obligations of companies regarding recognizing…

  17. Industry Related Financial Incentives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    toxic chemicals. Campbell hazards were more specific to concerns of the food processing industry -- preventing food contamination. Celanese, citing...Maintenance of production Control of Toxic chemicals HCESCHT Hiazarcs -pecific to tre chemical industry. CE LANE SE 3-2 Exhibit 3-2 IDENTIFICATION OF...of the event and that no one was harmed. Additionally, Johnson and Johnson called upon Campbell’s expertise during the more recent Tylenol recall

  18. Influence of kidney disease on drug disposition: An assessment of industry studies submitted to the FDA for new chemical entities 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Gary R; Dowling, Thomas C; Marks, Samantha A; Murphy, John E

    2016-04-01

    In 1998, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the first guidance for industry regarding pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in renally impaired patients. This study aimed to determine if the FDA renal PK guidance influenced the frequency and rigor of renal studies conducted for new chemical entities (NCEs). FDA-approved package inserts (APIs) and clinical pharmacology review documents were analyzed for 194 NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010. Renal studies were conducted in 71.6% of NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010, a significant increase over the 56.3% conducted from 1996 to 1997 (P = .0242). Renal studies were more likely to be completed in highly renally excreted drugs (fe ≥ 30%) compared with drugs with low renal excretion, fe < 30% (89.6% vs 65.8%, P = .0015). PK studies to assess the impact of dialysis were conducted for 31.7% of NCEs that had a renal study: a greater proportion of high fe NCEs were studied (44.2% vs 26.0%, P = .0335). No significant change in frequency or rigor of PK studies was detected over time. The majority of NCEs (76.3%) with a renal study provided specific dosing recommendations in the API. The adoption of the 1998 FDA guidance has resulted in improved availability of PK and drug-dosing recommendations, particularly for high fe drugs.

  19. Antimony leaching and chemical species analyses in an industrial solid waste: Surface and bulk speciation using ToF-SIMS and XANES.

    PubMed

    Kappen, P; Ferrando-Miguel, G; Reichman, S M; Innes, L; Welter, E; Pigram, P J

    2017-05-05

    The surface chemistry and bulk chemical speciation of solid industrial wastes containing 8wt-% antimony (Sb) were investigated using synchrotron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Time-of-Flight Ion Secondary Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Leaching experiments were conducted in order to better understand the behavior of Sb in waste streams and to inform regulatory management of antimony-containing wastes. The experiments also demonstrate how a combination of XANES and ToF-SIMS adds value to the field of waste investigations. Leaching treatments (acid and base) were performed at a synchrotron over 24h time periods. Surface analyses of the wastes before leaching showed the presence of Sb associated with S and O. Bulk analyses revealed Sb to be present, primarily, as trivalent sulfide species. Both acid and base leaching did not change the antimony speciation on the solid. Leaching transferred about 1% of the total Sb into solution where Sb was found to be present as Sb(V). XANES data showed similarities between leachate and FeSbO4. During base leaching, the Sb content in solution gradually increased over time, and potential desorption mechanisms are discussed.

  20. When gender bumps into health and safety training: working conditions, readings and challenges drawn from a case study in an industrial chemicals company.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Teixeira, Sandra; Castelhano, Joana; Lacomblez, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Health, safety and environmental issues are at present a social concern and an increasingly referred topic in the so called gender studies. This paper focuses on the relations between training, gender and risk perception in an industrial chemicals company, in Portugal, characterized by a mainly male population and by the presence of high occupational and environmental hazards. After characterizing the company and the training project that started up this reflection, the paper presents the reasons for its focus on gender followed by the essential methodological explanations: 14 interviews were made with male and female workers from the company; their content was transcribed from the audio recordings and it was systematically analyzed. A gender-attentive socio demographic analysis was also undertaken. Although at the beginning the company did not consider the gender issues as a problem nor was it the central topic of the training, which focused on the prevention of occupational and environmental hazards, the results reveal that the gender factor brought to light some working conditions, which so far have not been properly discussed within the group meetings. As a consequence, there is now room for the transformation of the representations on those working conditions.

  1. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  2. Industry Raps OSHA's Proposed Cancer Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents the response of the American Industrial Health Council (AIHC) to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) genetic proposal for regulating chemical carcinogens in industry. (HM)

  3. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-02

    chemical treatments for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments.

  4. A robotic system for the educational chemistry laboratory: Integrating a SCARA light industrial robot with ordinary laboratory devices to perform chemical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wes W.

    Laboratory robotics had its origins in devices constructed to perform specific and invariant mechanical operations in the chemical laboratory. Examples of this type of automation equipment include: automatic titrators, fraction collectors, and autoanalyzers. With the advancements in the electronics and computer industries, it has been possible to build more flexible automated devices, which we now call robots. Programmable robots can be taught to do a variety of routine procedures and are a valuable asset in the chemical laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to be able to initially set up or modify an existing automation without the assistance of a vendor expert. Automation manufacturers often impose restrictions on how a device may be used and reconfiguration of the device by the user is usually too complex for the average technician. Also, it is not uncommon to find automated systems that only support the use of one manufacturer's balance, diluter, or other device. This approach simplifies the work needed in the development and manufacturing processes of the robotic system. But, by neglecting to design systems that can accept a wide range of third party equipment, the manufacturer restricts the user's ability to independently design unique applications. To address these issues, an example robotic system was constructed at the University of Cincinnati (UC). In this work, the feasibility of creating a simple and flexible automation using ordinary laboratory devices controlled via RS-232 was investigated. The system devised can control any device that is RS-232 compatible and can be reconfigured to accept new devices easily. The basis for this system is ASCII text definition files used by the control software. The software uses the configuration information, including ASCII command sets, to implement control of the RS-232 devices. A common pharmacuetical analysis (The Acid Neutralizing Capacity of OTC Antacids) was selected and implemented using

  5. Chemical and radioactive carcinogens in cigarettes: associated health impacts and responses of the tobacco industry, U.S. Congress, and federal regulatory agencies.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W; Sun, Lin-Shen C

    2010-11-01

    ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb were discovered in tobacco in 1964. This was followed by detailed assessments of the nature of their deposition, and accompanying dose rates to the lungs of cigarette smokers. Subsequent studies revealed: (1) the sources and pathways through which they gain access to tobacco; (2) the mechanisms through which they preferentially deposit in key segments of the bronchial epithelium; and (3) the fact that the accompanying alpha radiation plays a synergistic role in combination with the chemical carcinogens, to increase the fatal cancer risk coefficient in cigarette smokers by a factor of 8 to 25. Nonetheless, it was not until 2009 that Congress mandated that the Food and Drug Administration require that the cigarette industry reveal the presence of these carcinogens. In the meantime, cigarette smoking has become not only the number one source of cancer deaths in the United States, but also a major contributor to heart disease and other health impacts. If the latter effects are included, smoking is estimated to have caused an average of 443,000 deaths and 5.1 million years of potential life lost among the U.S. population each year from 2000 through 2004. The estimated associated collective dose is more than 36 times that to the workers at all the U.S. nuclear power plants, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities, and crews of all the vessels in the U.S. Nuclear Navy. This unnecessary source of lung cancer deaths demands the utmost attention of the radiation protection and public health professions.

  6. Determination of biodegradability of phenolic compounds, characteristic to wastewater of the oil-shale chemical industry, on activated sludge by oxygen uptake measurement.

    PubMed

    Lepik, Riina; Tenno, Toomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of phenol, o-cresol and p-cresol individually and as bi-substrate mixtures at low initial substrate concentrations. Activated sludge was taken from the Kohtla-Järve wastewater treatment plant, Estonia, which is also treating phenolic wastewater from the oil-shale chemical industry and is considered to be acclimated to the phenolic compounds. Respirometric data have been used for evaluation of the kinetic parameters describing the bio-oxidation of substrates. Activated sludge was able to degrade phenol and p-cresol faster than o-cresol, showing better affinity to p-cresol. However, at higher concentrations, phenol and p-cresol exhibited also an inhibitory effect to the microorganisms. The highest values for maximum rate of oxygen uptake (V(O2,max)) were obtained for the bi-substrate system of phenol--p-cresol among the mixtures containing both substrates at equal concentrations from 0.005 mM to 0.050 mM. Concerning the systems containing one substrate at 0.1 mM and the other substrate varied in the abovementioned range, the highest V(O2,max) values were found for phenol--o-cresol(0.1 mM). The interaction parameters indicated that phenol had a stronger inhibition effect on the biodegradation of p-cresol than p-cresol had on the biodegradation of phenol. However, the obtained interaction parameters for systems of phenol--o-cresol indicated that o-cresol had a stronger inhibition effect on the biodegradation of phenol, which in turn had a mild inhibition or even enhancing effect on the biodegradation of o-cresol. In the case of a 1:1 mixture, phenol and o-cresol had a similar mild inhibition effect on each other's biodegradation.

  7. How China achieved its 11th Five-Year Plan emissions reduction target: A structural decomposition analysis of industrial SO2 and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaoling; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    To curb the increasing pollutant emissions that have accompanied rapid economic growth, China implemented a mandatory emissions control system since the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) period, and the emission reduction targets have been met and even exceeded. This article explores how China achieved its emissions reduction targets by systematically identifying the main emission reduction pathways, including both the environmental and economic factors, and evaluates the contribution of each factor using structure decomposition analysis. A study of the two key controlled pollutants, industrial sulfur dioxide (SO2) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), during the 11th FYP period showed that (i) changes in the end-of-pipe treatment and pollutant generation coefficient were the dominant contributors to emissions reduction. The power and metal smelting sectors played important roles in SO2 abatement, while the paper products and food products sectors were important in COD reduction; (ii) changes to the input coefficient increased overall emissions although there was a decrease in SO2 emissions in 2007-2010 mainly due to input structure improvements in the construction sector; (iii) the trade effect largely offset the domestic emission reduction effects, although the trade effect declined during the study period; (iv) domestic demand was the main factor increasing domestic emissions; domestic investment changes (especially in the construction sector) were the major contributor to increases in SO2 emissions, and final consumption changes (especially consumption in the food production sector) were the main contributor to the increase in COD emissions. The results yield important implications for China's pollution emissions control policies.

  8. Process Improvement Study of the Rock Springs Fertilizer Complex for Chevron Chemical Company, Rock Springs, WY [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1989-12-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  9. Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: a comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-09-01

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives.

  10. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Hans; Warren, Nicholas D; Laitinen, Juha; van Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with information on possible determinants of exposure. These data and information, together with some non-RISKOFDERM data were used to derive default values for potential dermal exposure of the hands for so-called 'TGD exposure scenarios'. TGD exposure scenarios have similar values for some very important determinant(s) of dermal exposure, such as amount of substance used. They form narrower bands within the so-called 'RISKOFDERM scenarios', which cluster exposure situations according to the same purpose of use of the products. The RISKOFDERM scenarios in turn are narrower bands within the so-called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units) that were defined in the RISKOFDERM project to cluster situations with similar exposure processes and exposure routes. Default values for both reasonable worst case situations and typical situations were derived, both for single datasets and, where possible, for combined datasets that fit the same TGD exposure scenario. The following reasonable worst case potential hand exposures were derived from combined datasets: (i) loading and filling of large containers (or mixers) with large amounts (many litres) of liquids: 11,500 mg per scenario (14 mg cm(-2) per scenario with surface of the hands assumed to be 820 cm(2)); (ii) careful mixing of small quantities (tens of grams in <1l): 4.1 mg per scenario (0.005 mg cm(-2) per scenario); (iii) spreading of (viscous) liquids with a comb on a large surface area: 130 mg per scenario (0.16 mg cm(-2) per scenario); (iv) brushing and rolling of (relatively viscous) liquid products on surfaces: 6500 mg per scenario (8 mg cm(-2) per scenario) and (v) spraying large amounts of liquids (paints, cleaning

  11. Turning industry visions into reality

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This brochure outlines the activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the Department of Energy. OIT activities are aimed at industry adoption of energy-efficient, pollution-reducing technologies and include research and development on advanced technologies, financing, technical assistance, information dissemination, education, and bringing together industry groups, universities, National Laboratories, states, and environmentalists. OIT`s core initiative is to facilitate partnerships within seven materials and process industries: aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries.

  12. Symposium: Education of Chemists for Careers in Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of nine papers presented at a conference of chemical educators and chemical industry representatives concerning ways to better prepare the college graduate to work in the chemical industry. (MLH)

  13. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  14. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  16. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part 5--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter Oil (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

  17. Industrial biotechnology: tools and applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weng Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-12-01

    Industrial biotechnology involves the use of enzymes and microorganisms to produce value-added chemicals from renewable sources. Because of its association with reduced energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation, industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. Here we highlight a variety of important tools for industrial biotechnology, including protein engineering, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, systems biology, and downstream processing. In addition, we show how these tools have been successfully applied in several case studies, including the production of 1, 3-propanediol, lactic acid, and biofuels. It is expected that industrial biotechnology will be increasingly adopted by chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural industries.

  18. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  19. Chemical and Environmental Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheather, Harry

    The two-year curriculum in chemical technology presented in the document is designed to prepare high school graduates for technical positions in the chemical industry. Course outlines are given for general chemistry, chemical calculations, quantitative analysis, environmental chemistry, organic chemistry 1 and 2, instrumental analysis, and…

  20. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  1. A suggested approach to the selection of chemical and biological protective clothing--meeting industry and emergency response needs for protection against a variety of hazards.

    PubMed

    Stull, Jeffrey O

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a comprehensive decision logic for selection and use of biological and chemical protective clothing (BCPC). The decision logic recognizes the separate areas of BCPC use among emergency, biological, and chemical hazards. The proposed decision logic provides a system for type classifying BCPC in terms of its compliance with existing standards (for emergency applications), the overall clothing integrity, and the material barrier performance. Type classification is offered for garments, gloves, footwear, and eye/face protection devices. On the basis of multiple, but simply designed flowcharts, the type of BCPC appropriate for specific biological and chemical hazards can be selected. The decision logic also provides supplemental considerations for choosing appropriate BCPC features.

  2. NoiseChem: an European Commission research project on the effects of exposure to noise and industrial chemicals on hearing and balance.

    PubMed

    Prasher, Deepak; Morata, Thais; Campo, Pierre; Fechter, Lawrence; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Lund, Soren Peter; Pawlas, Krystyna; Starck, Jukka; Sułkowski, Wiesław; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to multiple physical and chemical agents is common in occupational environments but workplace hazards and occupational safety criteria for combined exposures are lacking. NoiseChem is an European Commission research project examining the effects of exposure to noise and chemicals on hearing and balance. Partners in Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark, UK and Poland with expert guidance from partners in the USA will examine workers and study the mechanisms of action in animals to determine the levels of risk associated with joint exposure to noise and solvents. This paper briefly outlines the project details.

  3. Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used.

  4. Comparison between bioconcentration factor (BCF) data provided by industry to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and data derived from QSAR models.

    PubMed

    Petoumenou, Maria I; Pizzo, Fabiola; Cester, Josep; Fernández, Alberto; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding environment at steady state. It is a valuable indicator of the bioaccumulation potential of a substance. BCF is an essential environmental property required for regulatory purposes within the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and Globally Harmonized System (GHS) regulations. In silico models for predicting BCF can facilitate the risk assessment for aquatic toxicology and reduce the cost and number of animals used. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of BCF data derived from the dossiers of registered chemicals submitted to the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) with the results of a battery of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR). After data pruning, statistical analysis was performed using the predictions of the selected models. Results in terms of R(2) had low rating around 0.5 for the pruned dataset. The use of the model applicability domain index (ADI) led to an improvement of the performance for compounds falling within it. The variability of the experimental data and the use of different parameters to define the applicability domain can influence the performance of each model. All available information should be adapted to the requirements of the regulation to obtain a safe decision.

  5. Integrated automation for continuous high-throughput synthetic chromosome assembly and transformation to identify improved yeast strains for industrial production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exponential increase in our understanding of genomes, proteomes, and metabolomes provides greater impetus to address critical biotechnological issues such as sustainable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals and, in particular, the development of improved microbial biocatalysts for use i...

  6. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  7. Basic biotechnologies essential for the Japanese chemical industry in the 1990's and beyond. Bioreactors, large-scale mammalian cell culture, recombinant DNAs, functional protein systems, and bio-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to induce private company laboratories to do research considered essential for the development of new technologies. One group of projects initially funded under the program was in the field of biotechnology. More specifically, the biotechnology projects were aimed at developing technologies for the chemical industry for the decade of the 1990's. Various projects dealt with bioreactors, large-scale cell culture, and recombinant DNA. These initial biotechnology projects have now been completed. The report reviews their accomplishments and assesses their possible impact on the Japanese chemical industry. A new project on functional protein complexes was added in 1989. Progress on the nine-year project is also reviewed. Finally, an assessment is provided of the biotechnology components of an unrelated group of projects being administered by the Research and Development Association for Future Electron Devices. The relevant components in the program involve bio-electronic devices and functional protein complexes. The objectives are to mimic biological systems for use in microsensors, information transmission and processing, artificial tissues and organs, robotics, and artificial intelligence.

  8. Industrial waste pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  9. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam; Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition.

  10. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam; Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity.

  11. Chemical Work Force Drops Steeply in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides data on industrial employment in the chemical industry, comparing subgroups of production for all employees and for scientists and engineers. Gives company by company sales per employee breakdown. Compares wages among industry subgroups. Cites productivity measures. (JM)

  12. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 iii ABSTRACT APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH

  13. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  14. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  15. Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary Between Academia and Industry. PhD Students' Views on Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines and discusses the views on science and society held among PhD students working in two different industrially and environmentally driven research programmes in the broad area of green chemistry. It is based on thirteen in-depth interviews. The analysis shows three main ways of handling the situation as "post-academic" PhD student: (1) the student sees the PhD work mainly as a job and does not reflect about his/her research or the research funding, (2) the student is satisfied with the post-academic situation, accepts the established innovation policy discourse and is sceptical to traditional academic research, and (3) the student sees collaborative research programmes as a way to get funding, which can be used for secretly done basic research. Most PhD students either emphasise usefulness—in line with the dominating research policy discourse—or they adopt the positivistic view of science as objective and independent of the surrounding society. However, there are only a few signs of "double problematisation", that is a critical view where both disciplinary-oriented and industry-dependent research are problematised.

  16. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-01

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 100 kg/m(3,) respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition.

  17. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  18. Opportunities in the industrial biobased products industry.

    PubMed

    Carole, Tracy M; Pellegrino, Joan; Paster, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 89 million metric t of organic chemicals and lubricants, the majority of which are fossil based, are produced annually in the United States. The development of new industrial bioproducts, for production in stand-alone facilities or biorefineries, has the potential to reduce our dependence on imported oil and improve energy security. Advances in biotechnology are enabling the optimization of feedstock composition and agronomic characteristics and the development of new and improved fermentation organisms for conversion of biomass to new end products or intermediates. This article reviews recent biotechnology efforts to develop new industrial bioproducts and improve renewable feedstocks and key market opportunities.

  19. Chemical Processing. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reviews major organic and inorganic chemicals, their products, and the sociocultural impact of the chemical industry. Provides the following learning activity components: objectives, list of materials and equipment, procedures, student quiz with answers, and three references. (SK)

  20. Quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of given uranyl complexes in aqueous solutions with possible environmental and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Višňak, Jakub; Sobek, Lukáš

    2016-11-01

    A brief introduction into computational methodology and preliminary results for spectroscopic (excitation energies, vibrational frequencies in ground and excited electronic states) and thermodynamic (stability constants, standard enthalpies and entropies of complexation reactions) properties of some 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 uranyl sulphato- and selenato- complexes in aqueos solutions will be given. The relativistic effects are included via Effective Core Potential (ECP), electron correlation via (TD)DFT/B3LYP (dispersion interaction corrected) and solvation is described via explicit inclusion of one hydration sphere beyond the coordinated water molecules. We acknowledge limits of this approximate description - more accurate calculations (ranging from semi-phenomenological two-component spin-orbit coupling up to four-component Dirac-Coulomb-Breit hamiltonian) and Molecular Dynamics simulations are in preparation. The computational results are compared with the experimental results from Time-resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-VIS spectroscopic studies (including our original experimental research on this topic). In case of the TRLFS and UV-VIS speciation studies, the problem of complex solution spectra decomposition into individual components is ill-conditioned and hints from theoretical chemistry could be very important. Qualitative agreement between our quantum chemical calculations of the spectroscopic properties and experimental data was achieved. Possible applications for geochemical modelling (e.g. safety studies of nuclear waste repositories, modelling of a future mining site) and analytical chemical studies (including natural samples) are discussed.

  1. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Addink, Rudolf; Yun, Sehun; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    The formation and release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from the incineration of electronic wastes (e-waste) that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a concern. However, studies on the determination of PBDD/Fs in environmental samples collected from e-waste recycling facilities are scarce. In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale e-waste recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-800000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89600-pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of sigmaPBDD/Fs and sigmaPBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between sigmaPBDD/Fs and the previously reported sigmaPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by

  2. Bridging the Industry-High School Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassow, Herb

    1984-01-01

    Highlights efforts to increase high school use of chemical industry resources. Indicates that a list of industry resources available to all Philadelphia (PA) area chemistry teachers is currently available from the American Chemistry Society Corporation Associates. (JN)

  3. Chemistry in the 1980's: Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstacker, Carl A.

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the problems facing the chemical industry during the decade ahead. Government regulations, political activity by the industry, environmental concerns of the public, research and development, and competition are the major concerns discussed. (SA)

  4. [The accumulation of the technogenic radionuclides by mushrooms in the area affected by the activity of the Krasnoyarsk mining-and-chemical industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Dement'ev, D V; Bondareva, L G

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide content was measured in mushrooms collected in different sites situated in the zone of the radiation influence on the Mining-and-Chemical Combine at Zheleznogorsk and on the control site, near Krasnoyarsk, in 2002-2004. The analytical investigations of fruiting bodies of 12 mushroom species have revealed three gamma-emitting radionuclides: 7Be, 40K (natural) and 137Cs (artificial). It was found that only three species contain 7Be; activity concentration of 40K is not species- and site-dependent, averaging 1600 Bq/kg. All collected samples contain 137Cs, and its accumulation by mushrooms is species-specific. Suillus concentrates more 137Cs activity than other species and can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination with radiocesium. The average activity concentration of 137Cs in Suillus granulatus collected in the sites subjected only to aerosol discharges of the MCC is more than twice higher than 137Cs content of the mushrooms collected in the control site--"Krasnoyarsk". The maximum activity concentration of 137Cs in Suillus samples collected in the sites that receive 137Cs with the flood water is an order of magnitude higher, amounting to 8624 Bq/kg. The analysis of the radionuclide distribution in a mushroom shows that 40K activity concentration is the same in caps and stems of Suillus, and 137Cs concentration in Suillus caps is 1.7-2.3 times higher than in stems. Binding of radionuclides by mushroom biomass was determined by chemical fractionation; it was found that the highest activities of 137Cs and 40K are in the exchange-adsorption fraction (56 to 71% of the total content of a radionuclide) and in the organic fraction (23 to 37%). Calculations were made for determination of the coefficients of 40K and 137Cs transfer from the soil to the fruiting body of Suillus.

  5. Industrial tracer application in People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Maoyi, S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. The tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given.

  6. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-15

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 100 kg/m{sup 3,} respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. - Highlights: • Waste MOCVD dust is treated through mechanochemical leaching. • GaN is hardly leached, and converted to NaGaO{sub 2} through ball milling and annealing. • Process for gallium recovery from waste MOCVD dust has been developed. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} is revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process is reported.

  7. Spring 2007. Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    manufacturing industry if it is engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products...the interdependency between new research and manufacturing becomes vitally important. In 2004, the DOC (p. 7) reported the US manufacturing sector...present new business opportunities for US goods. Worldwide, manufactured goods account for more than 77% of global trade (NAM, 2006, p. 41

  8. Introduction to industrial crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While any seed oil can fill certain non-food applications, there are hundreds of seed oils containing a different complement of fatty acids that impart physical and chemical properties making the oil and associated fatty acids especially useful for industrial and other non-food uses. These differenc...

  9. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  10. [Friar José Mariano da Conceição Veloso and the promotion of industrial techniques in colonial Brazil: discussion of some concepts from the chemical sciences].

    PubMed

    Luna, Fernando J

    2009-01-01

    At the turn of the 19th century, Minas Gerais Botanist Friar Veloso worked intensely on the publication of books to promote among settlers from the Portuguese empire techniques for improving agricultural production and from the incipient chemistry industry. This article analyzes the first volume of the "Alographia dos alkalis fixos...", a work that includes articles, book chapters, letters and patents from ten authors, particularly French and English, about the scientific and technical knowledge needed for the production of potassium carbonate from the ash of native plants. Some concepts and definitions used at the time of the Chemical Revolution are discussed, considering that Veloso translated them to Portuguese and introduced them to Brazil through his work.

  11. Insights into solid phase characteristics and release of heavy metals and arsenic from industrial sludge via combined chemical, mineralogical, and microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Thi Thu; Golreihan, Asefeh; Vassilieva, Elvira; Phung, Nguyen Ky; Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the solid phase characteristics and release of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic (As) from sludge samples derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants. The emphasis is determining the influence of acidification on element mobilization based on a multidisciplinary approach that combines cascade and pHstat leaching tests with solid phase characterization through X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun electron probe micro analysis (FEG-EPMA), and thermodynamic modeling (Visual MinteQ 3.0). Solid phase characterization and thermodynamic modeling results allow prediction of Ni and Zn leachabilities. FEG-EPMA is useful for direct solid phase characterization because it provides information on additional phases including specific element associations that cannot be detected by XRD analysis. Cascade and pHstat leaching test results indicate that disposal of improperly treated sludges at landfills may lead to extreme environmental risks due to high leachable concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Pb. However, high leachabilities under acid conditions of Ni and Zn as observed from pHstat leaching test results may provide a potential opportunity for acid extraction recovery of Ni and Zn from such sludges.

  12. Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

  13. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  14. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  15. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  17. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  18. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  19. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  20. Chemicals and Allied Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. F.; Hovious, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from chemical industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) wastewater treatment by-product type; (2) biological, and physical/chemical treatments; and (3) source treatment. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Transplanted lichens in and around the Mount Carmel National Park and the Haifa Bay industrial region in Israel: physiological and chemical responses.

    PubMed

    Garty, J; Weissman, L; Cohen, Y; Karnieli, A; Orlovsky, L

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of air pollution on the spectral reflectance of the epiphytic lichen Ramalina lacera, indicated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), on the integrity of chlorophyll, indicated by the ratio OD435 nm/OD415 nm, and on the integrity of cell membranes, indicated by electric conductivity. Data relating to physiological parameters of injury were integrated with data concerning the detrimental deposition of mineral elements. The transplanted lichen, originating in a relatively unpolluted site in Israel, was placed in 17 sites on and around the Carmel Mountain and in 2 sites in an industrial region in the Haifa Bay, northwest Israel, for a period of 10 months. The accumulated amounts of Ca, Ti, Cu, Mg, Fe, Si, Ni, Zn, V, Cr, Mn, Cl-, K, F-, Na, Ba, Sr, B, S, P, Al, PO(3-)(4), SO(2-)(4), and NO-3 were related to alterations in spectral reflectance and injury caused to chlorophyll and cell membranes. At the end of the period of exposure, the retrieved transplants from the Haifa Bay exhibited low NDVI values and low OD435 nm/OD415 nm ratios, indicating chlorophyll degradation, and high electric conductivity values, indicating damaged cell membranes. NDVI values correlated positively with OD435 nm/OD415 nm ratios and negatively with accumulated amounts of Ba, Cu, Ni, S, SO(2-)(4), V, and Zn. OD435 nm/OD415 nm ratios correlated negatively with amounts of Ba, Cu, Ni, NO(-)(3), SO(2-)(4), and V. Values obtained for electric conductivity correlated positively with amounts of B, Ba, Cl-, Cr, Cu, Na, Ni, NO(-)(3), S, and SO(2-)(4). Both elemental and ion content and the physiological status of the R. lacera transplants indicated that the greater part of the biomonitoring sites on and around the Carmel Mountain were slightly polluted or unpolluted, whereas the Haifa Bay region was rather polluted. The greater part of the Haifa Bay pollution derives from the combustion of heavy fuel oil.

  2. "A High Speed Laser Profiling Device for Refractory Lininig Thickness Measurements In a Gasifier with Cross-Cut to the Metals, Forest Products, Chemical and Power Generation Industries"

    SciTech Connect

    Michel Bonin; Tom Harvill; Jared Hoog; Don Holve; Alan Alsing; Bob Clark; Steve Hrivnak

    2007-11-01

    Process Metrix began this project with the intent of modifying an existing ranging system and combining the same with a specially designed optical scanner to yield three dimensional range images that could be used to determine the refractory lining thickness in a gasifier. The goal was to make these measurements during short outages while the gasifier was at or near operating temperature. Our initial estimates of the photon counts needed for the modulation-based range finder were optimistic, and we were forced to undertake a redesign of the range finder portion of the project. This ultimately created significant and unanticipated time delays that were exacerbated when Acuity Technologies, the subcontractor responsible for delivering the redesigned range finder, failed to deliver electrical components capable of meeting the specific range error requirements needed for accurate lining thickness measurement. An extensive search for an alternate, off-the-shelf solution was unsuccessful, and Process Metrix was forced to undertake the electronics development internally without project funds. The positive outcome of this effort is a documented set of range finder electronics that have exceptional accuracy, simplicity, temperature stability and detection limit; in sum a package perfectly suited to the measurement requirements and within our control. It is unfortunate yet understandable, given the time delays involved in reaching this milestone, that the Department of Energy decided not to continue the project to completion. The integration of this electronics set into the optomechanical hardware also developed within the scope of the project remains as follow-on project that Process Metrix will finish within the calendar year 2008. Testing in the gasifier is, at this point, not certain pending the award of additional funding needed for field trials. Eastman, our industrial partner in this project, remains interested in evaluating a finished system, and working together we

  3. Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals and industrial wastes as a Novel Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, A. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is attributed to rising consumption of fossil fuels around the world. The development of solutions to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere is one of the most urgent needs of today's society. One of the most stable and long-term solutions for storing CO2 is via carbon mineralization, where minerals containing metal oxides of Ca or Mg are reacted with CO2 to produce thermodynamically stable Ca- and Mg-carbonates that are insoluble in water. Carbon mineralization can be carried out in-situ or ex-situ. In the case of in-situ mineralization, the degree of carbonation is thought to be limited by both mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction kinetics, and must be well understood to predict the ultimate fate of CO2 within geological reservoirs. While the kinetics of in-situ mineral trapping via carbonation is naturally slow, it can be enhanced at high temperature and high partial pressure of CO2. The addition of weak organic acids produced from food waste has also been shown to enhance mineral weathering kinetics. In the case of the ex-situ carbon mineralization, the role of these ligand-bearing organic acids can be further amplified for silicate mineral dissolution. Unfortunately, high mineral dissolution rates often lead to the formation of a silica-rich passivation layer on the surface of silicate minerals. Thus, the use of novel solvent mixture that allows chemically catalyzed removal of this passivation layer during enhanced Mg-leaching surface reaction has been proposed and demonstrated. Furthermore, an engineered biological catalyst, carbonic anhydrase, has been developed and evaluated to accelerate the hydration of CO2, which is another potentially rate-limiting step of the carbonation reaction. The development of these novel catalytic reaction schemes has significantly improved the overall efficiency and sustainability of in-situ and ex-situ mineral carbonation technologies and allowed direct

  4. Industrial systems biology.

    PubMed

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-02-15

    The chemical industry is currently undergoing a dramatic change driven by demand for developing more sustainable processes for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. In biotechnological processes different microorganisms can be exploited, and the large diversity of metabolic reactions represents a rich repository for the design of chemical conversion processes that lead to efficient production of desirable products. However, often microorganisms that produce a desirable product, either naturally or because they have been engineered through insertion of heterologous pathways, have low yields and productivities, and in order to establish an economically viable process it is necessary to improve the performance of the microorganism. Here metabolic engineering is the enabling technology. Through metabolic engineering the metabolic landscape of the microorganism is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of the raw material, typically glucose, to the product of interest. This process may involve both insertion of new enzymes activities, deletion of existing enzyme activities, but often also deregulation of existing regulatory structures operating in the cell. In order to rapidly identify the optimal metabolic engineering strategy the industry is to an increasing extent looking into the use of tools from systems biology. This involves both x-ome technologies such as transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome analysis, and advanced mathematical modeling tools such as genome-scale metabolic modeling. Here we look into the history of these different techniques and review how they find application in industrial biotechnology, which will lead to what we here define as industrial systems biology.

  5. ACS Proposes Industrial Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The American Chemical Society has proposed a federal program which would enable 1500 unemployed chemists and chemical engineers possessing master's or higher degrees to serve from one to two years as interns in industrial research and development installations. (Author/TS)

  6. China's growing biomedical industry.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei

    2009-06-01

    The biomedical industry in China is developing rapidly, and new biological drugs are increasing their share of the pharmaceutical market based on people's needs. China is the largest producer and user of vaccines in the world, but the existing production of vaccines is far from enough to meet the needs of the market. The entire market of biological drugs in China is still smaller than that for traditional medicines and chemicals. Therefore, the biopharmaceutical industry has the potential to be the rising star in the pharmaceutical market in the future.

  7. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  8. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  9. The chemical juggernaut.

    PubMed

    Cadbury, D

    1997-01-01

    Man-made chemicals pervade and support every aspect of modern living. The chemical industry has become such a powerful force in the global economy, sales of synthetic chemicals and products derived from them constitute well in excess of a third of the world's gross national product. But, these man-made chemicals are also 'elixirs of death,' the symbol of human destruction. Laboratory tests have shown that a number of chemicals in common use possess a remarkable property: they can weakly mimic or modify the action of human hormones. It has been proven that some chemicals found in plastics, pesticides, and industrial products are weakly estrogenic, modifying the action of the female hormone. In addition, other chemicals affect the male hormones, androgens, or anti-androgens; others are thought to target different hormone systems, such as thyroid and adrenal glands. Many research studies are being conducted to establish the impact of chemicals on human health. Of special concern are the rising incidence of testicular cancer, decline in human sperm counts, and the sharp rise of breast cancer. In conclusion, although there is a worldwide debate on the effects of chemical exposure on humans, the significance of findings for human health, concerning testicular and breast cancer, are still unknown. An international treaty is called for to control the use of the persistent hormonally active chemicals.

  10. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-08-20

    Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.

  11. Systems of safety and active worker-participation strategies for a safe workplace: the philosophical and structural underpinnings of the labor institute, and the Paper, Allied-industrial, Chemical And Energy Workers International Union, Accident Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Renner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    For the last ten years, The Labor Institute, in cooperation with the Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union (PACE) and several other international unions, has been training workers and managers to prevent accidents in the workplace using what we call a Systems of Safety (SOS) approach. We teach workers to identify major categories of safety systems and sub-systems in the workplace and to assign a hierarchical prevention value to each category. The SOS approach enables workers to look beyond the simplest explanations for an accident to identify the full range of factors that contributed to the event. As a result, Systems of Safety training provides workers with an unparalleled opportunity to reduce the frequency and severity of in-plant accidents. Unfortunately, the full benefits of an SOS system cannot be realized in most workplaces as they are now organized. Our decades of experience--and a review of relevant literature--tell us that worker participation is the key to preventing accidents. Maximum accident prevention is only achievable through maximum worker participation. In most workplaces, hierarchical structures--and workers' internalization of that hierarchy--prevent full worker participation. This article will explore barriers to achieving maximum worker participation, and strategies for providing workers with some measure of control over the systems of safety that determine the level of safety at their work sites.

  12. Use of agro-industrial organic sludge amendment to remediate degraded soil: chemical and eco(geno)toxicological differences between fresh and stabilized sludge and establishment of application rates.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Cotelle, Sylvie; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Toumi, Hela; Quaranta, Gaetana; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-02-01

    Soil degraded by coal mining activities can be remediated by amendment with agro-industrial organic sludge. However, the environmental impacts associated with this management practice must be properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the eco(geno)toxicity of a fresh and a stabilized sludge before use in a laboratory soil remediation test. Chemical analysis of the complex mixtures (degraded soil, fresh sludge, and stabilized sludge) was carried out, as well as a battery of eco(geno)toxicity tests on microbiological enzymes (fluorescein hydrolysis), earthworms, and higher plants (including Vicia faba genotoxicity test), according to published methodologies. The results of these tests showed that fresh sludge was more toxic than sludge stabilized over 6 months toward earthworms and higher plants (lettuce, corn, and wild cabbage), while phyto(geno)toxicity tests with V. faba indicated the same genotoxicity levels for the two types of sludge. In the soil remediation simulation using different mixtures of degraded soil and stabilized sludge, the proportions of 50:50% (dry weight basis) provided the lowest phyto(geno)toxicity effects and this mixture can be used for the revegetation of the contaminated site.

  13. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    313202 JPRS-EEI-84-106 2 0 September 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS mfmSöTicm sfÄTHrär Approved for public mlexxm...were developed. The chemical industry has successfully collaborated with the USSR in the area of polymer additives. Development of CD Antioxidant...production, of course, we need at the same time to build the food processing industry , production of chemicals for pest and disease control, we have to

  14. Chemical Industry Security: Voluntary or Mandatory Approach?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Risk and Uncertainty, 26(2/3), (2003): 121-136. 98 James M. Breckenridge and Philip G. Zimbardo , Psychology of Terrorism (New York: Oxford University...James N. and Philip G. Zimbardo . Psychology of Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Cilluffo, Frank J. Testimony Before the

  15. Safety, security and dual-use chemicals

    DOE PAGES

    Walters, Douglas B.; Ho, Pauline; Hardesty, Jasper

    2014-12-18

    Many chemicals that are frequently used in laboratories and industries can be harmful if not handled properly. Chemical safety best practices are designed to protect people from accidentally being exposed to hazardous chemicals. On the other hand, chemical security best practices are designed to protect people from someone deliberately exposing others to hazardous chemicals. Finally, many chemical safety best practices overlap with chemical security best practices, but there are important differences, as will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Electronics Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    companies to begin listing stock options as expenses on financial reports (Chappell, 2005). The industry had used stock options extensively to help... stock options (Chappell, 2005). Industry representatives interviewed by the group argued against the requirement since they predict U.S. companies...may be less inclined now to offer stock options , and subsequently talent may be lost to aggressive foreign competition (Anonymous interviews, 2006

  17. Providers target industrial areas

    SciTech Connect

    Vames, S.

    1997-06-11

    Energy customers in California are negotiating new deals now that the California Public Utilities Commission has dropped its plan to gradually phase in energy deregulation. The commission has set January 1, 1998 as the date when most energy consumers in the state will be free to choose their providers. Deals currently under negotiation are mostly long-term electrical supply contracts with entire cities. Initially, the cities most likely to enter such contracts are those that wish to use the prospect of cheap energy to keep existing industry and lure new industry. One such deal has been set in South San Francisco, and industrial suburb of San Francisco with several fine chemicals and biotechnology firms. The city has signed a five-year contract with FirstPoint (Portland, OR) to provide energy and related services for residents, businesses, and industry. But while residential and small business customers expect to see only a 10% drop in their overall bills, industrial customers foresee larger savings because of discounts to large energy users offered by FirstPoint and the city.

  18. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high

  19. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  20. Chemical and biochemical study of industrially produced San Simón da Costa smoked semi-hard cow's milk cheeses: Effects of storage under vacuum and different modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Garabal, J I; Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Franco, D; Centeno, J A

    2010-05-01

    Two batches of smoked, semi-hard (ripened for 45 d) San Simón da Costa cow's milk cheeses with Protected Designation of Origin were used to investigate the chemical, biochemical, and sensorial parameters that may be affected by modified-atmosphere packaging. Cheeses were packaged for 45 d as follows: vacuum packaging, packaging in 100% N(2), packaging in a gas mixture of 20% CO(2)/80% N(2), and packaging in a gas mixture of 50% CO(2)/50% N(2). The San Simón da Costa cheeses were characterized by high contents of lactic, oxalic, and citric organic acids. The main free amino acids found were isoleucine, phenylalanine, serine, valine, lysine, and glutamic acid, and the most abundant volatile compounds included ethanol, diacetyl, 2-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, furfural, acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, acetone, and 2-methylfuran. Modified atmospheres appeared to alter the ripening processes by affecting lipolysis, as indicated by the lower concentrations of butyric and propionic acids compared with control cheeses. In addition, modified-atmosphere packaging altered the proteolysis processes, yielding higher amounts of branched-chain alcohols. The results revealed that storage under modified atmosphere contributes to the accumulation of several compounds probably derived from smoke, including aldehydes such as 2-furancarboxaldehyde (furfural), alcohols such as 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), ketones such as 2-cyclopenten-1-one, and esters such as methyl furancarboxylate, which were negatively correlated with flavor. Vacuum packaging was the most useful technique in terms of preserving the sensory quality of San Simón da Costa Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Considering the current demands for packaged portions of food at the distribution and retail levels and the potential health risks associated with some smoke-derived compounds usually present in some smoked foods, the results obtained in this study may be of special interest to the cheese industry.