Science.gov

Sample records for chemical industry

  1. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  2. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  3. Prioritizing industrial chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Bratt, Gary M

    This article describes the approach used to develop a prioritized list of toxic and hazardous industrial chemical hazards considered to pose substantial risk to deployed troops and military operations. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine published the prioritized list in November 2003. The work was performed as part of a multinational military effort supported by Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Previous chemical priority lists had been developed to support military as well as homeland defense research, development, and acquisition communities to determine enhanced detection and protection needs. However, there were questions as to the adequacy of the methodologies and focus of the previous efforts. This most recent effort is a more extensive evaluation of over 1700 industrial chemicals, with a modified methodology that includes not only the assessment of acute inhalation toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), but also chemicals/compounds that pose substantial physical risk (from fire/explosion) and those that may pose acute ingestion risks (such as in water supplies). The methodology was designed to rank such hazards from a strategic (global) military perspective, but it may be adapted to address more site/user specific needs. Users of this or any other chemical priority list are cautioned that the derivation of such lists is largely influenced by subjective decisions and significant variability in chemical-specific data availability and quality.

  4. Chemical Educators Stress Industry Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1975-01-01

    Describes various courses and programs designed to better prepare graduates to enter the chemical industry, including courses which stress the chemistry of industrial processes, and the economics of the chemical industry. (MLH)

  5. Chemical Educators Stress Industry Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1975-01-01

    Describes various courses and programs designed to better prepare graduates to enter the chemical industry, including courses which stress the chemistry of industrial processes, and the economics of the chemical industry. (MLH)

  6. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  7. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  8. The U.S. Chemical Industry, Foreign Chemical Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry provides data on the chemical production of Japan, West Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and France, including the output of major chemical products in these nations. (PR)

  9. The U.S. Chemical Industry, Foreign Chemical Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry provides data on the chemical production of Japan, West Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and France, including the output of major chemical products in these nations. (PR)

  10. GHGRP Chemicals Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Chemicals industry.

  11. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  12. [Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals].

    PubMed

    Labie, Dominique

    2007-10-01

    "A Silent Pandemic : Industrial Chemicals Are Impairing the Brain Development of Children Worldwide" Fetal and early childhood exposures to industrial chemicals in the environment can damage the developing brain and can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs)--autism, attention deficit disorder (ADHD), and mental retardation. In a new review study, published in The Lancet, Philip Grandjean and Philip Landrigan from the Harvard School of Public Health systematically examined publicly available data on chemical toxicity in order to identify the industrial chemicals that are the most likely to damage the developing brain. The researchers found that 202 industrial chemicals have the capacity to damage the human brain, and they conclude that chemical pollution may have harmed the brains of millions of children worldwide. The authors conclude further that the toxic effects of industrial chemicals on children have generally been overlooked. In North Amercia, the commission for environmental cooperation, and in European Union the DEVNERTOX projects had reached to the same conclusions. We analyse this review and discuss these rather pessimistic conclusions.

  13. Applying industrial symbiosis to chemical industry: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hua; Liu, Changhao

    2017-08-01

    Chemical industry plays an important role in promoting the development of global economy and human society. However, the negative effects caused by chemical production cannot be ignored, which often leads to serious resource consumption and environmental pollution. It is essential for chemical industry to achieve a sustainable development. Industrial symbiosis is one of the key topics in the field of industrial ecology and circular economy, which has been identified as a creative path leading to sustainability. Based on an extensively searching for literatures on linking industrial symbiosis with chemical industry, this paper aims to review the literatures which involves three aspects: (1) economic and environmental benefits achieved by chemical industry through implementing industrial symbiosis, (2) chemical eco-industrial parks, (3) and safety issues for chemical industry. An outlook is also provided. This paper concludes that: (1) chemical industry can achieve both economic and environmental benefits by implementing industrial symbiosis, (2) establishing eco-industrial parks is essential for chemical industry to implement and improve industrial symbiosis, and (3) there is a close relationship between IS and safety issues of chemical industry.

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P; Landrigan, P J

    2006-12-16

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy are common, costly, and can cause lifelong disability. Their causes are mostly unknown. A few industrial chemicals (eg, lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], arsenic, and toluene) are recognised causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Exposure to these chemicals during early fetal development can cause brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult brain function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of lead additives in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful, most were initiated only after substantial delays. Another 200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence of systematic testing, many additional chemicals have been shown to be neurotoxic in laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known and they are not regulated to protect children. The two main impediments to prevention of neurodevelopmental deficits of chemical origin are the great gaps in testing chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation. New, precautionary approaches that recognise the unique vulnerability of the developing brain are needed for testing and control of chemicals.

  15. Chemicals for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.A.G.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of advanced materials, surface treatments, and clean fuels/lubricants now used to manufacture, propel, and maintain motor vehicles. The book examines recent advancements and current research, illustrating the progress to date, future trends, new applications, and the effects of these of automotive chemicals on the environment (including pollution, recyclability, and efficiency). Environmental considerations and their effect on the industry are covered in discussions about such topics as biodegradable lubricants, oxygenated diesel and ignition engine fuels, oils, and recyclable, lightweight plastic components.

  16. The future of the chemical industries

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnar, R.

    1991-01-01

    As Lincoln, we first must ask where we are before we ask whither. I'd therefore like to define where our industry is and how it got there before we look at the challenges facing us. If we view the chemical and petroleum industries through the glass of macroeconomics, they look very healthy. Let's start with size. Table 1 shows that these two industries each provide about 10% of the total U.S. manufacturing output. This paper shows the fraction of the total GNP contributed by the chemical industry and by the petroleum industry and compares them with total manufacturing. The authors note that total manufacturing grew more slowly than the total GNP, whereas over the last 40 years, the chemical industry grew close to the rate of the GNP. For a large industry, this is the best we can hope for. The chemical industry is one of the very few major industries that has consistently maintained a positive trade balance.

  17. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  18. Systematic review in chemical risk assessment - A chemical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Pease, Camilla K; Gentry, Robinan P

    2016-01-01

    This commentary provides a perspective from the chemicals industry on the potential usefulness of systematic review approaches in chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Control in the Chemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses various control techniques used in chemical processes, including measuring devices, controller functions, control valves, and feedforward and feedback actions. Applications of control to a real chemical plant are exemplified. (CC)

  20. Chemical Engineering in Education and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, James

    1986-01-01

    Provides an historical overview of the origins, developments, and contributions of chemical engineering. Reviews the roles of the university and industry in the education of chemical engineers. Includes a listing of the major advances of chemical engineering since World War II. (ML)

  1. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  2. Chemical arms treaty's effect on industry noted

    SciTech Connect

    Lois Ember

    1993-08-16

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is unique among arms control regimes in terms of its intrusive reach on private industry, especially chemical manufacturers. It requires, among other things, extensive reporting and, in some cases, on-site inspections of commercial facilities. Yet a surprising majority of affected companies are unaware of their obligations under the treaty that could become effective January 1995. A newly released background paper from the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) intends to correct this situation by fully documenting the effects of the treaty on the U.S. chemical industry. This paper summarizes some of the findings and outlines the legislation required to comply with the Chemical Weapons Convention while still protecting confidential business information and not creating a bureaucratic nightmare for the US chemical industry.

  3. The Structure of the Chemical Processing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate and senior level course utilizing the case study approach in chemical engineering at the University of Delaware that stresses the function and economics of the chemical processing industry. A history of the course development, course outline, and teaching methods used are included. (BT)

  4. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  5. Platform biochemicals for a biorenewable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Nikolau, Basil J; Perera, M Ann D N; Brachova, Libuse; Shanks, Brent

    2008-05-01

    The chemical industry is currently reliant on a historically inexpensive, petroleum-based carbon feedstock that generates a small collection of platform chemicals from which highly efficient chemical conversions lead to the manufacture of a large variety of chemical products. Recently, a number of factors have coalesced to provide the impetus to explore alternative renewable sources of carbon. Here we discuss the potential impact on the chemical industry of shifting from non-renewable carbon sources to renewable carbon sources. This change to the manufacture of chemicals from biological carbon sources will provide an opportunity for the biological research community to contribute fundamental knowledge concerning carbon metabolism and its regulation. We discuss whether fundamental biological research into metabolic processes at a holistic level, made possible by completed genome sequences and integrated with detailed structural understanding of biocatalysts, can change the chemical industry from being dependent on fossil-carbon feedstocks to using biorenewable feedstocks. We illustrate this potential by discussing the prospect of building a platform technology based upon a concept of combinatorial biosynthesis, which would explore the enzymological flexibilities of polyketide biosynthesis.

  6. Facts and Figures, The U.S. Chemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Introduces the annual compilation of the essential statistics of the chemical industry, presented in eight sections (SE 506 182 to 506 189): products of the industry; sales, earnings, and other financial data; chemical company performance; industry employment; chemical R&D spending; U.S. chemical trade; raw materials for the industry; and foreign…

  7. Facts and Figures, The U.S. Chemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Introduces the annual compilation of the essential statistics of the chemical industry, presented in eight sections (SE 506 182 to 506 189): products of the industry; sales, earnings, and other financial data; chemical company performance; industry employment; chemical R&D spending; U.S. chemical trade; raw materials for the industry; and foreign…

  8. Solar Fuels and Solar Chemicals Industry.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-03-21

    Two decades of solar energy research, since the "Holy Grails" Account on Artificial Photosynthesis, has delivered astounding discovery that sets the stage for a paradigm shift from a fuels and chemicals industry powered by fossil fuels to one powered by the sun.

  9. Chemical hazards in the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Ducatman, A M; Coumbis, J J

    1991-01-01

    The modern biotechnology industry employs thousands of people and is growing rapidly. The numbers of toxic chemicals encountered are substantial and the applications are largely novel. Health care professionals face a formidable task in identifying occupational hazards and safeguarding the health of employees.

  10. The Microbiological Production of Industrial Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    Compares traditional and newer methods by which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Includes a discussion of economic considerations and new genetic methods in programing microorganisms. Details methods for producing enzymes, aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids, ethanol, n-butanol, and alkene oxides. (CS)

  11. The Microbiological Production of Industrial Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    Compares traditional and newer methods by which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Includes a discussion of economic considerations and new genetic methods in programing microorganisms. Details methods for producing enzymes, aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids, ethanol, n-butanol, and alkene oxides. (CS)

  12. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Way It Performs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Data on the performance of chemical companies are presented in this section of the annual report on the chemical industry, including: productivity, unit labor costs, chemical company performance, wholesale prices, shipments and inventories, and industrial production. (PR)

  13. Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes in Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Speculates about the future responsiveness of chemical engineering curricula to changes in the chemical industry. Focuses on changes in the chemical industry, the status of academia, and possible curricular changes. (DDR)

  14. Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes in Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Speculates about the future responsiveness of chemical engineering curricula to changes in the chemical industry. Focuses on changes in the chemical industry, the status of academia, and possible curricular changes. (DDR)

  15. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Way It Performs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Data on the performance of chemical companies are presented in this section of the annual report on the chemical industry, including: productivity, unit labor costs, chemical company performance, wholesale prices, shipments and inventories, and industrial production. (PR)

  16. Electrochemical degradation of specialty chemical industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Basha, C Ahmed; Soloman, P A; Velan, M; Miranda, Lima Rose; Balasubramanian, N; Siva, R

    2010-04-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment techniques are inefficient to manage large quantities of refractory organics discharged by specialty chemical industries. It is aimed in the present investigation to compare overall performance of the basic electrochemical reactor configurations such as batch, batch recirculation and continuous recycle reactors, in removing the organic part of wastewater from a medium-scale, specialty chemical industry. The effects of current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, electrolysis duration and fluid flow rate on the pollutant removal and energy consumption performances were critically evaluated. Continuous recycle reactor is found to be the better configuration, because of its flexibility of operation. Circulation flow rate and withdrawal flow rate enable control on transfer coefficients and treatment duration respectively. The ability of artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting the performance of the batch electrochemical treatment has also been demonstrated. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Facts & Figures for the Chemical Industry at a Glance--3. Employment in the Chemical Industry: Chemical Employment Growth Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Notes that the number of workers employed in the U.S. chemical industry rose again in 1988. Provides information for the years 1978-88 for the areas of industrial employment, scientist and engineer employment, corporation employment, wages, and industrial productivity. (MVL)

  18. Facts & Figures for the Chemical Industry at a Glance--3. Employment in the Chemical Industry: Chemical Employment Growth Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Notes that the number of workers employed in the U.S. chemical industry rose again in 1988. Provides information for the years 1978-88 for the areas of industrial employment, scientist and engineer employment, corporation employment, wages, and industrial productivity. (MVL)

  19. The Grafting of Industrial Chemicals Operations onto the Bayer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Lester A. D.

    Concepts are presented for the grafting of industrial chemicals manufacturing processes onto a Bayer Process, and the implications of these chemical processes on the host process are identified. The application of these concepts as guidelines for the downstream manufacture of chemicals at alumina chemicals complexes located away from Bayer refineries, is also considered. A full line of industrial alumina chemicals is covered.

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  5. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  6. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  7. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    PubMed

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  9. Carbon dioxide utilization in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.; Tommasi, I.

    1996-12-31

    Carbon dioxide as a raw material for the Chemical Industry is receiving growing attention because: (i) if recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases will be implemented, huge amounts of CO{sub 2} will be available; (ii) environmental issues urge to develop new processes/products, avoiding toxic materials. Several uses of CO{sub 2} appear to be responding to both (i) and (ii), i.e. use as a solvent (supplanting organic solvents) use as a building block for carboxylates/carbonates (supplanting phosgene); use as carbon-source in the synthesis of fuels (supplanting CO or coal/hydrocarbons). These options will be evaluated and their potentiality discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  11. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  12. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Money It Earns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on industry earnings, sales, and spending related to: rates of return, stock prices, 50 largest chemical makers, ten-year record, funds, debt, capital spending, industry and company data. (PR)

  13. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Money It Earns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on industry earnings, sales, and spending related to: rates of return, stock prices, 50 largest chemical makers, ten-year record, funds, debt, capital spending, industry and company data. (PR)

  14. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the People It Employs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Employment data are presented in this section of the annual report on the chemical industry. Data are provided for: sales per employee, employment by company, industry employment, work week, earnings, unemployment of professionals, and employment of women. (PR)

  15. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the People It Employs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Employment data are presented in this section of the annual report on the chemical industry. Data are provided for: sales per employee, employment by company, industry employment, work week, earnings, unemployment of professionals, and employment of women. (PR)

  16. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  17. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Watson, Keith J

    2011-08-23

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade — ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals — threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  18. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  19. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  20. Opportunities for the chemical industry in space, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The chemical/petrochemical industry devotes a large percentage of its gross income to research and development, with much of its R and D of a long-term nature. As the chemical industry is examined as a candidate for space investigations, it is readily apparent that research and development in the space environment may lead to attractive commercial opportunities. The advantages of low gravity manufacturing, with a particular emphasis on chemical catalysts, are presented herein specifically for the chemical industry. Research from the Skylab program and Apollo Soyuz test project is reviewed, including acoustic levitation, crystal growth, and container less melts. Space processing of composite materials, alloys, and coatings is also discussed.

  1. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to and summaries of the manufacturing methods and uses of chemicals 51-75 on the list of chemicals arranged in order of decreasing production in the United States. Gives production in pounds, annual growth, average price per pound, and organization according to the seven basic organic chemicals. (CW)

  3. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to and summaries of the manufacturing methods and uses of chemicals 51-75 on the list of chemicals arranged in order of decreasing production in the United States. Gives production in pounds, annual growth, average price per pound, and organization according to the seven basic organic chemicals. (CW)

  4. The chemical industry, a novel market NICHE for fuel cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Grievink, J.; Luteijn, C.P.; Weijnen, M.P.C.

    1996-12-31

    The chemical industry may be seen as a market for fuel cells. Fuel cells can be applied to upgrade by-product hydrogen. Fuel cell stacks may be fully integrated in the process system design to enhance the chemical process performance. In this case the arrangement of stacks is one of the unit operations which the chemical process is composed of. Finally trigeneration systems may be designed to produce chemicals, power and heat simultaneously, as equally important commercial products. Identification of novel market opportunities in the chemical industry can be done by a three-step method. The economic feasibility largely depends on stack lifetime and stack capital cost.

  5. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  6. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  7. [Evaluation of the embryotoxic risk of industrial chemicals in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H

    1986-06-01

    For the first time exposure levels during pregnancy have been evaluated for industrial chemicals in the German list of "Maximal occupational exposure limits and biological tolerance levels of occupational chemicals 1985" (MAK-Werte-Liste). According to this evaluation only a single substance (methylmercury) is embryotoxic in man, a prenatal risk cannot be excluded for eight chemicals, and 18 chemicals are safe at occupational exposure limits (MAK-Werte). Furthermore, pregnant women should avoid exposure to any of the 112 carcinogenic chemicals of the list and to 26 substances which are under evaluation for embryotoxic properties. Occupational chemicals are subdivided into four pregnancy riskgroups and discussed with respect to prenatal counselling.

  8. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  9. Profit opportunities for the chemical process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Papers given at a seminar designed to assist industry in the utilization of NASA-developed technology are presented. The topics include the following: the Technology Utilization program, NASA patent policy changes, transfer of Hysttl resin technology, nonflammable cellulosic materials development, nonflammable paper technology, circuit board laminates and construction, polymide resins and other polymers, and intumescent coatings.

  10. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  11. Technology Vision 2020. The U.S. Chemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1996-12-01

    Technology Vision 2020 is a call to action, innovation, and change for the U.S. chemical industry. The body of this report outlines the current state of the industry, a vision for tomorrow, and the technical advances needed to make this vision a reality.

  12. A Framework for the Environmental Professional in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priesing, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    Addresses four areas of environmental concern in the chemical industry: (1) needs and responsibilities of environmental protection; (2) organization and distribution of environmental affairs within the corporate structure; (3) functions and operations associated with industrial environmental management; and (4) origins and tasks of the…

  13. A Framework for the Environmental Professional in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priesing, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    Addresses four areas of environmental concern in the chemical industry: (1) needs and responsibilities of environmental protection; (2) organization and distribution of environmental affairs within the corporate structure; (3) functions and operations associated with industrial environmental management; and (4) origins and tasks of the…

  14. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  15. Employment in the U.S. Chemical Industry. Chemical Work Force Tops 1.1 Million.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The annual census of industrial employment, production workers, women, the workweek, scientists and engineers, chemical employment, wages, and productivity in the chemical industry is presented. Trends in the numbers of workers, productivity, and unit labor costs are illustrated in graphs. (CW)

  16. Employment in the U.S. Chemical Industry. Chemical Work Force Tops 1.1 Million.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The annual census of industrial employment, production workers, women, the workweek, scientists and engineers, chemical employment, wages, and productivity in the chemical industry is presented. Trends in the numbers of workers, productivity, and unit labor costs are illustrated in graphs. (CW)

  17. Research and Development and the Chemical Industry: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pam

    This paper describes the research and development (R & D) strategy employed in a major chemical manufacturing corporation and compares the strategy to that which is generally used in educational R & D efforts. The paper underscores development practices in the chemical industry as they relate to devleopment activities in education. Some of the…

  18. Research and Development and the Chemical Industry: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pam

    This paper describes the research and development (R & D) strategy employed in a major chemical manufacturing corporation and compares the strategy to that which is generally used in educational R & D efforts. The paper underscores development practices in the chemical industry as they relate to devleopment activities in education. Some of the…

  19. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  20. Dutch plan sets environmental targets for chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, P.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The Dutch effort is a covenant--established between the nation's government and its chemical industry--to move the Netherlands forward in sustainable development, toward the year 2010, by cutting emissions from chemical production at both large and small chemical companies. The agreement is even accepted, in principle, by many of the country's tough environmental groups, although they have serious reservations on such aspects as timing and extent of the efforts. The chemical industry has committed itself to supporting the national plant, which sets forth firm sectoral goals for 2000 and targets for 2010. The government, in turn, has pledged to not unilaterally change its standards or requirements during this time. The Dutch government thereby achieves its strategic goals of lessened environmental pollution. And the industry's managers can incorporate the goals into their long-term investment planning.

  1. The Asia/Pacific chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1993-02-03

    The year of the Rooster may herald interesting change for the Asia/Pacific region. Local dynamics are shifting away from Japan, the traditional motor of the region, now in recession toward China, which is increasingly catching the imagination of investors. Japan's lead in major petrochemicals has eroded since restructuring of domestic industry. Ten years ago Japan was the location for 76% of Asian ethylene capacity, according to Chem Systems. It also held 89% of styrene capacity, 69% of polyolefins, and 62% of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Today it accounts for only 46% of Asian ethylene, 53% of styrene, 40% of polyolefin, and 37% of PVC capacity. Another country to watch is Vietnam many companies are waiting for sanctions to lift on US investment. When they do, this country of rich oil reserves but per capita income of only $200, will look to petrochemicals as a source of foreign investment.

  2. News from Online: Industrial Chemicals and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-02-01

    of the American Chemical Society Divisions of Polymer Chemistry and Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering and General Electric Corporation. The POLYED site, http:/ /chemdept.uwsp.edu/polyed/index.htm, is hosted by the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point. This National Center for Polymer Education is another good place to go for information. More education is available at the Ziegler Research Group Home Page at http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/index.html . Go to Metallocene as Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: An Introduction ( http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/met_intro.html ) for historical accounts of metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Movies are available here too. This Canadian site is well-documented and educational. Back at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, The Why Files site at http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu helps bring important chemical and technology news to the public. Go to the archived files of October 1997 ( http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/shorties/catalyst.html ) to find information about the importance of low-temperature metallocene catalysts. The Why Files received funding from the National Science Foundation. Go here for science information in an easy-to-read format. One of the driving forces toward better catalysis is the attempt to reach 100% product, combining efficiency with lowered pollution. Companies can look to the Environmental Protection Agency for information: Environsense at http://es.epa.gov/ is pledged to offer "Common Sense Solutions to Environmental Problems". So where can we get these polymers? The American Chemical Society can help. Go to Chemcylopedia at http://pubs.acs.org/chemcy99/ for great information. Both purchasers and users of chemicals can benefit from this site. Searches can be made on the chemical or on the supplier. Information provided includes CAS Registry Numbers and special shipping requirements as well as potential applications. Do you remember that we started with paper? Let

  3. Real World of Industrial Chemistry. The Second 50 Industrial Chemicals, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.; Artibee, Danette S.

    1988-01-01

    Completes a report from a previous article by presenting the important manufacture and uses of industrial chemicals. Gives structural formulas and percentages of each major use as well as the typical method of manufacture. (CW)

  4. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Ethylene: The Organic Chemical Industry's Most Important Building Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conrad, Ed.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The value of ethylene, as the organic chemical industry's most important building block, is discussed. The discussion focuses on the source of ethylene, its various forms and functions, and the ways in which the forms are made. (SA)

  5. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Ethylene: The Organic Chemical Industry's Most Important Building Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernelius, W. Conrad, Ed.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The value of ethylene, as the organic chemical industry's most important building block, is discussed. The discussion focuses on the source of ethylene, its various forms and functions, and the ways in which the forms are made. (SA)

  6. Perspective on opportunities in industrial biotechnology in renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brent; Nelson; Winters, Paul

    2012-02-01

    From biomass to renewable chemicals: while industrial biotechnology offers a clear value proposition, a number of hurdles need to be addressed to fully realize the commercial potential of bio-based products and chemicals over the coming decade. A review of an early roadmap for biological production of chemicals from renewable sugars reveals a focus on those that would provide co-products for integrated biorefineries producing biofuels and bioenergy. A growing number of companies are now focusing on specialty chemicals as an entry point to build the bio-based economy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. New TRI data shows chemical industry remains top toxic polluter

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.; Rotman, D.

    1993-06-02

    Despite continued declines in emissions, the latest Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data from the Environmental Protection Agency show the chemical industry was by far the largest emitter of toxic pollutants in 1991. DuPont headed the list of polluting companies, releasing a whopping 243 million lbs of toxic chemical-almost 100 million lbs more than number two Freeport-McMoRan. Releasing 1.55 billion lbs of toxics in 1991, chemical producers are trailed distantly by primary metals at 433 million lbs and paper manufacturing at 242 million lbs. total TRI air releases for all industries declined 13% because of reductions in industrial solvent, chlorine, and ammonia. Water releases rose 24%, primarily because of runoff from four fertilizer plants in Louisiana; and land releases dropped 9% because of decreases in phosphoric acid and metal compounds. The top three states for TRI releases are Lousiana, with 459 million lbs; Texas, with 411 million lbs; and Tennessee, with 215 million lbs.

  8. Sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment of chemical industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Daga, Kailash; Pallavi, V; Patel, Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Treatment technologies needed to reduce the pollutant load of chemical industry effluent have been found to involve exorbitantly high costs. The present investigation aimed to treat the wastewater from chemical industry by cost effective sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment. Wastewaters from chemical industry that are rich in biodegradable organics are tested for anaerobic treatability. The efficiency of anaerobic reactor is relatively lower 79.3%, and therefore post treatment of effluent was done by adsorption using Poly vinyl alcohol coated Datura stramonium (PVAC-DS) as an adsorbent. An overall COD removal of 93.8 % was achieved after sequential Anaerobic-Adsorption treatment, which lead to a better final effluent and a more economical treatment system.

  9. Microalgae: The chemical industry of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, M.E.

    1999-07-01

    Microalgae are the fastest growing plants on earth. The estimated 30,000 species possess extraordinary biochemical diversity that remains largely unexploited. The products they are known to contain are already worth approximately $10 billion in global trade. Lack of appropriate cultivation technology is the only reason that microalgae remain unexploited as a major biological resource. This barrier is now being broken, with new advances in photobioreactor technology. Many of the largest chemical companies in the world are currently divesting their traditional chemical production facilities and transforming themselves into life science companies. This transformation is correct in acknowledging organisms as the optimal source of biologically useful chemicals. However, the authors contents that the transformation is wrong in focusing on terrestrial plants as the principal source of the new chemical industry. Microalgae are by far the best plants upon which the life science industry could rely for its success.

  10. A multivariate chemical map of industrial chemicals--assessment of various protocols for identification of chemicals of potential concern.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Mia; Linusson, Anna; Tysklind, Mats; Andersson, Patrik L

    2009-08-01

    In present study the Industrial chemical map was created, and investigated. Molecular descriptors were calculated for 56072 organic substances from the European inventory of existing commercial chemical substances (EINECS). The resulting multivariate dataset was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), giving five principal components, mainly reflecting size, hydrophobicity, flexibility, halogenation and electronical properties. It is these five PCs that form the basis of the map of organic, industrial chemicals, the Industrial chemical map. The similarities and diversity in chemical characteristics of the substances in relation to their persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B) and long-range transport potential were then examined, by superimposing five sets of entries obtained from other relevant databases onto the Industrial chemical map. These sets displayed very similar diversity patterns in the map, although with a spread in all five PC vectors. Substances listed by the United Nations Environment Program as persistent organic pollutants (UNEP POPs) were on the other hand clearly grouped with respect to each of the five PCs. Illustrating similarities and differences in chemical properties are one of the strengths of the multivariate data analysis method, and to be able to make predictions of, and investigate new chemicals. Further, the results demonstrate that non-testing methods as read-across, based on molecular similarities, can reduce the requirements to test industrial chemicals, provided that they are applied carefully, in combination with sound chemical knowledge.

  11. Chemical dosing for sulfide control in Australia: An industry survey.

    PubMed

    Ganigue, Ramon; Gutierrez, Oriol; Rootsey, Ray; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-12-01

    Controlling sulfide (H(2)S) production and emission in sewer systems is critical due to the corrosion and malodour problems that sulfide causes. Chemical dosing is one of the most commonly used measures to mitigate these problems. Many chemicals have been reported to be effective for sulfide control, but the extent of success varies between chemicals and is also dependent on how they are applied. This industry survey aims to summarise the current practice in Australia with the view to assist the water industry to further improve their practices and to identify new research questions. Results showed that dosing is mainly undertaken in pressure mains. Magnesium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and nitrate are the most commonly used chemicals for sewers with low flows. In comparison, iron salts are preferentially used for sulfide control in large systems. The use of oxygen injection has declined dramatically in the past few years. Chemical dosing is mainly conducted at wet wells and pumping stations, except for oxygen, which is injected into the pipe. The dosing rates are normally linked to the control mechanisms of the chemicals and the dosing locations, with constant or profiled dosing rates usually applied. Finally, key opportunities for improvement are the use of mathematical models for the selection of chemicals and dosing locations, on-line dynamic control of the dosing rates and the development of more cost-effective chemicals for sulfide control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concepts in health evaluation of commercial and industrial chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for determining no toxic effect exposure levels based on short-term testing of industrial and commercial chemicals. Procedures for monitoring all organs and body functions for the presence or absence of toxicological effects are demonstrated using various laboratory animals.

  13. Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

  14. New trends in (heterogeneous) catalysis for the fine chemicals industry.

    PubMed

    Bonrath, Werner

    2014-01-01

    New catalytic methods and modern trends for the synthesis of fine chemicals, especially vitamins, carotenoids, flavoring and fragrance compounds are presented. In particular the application of heterogeneous catalysis in the formation and production on industrial scale of these classes of organic compounds will be highlighted and its use in the replacement of former stoichiometric processes.

  15. Nonleaded Gasoline: Its Impact on the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Explores some of the ways that lead is being replaced in the production of gasolines. Discusses the effects these changes are having on the chemical industry. Contrasts the use of ethyl alcohol from renewable sources with alcohols depending on the availability of isobutene. (TW)

  16. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  17. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  18. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  19. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH3, SO2, NO2, H2S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  20. [Morbidity patterns of workers employed in pharmaceutical-chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Aleksandar; Jakovljević, Branko; Milovanović, Jovica; Paunović, Katarina; Ilić, Dragan; Torbica, Nikola; Corac, Aleksandar; Samardzic, Svetomir; Blagojević, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Work in pharmaceutical-chemical industry is characterized by exposure to numerous hazards, both physical (microclimate, illumination, noise) and chemical (organic solvents). Organic solvents can cause damage to many organic systems and have carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of chronic morbidity of workers employed in pharmaceutical-chemical industry during 2002. The study was conducted in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry "Zdravlje" Leskovac in 2002. A total of 143 workers in workplaces with special working conditions exposed to chemical hazards as well as 40 workers from control group took part in the study. The physical examinations of the participants were performed at the Department of Occupational Health in Health Center, Leskovac. Heart diseases were the most frequent both among exposed workers (17.8%) and in control group (33.3%). Respiratory diseases were at the second place (16.9% in the exposed group, and 7.4% in control group). Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 14.7% workers occupationally exposed to hazards, and in 12.5% workers from control group (p > 0.05). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 175% of the exposed workers and in only 5.0% of controls (p > 0.05). The highest prevalence of diseases in both groups was observed among workers aged 40-49 years, with 20-29 years of exposure working time. 73.4% of the exposed workers and 85% of control workers were capable of work (p > 0.05). Workers occupationally exposed to hazards in pharmaceutical-chemical industry have higher prevalence of various diseases compared to non-exposed workers, which can be the result of work, working conditions and work activity. Preventive measures should be directed towards the decrease of occupational hazards and unfavorable working conditions and increase of work protection. Regular physical examinations of workers are of prime importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, traumatism and

  1. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular chemical firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry and mechanisms for stimulating interest; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based on extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  2. Skill Development of Plant Operators in the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Kouichi

    In the chemical industry, most of the chemical products are manufactured by operating equipment and changing raw materials chemically and physically. Knowledge and skills regarding the raw materials and the products are required to manufacture the products of good quality safely. Furthermore the knowledge and skills concerning the chemical process, the equipment and other treated materials are needed to operate plant appropriately. The way of plant operation partially depends on the type of process such as continuous process and batch process. As a plant operator is promoted to an upper position, required to improve one's skills. To operate plant safely, the base action to prevent an error of judgment, and the adaptive action based on the rule and principle i.e. KNOW-WHY are also required. In this paper, it reports on some cases of the skill development of plant operators in Omuta Works.

  3. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  4. Toxic Industrial Chemical Removal by Isostructural Metal-Organic Frameworks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    distance between the MOF -74 metal and the adsorbed hydrogen molecule. In addition, the authors studied the methane storage capabilities of these MOFs and...industrial processes such as gas storage , separations, and catalysis [1-4]. MOFs self-assemble using combinations of metal clusters and organic linking...and organic linkers to achieve better selectivity and activity towards chemicals such as, hydrogen , carbon dioxide, and methane, for gas storage

  5. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  6. New frontiers for encapsulation in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brenda; Song, Ziyuan; Li, Jun; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    Encapsulation of actives comprises an area of exploration undergoing rapid growth in both academic and industrial research settings. Encapsulation processes are employed as a part of product synthesis processes for improved efficiency, enhanced stability, active ingredient compatibility, increased safety, targeted delivery, and novel performance of the end product. Such technical benefits enable producers to offer products with increased formulation complexity, access new markets, differentiate products, and improve compatibility and stability, while meeting consumer demands with improved performance, reduced costs, and new actives. In this review, we highlight several emerging academic areas of encapsulation that we believe have specific relevance to industrial formulation, with a focus on three primary areas: supramolecular encapsulation, aqueous self-assembled systems, and emulsion-based capsules. The goal of this review is to help identify the major challenges facing encapsulation technology adoption in the chemical industry, bringing focus and maximizing the potential value of ongoing research efforts.

  7. GRP vessels and pipework for the chemical and process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Plastic can be reinforced by an appreciable number of materials, the most commonly used is glass-fibre. Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) has been used in the chemical and process industries for 25 years. In the course of its use and development, much data has been gathered on the material, its chemistry, mechanical properties, methods of fabrication and moulding, its behaviour in service and the methods and mathematics of the analysis of plant constructed from it. The importance of the material in industry was reflected by the large response to a symposium organised by UMIST, the Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include GRP piping - a multi-sponsored research project; inspection authority views; failure of attachments to GRP cylinders due to local loads; aspects of GRP service failure in the chemical and process industries; stress corrosion of GRP in relation to design stress and service performance; design of GRP pipe bends in relation to internal pressure tests to destruction; and acoustic emission monitoring: a complementary inspection method for fibre-reinforced plastic components.

  8. Two Decades of Laccases: Advancing Sustainability in the Chemical Industry.

    PubMed

    Cannatelli, Mark D; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2 O as the sole by-product. The following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness.

  10. Biological monitoring IX: Concomitant exposure to medications and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.

    1994-05-01

    A significant proportion of workers may be receiving prescription or nonprescription medications. In two surveys, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, 15 to 30 percent of workers reported current use of pharmaceuticals. In a viscose rayon factory in Belgium, 31 percent of 129 workers exposed to carbon disulfide and 19.8 percent of 81 control workers from other factories reported use of some medication. Some of the drugs may affect the relationship between the external exposure (dose) of a chemical and the concentration of that chemical or its metabolite(s) in a sampled biological medium (internal dose), and/or the relationship between external exposure and concentration at a receptor site. They may also modulate the response of the receptor, as suggested by the increased reports of neurological symptoms in carbon disulfide-exposed workers taking certain medications. There are two obvious differences between drugs and industrial chemicals: (1) The effects of drugs cover a wider spectrum and include effects not known to be the result of any industrial chemicals. Examples include selective destructive inhibition of hepatic enzymes (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, indomethacin) and alteration of hepatic blood flow (adrenergic agents, cimetidine). (2) Drugs are administered to produce specific therapeutic effects. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon.

  12. Characteristics of comprehensive Chemical Industry Database CD-NET : Centered around chemical product information file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Hideo

    This paper describes Chemical Product Information File of Chemical Industry Database, CD-NET provided by Chemical Data Service Inc.. It defines "information" first, then explains file organization and presents how Chemical product Information File is located in CD-NET. Mentioning its complementary relation with JICST's JOIS-F the author defines the File as chemical product information for business purpose. All of the information items in the File emphasize that it is exactly a type of business and practical database. To distinguish general items from important items by product, all of the information is categorized into II classes by general chemical product and by area. The scope and emphasized items under each class are described in detail.

  13. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Foreign Trade It Generates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The foreign trade of the United States chemical industry is reviewed in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data presented for: U.S. chemical trade, U.S. trade as per cent of world trade, total U.S. trade, chemical trade growth, and U.S. chemical trade partners. (PR)

  14. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Foreign Trade It Generates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The foreign trade of the United States chemical industry is reviewed in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data presented for: U.S. chemical trade, U.S. trade as per cent of world trade, total U.S. trade, chemical trade growth, and U.S. chemical trade partners. (PR)

  15. Mapping human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of chemical industry parks.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengying; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei; Qu, Changsheng; Yang, Jie; Bu, Quanmin

    2010-07-15

    China is suffering from severe pollution accidents which may have catastrophic impacts on the local population and environment. Some questions are unclear to local governments and industry operators like "who are vulnerable to the chemical risks?" and "what is the magnitude of vulnerability?". This paper concentrates on exploring the concepts of human vulnerability and the methodology of analyzing human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of chemical industry parks. A conceptual model of human vulnerability to chemical accidents is developed, revealing the roots of human vulnerability and emphasizing its role in risk management. A geographical information system (GIS)-based methodology for mapping vulnerability is proposed and applied to the Nanjing Chemical Industry Park in China. By combining physical vulnerability and social vulnerability spatially, the total vulnerability is revealed to better respond to accidents. It is proposed to improve traffic lines and allocation of medical services, and include vulnerability assessment in land-use planning to reduce future risks. In other words, it seems feasible and effective to reveal physical, social and total vulnerability of residents in the vicinity of chemical risk sources. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    PubMed

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

  17. Nanotechnology in the Chemical Industry - Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu Zhao, Qian; Boxman, Arthur; Chowdhry, Uma

    2003-12-01

    The traditional chemical industry has become a largely mature industry with many commodity products based on established technologies. Therefore, new product and market opportunities will more likely come from speciality chemicals, and from new functionalities obtained from new processing technologies as well as new microstructure control methodologies. It is a well-known fact that in addition to its molecular structure, the microstructure of a material is key to determining its properties. Controlling structures at the micro- and nano-levels is therefore essential to new discoveries. For this article, we define nanotechnology as the controlled manipulation of nanomaterials with at least one dimension less than 100nm. Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the principal areas of investigation that is integrating chemistry and materials science, and in some cases integrating these with biology to create new and yet undiscovered properties that can be exploited to gain new market opportunities. In this article market opportunities for nanotechnology will be presented from an industrial perspective covering electronic, biomedical, performance materials, and consumer products. Manufacturing technology challenges will be identified, including operations ranging from particle formation, coating, dispersion, to characterization, modeling, and simulation. Finally, a nanotechnology innovation roadmap is proposed wherein the interplay between the development of nanoscale building blocks, product design, process design, and value chain integration is identified. A suggestion is made for an R&D model combining market pull and technology push as a way to quickly exploit the advantages in nanotechnology and translate these into customer benefits.

  18. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production.

  19. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.

  20. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    DOE PAGES

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets whenmore » it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.« less

  1. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    DOE PAGES

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets whenmore » it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.« less

  2. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.

  3. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  4. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p < 0.05). Under the combined action of hazardous substances, the incidence of digestive diseases was 1.7-fold greater (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects and 1.2-fold greater in those under isolated action. The odd ratio and relative risk for digestive diseases in the workers exposed to a combination of noxious substances were 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  5. Quality of Chemical Safety Information in Printing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Mao, I-Fang; Ting, Jo-Yu; Young, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Jhih-Sian; Li, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Employees in printing industries can be exposed to multiple solvents in their work environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the critical components of chemical solvents by analyzing the components of the solvents and collecting the Safety data sheets (SDSs), and to evaluate the hazard communication implementation status in printing industries. Method: About 152 printing-related industries were recruited by area-stratified random sampling and included 23 plate-making, 102 printing and 27 printing-assistance companies in Taiwan. We analyzed company questionnaires (n = 152), SDSs (n = 180), and solvents (n = 20) collected from this sample of printing-related companies. Results: Analytical results indicated that benzene and ethylbenzene, which were carcinogen and possibly carcinogen, were detectable in the cleaning solvents, and the detection rate were 54.5% (concentrations: <0.011–0.035 wt%) and 63.6% (concentrations: <0.011–6.22 wt%), respectively; however, neither compound was disclosed in the SDS for the solvents. Several other undisclosed components, including methanol, isopropanol and n-butanol, were also identified in the printing inks, fountain solutions and dilution solvents. We noted that, of the companies we surveyed, only 57.2% had a hazard communication program, 61.8% had SDSs on file and 59.9% provided employee safety and health training. We note that hazard communication programs were missing or ineffective in almost half of the 152 printing industries surveyed. Conclusions: Current safety information of solvents components in printing industries was inadequate, and many hazardous compounds were undisclosed in the SDSs of the solvents or the labels of the containers. The implementation of hazard communications in printing industries was still not enough for protecting the employees’ safety and health. PMID:26568584

  6. Quality of Chemical Safety Information in Printing Industry.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Mao, I-Fang; Ting, Jo-Yu; Young, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Jhih-Sian; Li, Wei-Lun

    2016-04-01

    Employees in printing industries can be exposed to multiple solvents in their work environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the critical components of chemical solvents by analyzing the components of the solvents and collecting the Safety data sheets (SDSs), and to evaluate the hazard communication implementation status in printing industries. About 152 printing-related industries were recruited by area-stratified random sampling and included 23 plate-making, 102 printing and 27 printing-assistance companies in Taiwan. We analyzed company questionnaires (n = 152), SDSs (n = 180), and solvents (n = 20) collected from this sample of printing-related companies. Analytical results indicated that benzene and ethylbenzene, which were carcinogen and possibly carcinogen, were detectable in the cleaning solvents, and the detection rate were 54.5% (concentrations: <0.011-0.035 wt%) and 63.6% (concentrations: <0.011-6.22 wt%), respectively; however, neither compound was disclosed in the SDS for the solvents. Several other undisclosed components, including methanol, isopropanol and n-butanol, were also identified in the printing inks, fountain solutions and dilution solvents. We noted that, of the companies we surveyed, only 57.2% had a hazard communication program, 61.8% had SDSs on file and 59.9% provided employee safety and health training. We note that hazard communication programs were missing or ineffective in almost half of the 152 printing industries surveyed. Current safety information of solvents components in printing industries was inadequate, and many hazardous compounds were undisclosed in the SDSs of the solvents or the labels of the containers. The implementation of hazard communications in printing industries was still not enough for protecting the employees' safety and health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  7. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro

  8. In Situ Sensors for the Chemical Industry- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J D; Knittel, Trevor

    2006-06-30

    The project focused on analytical techniques that can be applied in situ. The innovative component of this project is the focus on achieving a significant breakthrough in two of the three primary Process Analytical (PA) fields. PA measurements can roughly be broken down into:Single component measurements, Multiple component measurements and Multiple component isomer analysis. This project targeted single component measurements and multiple component measurements with two basic technologies, and to move these measurements to the process, achieving many of the process control needs. During the project the following achievements were made: Development of a low cost Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) Analyzer system for measurement of 1) Oxygen in process and combustion applications, 2) part per million (ppm) H2O impurities in aggressive service, 3) ppm CO in large scale combustion systems. This product is now commercially available Development of a process pathlength enhanced (high sensitivity) Laser Based Analyzer for measurement of product impurities. This product is now commercially available. Development of signal processing methods to eliminate measurement errors in complex and changing backgrounds (critical to chemical industry measurements). This development is incorporated into 2 commercially available products. Development of signal processing methods to allow multi-component measurements in complex chemical streams. This development is incorporated into 2 commercially available products. Development of process interface designs to allow in-situ application of TDL technology in aggressive (corrosive, high temperature, high pressure) commonly found in chemical processes. This development is incorporated in the commercially available ASI TDL analyzer. Field proving of 3 laser-based analyzer systems in process control and combustion applications at Dow Chemical. Laser based analyzers have been available for >5yrs, however significant product price/performance issues have

  9. The healthy worker effect in US chemical industry workers.

    PubMed

    Burns, C J; Bodner, K M; Jammer, B L; Collins, J J; Swaen, G M H

    2011-01-01

    Occupational studies typically observe a 20% deficit in overall mortality, broadly characterized as the healthy worker effect (HWE). Components of the HWE may be addressed by various analytical approaches. To explore the HWE in a modern industrial cohort. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for 114,683 US chemical industry employees, who worked at least 3 days between 1960 and 2005. SMRs were 79 (95% confidence interval 78-80) for all causes, 81 (95% confidence interval 79-82) for heart disease, 70 (95% confidence interval 67-73) for non-malignant respiratory disease, 83 (95% confidence interval 81-85) for smoking-related cancers (buccal, cervix, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, lung, larynx, bladder and kidney) combined and 97 (95% confidence interval 95-100) for other cancers. The low SMRs observed in this study are likely due to differential smoking between the cohort and the background population. Future considerations to control for the HWE should take this into account.

  10. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gage, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Gage, J. C. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 1-18. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals. The inhalation toxicity of 109 substances has been studied by exposing experimental animals to known concentrations in air for periods of about three weeks. The toxic properties of these substances are reviewed in relation to the effects of similar compounds on animals and on man. Provisional operational limits are suggested to assist in the design of new plant and in the establishment of codes for safe manufacturing practice. PMID:5418916

  11. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  12. [Guides to chemical risk assessment in the construction industry].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Scapellato, M L; Butera, R; Bartolucci, G B

    2012-01-01

    The presence of chemical agents in construction is certainly relevant in terms of quality, quantity and toxicity. Their manipulation can result in potential exposure as inhaled and/or through the skin. It is therefore possible and necessary to identify a list of substances to be considered relevant for the risk assessment and the possible environmental monitoring to verify the adequacy of the estimate made. The many variables inherent in construction make it extremely difficult to apply the usual methods of the industrial hygiene because it would not very significant conclusions in terms of space-time representation. SIMLII in one of its guidelines have proposed a "indexes" method that can provide useful information to the figures of prevention for the actions of their competence. The subsequent introduction of the REACH Regulation and exposure scenarios may help to further sharpening the assessment of chemical hazards in construction.

  13. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fry, D M

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent.

  14. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p`-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. 85 refs.

  15. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  16. A Survey of Industrial Organic Chemists: Understanding the Chemical Industry's Needs of Current Bachelor-Level Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Justin D.; Kleist, Elyse M.; Stoy, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted of companies from the chemical industry with an emphasis on the organic division. The data include results from 377 respondents from more than 100 different companies. More than half of all undergraduates gain fulltime work in the chemical industry or government after graduating with a bachelor's degree in chemistry.…

  17. A Survey of Industrial Organic Chemists: Understanding the Chemical Industry's Needs of Current Bachelor-Level Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Justin D.; Kleist, Elyse M.; Stoy, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted of companies from the chemical industry with an emphasis on the organic division. The data include results from 377 respondents from more than 100 different companies. More than half of all undergraduates gain fulltime work in the chemical industry or government after graduating with a bachelor's degree in chemistry.…

  18. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprehensive chemical characterization of industrial PM2.5 from steel industry activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Alexandre; Mizzi, Aurélie; Mathiot, Sébastien; Masson, Fanny; Jaffrezo, Jean L.; Dron, Julien; Mesbah, Boualem; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Industrial sources are among the least documented PM (Particulate Matter) source in terms of chemical composition, which limits our understanding of their effective impact on ambient PM concentrations. We report 4 chemical emission profiles of PM2.5 for multiple activities located in a vast metallurgical complex. Emissions profiles were calculated as the difference of species concentrations between an upwind and a downwind site normalized by the absolute PM2.5 enrichment between both sites. We characterized the PM2.5 emissions profiles of the industrial activities related to the cast iron (complex 1) and the iron ore conversion processes (complex 2), as well as 2 storage areas: a blast furnace slag area (complex 3) and an ore terminal (complex 4). PM2.5 major fractions (Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC), major ions), organic markers as well as metals/trace elements are reported for the 4 industrial complexes. Among the trace elements, iron is the most emitted for the complex 1 (146.0 mg g-1 of PM2.5), the complex 2 (70.07 mg g-1) and the complex 3 (124.4 mg g-1) followed by Al, Mn and Zn. A strong emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), representing 1.3% of the Organic Matter (OM), is observed for the iron ore transformation complex (complex 2) which merges the activities of coke and iron sinter production and the blast furnace processes. In addition to unsubstituted PAHs, sulfur containing PAHs (SPAHs) are also significantly emitted (between 0.011 and 0.068 mg g-1) by the complex 2 and could become very useful organic markers of steel industry activities. For the complexes 1 and 2 (cast iron and iron ore converters), a strong fraction of sulfate ranging from 0.284 to 0.336 g g-1) and only partially neutralized by ammonium, is observed indicating that sulfates, if not directly emitted by the industrial activity, are formed very quickly in the plume. Emission from complex 4 (Ore terminal) are characterized by high contribution of Al (125.7 mg

  20. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2005-05-01

    A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

  1. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field.

  2. Hydrogen fuel cells in chemical industry: The assemini project

    SciTech Connect

    Caserza, G.; Bozzoni, T.; Porcino, G.; Pasquinucci, A.

    1996-12-31

    Chemical and petrochemical industries generate large quantities of hydrogen-rich streams, in the range 50%-100% H{sub 2} concentration by volume, as by-products of electrochemical or dehydrogenation processes, or exhausts/purging in hydrogenation processes. Due to safety aspects, and because of the low density, which makes difficult transportation and storage, such streams often constitute a problem for plant managers. In most cases recycling within the plant processes is not possible, and transportation to other sites, generally by truck after compression in cylinders, is not economical. Many of these streams arc therefore simply co-burned in plant boilers, and in some cases even wasted by venting or flaring. Their value ranges from zero (if vented), to the value of the fuel used in the boiler, where they are co-burned.

  3. Biotechnology-a sustainable alternative for chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Chisti, Yusuf

    2005-11-01

    This review outlines the current and emerging applications of biotechnology, particularly in the production and processing of chemicals, for sustainable development. Biotechnology is "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents". Some of the defining technologies of modern biotechnology include genetic engineering; culture of recombinant microorganisms, cells of animals and plants; metabolic engineering; hybridoma technology; bioelectronics; nanobiotechnology; protein engineering; transgenic animals and plants; tissue and organ engineering; immunological assays; genomics and proteomics; bioseparations and bioreactor technologies. Environmental and economic benefits that biotechnology can offer in manufacturing, monitoring and waste management are highlighted. These benefits include the following: greatly reduced dependence on nonrenewable fuels and other resources; reduced potential for pollution of industrial processes and products; ability to safely destroy accumulated pollutants for remediation of the environment; improved economics of production; and sustainable production of existing and novel products.

  4. Oilseed crops as renewable sources of industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    McKeon, T.A.; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M.

    1995-12-01

    The presence of specific functional groups on a fatty acid confers value for industrial uses. The plant kingdom contains numerous examples of plants that produce seed oils containing fatty acids with epoxy groups, hydroxyl groups, triple bonds or with unusual double bond positions. These fatty acids can be used directly or are readily modified for use in specialty lubricants, plastics and coatings. Many of these plants are not cultivated in the U.S. due to unsuitable climate or growth habit. Such plants provide a source of genes coding for enzymes that will carry out the desired fatty acid modification. Genetic technology allows the transfer of these genes into domestically grown crops such as rapeseed or soybean, with consequent production of the desired fatty acid in the seed oil. One biotechnology company has commercialized a transgenic oilseed crop with an altered fatty acid composition. This talk will review current and projected plans for developing oilseed crops to serve as renewable resources that meet current industrial needs or provide chemical feedstocks for new uses.

  5. Trends in the Chemical Industry. 1987 Survey of ACS Corporation Associates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    In July, 1986, the American Chemical Society (ACS) initiated a study which was intended to address future trends in the chemical industry. A survey was developed by and distributed to the member companies of Corporation Associates, which is the formal link between ACS and the chemical industry. The Executive Summary of the report, which makes up…

  6. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  7. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  8. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  9. Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design. From Fundamentals to Function

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    Vision2020 agreed to join NNI and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) in sponsoring the "Nanomaterials and the Chemical Industry Roadmap Workshop" on September 30-October 2, 2002. This roadmap, Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function, is based on the scientific priorities expressed by workshop participants from the chemical industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  10. Rapid determination of fumigant and industrial chemical residues in food.

    PubMed

    Daft, J L

    1988-01-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method is described for the determination of 22 fumigant and industrial chemical residues in a variety of foods. The fumigants and industrial chemicals determined are methyl bromide, methylene chloride, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethane, ethylene dichloride, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methylene bromide, propylene dichloride, 2,3-dichloropropene, trichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, chloropicrin, ethylene dibromide, tetrachloroethylene, propylene dibromide, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Except for the latter three, the fumigants are determined at 90 degrees C on 3.6 m 20% loaded OV-101 columns with electron-capture and Hall-electroconductivity detectors. The other 3 compounds (o-dichlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), which elute beyond 30 min on the above columns, are determined at 90 degrees C on 1.8 m 5% loaded OV-101 columns with the same detectors. The ng/g-level fortifications have an overall mean analyte recovery of 70% and a coefficient of variation of 40%. The variety of foods examined includes both fatty and nonfatty food types (e.g., off-the-shelf cooked and uncooked grain-based items, dairy products, fresh and canned fruits and vegetables, and meats). Samples are extracted and cleaned up according to fat content and food type. Samples containing less than 71% fat are extracted by using an aqueous: nonaqueous shakeout (20% acetone solution under isooctane). Most extracts (isooctanes) are analyzed directly. Extracts from samples containing from 21 to 70% fat (e.g., ground beef, pecans, and corn chips) are cleaned up further on micro-Florisil columns to remove excess fat. A few other samples containing more than 71% fat or oil (e.g., butter, salad dressing, and vegetable oil) are diluted directly in isooctane and, depending on the degree of dilution, can be cleaned up further on

  11. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  12. Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 μgm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

  13. A methodology for overall consequence modeling in chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Arunraj, N S; Maiti, J

    2009-09-30

    Risk assessment in chemical process industry is a very important issue for safeguarding human and the ecosystem from damages caused to them. Consequence assessment is an integral part of risk assessment. However, the commonly used consequence estimation methods involve time-consuming complex mathematical models and simple assimilation of losses without considering all the consequence factors. This lead to the deterioration of quality of estimated risk value. So, the consequence modeling has to be performed in detail considering all major losses with optimal time to improve the decisive value of risk. The losses can be broadly categorized into production loss, assets loss, human health and safety loss, and environment loss. In this paper, a conceptual framework is developed to assess the overall consequence considering all the important components of major losses. Secondly, a methodology is developed for the calculation of all the major losses, which are normalized to yield the overall consequence. Finally, as an illustration, the proposed methodology is applied to a case study plant involving benzene extraction. The case study result using the proposed consequence assessment scheme is compared with that from the existing methodologies.

  14. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.

  15. Chemical Industry: A New Interdisciplinary Course for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Nehemia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school course which incorporates an industrial approach into the chemistry curriculum. Presents three case studies as examples taken from the local chemistry industry--the production of copper, bromine, and plastics. (CS)

  16. Chemical Industry: A New Interdisciplinary Course for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Nehemia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced high school course which incorporates an industrial approach into the chemistry curriculum. Presents three case studies as examples taken from the local chemistry industry--the production of copper, bromine, and plastics. (CS)

  17. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the R & D It Conducts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The section on research and development (R and D) of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data related to: chemical R and D spending, R and D as per cent of sales, R and D employment, company R and D spending, R and D costs, and all industrial R and D employment. (PR)

  18. The Cooperation Between Poison Control Center and Organized Industrial District for Chemical Disaster Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    BETWEEN POISON CONTROL CENTER AND ORGANIZED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT FOR CHEMICAL DISASTER PREVENTION Ozyurt G. and Tokyay N. Uludag Poison Center; Uludag...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013444 TITLE: The Cooperation Between Poison Control Center and...Organized Industrial District for Chemical Disaster Prevention DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the

  19. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  20. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  1. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the R & D It Conducts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The section on research and development (R and D) of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data related to: chemical R and D spending, R and D as per cent of sales, R and D employment, company R and D spending, R and D costs, and all industrial R and D employment. (PR)

  2. Trends and innovations in industrial biocatalysis for the production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Panke, Sven; Held, Martin; Wubbolts, Marcel

    2004-08-01

    Biocatalysis has become an established technology for the industrial manufacture of fine chemicals. In recent years, a multitude of chemical companies have embraced biocatalysis for the manufacture of desired stereoisomers, and new or improved methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure alpha- and beta-amino acids, amines, amides, peptides, nitriles, alcohols, organic acids and epoxides have emerged. Furthermore, the selectivity and mild operational conditions of biocatalysts are increasingly applied in industry to modify complex target molecules. These recent innovations in the manufacture of industrial fine chemicals using biocatalysis are discussed from an industrial perspective.

  3. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  4. Chemistry in Action: How to Plan a Visit to the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nae, Hemi; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents guidelines for field trips to chemical industries. Includes examples of objectives, administrative aspects (time off from school, contact persons, transportation, pre/post-trip discussions, and guides at the industrial facility). Includes an evaluation of trips taken to industrial plants in Israel. (JN)

  5. Best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries with examples from the industry sector and specifically from Nova Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa M

    2004-07-26

    This paper will summarize best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries and will provide examples from both the industry sector and specifically from NOVA Chemicals. As a sponsor of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, NOVA Chemicals participates in a number of working groups to help develop best practices and tools for the chemical process and associated industries in order to advance chemical process safety. A recent project was to develop an update on guidelines for investigating chemical process incidents. A successful incident investigation management system must ensure that all incidents and near misses are reported, that root causes are identified, that recommendations from incident investigations identify appropriate preventive measures, and that these recommendations are resolved in a timely manner. The key elements of an effective management system for incident investigation will be described. Accepted definitions of such terms as near miss, incident, and root cause will be reviewed. An explanation of the types of incident classification systems in use, along with expected levels of follow-up, will be provided. There are several incident investigation methodologies in use today by members of the CCPS; most of these methodologies incorporate the use of several tools. These tools include: timelines, sequence diagrams, causal factor identification, brainstorming, checklists, pre-defined trees, and team-defined logic trees. Developing appropriate recommendations and then ensuring their resolution is the key to prevention of similar events from recurring, along with the sharing of lessons learned from incidents. There are several sources of information on previous incidents and lessons learned available to companies. In addition, many companies in the chemical process industries use their own internal databases to track recommendations from

  6. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

  7. [Development of the chemical industry in the Kingdom of Poland till 1914].

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2010-01-01

    The chemical industry in the Kingdom of Poland developed on the turn of the 19th century. Earlier, in the field of industry in the Kingdom one could observe only two lines of the chemical industry: aliphatic and soap, and gas-producing and coal gas. The beginnings of the first mentioned line appeared on the turn of the 18th century, and the second branch--in the half of the 19th century. The development of chemical industry was stimulated by foreign capital expenditure, mainly by German capital. A significant impact on foreign capital expenditures within chemical industry on territories of Russian Empire, and also in the Kingdom as the most industrialized part of Empire, had tariffs. Thanks to the direct capital expenditures in the Kingdom foreign investors got an access to the receptive Russian market using the potential and technological thought of their establishments--'mother' firms. In 1913 a share of foreign capital in chemical industry in the Kingdom was 20, 30%. By dint of foreign capital expenditures in the years 1900-1913 production's value in chemical industry rose from 12 to 40 millions and 900 thousands roubles. The foreign capital, however, used to invest only in the most industrialized provinces of the Kingdom--Warsaw and Piotrków. And the greatest concentration of chemical industry could be observed just in the above-mentioned provinces. In the years 1904-1913 a number of establishments fluctuated there from 88.09 to 81.18%, and the employment--from 91.83 to 91.09%. This tendency could be observed till the outbreak of World War I. The Polish and Jewish capital that invested in chemical industry, did not have such financial resources. The investors' establishments were not large and technologically under-developed. However, the Polish and Jewish capital invested in the local market, particularly in agricultural provinces of the Kingdom.

  8. Commercialization of Turbulent Combustion Code CREBCOM for Chemical Industry Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Upendra

    2007-06-30

    This program developed the Kurchatov Institute’s CREBCOM (CRiteria and Experimentally Based COMbustion) code to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications described above, as well as for general purpose combustion calculations. The CREBCOM code uses a different approach to model the explosion phenomenon. The code models, with full 3D gas dynamics, the development of an explosion in three characteristics regimes: a) slow flames, b) fast flames, and c) detonation. The transition from one regime to another is governed by a set of empirical criteria and correlations. As part of the commercialization, the code was validated with the use of experimental data. The experimental data covered a range of thermodynamic initial conditions and apparatus scale. Proprietary experimental data were provided to the Kurchatov Institute by the DuPont for this purpose. The flame acceleration and detonation data was obtained from experiments in methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures carried out in two vessels with diameters of 20 and 27 cm. The experimental data covers a wide spectrum of initial temperature (20-525C) and pressure (1-3 atm). As part of this program, the Kurchatov Institute performed experiments in a 52 cm vessel in mixtures of methane-air at room temperature and pressure to be used in the validation of the code. The objective of these tests was to obtain frame acceleration data at a scale close to that found in actual industrial processes. BNL was responsible for managing the DOE/IPP portion of the program, and for satisfying DOE reporting requirements. BNL also participated in an independent assessment of the CREBOM code. DuPont provided proprietary experimental data to the Kurchatov Institute on flame acceleration and detonation in high temperature methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures in addition to the matching fund. In addition, DuPont also supplied to KI instrumentation for pressure and temperature measurement

  9. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  10. Evaluating the environmental hazard of industrial chemicals from data collected during the REACH registration process.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Mikael B; Hellohf, Andreas; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Registration dossiers for 11,678 industrial chemicals were retrieved from the database of the European Chemicals Agency, of which 3566 provided a numerical entry for the corresponding predicted no effect concentration for the freshwater environment (PNEC). A distribution-based examination of 2244 of these entries reveals that the average PNEC of an industrial chemical in Europe is 238nmol/L, covering a span of 9 orders of magnitude. A comparison with biocides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and WFD-priority pollutants reveals that, in average, industrial chemicals are least hazardous (hazard ranking: industrial chemicals≪pharmaceuticalsindustrial chemicals have a lower environmental threshold than the median pesticide and 73 have a lower environmental threshold than even the median biocide. Industrial chemicals produced and/or imported in higher tonnages have, on average, higher PNECs which most likely is due to the lower assessment factors used for the PNEC determination. This pattern indicates that the initial AF of 1000 comprises a measure of conservatism. The vast majority of PNEC values are driven by EC50 and NOEC data from tests with Daphnia magna. Tests with marine species are rarely provided for the hazard characterization of industrial chemicals.

  11. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Struijs, J; van de Meent, D; Schowanek, D; Buchholz, H; Patoux, R; Wolf, T; Austin, T; Tolls, J; van Leeuwen, K; Galay-Burgos, M

    2016-09-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for application to industrial sewage treatment plants (I-STP). The intended use of this re-parametrized model is focused on risk assessment during manufacture and subsequent uses of chemicals, also in the framework of REACH. The results of an inquiry on the operational characteristics of industrial sewage treatment installations were used to re-parameterize the model. It appeared that one property of industrial sewage, i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in combination with one parameter of the activated sludge process, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is satisfactory to define treatment of industrial wastewater by means of the activated sludge process. The adapted model was compared to the original municipal version, SimpleTreat 4.0, by means of a sensitivity analysis. The consistency of the model output was assessed by computing the emission to water from an I-STP of a set of fictitious chemicals. This set of chemicals exhibit a range of physico-chemical and biodegradability properties occurring in industrial wastewater. Predicted removal rates of a chemical from raw sewage are higher in industrial than in municipal STPs. The latter have typically shorter hydraulic retention times with diminished opportunity for elimination of the chemical due to volatilization and biodegradation.

  12. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  13. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  14. Implementation Plan for Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials by Design

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop an implementation plan to realize the vision and goals identified in the Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function.

  15. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet on the national air toxics standards issued October 16, 2009 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the chemical manufacturing industry.

  16. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Li, Hong; Yang, Ni-Yun; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Yu, Ruo-Zhen; Zhang, Lai; Wang, Wan-Hua; Jiao, Cong-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Tao

    2012-06-01

    With China's rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China's environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Impact of the industrial enzyme progress on the production of chemicals].

    PubMed

    Duan, Gang

    2009-12-01

    Industrial enzymes play dual roles for the production of chemicals and biochemicals, one is to act as direct catalyst for the reaction, the other is to participate in the fermentation process to convert substrates to fermentable sugars or to make it more efficient. The review briefs the applications of industrial enzymes for chemical productions, with emphasis on direct conversion of starch and their roles in bioethanol production process, also analyzes the benefits by using new enzymes and prospects for future development.

  18. An Investigative Study of Safety Management Practices in Chemical-Related Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewers, Sarah Grace

    Industrial chemicals are a major part of the United States economic growth and impact every product that we use in everyday life. Some of the major products produced by chemical-related industries are plastics, textiles, petroleum, paper and important metals. Governmental regulations like those created by the Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board are vital to a chemical-related industries' safety management. Contributing to and helping to drive economic growth, the enforcement of proper safety practices is a necessity. This study was conducted to investigate and assess various safety management practices in selected chemical-related industries. The research design involved the use of a questionnaire/survey method in which a random sample of participants completed a questionnaire related to the variables of interest. Random sampling helps to ensure the generalizability of the survey results. The target population consisted of a subset of employees currently working for plants, businesses and organizations in chemical-related industries. To collect the data, surveys were given to employees in various positions at chemical-related industries such as basic chemicals, specialty chemicals, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals and consumer products. A set of criteria was created to establish the qualification to be recognized as a chemical-related industry. The questionnaire/survey was reviewed by the Institutional Review Board at NC A&T State University to meet necessary regulation guidelines for research involving human subjects. The results showed that 60.22% or more than half of the respondents have worked with their company and organization for over thirty years providing the ability to see the progression of chemical-related industry safety management practices over time. Over eighty percent (80.66%) or 146 respondents agreed that their company or

  19. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  20. Roles of chemical metrology in electronics industry and associated environment in Korea: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Namgoo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Joung Hae

    2015-03-01

    Chemical metrology is gaining importance in electronics industry that manufactures semiconductors, electronic displays, and microelectronics. Extensive and growing needs from this industry have raised the significance of accurate measurements of the amount of substances and material properties. For the first time, this paper presents information on how chemical metrology is being applied to meet a variety of needs in the aspects of quality control of electronics products and environmental regulations closely associated with electronics industry. For a better understanding of the roles of the chemical metrology within electronics industry, the recent research activities and results in chemical metrology are presented using typical examples in Korea where electronic industry is leading a national economy. Particular attention is paid to the applications of chemical metrology for advancing emerging electronics technology developments. Such examples are a novel technique for the accurate quantification of gas composition at nano-liter levels within a MEMS package, the surface chemical analysis of a semiconductor device. Typical metrological tools are also presented for the development of certified reference materials for fluorinated greenhouse gases and proficiency testing schemes for heavy metals and chlorinated toxic gas in order to cope properly with environmental issues within electronics industry. In addition, a recent technique is presented for the accurate measurement of the destruction and removal efficiency of a typical greenhouse gas scrubber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A FLUORESCENCE-BASED SCREENING ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY GENOTOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of deliberate or accidental release of toxic chemicals in industrial, commercial or residential settings has indicated a need for rapid, cost-effective and versatile monitoring methods to prevent exposures to humans and ecosystems. Because many toxic industrial c...

  2. A FLUORESCENCE-BASED SCREENING ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY GENOTOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of deliberate or accidental release of toxic chemicals in industrial, commercial or residential settings has indicated a need for rapid, cost-effective and versatile monitoring methods to prevent exposures to humans and ecosystems. Because many toxic industrial c...

  3. Introducing the Chemical Industry into the Science Curriculum in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnamperuma, A. C. W.; Palmer, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a young, developing nation, achieving independence in 1975. Industries which can be classified as chemical industries by western standards, are almost non-existent in Papua New Guinea. As yet, most of the raw materials it produces are exported to other countries to be processed or manufactured into useful products. However,…

  4. VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, MAYNARD; CLARK, RAYMOND M.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT BELOW THE MANUFACTURING LEVEL IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN. NINE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED IN THE INDUSTRY WERE LISTED--RESEARCH, TRANSPORTATION, PROCESSING, PUBLIC RELATIONS, SALES, SERVICE, OFFICE RECORDS AND MANAGEMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND…

  5. The approach to risk analysis in three industries - Nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick, B. J.

    A review is presented of how safety and risk analysis is conducted in the three major industries of space flight, nuclear power, and chemical and petroleum processes. This review is presented in the belief that safety enhancements and efficiencies may result from a greater exchange of risk assessment technology between these industries. The focus of this review relates to the engineered systems involved in the three industries.

  6. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  7. [Sensitization to chemical substances in workers of the rubber industry].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, E N; Kozintseva, P V; Vlasiuk, M G; Vlasiuk, I A

    1989-06-01

    A study of workers engaged in the production of rubber and latex articles revealed allergic diseases in 28.7%, mainly dermatoses. However, the etiological role of professional factors was not proved because the revealed positive reactions to chemical substances were not clearly pronounced and did not always correspond with the contact.

  8. Chemical and Physical Sensing in the Petroleum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disko, Mark

    2008-03-01

    World-scale oil, gas and petrochemical production relies on a myriad of advanced technologies for discovering, producing, transporting, processing and distributing hydrocarbons. Sensing systems provide rapid and targeted information that can be used for expanding resources, improving product quality, and assuring environmentally sound operations. For example, equipment such as reactors and pipelines can be operated with high efficiency and safety with improved chemical and physical sensors for corrosion and hydrocarbon detection. At the interface between chemical engineering and multiphase flow physics, ``multi-scale'' phenomena such as catalysis and heat flow benefit from new approaches to sensing and data modeling. We are combining chemically selective micro-cantilevers, fiber optic sensing, and acoustic monitoring with statistical data fusion approaches to maximize control information. Miniaturized analyzers represent a special opportunity, including the nanotech-based quantum cascade laser systems for mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specific examples for use of these new micro-systems include rapid monocyclic aromatic molecule identification and measurement under ambient conditions at weight ppb levels. We see promise from emerging materials and devices based on nanotechnology, which can one day be available at modest cost for impact in existing operations. Controlled surface energies and emerging chemical probes hold the promise for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for current fuels and future transportation and energy technologies.

  9. Towards novel processes for the fine-chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Gjalt W; Gray, David

    2002-08-01

    In response to the need in the pharmaceutical industry for more complex, chiral molecules, fine-chemical companies are embracing new manufacturing technologies to produce compounds of these specifications. In particular, recent developments in biocatalysis combined with novel process engineering are providing improved methods for the production of valuable chemical intermediates.

  10. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  11. Urinary screening for potentially genotoxic exposures in a chemical industry.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlborg, G; Bergström, B; Hogstedt, C; Einistö, P; Sorsa, M

    1985-01-01

    Mutagenic activity, measured by the bacterial fluctuation assay and thioether concentration in urine from workers at a chemical plant producing pharmaceuticals and explosives, was determined before and after exposure. Of 12 groups only those exposed to trinitrotoluene (n = 14) showed a significant increase in mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without any exogenous metabolic system. The same strain responded only weakly when the S-9 mix was used; with Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA no effect of exposure was observed. Urinary thioether concentration was higher among smokers than among non-smokers, but occupational exposure had no effect. Urinary mutagenicity testing may be a useful tool for screening potentially genotoxic exposures in complex chemical environments. PMID:3899158

  12. Assessing physiological .response to toxic industrial chemical exposure in megacities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-05

    Rai, A. (2011). DNA damage and cholinesterase activity in occupational workers exposed to pesticides . Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31(2...chemicals and environmental hazards unique to the megacity operational environment . Properly validated biomarkers of exposure and effect can integrate...Center for Environmental Health Research REPORT NUMBER 568 Doughten Drive Fort Detrick, MD 2 1702-50 l 0 16-047 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME

  13. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  14. Global regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in the registration of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiying; Ball, Nicholas S; LeBaron, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Mutagenicity is an important toxicological endpoint that requires thorough evaluation during the industrial chemical registration process. Regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in registration of industrial chemicals vary in geographic regions (and in some cases by intended application). Here we compile the mutagenicity testing requirements for registration of industrial chemicals from representative geographic regions (in alphabetical order), that is Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union (EU), India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and United States (US). We further discuss the challenges that industry is facing to meet global regulations, for example, different testing requirements among geographic regions, different strategies in follow-up tests to in vitro positive findings, no-observed-adverse-effect-levels in genetic toxicity testing, and human relevance of mutagenicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:345-353, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. NRL Industrial Chemical Assessment for Hazard, Probability, and Biomarker Prioritization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-15

    treatment of rheumatoid arthritis . A known carcinogen. 1.0 2.5 5.0 1645.0 156.0 532.0 215.0 209.0 266.0 27.0 87.0 36.0 33.0 Excerpt from GUIDE 128P...3.1.2 ORAL AND PERCUTANEOUS HAZARD SCORE. ................................................... 9 3.1.3 FINAL TOTAL SCORE...and gastro-intestinal effects. These were then scored and totaled based upon their priority ranking and the total number of chemicals which manifest

  16. Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

    2001-01-01

    The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl.

  17. Pollution assessment software as chemical industry process simulator enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Shonnard, D.R.; Herlevich, J. Jr.; Parikh, P.

    1996-12-31

    Commercial process flowsheet simulators (PFS) have evolved to an advanced state and provide sophisticated unit process simulation and vital material and energy balance parameters. The PFS can estimate process stream conditions and equipment capacities and costs and it essentially defines the chemical process itself. A deficiency of PFS is their inability to incorporate environmental considerations into process optimization calculations. As a result, information as to environmental impacts and pollution control costs are not available to the design engineer, and often the optimum process design, from both economic and environmental standpoints, may not be obtained. Commercial process simulator enhancement software, whose goals are to provide environmental, safety, regulatory, and economic indices to the process design engineer as well as pollution prevention heuristic guidance, can overcome many of these obstacles to clean chemical process design. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of a new set of pollution assessment software tools being developed to provide indices to the process design engineer during flowsheet synthesis. The capabilities of each of these tools will be highlighted by applying them in a coupled fashion with process flowsheet simulator information to a case study involving power and process heat co-generation design options. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) substance flow analysis for safe and sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junbeum; Hwang, Yongwoo; Yoo, Mijin; Chen, Sha; Lee, Ik-Mo

    2017-09-18

    In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U.S. 524 tons, and Malaysia, 128 tons) was exported for the manufacturing of semiconductors. Based on the export and import amounts, it can be inferred that HF was used for manufacturing semiconductors. The industries applications of 161,123 tons of HF were as follows: manufacturing of basic inorganic chemical substance (27,937 tons), manufacturing of other chemical products such as detergents (28,208 tons), manufacturing of flat display (24,896 tons), and manufacturing of glass container package (22,002 tons). In this study, an analysis of the chemical substance flow showed that HF was mainly used in the semiconductor industry as well as glass container manufacturing. Combined with other risk management tools and approaches in the chemical industry, the chemical substance flow analysis (CSFA) can be a useful tool and method for assessment and management. The current CSFA results provide useful information for policy making in the chemical industry and national systems. Graphical abstract Hydrogen fluoride chemical substance flows in 2014 in South Korea.

  19. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  20. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nakamura, Yuki; Harwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular components, and play numerous essential functions. As well as their physiological roles, oils stored in biomass are useful commodities for a variety of biotechnological applications including food, chemical feedstocks, and fuel. Due to their agronomic as well as economic and societal importance, lipids have historically been subjected to intensive studies. Major current efforts are to increase the energy density of cell biomass, and/or create designer oils suitable for specific applications. This chapter covers some basic aspects of what one needs to know about lipids: definition, structure, function, metabolism and focus is also given on the development of modern lipid analytical tools and major current engineering approaches for biotechnological applications. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a primer for all subsequent chapters in this book outlining current development in specific areas of lipids and their metabolism.

  1. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  2. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  3. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  4. Technological processing of coals. 1. The coke and chemical industry and its development potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sklyar, M.G.

    1992-12-31

    The conditions of state sovereignty over the former USSR republics and the changeover in the national economy to free market functioning requires the reconsideration and in some cases the abandonment of former ideas and priorities. The place of the coke and chemical industry must be reviewed in relation to other industrial sectors in general and the iron and steel industry in particular. The scale of the coke and chemical industry throughout the world has hitherto depended on the demand for blast-furnace coke. Moreover, coke-oven plants have always been and still are, as it were, appendages to blast-furnace plants; in the EC countries, for example, around 80% of the coke produced in consumed in iron and steel plants (in the FRG, the figure is actually 90%). In the CIS countries, the figure is more than 80% (nearly 95% in Ukraine). 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 204 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment in the chemical industry relative to a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Biological treatments including carbon additives are described relative to effectiveness. The removal of mercury and its compounds is included, as well as associated problems and recommendations for fertilizer and pesticide pollution. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical, Drug, and Paper and Allied Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in refining and industrial chemical, drug, and paper manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in…

  10. Implementation of responsible care in the chemical industry: evidence from Greece.

    PubMed

    Evangelinos, K I; Nikolaou, I E; Karagiannis, A

    2010-05-15

    The chemical industry can be held accountable for numerous large-scale accidents which have led to the release of dangerous hazardous materials, pollutants and toxic chemicals into the environment, two well-known examples being the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster and the Three Mile Island tragedy). To ensure environmental protection and the Health and Safety (H&S) of communities, the chemical industry has voluntarily adopted integrated management programs such as the Responsible Care Program. The theoretical body of relevant literature attempts to explain the origin of the Responsible Care Program (RCP) through socio-political and economic theories. At the same time, the empirical research examines the ways in which various factors affect the choice of the chemical industry in their adoption of the RCP. This paper contributes to the debate by examining the challenges and barriers faced by the Greek chemical industry when adopting RCP, the environmental and H&S issues that prevail and finally, the extent of participation of stakeholders in the planning of RCP in the sector. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative Estimation of Trace Chemicals in Industrial Effluents with the Sticklet Transform Method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N C; Scharlemann, E T; Stevens, C G

    2001-04-02

    Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform is a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that they can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper they address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. They show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume/off-plume measurements that represent atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.

  12. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P<2 and ΔE >9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  13. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. [Microbiological and chemical quality of water used in Colombian food industries].

    PubMed

    Silva, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Jaime Eduardo; Murillo, Carmenza; Nava, Gerardo; Cárdenas, Omayda; Peralta, Alejandro; Paredez, Marta; Piñeros, Karina; Otálora, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Food safety is a public health concern that is recognized worldwide. Food-borne diseases affect millions of people throughout the world, although mainly in developing countries. The current study was performed within the framework of an inter-administrative agreement in Colombia that considers decisions for improving the sanitary status of products from the agrofood industry in Colombia. Water used in Colombian food industries was assessed for its hygienic and sanitary qualities. The descriptive cross sectional study included 66 industries located in eight geographic provinces across Colombia, including the Capital District of Bogotá. The analytical determinations included 13 physical-chemical parameters, three bacteriological parameters, organophosphate and carbamate levels and presence of 10 metals. Half of the industries were associated with production of dairy products and the other half with the meat-packing industry. Using the the current standards for human drinking water, the risk index of the food industry water samples was high for 4.5% of these industries, moderate risk for 34.8%, low risk for 16.7% and for 43.9%, no risk. The parameters with the highest number of samples not in compliance with water health standards were microbiological (21.2%) and residual chlorine (28.8%). The results showed that the water used in most food industries can produce food spoilage and transmission of pathogen microorganisms. Importance is stressed for organizing a constant program of monitoring and control of water usage in food industries.

  15. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Maili; Karilainen, Topi; Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  16. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water. PMID:25473947

  17. Living in a chemical world: actions and reactions to industrial carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, P.F.; Pohl, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of chemical substances has resulted in technological benefits for society and has also caused increased chemical exposures and risks of related cancers. Although progress has been made in cancer treatment, there has been little improvement in real survival time for people who develop the major forms. Therefore, the need to prevent cancer is paramount. The greatest chemical exposures and risk of associated preventable cancers are found in the workplace, but generally environmental exposures receive greater public attention. Chemical causes of cancer have been identified, and in some cases decades have passed before controls have been adequately instituted. Some companies show a high regard for worker health, while others may minimize or misrepresent the hazards to exposed workers. Medical personnel receive relatively little education in the recognition of industrially related diseases. Workers are often unaware of their risks or are trapped in jobs because of economic necessity, and government has been slow to regulate, in part because of lobbying efforts. Experience has shown that when chemicals are regulated relatively soon after they are identified as hazardous, lives are saved, and the industry is economically healthy; however, when regulation is delayed, thousands of people die unnecessarily, and the cost to industry and society are phenomenal. Society has the opportunity to apply the knowledge learned from these experiences as we address current problems of chemical pollution.

  18. Eighteen years of recommendations to prevent industrial chemical incidents: results and lessons learned of the US Chemical Safety Board.

    PubMed

    Tinney, V A; Anenberg, S C; Kaszniak, M; Robinson, B

    2016-10-01

    The US Chemical Safety Board (CSB), a federal agency that investigates significant chemical incidents and hazards, is interested in determining the impact of the recommendations resulting from its investigations, and how to better more effective recommendations to prevent chemical incidents. This is a descriptive study of the US Chemical Safety Board's safety recommendations. The CSB coded and analysed its safety recommendations according to potential impact on reducing incidents, implementation status, purpose and recipient type. As of March 31, 2015, the CSB has issued 733 recommendations, 75% (548) of which are closed and 25% (185) of which remain open. For recommendations categorised as having high, medium, and low impact, 38% (78), 76% (160), and 78% (245) were implemented, respectively. CSB recommendations have led to important and lasting safety changes through regulations, industry guidance and voluntary consensus standards, and individual companies; however, coding recommendations by potential impact do not fully capture the influence of CSB recommendations. While this methodology serves as a preliminary way to determine the effect of recommendations, further data are needed to determine the extent to which these safety changes have reduced the frequency or severity of industrial accidents. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against major chemical classes of inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous toxic chemical compounds liberated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit subsequent microbial fermentation that pose a significant challenge to a sustainable and renewable bio-based fermentation industry. Toxin removal procedures by physical or chemical means are essentially imp...

  20. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  1. Impact of industrial source on the chemical composition of loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2012-01-01

    The chemical compositions of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark samples from two industrial sources were determined for whole bark as well as the inner and outer bark components. Differences in extractive contents of the whole bark samples were primarily attributed to the different debarking methods which afforded different proportions of inner and outer bark....

  2. Communicating CSR and Business Identity in the Chemical Industry through Mission Slogans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboven, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's (2006) CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans. By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…

  3. A two-scale system to identify environmental risk of chemical industry clusters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Wan, Wenbo; Li, Fengying; Li, Bing; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2011-02-15

    Recent reform policies in China have spurred rapid industrial development. This has led to a large increase in chemical accidents, which may have catastrophic impacts on the local population and environment. As industrial facilities become more complex, it becomes more difficult to control and mitigate the risks associated with chemical accidents. In this study, we propose a two-scale system for assessing the environmental risk level of chemical industry clusters. A series of risk early warning indices for both the plant-specific level and regional clusters level are used in this system. Firstly, at the enterprise scale, a risk early warning index is constructed using inputs such as the presence of hazardous materials, the operation of critical plant equipment and the efficiency of extant management techniques. Secondly, an index for quantifying risks on regional scales depends on environmental, economic, and social conditions as well as the specific enterprises' components. As an illustration, the system is applied to a case study involving a five-plant chemical industry cluster in Jiangsu province, China. A geographical information system-based methodology is used to obtain a composite index score for each mesh of the five plants. The results prove that the proposed two-scale early warning system can efficiently identify environmental risk and help guide emergency responses at both the enterprise and cluster level.

  4. CHEMISTRY FOR THE SAFETY MAN. SAFETY IN INDUSTRY--ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARDS SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CESTRONE, PATRICK F.

    THIS BULLETIN, ONE OF A SERIES ON SAFETY IN INDUSTRY, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE BACKGROUND WHICH WILL ENABLE THE SAFETY MAN TO UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE PRINCIPLES APPLIED IN CONTROLLING CHEMICAL HAZARDS. IT WAS PREPARED IN THE OFFICE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, DIVISION OF PROGRAMING AND RESEARCH, BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS. TOPICS INCLUDE (1) WHAT IS…

  5. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  6. PORTABLE IMAGING DEVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL LEAK DETECTION AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) pro...

  7. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  8. NONPROCESS SOLVENT USE IN THE FURNITURE REFINISHING AND REPAIR INDUSTRY: EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL STRIPPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of using alternatives to high volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant (VOC/HAP) solvent-based, chemical strippers that are currently used in the furniture repair and refinishing industry to remove both traditi...

  9. PORTABLE IMAGING DEVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL LEAK DETECTION AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) pro...

  10. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  11. NONPROCESS SOLVENT USE IN THE FURNITURE REFINISHING AND REPAIR INDUSTRY: EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL STRIPPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of using alternatives to high volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant (VOC/HAP) solvent-based, chemical strippers that are currently used in the furniture repair and refinishing industry to remove both traditi...

  12. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  13. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  14. Communicating CSR and Business Identity in the Chemical Industry through Mission Slogans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboven, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's (2006) CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans. By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…

  15. The challenges of solar hydrogen in chemical industry: how to provide, and how to apply?

    PubMed

    Setoyama, Tohru; Takewaki, Takahiko; Domen, Kazunari; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2017-06-02

    Curbing anthropogenic CO2 emissions is one of the most important issues in the 21st century in order to mitigate climate change. Although the installation of solar cells for energy supply is in progress and these are becoming popular as an efficient use of sunlight, they are mostly used by energy-related industrial sectors. In the common chemical industry, various fossil resources are used to emit a huge amount of CO2. We believe that the chemical industry can make an effort to curb CO2 emissions by changing its resources to more environmentally benign ones. Solar hydrogen (hydrogen obtained by catalytic water splitting under sunlight) is an ideal sustainable resource and can be utilized as a chemical resource via combination with CO2. The 10 year program named "Artificial Photo Synthetic Chemical Process (ARPChem)" has been in progress under the support of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan since 2012. We introduce the strategy of ARPChem and the progress of the investigations including water splitting, hydrogen/oxygen separation, and olefin synthesis from solar hydrogen and CO2. We also argue that a realistic strategy to actualize "ARPChem" technologies in the society would be their combination with better fossil resources such as lower alkanes from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) point of view.

  16. The use of chemical and biological parameters to characterize complex industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, B E; Renberg, L

    1986-09-01

    Hitherto, the concern for possible environmental effects due to aqueous industrial discharges has been directed toward clearly observable effects such as eutrophication and fish kills. However, the development of environmental toxicology and chemistry has made it clear that more subtle and potential long-term effects also have to be taken into account in the regulatory work. The Swedish Environment Protection Board has recently completed a research project: "Characterization of Industrial Effluents." Initially, analytical methods and laboratory tests, originally developed for single substances, were identified. Laboratories were then invited to participate, with their own methods, in ring tests with a variety of industrial effluent waters. The studies indicated that a number of chemical and biological methods can be used to characterize complex industrial wastewaters with regard to their content of toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative substances. A frame program was established for the construction of test batteries adapted to various administrative regulatory purposes. To date, this strategy has been applied to several industries by the authorities, resulting in valuable experience of cost-effectiveness and the usefulness in the administrative decision-making process. Besides the studies on single industries, two other approaches have been applied, namely for the assessment of the impact of several industries on a common receiving water body, and for the evaluation of a whole industrial branch, that is, kraft pulp mill bleachery effluents. In the latter case, the studies have resulted in a ranking of processes and treatment methods to protect the environment.

  17. Use of chemical and biological parameters to characterize complex industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.E.; Renberg, L.

    1986-09-01

    Hitherto, the concern for possible environmental effects due to aqueous industrial discharges has been directed toward clearly observable effects such as eutrophication and fish kills. However, the development of environmental toxicology and chemistry has made it clear that more subtle and potential long-term effects also have to be taken into account in the regulatory work. The Swedish Environment Protection Board has recently completed a research project: Characterization of Industrial Effluents. Initially, analytical methods and laboratory tests, originally developed for single substances, were identified. Laboratories were then invited to participate, with their own methods, in ring tests with a variety of industrial effluent waters. The studies indicated that a number of chemical and biological methods can be used to characterize complex industrial wastewaters with regard to their content of toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative substances. A frame program was established for the construction of test batteries adapted to various administrative regulatory purposes. To date, this strategy has been applied to several industries by the authorities, resulting in valuable experience of cost-effectiveness and the usefulness in the administrative decision-making process. Besides the studies on single industries, two other approaches have been applied, namely for the assessment of the impact of several industries on a common receiving water body, and for the evaluation of a whole industrial branch, that is, kraft pulp mill bleachery effluents. In the latter case, the studies have resulted in a ranking of processes and treatment methods to protect the environment.

  18. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-11-21

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc.

  19. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  20. Feeding a sustainable chemical industry: do we have the bioproducts cart before the feedstocks horse?

    PubMed

    Dale, Bruce E

    2017-09-21

    A sustainable chemical industry cannot exist at scale without both sustainable feedstocks and feedstock supply chains to provide the raw materials. However, most current research focus is on producing the sustainable chemicals and materials. Little attention is given to how and by whom sustainable feedstocks will be supplied. In effect, we have put the bioproducts cart before the sustainable feedstocks horse. For example, bulky, unstable, non-commodity feedstocks such as crop residues probably cannot supply a large-scale sustainable industry. Likewise, those who manage land to produce feedstocks must benefit significantly from feedstock production, otherwise they will not participate in this industry and it will never grow. However, given real markets that properly reward farmers, demand for sustainable bioproducts and bioenergy can drive the adoption of more sustainable agricultural and forestry practices, providing many societal "win-win" opportunities. Three case studies are presented to show how this "win-win" process might unfold.

  1. [Chemical and ecotoxicological evaluation of sludge from city and industrial waste-water treatment].

    PubMed

    Fiore, Maria; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Cunsolo, Maria; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sludge produced by wastewater treatment, by using both chemical and ecotoxicological evaluations. Samples of sludge from treatment of urban and industrial wastewater were analysed. Toxicity of sludge was evaluated by measuring Vibrio fischeri, polychlorobyphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. Results of chemical and ecotoxicological evaluations were found to be discordant. In all samples, contaminants were found to be below the accepted threshold levels; on the contrary, toxicological evaluations of sludge samples obtained from industrial wastewater found these samples to be toxic. These findings indicate that the evaluation of sludge to be used in agriculture should include an ecotoxicological evaluation, as suggested by the European Community in 1999. Furthermore, chemical evaluation of sludge should be performed by using a single method and the chosen method should have the most restrictive threshold levels of all methods currently in use in the EU.

  2. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of Chinese inter-provincial industrial chemical oxygen demand discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianjin; Liu, Yibo

    2012-06-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran's I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity.

  3. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Chinese Inter-Provincial Industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianjin; Liu, Yibo

    2012-01-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran’s I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity. PMID:22829788

  4. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  5. Wet air oxidation for the treatment of industrial wastes. Chemical aspects, reactor design and industrial applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Debellefontaine, H.; Foussard, J.N.

    2000-07-01

    Aqueous wastes containing organic pollutants can be efficiently treated by wet air oxidation (WAO), i.e., oxidation (or combustion) by molecular oxygen in the liquid phase, at high temperature (200--325 C) and pressure (up to 175 bar). This method is suited to the elimination of special aqueous wastes from the chemical industry as well as to the treatment of domestic sludge. It is an enclosed process, with a limited interaction with the environment, as opposed to incineration. Usually, the operating cost is lower than 95 Euro M{sup {minus}3} and the preferred COD load ranges from 10 to 80 kg m{sup {minus}3}. Only a handful of industrial reactors are in operation world-wide, mainly because of the high capital investment they require. This paper reviews the major results obtained with the WAO process and assess its field of possible application to industrial wastes. In addition, as only a very few studies have been devoted to the scientific design of such reactors (bubble columns), what needs to be known for this scientific design is discussed. At present, a computer program aimed at determining the performance of a wet air oxidation reactor depending on the various operating parameters has been implemented at the laboratory. Some typical results are presented, pointing out the most important parameters and the specific behavior of these units.

  6. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM 10 in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, C.; Kouimtzis, Th; Tsitouridou, R.; Kanias, G.; Simeonov, V.

    Ambient PM 10 were sampled at three sites in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece during June 1997-June 1998 and analyzed for 17 chemical elements, 5 water-soluble ions and 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, chemical source profiles consisting of the same particulate components were obtained for a number of industrial activities (cement, fertilizer and asphalt production, quarry operations, metal electroplating, metal welding and tempering, steel manufacture, lead and bronze smelters, metal scrap incineration), residential oil burning, non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped passenger cars, diesel fuelled taxis and buses, as well as for geological fugitive sources (paved road dust and soil from open lands). Ambient and source data were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model for source identification and apportionment. Results of CMB modeling showed that major source of ambient PM 10 at all three sites was diesel vehicle exhaust. Significant contribution from industrial oil burning was also evidenced at the site located closest to the industrial area.

  7. Proactive approach for the evaluation of fetal safety in chemical industries.

    PubMed

    McMartin, K I; Koren, G

    1999-09-01

    Women, their families, and employers are concerned about potential fetal risks that may be associated with occupational exposure to chemicals. In an attempt to quantify potential fetal risks in the petroleum industry, we conducted a literature review of selected chemical compounds to which Imperial Oil Limited (IOL) female personnel may be exposed. Medline, Toxline, and Dissertation Abstracts databases were utilized to search for all research papers published in any language from 1966-1996. Chemical exposures in these papers were compared to IOL chemical exposure indices from a specific refinery and chemical plant. In total, 559 studies obtained from the literature search related to the chemicals used in a specific refinery and chemical plant. Of these, only 21 studies explicitly stated some sort of exposure level for the various chemicals. Most of the selected female reproductive toxicology studies summarized explicitly stated chemical exposure levels: either as parts per million, stratifying as to number of days of exposure, or as estimates of the percentage of the threshold limit value. On comparing the occupational literature that presented either actual or estimated values of chemical exposure dose with the IOL routine rating factors in IOL's Products and Chemicals Divisions, we found that IOL chemical exposure levels overall were lower than those reported in the literature to be associated with fetal risks. A new proactive approach is presented to inform female workers and their families of the relative safety/risk of routine occupational exposures. This approach allows for the mitigation of the misperception of teratogenic risk and unjustified fears associated with it. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Chemical characterization of odors due to some industrial and urban facilities in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    The relationship between odor concentrations (olfactometry) and chemical concentrations (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) was studied for the odorous air compositions of a rendering plant, a sanitary landfill and an industrial area with large petroleum and petrochemical industries. Samples taken from the university campus located in a non-industrial and non-urban area were also studied for several organic components for comparison. Ambient air samples were taken into special bags by using an odor sampling device designed for field sampling of odors. In the laboratory odorous chemicals in the samples were transferred into adsorbent tubes and analyzed using a combination of thermal desorption and GC-MS. Results point to different characteristics of the odorous gases and air in and around the urban and industrial sources. Among the 64 specific compounds studied, 49 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in rendering plant, 53 VOCs were detected in sanitary landfill and 44 VOCs were detected in petroleum and petrochemical industries. The compounds measured in the odorous gas composition are the alkanes, alkenes, carbonyls, arenes, chlorinated and other halogenated compounds and organic chlorides as well as the volatile fatty acids.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Appendix A to Part 136 Protection of Environment... Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Method 601—Purgeable Halocarbons 1. Scope and... tested by 15 laboratories using reagent water, drinking water, surface water, and industrial wastewaters...

  10. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals in water supplies using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Clauson, Susan L.

    2010-04-01

    An effective method to create fear in the populace is to endanger the water supply. Homeland Security places significant importance on ensuring drinking water integrity. Beyond terrorism, accidental supply contamination from a spill or chemical residual increases is a concern. A prominent class of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) is pesticides, which are prevalent in agricultural use and can be very toxic in minute concentrations. Detection of TICs or warfare agents must be aggressive; the contaminant needs to be rapidly detected and identified to enable isolation and remediation of the contaminated water while continuing a clean water supply for the population. Awaiting laboratory analysis is unacceptable as delay in identification and remediation increases the likelihood of infection. Therefore, a portable or online water quality sensor is required that can produce rapid results. In this presentation, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a viable fieldable sensor that can be immersed directly into the water supply and can provide results in <5 minutes from the time the instrument is turned on until analysis is complete. The ability of SERS to detect several chemical warfare agent degradation products, simulants and toxic industrial chemicals in distilled water, tap water and untreated water will be shown. In addition, results for chemical warfare agent degradation products and simulants will be presented. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves will also be presented.

  12. The impact of biotechnology on the chemical industry in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Nagarajan, V

    2000-05-01

    Although the overall size of the industrial chemicals business is US$1.4 trillion worldwide, growth has slowed in some market segments. In order to reestablish and sustain growth, materials with higher information content and improved economics based on renewable resources will be required. These challenges have motivated the pursuit of biotechnology by several traditional chemical companies, such as DuPont, Dow, BASF and Monsanto. Even though each company might differ in their strategic approach, their common goal is the same: to create high-value materials using biotechnology.

  13. Engineering modular polyketide synthases for production of biofuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenlong; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-09-22

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are one of the most profound biosynthetic factories for producing polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities. These enzymes have been historically studied and engineered to make un-natural polyketides for drug discovery, and have also recently been explored for synthesizing biofuels and industrial chemicals due to their versatility and customizability. Here, we review recent advances in the mechanistic understanding and engineering of modular PKSs for producing polyketide-derived chemicals, and provide perspectives on this relatively new application of PKSs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Chemical risk assessment in the construction industry: principles and critical issues].

    PubMed

    Manno, M

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment (RA) represents the first step to ensure the protection of the workers' health in all work sectors, production and services included. For this reason RA has become a legal duty for the occupational physician in his/her professional activity. The basic concepts of RA have been developed as a formal procedure for the management of chemical risks but they are currently applied to protect human health against all types of occupational and environmental risk factors. In the construction industry, in particular, chemical risk assessment is specially difficult due to the complexity of the working condition, and the variability and multiplicity of exposure. The critical aspects of RA in the construction industry will be discussed here, in the attempt to highlight how the occupational physician, making use of traditional and new tools, including biological monitoring, can address and partly overcome them.

  15. Tailor-made biocatalysts enzymes for the fine chemical industry in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tao, Rongsheng; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The Center of Industrial Biotechnology (CIBT) was established in Huzhou for fine chemicals in 2006 and CIBT Shanghai was founded for bulk chemicals in 2008. CIBT is a non-profit organization under auspices of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Huzhou Municipal Government. CIBT is affiliated with the CAS, which enables it to take advantage of the rich R&D resources and support from CAS; yet CIBT operates as an independent legal entity. The goal of CIBT is to incubate industrial biotechnologies and accelerate the commercialization of these technologies with corporate partners in China. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  17. Integration of chemical and biological treatments for textile industry wastewater: a possible zero-discharge system.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Chen, G; Yue, P L

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have established that integrated treatment systems (mostly chemical and biological) for various industrial wastewaters can achieve better quality of treatment and can be cost-effective. In the present study, the objective is to minimize the use of process water in the textile industry by an economical recycle and reuse scheme. The textile wastewater was first characterized in terms of COD, BOD5, salinity and color. In order to recycle such wastewater, the contaminants should be mineralized and/or removed according to the reusable textile water quality standards. Typical results show that this is achievable. An economic analysis has been conducted on the proposed integrated system. The economic analysis shows that the integrated system is economically more attractive than any of the single treatment technologies for achieving the same target of treatment. The information presented in this paper provides a feasible option for the reduction of effluent discharges in the textile industry.

  18. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; ...

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  19. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  20. Genotoxicity--threshold or not? Introduction of cases of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2003-04-11

    Many industrially and environmentally important industrial carcinogens display effects that lead them to be viewed and regulated as 'genotoxic compounds'. Some of these chemicals cause experimental tumours only at high or toxic doses. The current view is that non-threshold principles should be applied for risk assessments and to define permissible exposure values. The toxicological impact of underlying mechanisms is frequently not well investigated and understood. The classification of carcinogens is now in a state of discussion. In Germany, the 'MAK-Commission' has issued new recommendations to distinguish between 5 groups of proven and suspected carcinogens. This proposal includes a category of 'substances with carcinogenic potential for which genotoxicity plays no or at most a minor role'. Another category comprises 'substances with carcinogenic and genotoxic potential, the potency of which is considered so low that, provided that the MAK-value is observed, no significant contribution to human cancer risk is to be expected'. There is also a number of apparently genotoxic carcinogens where the existence of 'practical thresholds' is at least debated. One outstanding example is vinyl acetate, which must be viewed against the background of discussions on other industrial high-volume chemicals like formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, acrylamide and trichloroethylene. Main arguments in favour or against thresholds of carcinogenicity of these individual compounds are summarised. Current instruments of regulation should be adjusted to allow adequate consideration of carcinogenic effects of chemicals that are practically relevant at high doses only. Also, research into this field is encouraged.

  1. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  2. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  3. A versatile transfection assay system to evaluate the biological effects of diverse industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Shinji; Ohno, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fuminori

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression processes are now recognized as important targets of the toxic effects exerted by industrial chemicals. The transient transfection assay is a powerful tool to evaluate such effects. Thus, we developed a versatile assay system by constructing a basic reporter plasmid in which the regulatory DNA sequence to be studied can easily be substituted. To verify the performance of this system, reporter plasmids carrying any of the three distinct regulatory sequences, estrogen responsive element (ERE), glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) and xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) were constructed. After transfection of human cells, these plasmids successfully expressed the relevant reporter genes in response to specific inducers, β-estradiol, dexamethasone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively. Several industrial chemicals were assayed using these reporter plasmids, and the ability of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene to elevate GRE- and XRE-mediated transcription was detected. α-Naphthylamine and o-tolidine were also observed to increase the XRE-mediated response. The transfection assay system established here will be useful to evaluate the effects of a wide variety of industrial chemicals.

  4. Chemical composition, mass closure and sources of atmospheric PM10 from industrial sites in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Du, Xin; Wu, Xuefang; Fu, Xiao; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Zongshuang; Bai, Zhipeng

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric PM10 and chemical components (including twenty-one elements, nine ions, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) were measured at five sites in a heavily industrial region of Shenzhen, China in 2005. Results showed that PM10 concentrations exhibited the highest values at 264 microg/m3 at the site near a harbor with the influence of harbor activities. Sulfur exhibited the highest concentrations (from 2419 to 3995 ng/m3) of all the studied elements, which may be related to the influence of coal used as fuel in this area for industrial plants. This was verified by the high mass percentages of SO4(2-), which accounted for 34.3%-39.7% of the total ions. NO3-/SO4(2-) ratios varied from 0.64-0.71, which implies coal combustion was predominant compared with vehicle emission. The anion/cation ratios range was close to 0.95, indicating anion deficiency in this region. The harbor site showed the highest OC and EC concentrations, with the influence of emission from vessels. Secondary organic carbon accounted for about 22.6%-38.7% of OC, with the highest percentage occurring at the site adjacent to a coal-fired power plant and wood plant. The mass closure model performed well in this heavily industrial region, with significant correlation obtained between chemically determined and gravimetrically measured PM10 mass. The main constituents of PM10 were found to be organic materials (30.9%-69.5%), followed by secondary inorganic aerosol (7.9%-25.0%), crustal materials (6.7%-13.8%), elemental carbon (3.5%-10.8%), sea salt (2.4%-6.2%) and trace elements (2.0%-4.9%) in this heavily industrialized region. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources for particulate matter in this industrial region were crustal materials and coal/wood combustion, oil combustion, secondary aerosols, industrial processes and vehicle emission.

  5. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is seeking comments on this guidance before revisions are made... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds...

  6. Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

  7. Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-12-03

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.

  8. Dissolved air flotation clarification of activated sludge and wastewaters from chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Jokelat, P; Immonen, J

    2003-01-01

    Wastewaters from separate chemical factories are treated together in an extended aeration activated sludge plant. The factories produce chemicals for paper industry (e.g. starch), latexes and animal feed. The components of the wastewaters include styrene, tertiary butanol and vinyl acetate. Activated sludge is clarified by sedimentation. During winter time, when the water temperature was 3-12 degrees C, the clarification deteriorated causing carry over of suspended solids containing COD. Enhancement of suspended solids and COD removals was studied in a dissolved air flotation jar test unit. Flotation trials were conducted for activated sludge, sedimentation treated final effluent (tertiary treatment) and separate wastewater fractions. The need for chemicals, flocculation and amount of recycle water were judged according to the achieved removals. Dissolved air flotation was found well suited for the clarification of activated sludge, but not technically and economically feasible for the clarification of the wastewater streams before the activated sludge treatment.

  9. The Impact of Chemical Probes in Drug Discovery: A Pharmaceutical Industry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Garbaccio, Robert M; Parmee, Emma R

    2016-01-21

    Chemical probes represent an important component of both academic and pharmaceutical drug discovery research. As a complement to prior reviews that have defined this scientific field, we aim to provide an industry perspective on the value of having high-quality chemical probes throughout the course of preclinical research. By studying examples from the internal Merck pipeline, we recognize that these probes require significant collaborative investment to realize their potential impact in clarifying the tractability and translation of a given therapeutic target. This perspective concludes with recommendations for chemical probe discovery aimed toward maximizing their potential to identify targets that result in the successful delivery of novel therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An in silico algal toxicity model with a wide applicability potential for industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Önlü, Serli; Saçan, Melek Türker

    2017-04-01

    The authors modeled the 72-h algal toxicity data of hundreds of chemicals with different modes of action as a function of chemical structures. They developed mode of action-based local quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for nonpolar and polar narcotics as well as a global QSTR model with a wide applicability potential for industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The present study rigorously evaluated the generated models, meeting the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles of robustness, validity, and transparency. The proposed global model had a broad structural coverage for the toxicity prediction of diverse chemicals (some of which are high-production volume chemicals) with no experimental toxicity data. The global model is potentially useful for endpoint predictions, the evaluation of algal toxicity screening, and the prioritization of chemicals, as well as for the decision of further testing and the development of risk-management measures in a scientific and regulatory frame. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1012-1019. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Analysis of the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools at the industrial workplace.

    PubMed

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Mohd Mokhtar, Hj Anuar Bin; Ismail, Azmir Bin; Abu Yazid, Mohd Fadhil Bin Hj

    2010-01-01

    Chemical classification and labelling systems may be roughly similar from one country to another but there are significant differences too. In order to harmonize various chemical classification systems and ultimately provide consistent chemical hazard communication tools worldwide, the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) was endorsed by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Several countries, including Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Malaysia, are now in the process of implementing GHS. It is essential to ascertain the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools that are described in the GHS documents, namely the chemical labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Comprehensibility Testing (CT) was carried out with a mixed group of industrial workers in Malaysia (n=150) and factors that influence the comprehensibility were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The ability of the respondents to retrieve information from the SDS was also tested in this study. The findings show that almost all the GHS pictograms meet the ISO comprehension criteria and it is concluded that the underlying core elements that enhance comprehension of GHS pictograms and which are also essential in developing competent persons in the use of SDS are training and education.

  12. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  14. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    PubMed

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The treatment of organic bearing wastewater in the chemical industry using critical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, W.E. )

    1988-01-01

    Recent effluent limitations imposed by the EPA on a large sector of the U.S. chemical industry will mandate more stringent standards for wastewater treatment prior to discharge. As a result of these new regulations, cost-effective processes designed to remove priority pollutants and other non-biodegradable organics from industrial wastewater will be in significant demand. On November 5, 1987, the EPA published its final ruling: Effluent Limitations Guidelines Pre-Treatment Standards For The Organic Chemical, Plastics and Synthetic Fibers Industry, (OCPSF), which will significantly reduce the allowable discharge of priority pollutant organics to either navigable waters or municipal sewage treatment plants. According to EPA estimates, the quantity of priority pollutant organics discharged to surface waters and sewers will be reduced by over 96 percent at the end of a three year timetable already in effect under the new regulations. The cost of compliance will be high, with an average estimated capital expenditure of over one million dollars per facility. A nine million gallons-per-year commercial-scale treatment unit, utilizing liquid CO{sub 2} as an extraction solvent to separate organics from wastewater, has recently been leased to a commercial waste treatment company by CF Systems Corporation of Waltham, MA. This paper presents a process description of the first CF Systems organics extraction unit designed specifically for the treatment of organic bearing wastewater.

  16. Toxicity identification and high-efficiency treatment of aging chemical industrial wastewater from the Hangu Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Hua, Tao; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Shuguang; Rong, Weiying

    2011-01-01

    The Hangu Reservoir, located in Binhai New Area, Tianjin, China, receives mixed wastewater from a chemical industrial park. The aging chemical industrial wastewater is less biodegradable and contains complex hazardous substances, thus having an adverse effect on local ecological service function of the reservoir and on local economic and social development. In this study, key toxicants in the aging chemical industrial wastewater from the Hangu Reservoir were systematically identified by the toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs), and the treatment efficiency of the aging chemical industrial wastewater was examined and optimized by a municipal wastewater treatment process simulated in a laboratory. According to the TIE results using and wheat seeds as tested organisms, Cl, Cu, Pb, and Zn were identified as key toxicants in the aging chemical industrial wastewater, with concentrations of 7349.11, 0.01, 0.07, and 0.07 mg L, respectively, which were confirmed by subsequent spiking approaches. Based on the TIE results, the aging chemical industrial wastewater could be classified as high-salinity wastewater. The co-treatment of the aging chemical industrial wastewater and municipal wastewater may be an effective and low-cost method. The treatment efficiency of the mixed wastewater increased with an increase in the volume ratio of municipal wastewater to aging chemical industrial wastewater. When the volume ratio was 10:1, the best removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total N, and total P were up to 85.1, 89.3, and 96.5%, respectively, whereas the toxicity unit of the treated wastewater was reduced to 0.50.

  17. Do industrial incidents in the chemical sector create equity market contagion?

    PubMed

    Brown, Gavin D; Corbet, Shaen; McMullan, Caroline; Sharma, Ruchira

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines a number of US chemical industry incidents and their effect on equity prices of the incident company. Furthermore, this paper then examines the contagion effect of this incident on direct competitors. Event study methodology is used to assess the impact of chemical incidents on both incident and competitor companies. This paper finds that the incident company experiences deeper negative abnormal returns as the number of injuries and fatalities as a result of the incident increases. The equity value of the competitor companies suffer substantial losses stemming from contagion effects when disasters that occur cause ten or more injuries and fatalities, but benefit from the incident through increasing equity value when the level of injury and fatality is minor. Presence of contagion suggests collective action may reduce value destruction brought about by safety incidents that result in significant injury or loss of life. This research can be used as a resource to promote and justify the cost of safety mechanisms within the chemical industry, as incidents have been shown to negatively affect the equity value of the not just the incident company, but also their direct competitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  19. Integrated waste management in batch chemical industry based on multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Rerat, Claude; Papadokonstantakis, Stavros; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-03-01

    A multi-objective optimization methodology for hazardous liquid waste management is presented in this paper using industrially based LCA models and operating constraints. This approach is used to optimize the handling of waste streams introducing flexible mixing policy scenarios compared to the rigid policy scenarios of the industrial system. It is shown that increasing the degrees of freedom for the waste mixing reduces significantly both the operating cost and the environmental impact by avoiding the use of utilities. Moreover, the influence of waste availability as function of production planning without waste storage is analyzed in several multiperiod optimizations. There, it is demonstrated that this saving potential can be further increased by integration of multiperiod production planning with waste management policies, up to the level of 40% for the environmental impact, and more than 50% for the operating cost, compared to the industrial base case. In some specific cases, a proper matching of production planning and waste mixing policies can also turn the waste treatment into a source of profit exploiting energy production from the incineration process. This study reveals the savings potential of more flexible policies in waste management, in particular waste mixing of liquid waste in batch chemical industries treated in incineration, wet air oxidation, wastewater treatment plants, or recovered by distillation. Through a multi-objective optimization framework including models for operating costs and life-cycle inventories based on industrial data, operating constraints from industrial practice, and terminal constraints from legislation, savings potentials up to 50% for the operation cost and 40% for the environmental impact are demonstrated in two case studies.

  20. Estimated Energy Savings and Financial Impacts of Nanomaterials by Design on Selected Applications in the Chemical Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, Gary R.; Roach, J. Fred; Dauelsberg, Lori

    2006-03-01

    This study provides a preliminary analysis of the potential impact that nanotechnology could have on energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, waste reduction, and productivity, in the chemical and related industries.

  1. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  2. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  3. AICD: Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, and a listing of program output including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  4. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  5. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  6. Health surveillance of cattle in the vicinity of a chemical industrial complex.

    PubMed

    Buckley, J; Larkin, H

    1998-09-19

    Following allegations of environmental contamination, a scheme for the surveillance of animal health on dairy farms in the vicinity of a large complex of chemical industries in the region of Cork harbour was initiated in 1991. Multidisciplinary investigations were undertaken as a result of unusual incidents of animal ill-health or decreased productivity, and an explosion and fire at one of the industrial plants. There was no evidence that exposure to environmental pollutants caused variations in either productivity or the incidence of disease. Many incidents which might have been linked with environmental pollution were found to have other causes. A broad database of animal disease incidence, productivity and blood composition has been established, and a bank of tissues taken from animals submitted for routine slaughter has been frozen, so that they may be analysed for toxins if required. The main difficulty encountered during the study was inadequate disclosure of information by some herd owners.

  7. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  8. Advanced oxidation treatment of physico-chemically pre-treated olive mill industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added.

  9. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  10. Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields as risk factors in chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Troptcheva, T; Ivanova, M; Israel, M

    1998-09-01

    The risk assessment for staff in the chemical industry is usually related to accident hazards, production emergencies, blast and fire danger, or to the adverse effects of toxic substances. The combined effect of electric and magnetic fields with other factors combined with other hazards and working conditions, has not yet been studied. In all branches of industry, the members of staff who endure the most exposure to electric and magnetic fields, are electricians. This group is considered at high risk because of the increased probability of cancer. We studied electric and magnetic fields with low frequencies in the nitrogen chemical fertilizer plant "HIMCO", Vratza. Sources of extremely low frequency fields (50 Hz) are local thermal power plants, substations, open (110 kV) and closed (6 kV and 0.4 kV) distribution devices, transformers, compressors and turbocompressors, command halls, and video display units. The methods used for assessing exposure of low frequency electric and magnetic fields were based on the separate measurement of the electric and magnetic components of the field, using spot measurements and evaluation of the real time duration of exposure for different staff groups. The measured values for the different staff groups were within the limits of national and international standards. The measured magnetic flux densities in the "HIMCO" plant exceeded 3 mG, a value which is considered by many investigations in the literature, as a possible carcinogenic factor. The prolonged exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields determines the place of these physical factors in the complex of hazardous environmental factors for the staff. The simultaneous performance of combined investigations of all risk factors would result in the complete risk assessment for staff in the chemical industry. Electricians are considered to be a professional group who have an increased risk of contracting cancer. Extensive measurement and assessment of exposure of the

  11. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  12. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  13. Colorimetric sensor array for determination and identification of toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J; Kemling, Jonathan W; Lim, Sung H; Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-11-15

    A low-cost yet highly sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has been developed. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Clear differentiation among 20 different TICs has been easily achieved at both their IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration within 2 min of exposure and PEL (permissible exposure limit) concentration within 5 min of exposure with no errors or misclassifications. Detection limits are generally well below the PEL (in most cases below 5% of PEL) and are typically in the low ppb range. The colorimetric sensor array is not responsive to changes in humidity or temperature over a substantial range. The printed arrays show excellent batch to batch reproducibility and long shelf life (greater than 3 months).

  14. Notifications of industrial chemical cyanosis poisoning in the United Kingdom 1961-80.

    PubMed Central

    Sekimpi, D K; Jones, R D

    1986-01-01

    In 325 cases of industrial chemical cyanosis notified to Her Majesty's Factory Inspectorate for 1961-80 the incidence of poisonings showed considerable seasonal variation with substantially greater numbers occurring in the summer months. A correlation between the number of poisonings in any one year and the hotness of that summer was also shown. The vast majority of incidents occurred during the manufacture of chemicals or dyestuffs, and two particular workplaces were responsible for 70% of the cases. Poisoning by amino compounds appear to produce early cyanosis whereas poisoning by nitro compounds tended to produce delayed cyanosis. These latter compounds were also more likely to produce anaemia. Methaemoglobin was determined in 45% of cases with results ranging from less than a few per cent to over 50%. Despite concentrations of MetHb over 50%, several workers complained only of headache and their blue appearance. PMID:3964576

  15. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

  16. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A < 37 μm, and 37 < B < 50 μm) before elemental analysis. Major, minor and trace elements namely, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from <0.3 μg g-1 (Sb) to 14.6 ± 0.6% (Ca). Ions concentrations in the soluble fraction measured at mg g-1 levels were in the order Cl- > Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  17. Thermodynamic properties for applications in chemical industry via classical force fields.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of fluids are of key importance for the chemical industry. Presently, the fluid property models used in process design and optimization are mostly equations of state or G (E) models, which are parameterized using experimental data. Molecular modeling and simulation based on classical force fields is a promising alternative route, which in many cases reasonably complements the well established methods. This chapter gives an introduction to the state-of-the-art in this field regarding molecular models, simulation methods, and tools. Attention is given to the way modeling and simulation on the scale of molecular force fields interact with other scales, which is mainly by parameter inheritance. Parameters for molecular force fields are determined both bottom-up from quantum chemistry and top-down from experimental data. Commonly used functional forms for describing the intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented. Several approaches for ab initio to empirical force field parameterization are discussed. Some transferable force field families, which are frequently used in chemical engineering applications, are described. Furthermore, some examples of force fields that were parameterized for specific molecules are given. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of transport properties and vapor-liquid equilibria are introduced. Two case studies are presented. First, using liquid ammonia as an example, the capabilities of semi-empirical force fields, parameterized on the basis of quantum chemical information and experimental data, are discussed with respect to thermodynamic properties that are relevant for the chemical industry. Second, the ability of molecular simulation methods to describe accurately vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of binary mixtures containing CO(2) is shown.

  18. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  19. Mobility in the European Chemicals Industry Sector: The Role of Transparency and Recognition of Vocational Qualifications. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Heather

    Research was conducted in Europe to determine the following: (1) the current situation in the chemicals industry in regard to transparency, recognition, and transfer of qualifications; (2) the obstacles to transparency and recognition of qualifications in the industry; and (3) the key areas for future action and possible measures to promote…

  20. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Kil; Shin, Jung-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate exposure levels of various chemicals used in wafer fabrication product lines in the semiconductor industry where work-related leukemia has occurred. Methods The research focused on 9 representative wafer fabrication bays among a total of 25 bays in a semiconductor product line. We monitored the chemical substances categorized as human carcinogens with respect to leukemia as well as harmful chemicals used in the bays and substances with hematologic and reproductive toxicities to evaluate the overall health effect for semiconductor industry workers. With respect to monitoring, active and passive sampling techniques were introduced. Eight-hour long-term and 15-minute short-term sampling was conducted for the area as well as on personal samples. Results The results of the measurements for each substance showed that benzene, toluene, xylene, n-butyl acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-heptanone, ethylene glycol, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid were non-detectable (ND) in all samples. Arsine was either "ND" or it existed only in trace form in the bay air. The maximum exposure concentration of fluorides was approximately 0.17% of the Korea occupational exposure limits, with hydrofluoric acid at about 0.2%, hydrochloric acid 0.06%, nitric acid 0.05%, isopropyl alcohol 0.4%, and phosphine at about 2%. The maximum exposure concentration of propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) was 0.0870 ppm, representing only 0.1% or less than the American Industrial Hygiene Association recommended standard (100 ppm). Conclusion Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during

  1. Application of pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process to an industrial incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Won-Suk; Choi, Yu-Ri; Oh, Jong-Seok; Jang, Sung-Duck; Son, Yoon-Gyu; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Namkung, Won; Koh, Dong-Jun; Mok, Young-Sun; Chung, Jae-Woo

    2003-06-01

    Pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process (PPCP) has been investigated for the simultaneous removal of NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) from the flue gas emission. It is one of the world's largest scales of PPCP for treating NO(x) and SO2 simultaneously. A PPCP unit equipped with an average 120 kW modulator has been installed and tested at an industrial incinerator with the gas flow rate of 42 000 m3/h. To improve the removal efficiency of SO2 and NO(x), ammonia (NH3) and propylene (C3H6) were used as chemical additives. It was observed that the pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process made significant NO(x) and SO2 conversion with reasonable electric power consumption. The ammonia injection was very effective in the enhancement of SO2 removal. NO removal efficiency was significantly improved by injecting a C3H6 additive. In the experiments, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO(x) were approximately 99 and 70%, respectively. The specific energy consumption during the normal operation was approximately 1.4 Wh/m3, and the nanopulse conversion efficiency of 64.3% was achieved with the pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process.

  2. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  3. [Plastic industry and exposure to carcinogenic chemical agents: an Italian Multicentric Study in Lombardy].

    PubMed

    Cirla, P E; Castoldi, M R; Marchese, E; Cavallo, D M; Fustinoni, S; Cattaneo, A; Martinotti, I; Foà, V; Tiso, C

    2007-01-01

    The potential carcinogenic risk at the workplaces is a primary interest of occupational health, but some questions are also controversially discussed. Particularly, in the plastic forming industry a great attention was directed to the hot processing and their possible exposure to monomers, some of which were classified as carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and/or the European Union (EU). In Lombardy, a study on occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens in the plastic forming industry was planned during last years. The aim was to recognize and promote preventive technical and medical solutions, basing on efficacy. By an investigation at workplace supported with standardized questionnaires, the presence of chemical carcinogens was registered in 59% of a representative sample of firms; but an effective possibility of exposure was found only for 34% of cases. The evaluation of exposure to monomers by air monitoring (acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, formaldehyde), involving a representative sample of factory with ABS and formaldehydic resins processing, showed low level exposure, because the common hygienic prevention measures were applied; some particular occupation shoved greater exposure to formaldehyde.

  4. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  5. The safety and efficacy of contact lens wear in the industrial and chemical workplace.

    PubMed

    Tyhurst, Keith; McNett, Ryan; Bennett, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The use and safety of contact lenses in the industrial and chemical workplace has often been questioned since the 1960s because of many unconfirmed reports of ocular injury resulting from contact lens wear. Because of these urban legends, contact lens wear has been banned or wearers have been required to wear additional personal protective equipment (PPE) not required of non-contact lens wearers. Literature review via Medline and Google search. Research has shown that contact lenses typically provide protective benefits that decrease the severity of ocular injury and improve worker performance. While contact lens wear contraindications do exist, in most cases, and with proper precautions, contact lens wear is still possible. Industrial and chemical companies need to establish written contact lens use policies based on current studies that have shown the safety of workplace contact lens wear when combined with the same PPE required of non-contact lens wearers. Practitioners need to discuss, with their contact lens patients, the additional responsibilities required to maintain proper lens hygiene and proper PPE in the workplace.

  6. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals and bacterial endotoxins via electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammu, Srikanth

    The first decade of the 21st century has been labeled by some as the "Sensor Decade." With a dramatic increase in sensor R&D and applications over the past 20 years, sensors are certainly on the brink of a revolution similar to what was in the field of computers in 1980s, information technology in the 1990s and wireless communication at the turn of the century. Just in the pharmaceutical industry alone, sensing needs are growing by leaps and bounds, and the sensing technologies used are as varied as the applications. Tremendous advances have been made in sensor technology and many more are on the brink of commercialization. In this work, I have attempted to balance breadth and depth in a single, practical and up-to-date resource. Understanding sensor design and operation typically requires a cross-disciplinary background, as it draws basic concepts from both engineering (chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc.), and science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.). This work is an attempt to pull together the most crucial information utilized in designing, fabricating and application of this relatively novice field of Nanomaterials. While it would be impossible to cover each and every sensor in use today, I have attempted to provide as broad a range of sensor types and applications as possible. Current industrial standards, latest techniques for fabrication and assembly, followed by their application in safeguarding the human race against from possible chemical and biological threats are discussed in detail.

  7. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  8. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  9. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  10. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  11. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  12. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Majumdar, Chandrajeetbalo; Roy, Partha

    2008-09-01

    The leather tanning industry is characterized by the production of different kinds of effluents, generated in each step of leather processing. These effluents have various chemical compounds which may cause toxicity and endocrine disruption and are thus known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This study was aimed to examine the androgenic potential of leather industry effluents collected from northern region of India. Hershberger assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues of castrated rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change (p<0.05) in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testes namely, cytochrome P450scc, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydorgenase in castrated and intact rats. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile demonstrated a dose dependent increase in testicular and adrenal testosterone productions in intact and castrated rats, respectively. This was further supported by decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones (LH and FSH) in treated groups of animals. Further, the effluent treatment resulted in the development of hyperplasia in seminiferous tubules of testes in treated rats as evident from histopathological studies and about two-fold increases in daily sperm production. On analysis of water samples using GC-MS, it was found to contain various aromatic compounds (nonylphenol, hexaclrobenzene and several azo dyes) some of which independently demonstrated similar effects as shown by water samples. Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities.

  14. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  15. Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in urban soils around the Tanggu chemical industrial district, Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Xu, Yafei; Hou, Hong; Shangguan, Yuxian; Li, Fasheng

    2014-01-15

    We conducted an investigation to identify the sources of metals in urban surface soils, and to assess the associated human health risks, around the Tanggu chemical industrial district, Tianjin, China. The metal concentrations and spatial distributions in 70 soil samples from the study area were determined. Pollution sources were identified using multivariate statistical analysis. They mainly attributed Cu, Pb, and Zn pollution to vehicular traffic and industrial discharges, Cd pollution to industrial activities and anthropogenic waste including industrial discharges, sewage sludge, and municipal solid waste, As and Hg pollution to coal combustion and point source emissions from the chemical industry, and Cr and Ni pollution to the soil parent material. Soil properties, particularly the organic matter content, were found to be important factors in the distribution and composition of metals. A health risk assessment showed that samples from the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area may pose significant health risks to the population. © 2013.

  16. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H₂, HCOOH, NH₃, O₂, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO₂ deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein.

  17. Chemical and microbiological stability of waste sludge from paper industry intended for brick production.

    PubMed

    Cernec, Franc; Zule, Janja; Moze, Adolf; Ivanus, Alenka

    2005-04-01

    Due to its chemical composition, waste sludge generated in the paper industry may be used as a raw material for brick production. Brick manufacture is limited to the warmer months of the year whereas sludge is produced continuously by different effluent treatment devices. Therefore, it has to be stored until further processing. For this reason, it is essential that it is not subject to significant chemical and microbiological decomposition during storage. In the experiment, sludge from a tissue paper mill was tested for its stability. It was stored for several weeks during winter and summer periods in a pile, 2 m in height, in an open but covered store. Different leachable organic and inorganic compounds indicating possible ongoing deterioration processes, as well as pH value, redox potential, temperature, humidity and dry matter content were evaluated weekly in water extracts of homogenized sludge samples. According to the test results, the material may be considered to be chemically and microbiologically stable as there was practically no emission of odorous and toxic compounds such as H2S, NH3 and butyric acid despite prolonged storage times and elevated environmental temperatures. All the microbial species identified in the sludge during storage belong to the typical microflora of the environment.

  18. Investigation of the potential uses of plasma processing in the United States chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for high pressure (thermal) plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs of a plasma-based processing system. This model consists of an empirical model of an electric arc heater and an analytical model of the reaction chamber into which the arc heater gas flows. The reaction chamber model comprises the conservation equations of one-dimensional fluid flow including the effects of chemical kinetics, particle and gas injection, and convective and radiative heat transfer. These complex equations were solved numerically. An engineering economic analysis of the plasma process was performed when favorable results existed for the mass and energy flows to and from the plasma arc heater/reaction chamber model. This analysis was used to determine if the plasma process is or can be competitive with conventional technology. Five cases were studied as examples of plasma-based chemical processing: nitric acid production, hydrogen cyanide synthesis, silicon refining, titanium dioxide production, and reductant gas synthesis from residual fuel oil.

  19. An Investigation of the Potential Uses of Plasma Processing in the United States Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estey, Paul Norman

    This thesis describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for high pressure (thermal) plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs of a plasma-based processing system. This model consists of an empirical model of an electric arc heater and an analytical model of the reaction chamber into which the arc heater gas flows. The reaction chamber model comprises the conservation equations of one-dimensional fluid flow including the effects of chemical kinetics, particle and gas injection, and convective and radiative heat transfer. These complex equations were solved numerically. An engineering economic analysis of the plasma process was performed when favorable results existed for the mass and energy flows to and from the plasma arc heater/reaction chamber model. This analysis was used to determine if the plasma process is or can be competitive with conventional technology. Five cases were studied as examples of plasma -based chemical processing: nitric acid production, hydrogen cyanide synthesis, silicon refining, titanium dioxide production, and reductant gas synthesis from residual fuel oil.

  20. Nonclinical reproductive toxicity testing requirements for drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals in India and China.

    PubMed

    Rao, K S; Dong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed and run to ICH principles are generally acceptable for submission. The Chinese guidelines take into consideration traditional Chinese medicines, which are usually mixtures. Likewise, the specific recommendations of India and China for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals and pesticides differ from those of the OECD and the USEPA. Again, studies performed in accordance with internationally recognized principles are usually acceptable for submission in both countries. The Chinese guideline for the reproductive toxicity testing of agrochemicals is currently under revision; the new version is expected to resemble more closely the requirements of the OECD and the USEPA. As a member of the OECD, India has conducted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection, accreditation, and monitoring activities since 2004. China has made several attempts to join the Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals since 2005. Currently 47 laboratories in China have been certified by the national GLP authorities. Several laboratories in China have also been recently been certified by OECD member countries as GLP compliant. In India, there are currently 23 GLP-Certified laboratories; about six of these are also AALAC accredited. The specific study designs specified in the guidelines of China and India for reproductive toxicity studies are described in detail in this chapter.

  1. Potential for the increased efficiency in motors in the chemical and processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, P.

    1996-08-01

    Refineries and chemical plants make up a large portion of the process industry in Louisiana. Detailed surveys of motors and motor loads were done for 2 refineries and 5 chemical plants. In addition, surveys of motor failures were done for 1 refinery and 4 chemical plants. Categories of < 20hp, 20hp--250hp, 250hp--500hp and > 500hp were used to reflect the horsepower ranges sued by utilities nationwide in DSM rebate programs. The 20hp--250hp range being a target for replacement or retrofit scenarios; this is also the horsepower range where users have a choice of energy efficient or standard efficient motors. The data are presented in different graphs to emphasize different characteristics. A raw motor count is given that is an actual count in every hp; this is then organized in the hp ranges listed above. The total horsepower in each category is also given to show the concentration of the plant`s installed hp. the loads are divided into pumps, fans, compressors and others in the case of refineries. in the case of chemical plants, additional categories had to be used, depending on the plant, like agitators, centrifuges etc. A realistic tariff structure is then used to determine the potential for efficiency improvements with the resultant energy, demand and cost savings. The results of metering of motors are then presented. Results of a 50hp motor driving a pump, a 200 hp motor driving a pump, a 100 hp motor driving a fan, and a 30hp motor driving an agitator are included. An examination of variable speed drive efficiency is included, using detailed models of the power electronic devices. 20 refs., 180 figs., 82 tabs.

  2. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  3. High-Throughput Industrial Coatings Research at The Dow Chemical Company.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzu-Chi; Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Drumright, Ray; Cesaretti, Richard; Bishop, Matthew T

    2016-09-12

    At The Dow Chemical Company, high-throughput research is an active area for developing new industrial coatings products. Using the principles of automation (i.e., using robotic instruments), parallel processing (i.e., prepare, process, and evaluate samples in parallel), and miniaturization (i.e., reduce sample size), high-throughput tools for synthesizing, formulating, and applying coating compositions have been developed at Dow. In addition, high-throughput workflows for measuring various coating properties, such as cure speed, hardness development, scratch resistance, impact toughness, resin compatibility, pot-life, surface defects, among others have also been developed in-house. These workflows correlate well with the traditional coatings tests, but they do not necessarily mimic those tests. The use of such high-throughput workflows in combination with smart experimental designs allows accelerated discovery and commercialization.

  4. Long-term-high temperature stability of alloy 803 in the chemical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sizek, H.W.; Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1999-11-01

    Alloy 803 is used in the chemical process industry for its high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Knowledge of the microstructural characteristics as a function of time and temperature are essential for accurate rationalization of mechanical property performance under actual service conditions. This paper seeks to determine the microstructure of alloy 803 as a function of time and temperature for times up to 34,000 hours and temperatures ranging from 595 C to 1095 C. Post-exposure room temperature tensile data are also presented as an indication of the alloy`s tolerance to downtime strains. Intermediate temperature mechanical strength can be attributed primarily to gamma prime ({gamma}{prime}) and higher temperature strength to M{sub 23}C{sub 6} content.

  5. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  6. Environmental Cracking of Corrosion Resistant Alloys in the Chemical Process Industry - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-04

    A large variety of corrosion resistant alloys are used regularly in the chemical process industry (CPI). The most common family of alloys include the iron (Fe)-based stainless steels, nickel (Ni) alloys and titanium (Ti) alloys. There also other corrosion resistant alloys but their family of alloys is not as large as for the three groups mentioned above. All ranges of corrosive environments can be found in the CPI, from caustic solutions to hot acidic environments, from highly reducing to highly oxidizing. Stainless steels are ubiquitous since numerous types of stainless steels exist, each type tailored for specific applications. In general, stainless steels suffer stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hot chloride environments while high Ni alloys are practically immune to this type of attack. High nickel alloys are also resistant to caustic cracking. Ti alloys find application in highly oxidizing solutions. Solutions containing fluoride ions, especially acid, seem to be aggressive to almost all corrosion resistant alloys.

  7. The OSHA and EPA programs on preventing chemical accidents and potential applications in the photovoltaic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-08-01

    OSHA issued in 1992, the Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Substances. This rule requires owners/operators of facilities that handle hazardous chemicals in quantities greater than the listed thresholds to establish all the elements of a PSM. EPA has issued in June 1996, the rules for a Risk Management Program which also refers to specific substances and threshold quantities. These rules are applicable to all the facilities that use or store any of 139 regulated substances at quantities ranging from 100 lb to 10,000 lb. The RMP rule covers off-site hazards, while the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) rule covers worker safety issues within the plant boundary. Some of the listed substances may be found in photovoltaic manufacturing facilities. This brief report presents the basic elements of these two rules and discusses their potential applicability in the photovoltaic industry.

  8. Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

  9. Ultrastructural Analysis of the Prostate Gland under the Effect of Factors of Chemical Industry.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lapiy, G A; Nikityuk, D B; Neimark, A I; Kiptilov, A V; Molodykh, O P

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed ultrastruciture of the cell populations in the prostate gland in chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in a chemical industry worker. It was shown that ultrastructural reorganization of the epithelium consisted in reduction of the secretory compartment of the cytoplasm and dystrophic-degenerative changes in cell organelles. Endothelial cells of the capillaries showed signs of significant degeneration and low intensity of micropinocytosis. Most of the smooth muscle cells underwent dystrophic-degenerative modifications of ultrastructural elements. The dominance of degenerative cell changes in the epithelial and stromal cell populations along with intensification of collagen formation in the absence of inflammatory elements allows us to interpret this pathological condition of the prostate gland as prostate pathology of occupational or mixed genesis.

  10. [Clinical and pathomorphological features of chronic prostatitis in chemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Kiptilov, A V; Lapiy, G A

    2015-12-01

    During periodic screening on the chemical industry, an increased incidence of chronic prostatitis in workers at sulfuric acid section was revealed. Detailed examination has revealed features of the clinical picture of the pathological process that develops in the prostate gland of workers exposed to harmful labor conditions. Complex pathomorphologic analysis of prostate biopsies of workers with chronic abacterial prostatitis found fundamental differences of morphological manifestations observed in other forms of chronic prostatitis. They include the prevalence of dystrophic and atrophic changes of glandular components with the presence of focuses of simple and small acinar atrophy, reduction of the microvasculature vessels, progressive fibrosis of the stroma with the phenomena of periglandular and perivascular sclerosis, as a rule, in the absence of inflammatory cell infiltration. Doppler ultrasound data indicated a change in hemodynamics, accompanied by a decrease in blood flow in the prostate gland.

  11. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  12. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-10-31

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this

  13. Effect of a high strength chemical industry wastewater on microbial community dynamics and mesophilic methane generation.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Harish; Tan, Youming; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Pathak, Santosh; Sendjaja, Antonius Yudi; Li, Dongzhe; Liu, Jerry Jian Lin; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2014-04-01

    A high strength chemical industry wastewater was assessed for its impact on anaerobic microbial community dynamics and consequently mesophilic methane generation. Cumulative methane production was 251 mL/g total chemical oxygen demand removed at standard temperature and pressure at the end of 30 days experimental period with a highest recorded methane percentage of 80.6% of total biogas volume. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) analysis revealed that acetic acid was the major intermediate VFAs produced with propionic acid accumulating over the experimental period. Quantitative analysis of microbial communities in the test and control groups with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction highlighted that in the test group, Eubacteria (96.3%) was dominant in comparison with methanogens (3.7%). The latter were dominated by Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales while Methanosarcinaceae in test groups increased over the experimental period, reaching a maximum on day 30. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile was performed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Eubacteria and Archaea, with the DNA samples extracted at 3 different time points from the test groups. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the sequences using the neighborhood joining method. The analysis revealed that the presence of organisms resembling Syntrophomonadaceae could have contributed to increased production of acetic and propionic acid intermediates while decrease of organisms resembling Pelotomaculum sp. could have most likely contributed to accumulation of propionic acid. This study suggested that the degradation of organic components within the high strength industrial wastewater is closely linked with the activity of certain niche microbial communities within eubacteria and methanogens. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pesticides, chemical and industrial exposures in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests exposure to chemicals and industrial pollutants may increase risk of SLE. Here we review research on SLE associations with occupational and industrial exposures, primarily drawing on studies in human populations and summarizing epidemiologic research published in the past decade. The association of occupational silica exposure with SLE is well established, but key questions remain, including the required dose and susceptibility factors, and SLE risk due to other silicate exposures. Research on SLE and other exposures is less well developed, though several potential associations merit further consideration due to the consistency of preliminary human findings, experimental animal research, and biologic plausibility. These include pesticides and solvents, for which experimental findings also support investigation of specific agents, including organochlorines and trichloroethylene. Experimental findings and biologic plausibility suggest research on SLE and occupational exposure to hydrocarbons (i.e., mineral oils) is warranted, especially given the widespread exposures in the population. Experimental and limited human findings support further investigation of SLE related to mercury exposure, especially in dental occupations. Research on environmental risk factors in risk-enriched cohorts (family based) is recommended, as is further investigation of exposures in relation to intermediate markers of effect (e.g., antinuclear antibodies), clinical features (e.g., nephritis) and outcomes. PMID:24763537

  15. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Borg Warner Chemicals, Inc. , Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.

    1986-08-01

    Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene, a walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility, Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybutadiene latex and styrene butadiene rubber latex. In September 1981, a butadiene recovery system was added to the process vent streams. Of the total work force, 54 employees have potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 23 personal samples collected during several periods in 1983 and 1985 was 4.5 parts per million (ppm). Analysis of a bulk sample showed traces of 1,3-butadiene, in the 0.04 to 0.2 nanograms/milligram range. The exposures to 1,3-butadiene were greater than 10ppm for two job classifications, control room and high heat operators. The company has accurate records on terminated and current employees. The author concludes that the facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth industrial hygiene survey regarding 1,3-butadiene. Recommendations were given.

  16. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  17. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  18. The effect of Rosmarinus herbal tea on occupational burnout in Iran Chemical Industry Investment company employees

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Tayebe; Gorji, Somayeh; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Razmjoo, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burnout is one of the most important problems that the employees encounter. Many health problems arise due to burnout which is to be dealt with by the employees and the owners in the industry. Among many different ways of dealing with this problem, herbal therapy seems to be a promising solution. The present study intended to investigate the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) on burnout in employees who work in industrial environments. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was performed to see whether RO has an effect on burnout or not. A total of 66 employees, aged between 20 and 60 years, who had worked for at least 1 year in the technical wards of Iran Chemical Industry Investment Company took part in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups of control (n = 33) and RO (n = 33). The RO group received 4 g of Rosemary in 150 cc water per day for 2 months. The control group, on the other hand, did not receive anything. The data were collected via Geldard (1989) Burnout Inventory before and after the treatment. A t-test was performed to analyze the collected data. Results: The results of statistical tests showed that after intervention, the score of occupational burnout in RO group was better, and a significant difference was found between the control and experimental groups (P = 0.03), in favor of the experimental group. Conclusions: The results of the study revealed that Rosmarinus had a positive effect on burnout in employees in this study. Further studies in this field are suggested. PMID:26257801

  19. The effect of Rosmarinus herbal tea on occupational burnout in Iran Chemical Industry Investment company employees.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Tayebe; Gorji, Somayeh; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Razmjoo, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is one of the most important problems that the employees encounter. Many health problems arise due to burnout which is to be dealt with by the employees and the owners in the industry. Among many different ways of dealing with this problem, herbal therapy seems to be a promising solution. The present study intended to investigate the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) on burnout in employees who work in industrial environments. An experimental study was performed to see whether RO has an effect on burnout or not. A total of 66 employees, aged between 20 and 60 years, who had worked for at least 1 year in the technical wards of Iran Chemical Industry Investment Company took part in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups of control (n = 33) and RO (n = 33). The RO group received 4 g of Rosemary in 150 cc water per day for 2 months. The control group, on the other hand, did not receive anything. The data were collected via Geldard (1989) Burnout Inventory before and after the treatment. A t-test was performed to analyze the collected data. The results of statistical tests showed that after intervention, the score of occupational burnout in RO group was better, and a significant difference was found between the control and experimental groups (P = 0.03), in favor of the experimental group. The results of the study revealed that Rosmarinus had a positive effect on burnout in employees in this study. Further studies in this field are suggested.

  20. [Model of chemical risk assessment (D.L 25/2002), applied in 19 chemical industries of the Province of Bergamo].

    PubMed

    Santini, M; Leghissa, P; Riva, M M; Rosso, G L; Deleidi, G; Mosconi, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe a model for the evaluation of chemical risk, according to the legislative decree 25/2002, planned by U.O.O.M.L. "Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo", in collaboration with "Gruppo Industriali Chimici dell'Unione Industriali-Provincia di Bergamo" and applied in 19 Chemical Industries of the Province of Bergamo. The objective of the model is the rationalization of the procedures to ponder the levels of exposure and to value different typologies of risk using and manipulating chemical substances with the purpose to optimize the relationship among the attention for safety, workers health and the employment of resources.

  1. Glymes as Versatile Solvents for Chemical Reactions and Processes: from the Laboratory to Industry

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaokun; Zhao, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Glymes, also known as glycol diethers, are saturated non-cyclic polyethers containing no other functional groups. Most glymes are usually less volatile and less toxic than common laboratory organic solvents; in this context, they are more environmentally benign solvents. However, it is also important to point out that some glymes could cause long-term reproductive and developmental damages despite their low acute toxicities. Glymes have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic characters that common organic solvents are lack of. In addition, they are usually thermally and chemically stable, and can even form complexes with ions. Therefore, glymes are found in a broad range of laboratory applications including organic synthesis, electrochemistry, biocatalysis, materials, and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), etc. In addition, glyme are used in numerous industrial applications, such as cleaning products, inks, adhesives and coatings, batteries and electronics, absorption refrigeration and heat pumps, as well as pharmaceutical formulations, etc. However, there is a lack of comprehensive and critical review on this attractive subject. This review aims to accomplish this task by providing an in-depth understanding of glymes’ physicochemical properties, toxicity and major applications. PMID:24729866

  2. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (<10 to 420 μg/L) and flushed plumbing systems (<10 to 96 μg/L) and sometimes concentrations differed among faucets within each home. All waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  3. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud-Erik Bach; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno; Adlercreutz, Herman; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Ɨman, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, compared to wheat bran, regarding structure and content of nutrients as well as a number of presumably bioactive compounds. Design Six different rye brans from Sweden, Denmark and Finland were analysed and compared with two wheat brans regarding colour, particle size distribution, microscopic structures and chemical composition including proximal components, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds. Results Rye brans were generally greener in colour and smaller in particle size than wheat brans. The rye brans varied considerably in their starch content (13.2–;28.3%), which reflected variable inclusion of the starchy endosperm. Although rye and wheat brans contained comparable levels of total dietary fibre, they differed in the relative proportions of fibre components (i.e. arabinoxylan, β-glucan, cellulose, fructan and Klason lignin). Generally, rye brans contained less cellulose and more β-glucan and fructan than wheat brans. Within small variations, the rye and wheat brans were comparable regarding the contents of tocopherols/tocotrienols, total folate, sterols/stanols, phenolic acids and lignans. Rye bran had less glycine betaine and more alkylresorcinols than wheat brans. Conclusions The observed variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods. PMID:19412350

  4. Impact of the 11 March, 2011, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011, at 14:46:23 Japan Standard Time (5:46:23 UTC). It generated a tsunami 130 km off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan, which inundated over 400 km2 of land. The death toll has reached >15,800 according to the Japan National Policy Agency with over 3,700 still missing as of 26 October 2011. Significant damage to or complete collapse of houses also resulted. The earthquake generated strong ground motion; nevertheless most damage was caused by the tsunami, which is a tribute to the effectiveness of Japan's earthquake damage reduction measures in saving lives and property. Nonetheless, the direct losses amount to more than 200 billion US dollars (not counting the costs of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant). The earthquake and tsunami had a significant impact on all types of industry, and in particular on the petrochemical and chemical industry in the affected areas, resulting in hazardous-materials releases, fires and explosions and forcing businesses to interrupt production. These so-called Natech accidents pose an immediate or even long-term threat to the population and the environment, and can also interrupt the supply chain. Overall, the earthquake and tsunami took over 30% of Japan's oil production offline, and two refineries are still not or only partially in operation to repair the damage caused by the fires and explosions. The fire-fighting efforts could only be started 4 days after the disaster due to the absence of personnel that had been evacuated and because of the continuing tsunami alerts. In one of the affected refineries the fires could only be extinguished 10 days after the disasters. Many petrochemical and chemical companies reported problems either due to damage to facilities or because of power outages. In fact, in facilities that suffered no or only minor damage the resuming of operations was hampered by continuous

  5. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    PubMed

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  6. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  7. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

    Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil

  8. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove.

  9. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, MW; Schut, GJ; Lipscomb, GL; Menon, AL; Iwuchukwu, IJ; Leuko, TT; Thorgersen, MP; Nixon, WJ; Hawkins, AS; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2013-04-09

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful. products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100 degrees C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73 degrees C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide.

  10. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Schut, Gerrit J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Menon, Angeli L; Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J; Leuko, Therese T; Thorgersen, Michael P; Nixon, William J; Hawkins, Aaron S; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2013-04-09

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100°C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73°C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30°C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide.

  11. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthew W.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J.; Leuko, Therese T.; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Nixon, William J.; Hawkins, Aaron S.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100°C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73°C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30°C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide. PMID:23530213

  12. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, April 1--July 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-07-08

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. Progress on three tasks are described: Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase--improved activity and stability; Directed evolution of subtilisin E to enhance thermostability; and Methods for invitro recombination.

  13. Industrial biotechnology for the production of bio-based chemicals--a cradle-to-grave perspective.

    PubMed

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Törnvall, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Linda; Börjesson, Pål

    2007-03-01

    Shifting the resource base for chemical production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials provides exciting possibilities for the use of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. This review gives an indication of the current developments in the transition to bio-based production, with a focus on the production of chemicals, and points out some of the challenges that exist in the large-scale implementation of industrial biotechnology. Furthermore, the importance of evaluating the environmental impact of bio-based products with respect to their entire life cycle is highlighted, demonstrating that the choice of the raw material often turns out to be an important parameter influencing the life cycle performance.

  14. Lessons learned from non-medical industries: root cause analysis as culture change at a chemical plant

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J; Rudolph, J; Hatakenaka, S

    2002-01-01

    

 Root cause analysis was introduced to a chemical plant as a way of enhancing performance and safety, exemplified by the investigation of an explosion. The cultural legacy of the root cause learning intervention was embodied in managers' increased openness to new ideas, individuals' questioning attitude and disciplined thinking, and a root cause analysis process that provided continual opportunities to learn and improve. Lessons for health care are discussed, taking account of differences between the chemical and healthcare industries. PMID:12486993

  15. Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical processing of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Voss, Paul B.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Fortner, Edward; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi; Valente, Ralph J.; Tanner, Roger L.; Holcomb, Daniel; Hartley, Thomas P.; Baran, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    Overnight atmospheric transport and chemical evolution of photochemically aged Houston urban and petrochemical industrial plume were investigated in July 2005. We report here on the 26 July episode in which the aged plume was tagged 1.5 h before sunset with a pair of free-floating controlled meteorological balloons, which guided quasi-Lagrangian aircraft sampling in the plume as it was advected 300 km to the north over 8 h. The aged plume around sunset was well mixed within a 1600 m residual layer, and was characterized by enhanced levels of aerosol, O3, CO, olefins, acetaldehyde, total odd nitrogen compounds (NOy), and relatively small amounts (<1 ppbv) of NOx. The plume experienced appreciable shearing overnight due to the development of a low-altitude nocturnal jet between 300 and 500 m above mean sea level (MSL). However, the plume above 600 m MSL remained largely undiluted even after 8 h of transport due to lack of turbulent mixing above the jet. About 40-60% of the NOx present in the aged plume around sunset was found to be depleted over this 8 h period. A constrained plume modeling analysis of the quasi-Lagrangian aircraft observations suggested that by dawn this NOx was converted to nitric acid, organic nitrates, and peroxy acyl nitrates via reactions of NO3 radicals with enhanced levels of olefins and aldehydes in the plume. Sensitivity of NOx depletion to heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on aerosols was examined. These results have significant implications for the impacts of urban and industrial pollution on far downwind regions.

  16. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  17. Empirical modelling of chemical exposure in the rubber-manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, H; Swuste, P; Boleij, J S

    1994-02-01

    As part of a study of working conditions chemical exposure was assessed in 10 rubber-manufacturing plants in The Netherlands. Personal exposures to airborne particulates, rubber fumes and solvents, and also dermal contamination, were measured. To identify factors affecting exposure the personal exposure levels and information on tasks performed, ventilation characteristics and production variables were used in multiple linear regression models. The exposure was generally very variable. The specific circumstances in each department of each plant determined the actual levels of exposure to a large extent. The factors affecting exposure turned out to be different for each of the types of exposure considered. The model for exposure to airborne particulates explained 40% of the total variability and incorporating the actual time spent on a task only slightly improved the model (R2 = 0.42). The handling of chemicals in powder form was the main factor affecting exposure, forced ventilation having a negligible effect. The model for exposure to curing fumes (measured as the cyclohexane-soluble fraction of the particulate matter) explained 50% of the variability. Both curing temperature and pressure determined the level of rubber fumes. Local exhaust ventilation showed a significant exposure reducing effect. The effect of curing different elastomers was not statistically significant. Dermal exposure to cyclohexane-soluble matter could only be explained to a limited extent (R2 = 0.22). Tasks with frequent contact with (warm) compound and maintenance tasks in the engineering services departments resulted in high dermal exposure. Tasks in which solvents were directly used explained 56% of the variation in solvent exposures. Exposure data, together with information on tasks, methods of work, ventilation and production throughout a branch of industry, can be used to derive empirical statistical models which occupational hygienists can apply to study factors affecting exposure

  18. Host Response to Environmental Hazards: Using Literature, Bioinformatics, and Computation to Derive Candidate Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    following factors: … occupational and environmental health threats to include chemical hazards (such as TIM), … industrial pollutants , as well as low...LR, Jackson DA, Reifman J: A 3-D mathematical model to identify organ-specific risks in rats during thermal stress. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2013, 115

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Appendix A to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A,...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Appendix A to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A,...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Appendix A to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A,...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Appendix A to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App. A,...

  3. Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.

    PubMed

    DeMatteo, Robert; Keith, Margaret M; Brophy, James T; Wordsworth, Anne; Watterson, Andrew E; Beck, Matthias; Ford, Anne Rochon; Gilbertson, Michael; Pharityal, Jyoti; Rootham, Magali; Scott, Dayna Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about the harmful effects of substances contained in various plastic consumer products, little attention has focused on the more heavily exposed women working in the plastics industry. Through a review of the toxicology, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology literatures in conjunction with qualitative research, this article explores occupational exposures in producing plastics and health risks to workers, particularly women, who make up a large part of the workforce. The review demonstrates that workers are exposed to chemicals that have been identified as mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals, and that the work environment is heavily contaminated with dust and fumes. Consequently, plastics workers have a body burden that far exceeds that found in the general public. The nature of these exposures in the plastics industry places women at disproportionate risk, underlining the importance of gender. Measures for eliminating these exposures and the need for regulatory action are discussed.

  4. Bioflocculation: chemical free, pre-treatment technology for the desalination industry.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Belkin, Natalia; Liberman, Boris; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Berman, Tom

    2013-06-01

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF), proceeded by chemical coagulation and flocculation, is a commonly used, effective pretreatment in the desalination industry. We designed and tested a novel, large pilot-scale, two-stage granular Rapid Bioflocculation Filter (RBF) based on a first-stage Bioflocculator (BF) unit followed by a mixed-media bed filter (MBF). The BF filter bed consisted of an extremely porous volcanic Tuff granular medium which provided an enlarged surface area for microbial development and biofilm proliferation. We compared the efficiency of the pilot RBF to that of a full-scale RSF, operating with upstream chemical coagulation, by measuring the removal from the same untreated seawater feed of key factors related to membrane clogging: SDI, turbidity, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). After 2 weeks of operation, the Tuff grains were colonized extensively by coccoid bacteria that formed biofilm along the entire BF. With bacterial colonization and biofilm development, numerous aggregates of bacteria and some algal cells embedded in an amorphous organic matrix were formed on and within the Tuff grains. By 1-3 months, the biotic diversity within the Tuff filter bed had increased to include filamentous bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, protista and even crustaceans and marine worms. During and for ≈ 24 h after each cleaning cycle (carried out every 5 to 7 days by upward flushing with air and water), large numbers of floc-like particles, from ≈ 15 μm to ≈ 2 mm in size were observed in the filtrate of the BF unit. Microscopic examination of these flocs (stained with Alcian Blue and SYTO(R) 9) showed that they were aggregates of many smaller particles with associated bacteria and algae within a polysaccharide gel-like matrix. These biogenic flocs (bioflocs) were observed to form during normal operation of the RBF, accumulating as aggregates of inorganic and organic material on the Tuff surfaces. With each flush cleaning cycle

  5. Chemical profiles of PM emitted from the iron and steel industry in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yangyang; Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Tingyu; Luo, Lei; Zheng, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Source-level sampling methods were adopted in this study to sample six iron and steel plants referring four main manufacturing processes, with over 150 samples collected and measured in this study, the latest data for iron and steel industry in China has been demonstrated. The emission factors of CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, TSP, PM2.5 and PM10 were calculated, and the majority of pollutants were emitted from the sintering process. The virtual impactor divided the PM sample into three size fractions for chemical profiles and the profiles indicate that SO42-, NH4+ and OC distribute more into fine particles. The elements in PM from the sintering, pelletizing, puddling and steelmaking processes were measured and compared using the coefficient of divergence. The divergence between PM2.5 and PM10 for the same process is not obvious, with CD values ranging from 0.1697 to 0.2578. PM2.5 profiles of four process were notably different from one another, with CD values ranging from 0.4802 to 0.7500. More efforts are needed to update the PM profiles in China. PAHs in PM were investigated, and most of the PAHs in PM are from the sintering process. The total PAH concentration in PM2.5 from the sintering process is 73.28 ± 1.45 μg/m3 with a BaPE value calculated at 9.92 μg/m3.

  6. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  7. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S M; Lage, J; Fernández, B; Garcia, S; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM10 levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM10 were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM10. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH4(+), K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emission of VOC Compounds from Ta-Shan Chemical Industrial Park in Middle China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Xie, Chunjuan; Cao, Qun; Yan, Liushui; Zhong, Jiaochan

    2017-03-01

    VOCs emission from a Ta-Shan Chemical Industrial Park in January 1-8, 2014 and summer (July 16-20, 2014) have been studied in this paper. VOCs were collected by the stainlessteel canisters and following pre-concentrate and analyzing by GC/MSD. The results showed that a total of 33 VOC species in winter samplers and 41 VOC species in summer samplers were detected. Among the 41 VOC species detected in the winter and summer samplers, 1-Butene and Ethane were the two most abundant compounds. Their highest average mean concentrations were 6013±1758 and 3188±1025 pptv in summer (contributed more than 12.5% and 4.8 % of the total VOC concentrations), and about 5895±1246 and 2763±789 pptv in winter (contributed more than12.9% and 7.8% of the total VOC concentrations), respectively. In winter, stack emission was found to be the main souce of VOCs emission, while in summer, fugitive emission become the primary source.

  9. [Carbon disulfide exposure level of workers in a chemical fiber industry].

    PubMed

    Li, Kui-rong; Cui, Shou-ming; Wu, Hui; Guo, Li-min; Ma, Jun-ying; Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the exposure levels of carbon disulfide (CS(2)) for a chemical fiber industry. The concentration of CS(2) was monitored in representative workshops and types of work, and the datas of that over the years were collected. The short-term exposure concentration of CS(2) about 80% of the type of work was less than or equal to 10 mg/m(3), which of more than 90% was less than or equal to 20 mg/m(3). The time weighted average concentration of CS(2) about 70% of the type of work was less than or equal to 5 mg/m(3), which of more than 90% was less than or equal to 10 mg/m(3). The short-term exposure concentration of CS(2) which was more than 15 mg/m(3) or the time weighted average concentration of CS(2) which was more than 30 mg/m(3) was only for little type of work. The concentration of CS(2) for the most type of work was lower, but there were still a number of types of work exposuring the higher concentration, which exceed the national occupational exposure limits.

  10. Concept for Recycling Waste Biomass from the Sugar Industry for Chemical and Biotechnological Purposes.

    PubMed

    Modelska, Magdalena; Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Cieciura, Weronika; Antolak, Hubert; Tomaszewska, Jolanta; Binczarski, Michał; Szubiakiewicz, Elzbieta; Witonska, Izabela A

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the thermally-assisted acidic hydrolysis of waste biomass from the sugar industry (sugar beet pulp and leaves) for chemical and biotechnological purposes. The distillates, containing furfural, can be catalytically reduced directly into furfurayl alcohol or tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The sugars present in the hydrolysates can be converted by lactic bacteria into lactic acid, which, by catalytic reduction, leads to propylene glycol. The sugars may also be utilized by microorganisms in the process of cell proliferation, and the biomass obtained used as a protein supplement in animal feed. Our study also considered the effects of the mode and length of preservation (fresh, ensilage, and drying) on the yields of furfural and monosaccharides. The yield of furfural in the distillates was measured using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The content of monosaccharides in the hydrolysates was measured spectrophotometrically using enzymatic kits. Biomass preserved under all tested conditions produced high yields of furfural, comparable to those for fresh material. Long-term storage of ensiled waste biomass did not result in loss of furfural productivity. However, there were significant reductions in the amounts of monosaccharides in the hydrolysates.

  11. Heavy metal pollution in soils from abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone in Zhejiang province.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Tao; Mou, Yijun; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution in soils from an abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone (TCIZ) was investigated. By analysing soils, including sediments, collected from the study zone, the main pollutants were quantitatively identified and their spatial distribution patterns were clearly displayed. Eleven types of HM pollutants were obtained and the results indicated a significant correlation in most of the elements of the soil and sediment. A pollution index Pi was employed to classify the degree of contamination and characterize the main pollutant, which was controlled with the evaluation standard value instead of background one. As was characterized to be one of the main pollutants with the mean concentrations at the pollution source, in the surrounding area, and in the sediment of 603, 20.4, and 22.5 mg/kg, respectively. Our study suggested that the contaminated area of TCIZ may necessitate remediation before it can be considered for reuse. Pollution index method could be a useful tool for assessing soils quality to provide comparable criteria.

  12. A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B.; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z.

    1998-02-01

    A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

  13. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  14. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management: A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John, Randy C.; Young, Arthur L.; Pelton, Arthur D.; Thompson, William T.; Wright, Ian G.

    2008-10-10

    The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment

  15. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  16. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Dougall, James

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  17. Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.

  18. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process. PMID:25836969

  19. Applying the three R's: Reduce, reuse, and recycle in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamed K; Peters, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) assessment was conducted by applying the three R's, reduce, reuse, and recycle, in a chemical industry for the purpose of reducing the amount of wastewater generated, reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks, recycling cooling water, and improving water usage efficiency. The results of this study showed that the annual wastewater flow generated from the paint manufacturing can be reduced from 1,100 m(3) to 488.4 m(3) (44.4% reduction) when a high-pressure hose is used. Two mixtures were prepared. The first mixture (A) contains cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, Addicrete BVF, and clean water. The second mixture (B) contains the same components used in the first mixture, except that paint wastewater was used instead of the clean water. The prepared samples were tested for water absorption, toxicity, reactivity, compressive strength, ignitability, and corrosion. The tests results indicated that using paint wastewater in the manufacture of the cement bricks improved the mechanical properties of the bricks. The toxicity test results showed that the metals concentration in the bricks did not exceed the U.S. EPA limits. This company achieved the goal of zero liquid discharge (ZLD), especially after recycling 2,800 m(3) of cooling water. The total annual saving could reach $42,570 with a payback period of 41 days. This research focused on improving the water usage efficiency, reducing the quantity of wastewater generated, and potentially reusing wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks. Reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of the bricks prevents the hazardous pollutants in the wastewater (calcium carbonate, styrene acrylic resins, colored pigments, and titanium dioxide) from entering and polluting the surface water and the environment. We think that this paper will help to find the most efficient and cost-effective way to manage paint wastewater and conserve fresh water resources. We also believe that this

  20. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volke; Gieré, Reto

    2012-12-01

    Passive air samplers have been installed in industrial, urban, rural and remote forested environments in order to collect coarse airborne particles for subsequent chemical characterization. To identify principal polluting sources, isotopic tracers, such as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios, have been used. The mass deposition rates (MDRs) of trace metals, determined for each of the studied environments, clearly indicate that industrial and traffic sites are especially affected by air pollution. Elements such as V, Pb, Fe, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd, Ni, As, Sb and Zn are notably enriched in samples from industrial zones, whereas V, Mn, Ba, Sr, Al, U, Th, rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Y, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sn and Cu are principal components of the airborne particles collected close to areas influenced by heavy traffic. The chemical/isotopic baseline composition derived from the airborne particles is the result of mixing of particles from different industrial sources, traffic and fertilizers. The monthly analysis of trace-metal MDRs of the collected airborne particle samples from different stations around the industrial zone allows for the detection of distinct atmospheric dust-deposition events during the year, characterized by high MDRs. "Natural" dusts from regional soil re-suspension, including from more distant regions like the Sahara desert, might overprint the regional atmospheric baseline composition, as suggested by trace metal trajectories in ternary diagrams and by Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data.

  1. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  2. Factors affecting the chemical durability of glass used in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Iacocca, Ronald G; Toltl, Nick; Allgeier, M; Bustard, B; Dong, Xia; Foubert, M; Hofer, J; Peoples, S; Shelbourn, T

    2010-09-01

    Delamination, or the generation of glass flakes in vials used to contain parenteral drug products, continues to be a persistent problem in the pharmaceutical industry. To understand all of the factors that might contribute to delamination, a statistical design of experiments was implemented to describe this loss of chemical integrity for glass vials. Phase I of this study focused on the effects of thermal exposure (prior to product filling) on the surface chemistry of glass vials. Even though such temperatures are below the glass transition temperature for the glass, and parenteral compounds are injected directly into the body, data must be collected to show that the glass was not phase separating. Phase II of these studies examined the combined effects of thermal exposure, glass chemistry, and exposure to pharmaceutically relevant molecules on glass delamination. A variety of tools was used to examine the glass and the solution contained in the vial including: scanning electron microscopy and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the glass; and visual examination, pH measurements, laser particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for the analysis of the solution. The combined results of phase I and II showed depyrogenation does not play a significant role in delamination. Terminal sterilization, glass chemistry, and solution chemistry are the key factors in the generation of glass flakes. Dissolution of silica may be an effective indicator that delamination will occur with a given liquid stored in glass. Finally, delamination should not be defined by the appearance of visible glass particulates. There is a mechanical component in the delamination process whereby the flakes must break away from the interior vial surface. Delamination should be defined by the observation of flakes on the interior surface of the vial, which can be detected by several other analytical techniques.

  3. Toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions modeling for pressurized liquefied gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britter, Rex; Weil, Jeffrey; Leung, Joseph; Hanna, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report current toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions formulas appropriate for use in atmospheric comprehensive risk assessment models so as to represent state-of-the-art knowledge. The focus is on high-priority scenarios, including two-phase releases of pressurized liquefied gases such as chlorine from rail cars. The total mass released and the release duration are major parameters, as well as the velocity, thermodynamic state, and amount and droplet sizes of imbedded aerosols of the material at the exit of the rupture, which are required as inputs to the subsequent jet and dispersion modeling. Because of the many possible release scenarios that could develop, a suite of model equations has been described. These allow for gas, two-phase or liquid storage and release through ruptures of various types including sharp-edged and "pipe-like" ruptures. Model equations for jet depressurization and phase change due to flashing are available. Consideration of the importance of vessel response to a rupture is introduced. The breakup of the jet into fine droplets and their subsequent suspension and evaporation, or rainout is still a significant uncertainty in the overall modeling process. The recommended models are evaluated with data from various TIC field experiments, in particular recent experiments with pressurized liquefied gases. It is found that there is typically a factor of two error in models compared with research-grade observations of mass flow rates. However, biases are present in models' estimates of the droplet size distributions resulting from flashing releases.

  4. Chemical characteristics of air masses from different urban and industrial centers in the Huabei region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Ma, Jianzhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Shuai; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Peng; Ding, Guoan; Jin, Ruijun

    2013-06-01

    North China, or Huabei in Chinese, is one of the most severely polluted regions in China. There are many large, complex and strong emission sources in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan (together called Jing-Jin-Tang in Chinese) and other urban and industrial centers in Huabei, and the chemical characteristics of air masses coming from these pollution centers are expected to be quite different. As part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC)", surface ozone and related trace gases were measured at the Xin'an rural station (39.73°N, 117.51°E), located in the central part of larger Jing-Jin-Tang area, during 2 April-16 May 2006. Here we investigate the chemical characteristics and impact of air masses from these different pollution hotspots on the regional distributions of ozone and nitrogen oxides in Huabei, based on measurement data as well as a regional chemical transport model. Simulated reactive nitrogen compounds are attributed to the different emission sources in the Huabei region using the tracer-tagging method implemented in the model. We find that the chemical characteristics of pollution plumes from different urban and industrial centers are rather different. The OPEx, defined as ozone production efficiency of nitrogen oxides (NOx), for general pollution plumes from Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Shijiazhuang are estimated to be 3.35, 2.75, 1.43 and 2.33 mol mol-1, respectively. During the IPAC-NC field campaign period, the Xin'an site was influenced alternatively by air masses from Beijing and Tianjin megacities and the Tangshan industrial area. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an are comparable to those in their general pollution plumes. This indicates that air masses from different urban and industrial centers in Huabei also maintain their different chemical characteristics while being transported to the rural areas.

  5. The future of discovery chemistry: quo vadis? Academic to industrial--the maturation of medicinal chemistry to chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    At Roche, we set out to think about the future role of medicinal chemistry in drug discovery in a project involving both Roche internal stakeholders and external experts in drug discovery chemistry. To derive a coherent strategy, selected scientists were asked to take extreme positions and to derive two orthogonal strategic options: chemistry as the traditional mainstream science and chemistry as the central entrepreneurial science. We believe today's role of medicinal chemistry in industry has remained too narrow. To provide the innovation that industry requires, medicinal chemistry must play its part and diversify at pace with our increasing understanding of chemical biology and network pharmacology.

  6. Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Castano, A. . Centro de Sanidad Ambiental); Vega, M.; Blazquez, T.; Tarazona, J.V. )

    1994-10-01

    Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be solved by using in vitro tests. The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test has been used to assess (a) the efficacy of a treatment plant in the aeronautics industry and (b) the exposure of fish and molluscs cultured in Esteiro Bay to the effluent of a fish-processing factory. Ecotoxicological assessments could be done without identifying the responsible chemicals. The RTG-2 test was used in combination with concentration/fractionation procedures. It proved that the toxicity of the liquid wastes from the aeronautics industry was eliminated by the treatment, and that molluscs and fish reared in Esteiro Bay had accumulated toxic chemicals dumped by the fish-processing factory. A combination of the RTG-2 cytotoxicity test and HPLC proved to give useful information even for chemicals not identified by GC-MS.

  7. Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, L.; Umana, M.; Bursey, J.; Gutknecht, W.; Handy, R.; Hyldburg, P.; Michael, L.; Moseley, A.; Raymer, J.; Smith, D.

    1986-01-01

    Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids and/or with readily identifiable chemical characteristics, and 2) which biological matrices serve as the best indicators of past or present exposure to chemical constituents of concern. The methods studied have been evaluated of their ease and rapidly, as well as cost, accuracy and precision. Target compounds studied were those inorganic and organic chemicals basically of current or previous concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Information provided for the methods evaluated includes sections regarding various types of instrumentation and sample preparation. Sections on method/analyte correlation suggest physical or chemical properties which might be used to predict the applicability of a given analytical method to the analysis of that chemical in a specific biological matrix.

  8. Assessment of the environmental hazard from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge by employing chemical and biological methods.

    PubMed

    Mantis, I; Voutsa, D; Samara, C

    2005-11-01

    Chemical analyses and toxicity testing were employed in conjunction to evaluate the environmental hazard from the wasted sludge generated during the biological treatment of urban and industrial wastewaters. Chemical analyses included determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total organic carbon (TOC), and seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) in sludge and sludge leachates deriving from two standard leaching procedures: (a) the mild leaching test EN-12457-2 proposed by EC and (b) the relatively aggressive toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching test proposed by US EPA. Acute toxicity measurements were performed in aqueous sludge elutriates and leachates by using bioluminescence bacteria. The urban sludge was found to be more enriched with PAHs than the industrial sludge, however, at levels below the EU limits for sludge application. The total PCB content (Sigma7PCBs) in both sludges, particularly in the industrial sludge, exceeded the proposed European limit for sludge use as soil amendment. With regards to their heavy metal content, both sludges met the requirements for use in agriculture. The urban sludge exhibited high ecotoxicity, while the industrial sludge with almost two times lower toxicity was classified as not toxic to slightly toxic. The EN and the TCLP leaching procedures resulted in different sludge characterizations both from chemical and from ecotoxicological points of view. The EN procedure appeared to be more sensitive to the potential environmental risk from sludge disposal. The results of the study revealed the necessity for combining chemical with ecotoxicological criteria for integrated characterization of wasted sludge and the need for harmonization of the methods employed for waste classification.

  9. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P<0.05) . The level of noise exposure≥85 dB (A) (OR=5.79, 95%CI 3.70-8.81) , working years with noise exposure (OR=1.57, 95%CI 1.05-2.43) , and 25 years (OR=3.29, 95%CI 2.08-5.71) were risk factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  10. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 14, Petroleum/Chemical Industries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    Potential employment opportunities for displaced aerospace and defense technical personnel in the petroleum industry were studied for the U.S. Department of Labor. A relatively small, but increasing number of ex-aerospace and defense personnel can be absorbed by the industry, beginning with from 40 to 100 jobs in 1972 and increasing each year to…

  11. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 14, Petroleum/Chemical Industries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    Potential employment opportunities for displaced aerospace and defense technical personnel in the petroleum industry were studied for the U.S. Department of Labor. A relatively small, but increasing number of ex-aerospace and defense personnel can be absorbed by the industry, beginning with from 40 to 100 jobs in 1972 and increasing each year to…

  12. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy

  13. Contribution of the industrial chemical processing of pitchblende in Jáchymov to the first isolation of radium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecký, M.

    1999-01-01

    The uranium ore chemical processing plant in Jáchymov (St. Joachimstal) started the industrial production of uranium yellow (sodium diuranate) in 1853. This technology was developed by a talented metallurgical chemist Adolf Patera. The insoluble residue from uranium leaching was enriched by radium226Ra. During more than forty years before discovery of radioactivity, a worthless waste was accumulated in this uranium plant. This waste as radium preconcentrate was present in a suitable chemical form for the subsequent separation of radium. The occurence of this material significantly facilitated the separation and isolation of the first pure weighable amount of radium, necessary to prove the existence of a new chemical element, discovered in 1898 by M. and P. Curie and G. Bémont.

  14. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  15. [The environment as a risk factor of coronary heart disease in urbanized region with developed chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Artamonova, G V; Shapovalova, E B; Maksimov, S A; Skripchenko, A E; Ogarkov, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    Tendency to growth of prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) occurring in Russian Federation despite application of preventive measures designates necessity of search for novel nontraditional factors of risk. Among other studied factors of genesis of cardiovascular diseases in general and of IHD in particular is the role of xenobiotics - chemical pollutants, substances foreign to the body. In this paper we present results of a number of epidemiological studies on the problem of xenobiotics and IHD. Special attention is given to the difficulty of isolation of the leading chemical pollutant and as a consequence of pathogenetic link what leads to underestimation of pathological states caused by ecological factors especially in such urbanized region with developed chemical industry as Kusbass.

  16. Proceedings of the first international conference on pervaporation processes in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bakish, R.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers given at conference on chemical pervaporation processes. Topics include: evaporation and evaporators; fermentation and distillation; biomass conversion and waste processing.

  17. An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Casartelli, M R; Mirlean, N; Peralba, M C; Barrionuevo, S; Gómez-Rey, M X; Madeira, M

    2008-09-01

    The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural-urban-industry gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0-5.1 in rural to 5.4-6.1 in industrial sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+, Cl-, NH+(4), NO-(3), and PO(3-)(4), and concentrations increased in urban and industrial sites. Principal component analysis identified the local main anthropogenic sources. Estimated annual amounts of dry deposition were generally greater in both industrial and urban sites than in rural sites. Areas close to industrial activity showed greater S and N total deposition (10.4-10.9 and 20.2-30.6 kg/ha, respectively) than in urban (3.4-7.3 and 14.6-24.1 kg/ha) and in rural (1.7-2.6 and 8.9-12.1 kg/ha) sites. Annual deposition of Ca and P varied from 0.6 and 3.0 kg/ha in rural to 45.4 and 32.4 kg/ha in industrial sites, maximum values being observed closed to the phosphate fertilizer plant of Rio Grande. Deposition in urban and industrial sites may be balanced by the alkaline cations, as bulk precipitation pH varied from 5.4 to 6.1, and was greater than in rural sites (5.0-5.1).

  18. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... industries, but may have limited use for research, pharmaceutical, medical, public health, or protective...., printing ink, ball point pen fluids, copy mediums, paints, etc.); (3) Medical and pharmaceutical...) Batteries; (vi) Cyanic acid; (vii) Toiletries, including perfumes and scents; (viii) Organic...

  19. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... industries, but may have limited use for research, pharmaceutical, medical, public health, or protective...., printing ink, ball point pen fluids, copy mediums, paints, etc.); (3) Medical and pharmaceutical...) Batteries; (vi) Cyanic acid; (vii) Toiletries, including perfumes and scents; (viii) Organic...

  20. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... industries, but may have limited use for research, pharmaceutical, medical, public health, or protective...., printing ink, ball point pen fluids, copy mediums, paints, etc.); (3) Medical and pharmaceutical...) Batteries; (vi) Cyanic acid; (vii) Toiletries, including perfumes and scents; (viii) Organic...

  1. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... industries, but may have limited use for research, pharmaceutical, medical, public health, or protective...., printing ink, ball point pen fluids, copy mediums, paints, etc.); (3) Medical and pharmaceutical...) Batteries; (vi) Cyanic acid; (vii) Toiletries, including perfumes and scents; (viii) Organic...

  2. School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s Investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tinney, Veronica A.; Denton, Jerad M.; Sciallo-Tyler, Lucy; Paulson, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the 17 April 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries, and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades kindergarten–12, a nursing care facility, and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries. Objectives: The goal of this commentary is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous chemicals, and highlight the need for additional regulations to prevent future siting of schools near these facilities. Discussion: We summarize the findings of the CSB’s investigation related to the damaged school buildings and the lack of regulation surrounding the siting of schools near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Conclusions: In light of the current lack of federal authority for oversight of land use near educational institutions, state and local governments should take a proactive role in promulgating state regulations that prohibit the siting of public receptors, such as buildings occupied by children, near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Citation: Tinney VA, Denton JM, Sciallo-Tyler L, Paulson JA. 2016. School siting near industrial chemical facilities: findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion. Environ Health Perspect 124:1493–1496; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP132 PMID:27483496

  3. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  4. Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Via Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Senior Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, York R.; Fuchs, Alan; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Senior year chemical engineering students designed a process to produce 10 000 tonnes per annum of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and also conducted bench-top experiments to synthesize SWNTs via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition techniques. This was an excellent pedagogical experience because it related to the type of real world design…

  5. Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Via Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Senior Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, York R.; Fuchs, Alan; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Senior year chemical engineering students designed a process to produce 10 000 tonnes per annum of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and also conducted bench-top experiments to synthesize SWNTs via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition techniques. This was an excellent pedagogical experience because it related to the type of real world design…

  6. Differences in Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of Italian Burrata Cheeses Made in Artisanal and Industrial Plants of Apulia Region

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Stefano; Marino, Leonardo; Stocchi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Loschi, Anna Rita; Miraglia, Dino; Ranucci, David

    2016-01-01

    The burrata cheese is a traditional product from Southern Italy, consisting of an envelope of pasta filata (stretched curd) filled with cream and pasta filata strips (usually leftovers from mozzarella production). Physical [water activity (aw), pH], chemical (moisture, NaCl content) and microbiological [total viable count (TVC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci] characteristics of burrata cheeses manufactured in artisanal and industrial plants were evaluated. The artisanal burrata showed lower aw values in the filling and the final product. The same was recorded in the filling for the moisture, probably due to differences between the types of cream used in the artisanal and the industrial cheesemaking. The pH value of the filling differed between the two groups but no difference was recorded in the final product. Microbiological differences were also recorded, with higher values for TVC and E. coli in artisanal than industrial burrata. All samples were negative for the other microbial determinations, with the exception of coagulase-positive staphylococci and Y. enterocolitica, which were detected in artisanal burrata. Differences in cheesemaking process were probably responsible for the strong variability of the physical and chemical data between the two cheeses; furthermore, differences in the hygienic features were also recorded. Even though artisanal products showed lower aw and pH values and higher NaCl concentration, the higher E. coli loads highlighted the need for a more accurate compliance with hygienic procedures along the artisanal cheesemaking process. PMID:27853715

  7. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area.

  8. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  9. Evaluating exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals during a new production process in the plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Meijster, Tim; Burstyn, Igor; Van Wendel De Joode, Berna; Posthumus, Maarten A; Kromhout, Hans

    2004-08-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations. Principal component analyses (PCA) and linear regression were used to determine the emission sources of different chemicals found in the air samples. We showed that complex mixtures of chemicals were released, but most concentrations were below Dutch exposure limits. Based on the results of the principal component analyses, the chemicals found were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of short chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (C2-C6). The second group included larger hydrocarbons (C9-C11) and some cyclic hydrocarbons. The third group contained all aromatic and two aliphatic hydrocarbons. Regression analyses showed that emission of the first group of chemicals was associated with cleaning activities and the use of epoxy resins. The second and third group showed strong association with the type of tape used in the new tape winding process. High levels of CO and HCN (above exposure limits) were measured on one occasion when a different brand of impregnated polypropylene sulphide tape was used in the tape winding process. Plans exist to drastically increase production with the new tape winding process. This will cause exposure levels to rise and therefore further control measures should be installed to reduce release of these chemicals.

  10. Final Report: Technical Support for Innovative Energy Systems the U.S. Chemical Industry -- Innovative Energy Systems Pilot Project - Chemicals Project Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    John Cuttica - Principal Investigator; Dr Steffen Mueller - Lead Engineer

    2008-10-30

    The University of Illinois at Chicago Energy Resources Center (UIC/ERC) was originally selected to carry out the role of project integrator for a planned solicitation calling for proposals for innovative concepts for energy efficient systems in the chemical industry. The selection was made as a result of a DOE Announcement of Funding Opportunity issued by the DOE Golden Field Office. The U.S. DOE, due to funding constraints, decided to change the role of project integrator into one of technical support to DOE and the Vision 2020 Steering Committee in carrying out the oversight and management of the projects selected from the planned innovative concepts solicitation. This project, initiated in April, 2005, was established to provide that technical support to the U.S. DOE Innovative Energy Systems Pilot Project for the US Chemical Industry. In the late summer of 2006, and as a continuation of the baseline technology analysis conducted by UIC/ERC under this project, DOE requested that UIC/ERC assist in the development of “technology briefs” in support of the DOE Save Energy Now program. The 100 technology briefs developed under this contract were utilized by the Energy Experts as part of their Energy Saving Assessments (ESA).

  11. On the use of in silico tools for prioritising toxicity testing of the low-volume industrial chemicals in REACH.

    PubMed

    Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina; Andersson, Patrik L

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a selection of commercially and freely available non-testing tools and to analyse how REACH registrants can apply these as prioritisation tool for low-volume chemicals. The analysis was performed on a set of organic industrial chemicals and pesticides with extensive peer-reviewed risk assessment data. Analysed in silico model systems included Derek Nexus, Toxtree, QSAR Toolbox, LAZAR, TEST and VEGA, and results from these were compared with expert-judged risk classification according to the classifying, labelling and packaging (CLP) regulation. The most reliable results were obtained for carcinogenicity; however, less reliable predictions were derived for mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. A group of compounds frequently predicted as false negatives was identified. These were relatively small molecules with low structural complexity, for example benzene derivatives with hydroxyl-, amino- or aniline-substituents. A rat liver S9 metabolite simulator was applied to illustrate the importance of considering metabolism in the risk assessment procedure. We also discuss outcome of combining predictions from multiple model systems and advise how to apply in silico tools. These models are proposed to be used to prioritise low-volume chemicals for testing within the REACH legislation, and we conclude that further guidance is needed so that industry can select and apply models in a reliable, systematic and transparent way.

  12. Chemical contaminants and their effects in fish and wildlife from the industrial zone of Sumgayit, Republic of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Carol D; Donnelly, K C; Islamzadeh, Arif; Rowe, Gilbert T; Rogers, William J; Palatnikov, Grigoriy M; Mekhtiev, Arif A; Kasimov, Rafik; McDonald, Thomas J; Wickliffe, Jeffery K; Presley, Bobby J; Bickham, John W

    2003-12-01

    Sediment from a wetland adjacent to an industrial wastewater treatment plant in Sumgayit contained concentrations of total PAHs, total PCBs, aldrin, biphenyl, chlordane, DDT, mercury, beta-endosulfan, heptachlor, alpha-hexacyclohexane (alpha-HCH), gamma-HCH, and several individual PAH congeners that were elevated relative to published sediment quality guidelines. Chemical analyses of tissues from European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) had increased levels of many of the same chemicals including aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, alpha-HCH, total PCBs, total PAHs, and mercury, compared to reference turtles. In addition, turtle tissues contained elevated levels of DDD, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and pentachlorobenzene that were not elevated in the sediment sample. Some differences were observed in contaminant levels between European pond turtles and Caspian turtles (Mauremys caspica) taken from the ponds in Sumgayit. Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assays on pond sediments were negative or weakly positive. Micronuclei in European pond turtles were statistically correlated with tissue levels of mercury, heptachlor, DDD, HCB, and trans-nonachlor. Microcosm experiments using Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) showed a positive dose-response relationship between exposure to suspended contaminated pond sediment and acute toxicity. Chemical and biological assays used in this study show the industrial area of Sumgayit is heavily contaminated with a complex mixture of toxic pollutants. Exposure to contaminated sediments produced acute effects in Russian sturgeon, but genotoxic effects appear to be slight.

  13. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting <72 hours) occurring in the nine states (Colorado, Iowa, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin) that participated in HSEES during its last 10 full years of data collection (1999-2008). Five industries (truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  14. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Byproducts Reporting for the Printed Circuit Board Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on existing Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to byproducts reporting by persons who manufacture printed circuit boards and may be subject to CDR.

  15. Biomass fly ashes as low-cost chemical agents for Pb removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Günther, Annika; Dias, Diogo; Mendes, Benilde

    2014-06-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the removal efficiency of Pb from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using biomass fly ashes. The biomass fly ashes were produced in a biomass boiler of a pulp and paper industry. Three concentrations of Pb(2+) were tested in the synthetic wastewater (1, 10 and 1000 mg Pb/L). Moreover, two different wastewaters were collected in an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) of an industry of lead-acid batteries: (i) wastewater of the equalization tank, and (ii) IWWTP effluent. All the wastewaters were submitted to coagulation-flocculation tests with a wide range of biomass fly ashes dosage (expressed as Solid/Liquid - S/L - ratios). All supernatants were characterized for chemical and ecotoxicological parameters. The use of biomass fly ashes has reduced significantly the Pb concentration in the synthetic wastewater and in the wastewaters collected in the IWWTP. For example, the definitive coagulation-flocculation assays performed over the IWWTP effluent presented a very low concentration of Pb (0.35 mg/L) for the S/L ratio of 1.23 g/L. Globally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the supernatants resulting from the coagulation-flocculation assays of all wastewaters has indicated an overall reduction on the ecotoxicity of the crude wastewaters, due to the removal of Pb.

  16. Fast changes in chemical composition and size distribution of fine particles during the near-field transport of industrial plumes.

    PubMed

    Marris, Hélène; Deboudt, Karine; Augustin, Patrick; Flament, Pascal; Blond, François; Fiani, Emmanuel; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2012-06-15

    Aerosol sampling was performed inside the chimneys and in the close environment of a FeMn alloys manufacturing plant. The number size distributions show a higher abundance of ultrafine aerosols (10-100 nm) inside the plume than upwind of the plant, indicating the emissions of nanoparticles by the industrial process. Individual analysis of particles collected inside the plume shows a high proportion of metal bearing particles (Mn-/Fe-) consisting essentially of internally mixed aluminosilicate and metallic compounds. These particles evolve rapidly (in a few minutes) after emission by adsorption of VOC gas and sulfuric acid emitted by the plant but also by agglomeration with pre-existing particles. At the moment, municipalities require a monitoring of industrial emissions inside the chimneys from manufacturers. However those measures are insufficient to report such rapid changes in chemical composition and thus to evaluate the real impact of industrial plumes in the close environment of plants (when those particles leave the industrial site). Consequently, environmental authorities will have to consider such fast evolutions and then to adapt future regulations on air pollution sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CHEMICAL SUBSTITUTION FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE AND METHANOL IN AN INDUSTRIAL CLEANING OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous wastes are generated from cold solvent degreasing operations used in many industrial processes. The spent solvents are managed under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). With the land ban of spent solvents, disposal has become increasingly di...

  18. Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses the views on science and society held among PhD students working in two different industrially and environmentally driven research programmes in the broad area of green chemistry. It is based on thirteen in-depth interviews. The analysis shows three main ways of handling the situation as "post-academic"…

  19. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  1. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Wastewater treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  4. Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses the views on science and society held among PhD students working in two different industrially and environmentally driven research programmes in the broad area of green chemistry. It is based on thirteen in-depth interviews. The analysis shows three main ways of handling the situation as "post-academic"…

  5. Industrial Mineral Aggregate Amendment Affects Physical and Chemical Properties of Pine Bark Substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nonpoint source effluent containing nitrate N (NO3-N) and phosphorus (P) from containerized nursery production has garnered local, regional, and national concern. Industrial minerals have long been used as absorbents, agrochemical carriers, and barriers to retain heavy metals. Our objective was to d...

  6. CHEMICAL SUBSTITUTION FOR 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE AND METHANOL IN AN INDUSTRIAL CLEANING OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous wastes are generated from cold solvent degreasing operations used in many industrial processes. The spent solvents are managed under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). With the land ban of spent solvents, disposal has become increasingly di...

  7. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  8. [The physical development and psychophysiological status of children born to mothers engaged in gas-chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Setko, N P; Skripko, I V

    2006-01-01

    The study has ascertained that the adaptive capacities of the body reflect the level of its health and the resistance to the influence of environmental factors. The organism of a child and his/her functional capacities of the basic systems may be regarded as an indicator of the quality of life in a mother exposed to poor factors of gas-chemical industry; and there is likely to be a long-term impact of gas-processing factors on the child through the maternal body.

  9. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  10. VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.

    PubMed

    Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed.

  11. Remote chemical monitoring in an industrial environment using eyesafe IR laser radar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Guerman A.; Shklovsky, E. J.; Freidman, Gennady I.; Lozhkarev, Vladimir V.; Matveyev, Alexander Z.; Shilov, Alexander A.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Peterson, Darrel G.; Partin, Judy K.

    1997-07-01

    The brief description of new lidar prototype for remote chemical monitoring and profiling in the 8 - 12 micron range is given. The lidar includes a Nd:YAG laser (1 J per pulse) source, optical parametrical oscillator (0.2 J per pulse), and four-wave Raman emitter (20 mJ output per pulse). The receiver consists of the hydrogen SRS cells, pumped by an additional OPO pulse. Sensitivity of this receiver reaches approximately 1000 photons per pixel. The applications of this lidar for remote detection of chemicals in atmosphere will also be discussed.

  12. "Giant axonal neuropathy" caused by industrial chemicals: neurofilamentous axonal masses in man.

    PubMed

    Davenport, J G; Farrell, D F; Sumi, M

    1976-10-01

    Symmetrical polyneuropathy developed in two patients after they had been in contact with acrylamide and methyl n-butyl ketone, respectively. In sural nerve biopsy material from both patients, electron microscopy showed frequent focal axonal swellings containing masses of neurofilaments. Some axons undergoing axonal degeneration also were seen. These morphologic features are identical to those produced in experimental animals after exposure to these chemicals and are similar to those found in n-hexane neuropathy and in the three reported cases of giant axonal neuropathy. Sural nerve biopsy is an important diagnostic test in identifying cases of peripheral neuropathy caused by these chemicals.

  13. Environmental justice: frequency and severity of US chemical industry accidents and the socioeconomic status of surrounding communities.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M R; Wang, Y; Lowe, R A; Kleindorfer, P R

    2004-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that chemical facilities in the US with specified quantities of certain toxic or flammable chemicals file a five year history of accidents. This study considers the relation between the reported accidents and surrounding community characteristics. This study is a retrospective analysis of the association between the demographics of counties in which facilities are located and the risk of accidental chemical release and resulting injuries at those facilities. The "location risk" (the risk that a facility having large volumes of hazardous chemicals is located in a community) and "operations risk" (the risk of an accident itself) are investigated. 1994-2000 accident history data from 15 083 US industrial facilities using one or more of 140 flammable or toxic substances above a threshold level. Demographic makeup of 2333 counties surrounding these facilities was determined from the 1990 US census. Larger and more chemical intensive facilities tend to be located in counties with larger African-American populations and in counties with both higher median incomes and high levels of income inequality. Even after adjusting for location risk there is greater risk of accidents for facilities in heavily African-American counties (OR of accident = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.4). Further research and policy interventions are required to reduce the probability of locating facilities in an inequitable fashion, as well as health surveillance, and regulatory monitoring and enforcement activities to ensure that hazardous facilities in minority communities prepare and prevent accidental chemical releases to the same standards as elsewhere.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  15. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    PubMed

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF FAILURE MECHANISMS AND MIGRATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AT WILSONVILLE, ILLINOIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In late 1981, ground water contamination was discovered in a monitoring well at the Earthline disposal facility near Wilsonville, Illinois. This meant that organic chemicals had migrated at a rate of 100 to 1000 times the rate predicted when the site was given its permit i...

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FAILURE MECHANISMS AND MIGRATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AT WILSONVILLE, ILLINOIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In late 1981, ground water contamination was discovered in a monitoring well at the Earthline disposal facility near Wilsonville, Illinois. This meant that organic chemicals had migrated at a rate of 100 to 1000 times the rate predicted when the site was given its permit i...

  18. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Myers, T J; Kytömaa, H K; Smith, T R

    2007-04-11

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future.

  19. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass product...

  20. Kinetics of the biodegradation of phenol in wastewaters from the chemical industry by covalently immobilized Trichosporon cutaneum cells.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Lyubov; Tzibranska, Irene; Tileva, Filadia; Markx, G H; Georgieva, Nelly

    2009-03-01

    A simple method for the preparation of the biocatalyst with whole cells is presented, and the applicability of the technique for biodegradation of phenol in wastewater from the chemical industries using the basidomycetes yeast Trichosporon cutaneum is explored. Kinetic studies of the influence of other compounds contained in wastewater as naphthalene, benzene, toluene and pyridine indicate that apart from oil fraction, which is removed, the phenol concentration is the only major factor limiting the growth of immobilized cells. Mathematical models are applied to describe the kinetic behavior of immobilized yeast cells. From the analysis of the experimental curves was shown that the obtained values for the apparent rate parameters vary depending on the substrate concentration (mu(maxapp) from 0.35 to 0.09 h(-1) and K (sapp) from 0.037 to 0.4 g dm(-3)). The inhibitory effect of the phenol on the obtained yield coefficients was investigated too. It has been shown that covalent immobilization of T. cutaneum whole cells to plastic carrier beads is possible, and that cell viability and phenol degrading activity are maintained after the chemical modification of cell walls during the binding procedure. The results obtained indicate a possible future application of immobilized T. cutaneum for destroying phenol in industrial wastewaters.

  1. Software User’s Manual for the RAILCAR4.1 Toxic Industrial Chemical Source Characterization Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    characterize the source for the TSA for potential  chlorine   and  ethylene  oxide railcar attacks in urban areas and as part of a Navy shipboard threat study...release of a toxic industrial chemical from a transport or storage tank, such as  chlorine  released from a rupture in a 90‐ton railcar.  The RAILCAR4.1...toxic  industrial chemical from a transport tank, such as  chlorine  released from a rupture in a  90‐ton railcar.  The RAILCAR4.1 program addresses a

  2. Distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Chen, Liang; Huang, Linxian; Wang, Yongseng; Li, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China. At least one VOC was detected in each of the 20 sampling sites, and the maximum number of VOCs detected in the surface water, groundwater, and soil were 13, 16, and 14, respectively. Two of the 10 VOCs with elevated concentrations detected in surface water, groundwater, and soil were chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The characteristics of VOCs, which include volatility, boiling point, and solubility, could significantly affect their distribution in surface water, soil, and groundwater. However, due to the direct discharging of chemical industry wastewater into surface water, higher concentrations of VOCs (except chloroform) were detected in surface water than in soil and groundwater. Fortunately, the higher volatility of VOCs prevents the VOCs from impacting groundwater, which helps to maintain a lower concentration of VOCs in the groundwater than in both surface water and soil. This is because pollutants with relatively higher boiling points and lower solubilities have higher detection frequencies in soil, and contaminants with relatively lower boiling points and higher solubilities have higher detection frequencies in water, notably in surface water.

  3. In Vitro Screening of 1877 Industrial and Consumer Chemicals, Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals in up to 782 Assays: ToxCast Phase I and II (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase II of the ToxCast program, the U.S. EPA and Tox21 partners screened 1,877 chemicals, including pesticides; food, cosmetics and personal care ingredients; pharmaceuticals; and industrial chemicals. Testing used a 782 in vitro assays across 7 technologies and multiple bi...

  4. In Vitro Screening of 1877 Industrial and Consumer Chemicals, Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals in up to 782 Assays: ToxCast Phase I and II (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase II of the ToxCast program, the U.S. EPA and Tox21 partners screened 1,877 chemicals, including pesticides; food, cosmetics and personal care ingredients; pharmaceuticals; and industrial chemicals. Testing used a 782 in vitro assays across 7 technologies and multiple bi...

  5. [HEALTH LOSSES FROM MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION CAUSED BY AIR CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE INDUSTRIAL CENTRE].

    PubMed

    Artamonova, G V; Maksimov, S A; Tabakaev, M V; Shapovalova, E B

    2015-01-01

    Losses of health from myocardial infarction in the city of Kemerovo were estimated accordingly to the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) index, as well as its compartments: YLL (years lost due to premature death) and YLD (years lost disability). When ranking districts of the city of Kemerovo both in terms of chemicals exposure and the value of the DALY index there was revealed the opposite direction of these indices. The performance of the correlation analysis of health losses with concentrations of chemical contaminants allowed to reveal a feedback between them among the elderly patients (60 years and older) and direct--in young (up to 45 years old) cases. This fact probably may attest to the significant contribution of the environmental pollution in the process of development and progression of atherosclerotic changes in the young population.

  6. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  7. Evaluation of Titania Nanotubes for the Removal of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    2008). As summarized in Table 1, the nanotubes consist of both micropores and large mesopores , possibly providing adsorption sites for chemicals of...cause of the hysteresis seen in Figure 6. Data presented in Figure 7 show that over most of the relative pressure range, ASZM-TEDA provides more...Additionally, hysteresis data can be used to determine pore interconnectivity. The AE data for the titania nanotubes and baseline samples are shown in

  8. Impregnated Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Removal of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    on a nanotechnology approach to sorbent development for air purification applications. Metal-organic frameworks ( MOFs ) are a novel class of materials...that allow for specific functionalities to be designed directly into a porous framework. This report summarizes the evaluation of MOFs impregnated...with various chemicals for enhanced reactivity. Specifically, MOF -5 (IRMOF-l) was impregnated with citric acid, copper acetate, copper oxide, and

  9. Industrial cogeneration case study No. 2: American Cyanamid Chemical Company, Bound Brook, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Within a project for evaluating the economics of cogeneration for industrial plants with an electrical capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 kW, the American Cyanamid plant at Bound Brook, NJ was selected for study. Built between 1915 and 1920 this power plant was converted in the 1960's from coal-fueling to oil and natural gas. Information is presented on the plant site, fuel usage, generation costs, comparative cost of purchasable electric power, equipment used, performance, and reliability and capital and maintenance costs. (LCL)

  10. Virtual screening for environmental pollutants: structure-activity relationships applied to a database of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Tomas

    2006-04-01

    The current risk paradigm calls for individual consideration and evaluation of each separate environmental pollutant, but this does not reflect accurately the cumulative impact of anthropogenic chemicals. In the present study, previously validated structure-activity relationships were used to estimate simultaneously the baseline toxicity and atmospheric persistence of approximately 50,000 compounds. The results from this virtual screening indicate fairly stable statistical distributions among small anthropogenic compounds. The baseline toxicity was not changed much by halogen substitution, but a distinct increase seemed to occur in the environmental persistence with increased halogenation. The ratio of the atmospheric half-lives to the median lethal concentrations provides a continuous scale with which to rank and summarize the incremental environmental impacts in a mixture-exposure situation. Halogenated compounds as a group obtained a high ranking in this data set, with well-known pollutants at the very top: DDT metabolites and derivatives, polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenyl ethers and dibenzofurans, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated benzenes and derivatives, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and dichlorononylphenol. Environmentally friendly chemicals that obtained the lowest rank are nearly all hydroxylated and water-soluble. Virtual screening can assist with "green chemistry" in designing safe and degradable products and enable assessment of the efficiency in chemicals risk management.

  11. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution.

    PubMed

    Amoore, J E; Hautala, E

    1983-12-01

    The body of information in this paper is directed to specialists in industrial health and safety, and air and water pollution, who need quantitative data on the odor thresholds of potentially hazardous chemical vapors and gases. The literature, largely unorganized, has been reviewed for 214 compounds and condensed into tables based on consistent units. Data on the volatility, solubility, ionization and water-air distribution ratio at 25 degrees C are included. From the currently recommended threshold limit value (TLV), a safe dilution factor and an odor safety factor are calculated for each compound. The equivalent data are presented for both air and water dilutions of the chemicals. Available data are summarized on the variability of odor sensitivities in the population, and the increased odor concentrations that are required to elicit responses from persons whose attention is distracted, or who are sleeping. This information is reduced to calibration charts that may be used to estimate the relative detectability, warning potential and rousing capacity of the odorous vapors. Each compound has been assigned a letter classification, from A to E, to indicate the margin of safety, if any, that may be afforded by the odor of the compound as a warning that its threshold limit value is being exceeded.

  12. Novel low cost chemical texturing for very large area industrial multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, U.; Dhungel, S. K.; Kim, K.; Manna, U.; Basu, P. K.; Kim, H. J.; Karunagaran, B.; Lee, K. S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yi, J.

    2005-09-01

    Multi-crystalline silicon surface etching without grain-boundary delineation is a challenging task for the fabrication of high efficiency solar cells. The use of sodium hydroxide-sodium hypochlorite (NaOH-NaOCl) solution for texturing a multi-crystalline silicon wafer surface in a solar cell fabrication line is reported in this paper. The optimized etching solution of NaOH-NaOCl does not have any effect on multi-crystalline silicon grain boundaries and it also has excellent isotropic etch characteristics, which ultimately helps to achieve higher values of performance parameters, especially the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), than those in the case of conventional silicon texturing. Easy control over the reaction of the NaOH-NaOCl solution is also one of the major advantages due to which sophistication in controlling the temperature of the etching bath is not required for the industrial batch process. The FTIR analysis of the silicon surface after etching with the current approach shows the formation of Si-Cl bonds, which improves the quality of the diffused junction due to chlorine gettering during diffusion. We are the first to report 14-14.5% efficiency of very large area (150 mm × 150 mm) multi-crystalline silicon solar cells using a NaOH-NaOCl texturing approach in an industrial production line with a yield greater than 95%.

  13. Chemical substitution for 1,1,1,-trichloroethane and methanol in an industrial-cleaning operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Springer, J.; Bower, M.

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous wastes are generated from cold solvent degreasing operations used in many industrial processes. The spent solvents are managed under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). With the land ban of spent solvents, disposal has become increasingly difficult. As a result, industries have begun investigating ways to avoid using RCRA listed cleaning solvents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Pollution Prevention Research Branch along with APS Materials, Inc., a small metal finishing company, participated in a joint research project to evaluate the substitution of a dilute, terpene-based cleaner for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and methanol, hazardous wastes F001 and F003 respectively, in their degreasing operations. The paper presents the results of a study evaluating the waste reduction/pollution prevention that can be achieved by substituting dilute limonene solutions for TCA and methanol in the cleaning of orthopedic implants (e.g. metal knee and hip joint replacements). The paper describes the original cleaning process, the modifications made to the process in using the dilute limonene solution, and the sampling plan used in evaluating the effectiveness of the solution. The paper presents qualitative results of the sampling tests and an economic evaluation of plant modifications. (Copyright (c) 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.).

  14. Resistance of two temperate Lactobacillus paracasei bacteriophages to high pressure homogenization, thermal treatments and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, D J; Guglielmotti, D M; Patrignani, F; Reinheimer, J A; Quiberoni, A

    2012-02-01

    Temperate bacteriophages ф iLp84 and ф iLp1308, previously isolated from mitomycin C-induction of Lactobacillus paracasei strains 84 and CNRZ1308, respectively, were tested for their resistance to several physical and chemical treatments applied in dairy industry. Long-term survival at 4 °C, -20 °C and -80 °C, resistance to either thermal treatments of 63 °C, 72 °C and 90 °C, high pressure homogenization (HPH, 100 MPa) or classic (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid) and new commercial sanitizers, namely A (quaternary ammonium chloride), B (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and peroctanoic acid), C (alkaline chloride foam), D (p-toluensulfonchloroamide, sodium salt) and E (ethoxylated nonylphenol and phosphoric acid), were determined. Phages were almost completely inactivated after eight months of storage at 25 °C, but viability was not affected at 4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C. Both phages tolerated well HPH treatments. Phage iLp1308 showed higher thermal resistance than ф iLp84, but neither resisted 90 °C for 2 min. Best chemical inactivation was accomplished using peracetic acid or biocides A, C and E, whereas biocides B and D were completely ineffective. These results help to improve selection of chemical agents and physical treatments to effectively fight against phage infections in dairy plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequential chemical-biological processes for the treatment of industrial wastewaters: review of recent progresses and critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Guieysse, Benoit; Norvill, Zane N

    2014-02-28

    When direct wastewater biological treatment is unfeasible, a cost- and resource-efficient alternative to direct chemical treatment consists of combining biological treatment with a chemical pre-treatment aiming to convert the hazardous pollutants into more biodegradable compounds. Whereas the principles and advantages of sequential treatment have been demonstrated for a broad range of pollutants and process configurations, recent progresses (2011-present) in the field provide the basis for refining assessment of feasibility, costs, and environmental impacts. This paper thus reviews recent real wastewater demonstrations at pilot and full scale as well as new process configurations. It also discusses new insights on the potential impacts of microbial community dynamics on process feasibility, design and operation. Finally, it sheds light on a critical issue that has not yet been properly addressed in the field: integration requires complex and tailored optimization and, of paramount importance to full-scale application, is sensitive to uncertainty and variability in the inputs used for process design and operation. Future research is therefore critically needed to improve process control and better assess the real potential of sequential chemical-biological processes for industrial wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Speciation and Health Risk Assessment of Fine Particulate Bound Trace Metals Emitted from Ota Industrial Estate, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anake, Winifred U.; Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Williams, Akan B.; Fred-Ahmadu, Omowunmi H.; Benson, Nsikak U.

    2017-05-01

    In this study carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk due to exposure to PM2.5-bound trace metals from an industrial area in Southwestern Nigeria was estimated. A four-step chemical sequential extraction procedure was employed for the chemical extraction of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results reveal Cr and Cu as the most dominant exchangeable fraction metals, indicating possibility of their being readily soluble once PM2.5 is inhaled. Cd and Cr record the highest bioavailability index of 0.7. The cumulative lifetime cancer risks due to inhalation exposure for adults (4.25×10-2), children 1-6 years old (4.87×10-3), and children 6-18 years old (1.46×10-2) were found above Environmental Protection Agency’s acceptable range of 1×10-6 to 1×10-4. The hazard index values for all studied trace metals suggest significant potential for non-carcinogenic health risks to adults and children. The choice of chemical speciation as an essential tool in facilitating a better predictive insight on metal bioavailability and toxicity for immediate remediation action has been highlighted.

  17. AOX removal from industrial wastewaters using advanced oxidation processes: assessment of a combined chemical-biological oxidation.

    PubMed

    Luyten, J; Sniegowski, K; Van Eyck, K; Maertens, D; Timmermans, S; Liers, Sven; Braeken, L

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the abatement of adsorbable halogenated organic compounds (AOX) from an industrial wastewater containing relatively high chloride concentrations by a combined chemical and biological oxidation is assessed. For chemical oxidation, the O(3)/UV, H(2)O(2)/UV and photo-Fenton processes are evaluated on pilot scale. Biological oxidation is simulated in a 4 h respirometry experiment with periodic aeration. The results show that a selective degradation of AOX with respect to the matrix compounds (expressed as chemical oxygen demand) could be achieved. For O(3)/UV, lowering the ratio of O(3) dosage to UV intensity leads to a better selectivity for AOX. During O(3)-based experiments, the AOX removal is generally less than during the H(2)O(2)-based experiments. However, after biological oxidation, the AOX levels are comparable. For H(2)O(2)/UV, optimal operating parameters for UV and H(2)O(2) dosage are next determined in a second run with another wastewater sample.

  18. Challenges and recommendations for obtaining chemical structures of industry-provided repurposing candidates.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Williams, Antony J; Ekins, Sean

    2013-01-01

    There is an expanding amount of interest directed at the repurposing and repositioning of drugs, as well as how in silico methods can assist these endeavors. Recent repurposing project tendering calls by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (USA) and the Medical Research Council (UK) have included compound information and pharmacological data. However, none of the internal company development code names were assigned to chemical structures in the official documentation. This not only abrogates in silico analysis to support repurposing but consequently necessitates data gathering and curation to assign structures. Here, we describe the approaches, results and major challenges associated with this.

  19. Biomarker of Exposure and Mechanism of Action of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    primary chemicals used, 10 employee 37 samples with a rank of 1 and 10 with a rank of 6. In addition, since AN is a constituent of tobacco smoke and...toxicity of AN. First is that it can be metabolized in the body to cyanide , a well-known acute toxin. However, we have previously shown that...blocking cyanide production with inhibitors of the enzyme(s) that convert AN to cyanide does not prevent acute toxicity but only delays the time to death

  20. Carbon dioxide: a raw material and a future chemical fuel for a sustainable energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouroux, J.; Siffert, P.

    2011-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is a major raw material of the future, for the capture plants which use amines, aminoacids, ammonia or zeolites. This very high purity raw material (99.9 %) opens the way of a new industrial revolution in agreement with the proposal of Nobel Prize laureates and the DOE strategy. Our goal is to explain the large advantages and the main routes for CO2 valorization, which are starting around the world. The most promising ways for this valorization are methanol synthesis as fuel for transportation and methane formation for electricity network regulation. The first way allows the use of liquid fuels, as distribution infrastructure already exists; instead of gaseous fuels (H2), for which there is storage, distribution problems and no infrastructure exist. The second way is methane synthesis during off-peak hours and burning of this methane during peak hours in order to regulate the electric network.

  1. A scheme for the classification of explosions in the chemical process industry.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Pasman, H J; Abbasi, S A

    2010-02-15

    All process industry accidents fall under three broad categories-fire, explosion, and toxic release. Of these fire is the most common, followed by explosions. Within these broad categories occur a large number of sub-categories, each depicting a specific sub-type of a fire/explosion/toxic release. But whereas clear and self-consistent sub-classifications exist for fires and toxic releases, the situation is not as clear vis a vis explosions. In this paper the inconsistencies and/or shortcomings associated with the classification of different types of explosions, which are seen even in otherwise highly authentic and useful reference books on process safety, are reviewed. In its context a new classification is attempted which may, hopefully, provide a frame-of-reference for the future.

  2. Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: An extended observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.; Langard, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another 8 years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85, 95% CI 44-158). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma (ICD, 7th revision 162-163) versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256, 95% CI71-654). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588, 95% CI 118-1,725).

  3. Industry-wide studies report of an in-depth industrial-hygiene survey of the Dow Chemical, Michigan Division, Midland, Michigan, September 11-13, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Greife, A.

    1985-08-01

    An indepth survey was conducted at Dow Chemical Company. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the acrylamide and polyacrylamide production facilities as part of an industry-wide assessment of acrylamide exposures. Three production facilities were involved in the production of acrylamide monomer or polymer. Breathing-zone, general-area, and wipe samples were collected in all three facilities for a single day shift and analyzed for acrylamide. The highest airborne acrylamide concentrations (breathing zone, 0.119 cu m and general area, 0.054mg/cu m, were found in the monomer facility. Most of the general air samples were below the limit of detection, 0.002mg/cu m. All but two of the wipe samples were below the limit of detection, 0.5 microgram (microg) per sample. The author concludes that all samples collected during the survey were below any standard or recommended evaluation criteria for acrylamide. Evaluating work practices to reduce potential dermal exposure is recommended.

  4. Assessing homeland chemical hazards outside the military gates: industrial hazard threat assessments for department of defense installations.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S; Howard, Jacqueline M; Reed, David A

    2002-04-08

    As part of comprehensive joint medical surveillance measures outlined by the Department of Defense, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) is beginning to assess environmental health threats to continental US military installations. A common theme in comprehensive joint medical surveillance, in support of Force Health Protection, is the identification and assessment of potential environmental health hazards, and the evaluation and documentation of actual exposures in both a continental US and outside a continental US setting. For the continental US assessments, the USACHPPM has utilized the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database for risk management plans in accordance with Public Law 106-40, and the toxic release inventory database, in a state-of the art geographic information systems based program, termed the Consequence Assessment and Management Tool Set, or CATS, for assessing homeland industrial chemical hazards outside the military gates. As an example, the US EPA toxic release inventory and risk management plans databases are queried to determine the types and locations of industries surrounding a continental US military installation. Contaminants of concern are then ranked with respect to known toxicological and physical hazards, where they are then subject to applicable downwind hazard simulations using applicable meteorological and climatological data sets. The composite downwind hazard areas are mapped in relation to emergency response planning guidelines (ERPG), which were developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association to assist emergency response personnel planning for catastrophic chemical releases. In addition, other geographic referenced data such as transportation routes, satellite imagery and population data are included in the operational, equipment, and morale risk assessment and management process. These techniques have been developed to assist military medical planners and operations

  5. Threshold of toxicological concern values for non-genotoxic effects in industrial chemicals: re-evaluation of the Cramer classification.

    PubMed

    Kalkhof, H; Herzler, M; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2012-01-01

    The TTC concept employs available data from animal testing to derive a distribution of NOAELs. Taking a probabilistic view, the 5th percentile of the distribution is taken as a threshold value for toxicity. In this paper, we use 824 NOAELs from repeated dose toxicity studies of industrial chemicals to re-evaluate the currently employed TTC values, which have been derived for substances grouped according to the Cramer scheme (Cramer et al. in Food Cosm Toxicol 16:255-276, 1978) by Munro et al. (Food Chem Toxicol 34:829-867, 1996) and refined by Kroes and Kozianowski (Toxicol Lett 127:43-46, 2002), Kroes et al. 2000. In our data set, consisting of 756 NOAELs from 28-day repeated dose testing and 57 NOAELs from 90-days repeated dose testing, the experimental NOAEL had to be extrapolated to chronic TTC using regulatory accepted extrapolation factors. The TTC values derived from our data set were higher than the currently used TTC values confirming the safety of the latter. We analysed the prediction of the Cramer classification by comparing the classification by this tool with the guidance values for classification according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of the United Nations (GHS). Nearly 90% of the chemicals were in Cramer class 3 and assumed as highly toxic compared to 22% according to the GHS. The Cramer classification does underestimate the toxicity of chemicals only in 4.6% of the cases. Hence, from a regulatory perspective, the Cramer classification scheme might be applied as it overestimates hazard of a chemical.

  6. A cross sectional study of chemical industry workers with occupational exposure to persulphates.

    PubMed

    Merget, R; Buenemann, A; Kulzer, R; Rueckmann, A; Breitstadt, R; Kniffka, A; Kratisch, H; Vormberg, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G

    1996-06-01

    Hair bleaches containing persulphates have been identified as the cause of occupational asthma in hairdressers. Also employees in persulphate production with occupational asthma have been described. It was the aim of this study to give an estimate of the prevalence of asthma due to persulphates in chemical workers with exposure to ammonium and sodium persulphate. A cross sectional study was performed in 32 of 33 employees of a persulphate producing chemical plant. Eighteen of 23 workmen from the same plant with no exposure to persulphates were taken as controls. Also, information was collected from medical records of the seven subjects who had left the persulphate production for medical reasons since 1971. Data were recalled by a questionnaire, skin prick tests were performed with five environmental allergens, and ammonium and sodium persulphate (80 mg/ml). Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to the same environmental allergens as in the skin test, and total IgE were measured. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by standard procedures. Workplace concentrations of ammonium and sodium persulphate were estimated by area and personal monitoring. The amount of persulphate was analysed as sulphur by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Work related rhinitis was reported by one subject with exposure to persulphates, conjunctivitis and bronchitis were reportedly related to work by two controls. There were no cutaneous reactions to persulphates in either group. Four non-atopic subjects exposed to persulphates, and two controls, one atopic and one non-atopic, were considered to be hyperresponsive to histamine. Three subjects exposed to persulphates with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (provocation dose of histamine causing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD15 FEV1) < or = 1 mg) did not show variability in peak expiratory flow of > or = 20%, the rest refused peak flow measurements. None of the variables showed

  7. A cross sectional study of chemical industry workers with occupational exposure to persulphates.

    PubMed Central

    Merget, R; Buenemann, A; Kulzer, R; Rueckmann, A; Breitstadt, R; Kniffka, A; Kratisch, H; Vormberg, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hair bleaches containing persulphates have been identified as the cause of occupational asthma in hairdressers. Also employees in persulphate production with occupational asthma have been described. It was the aim of this study to give an estimate of the prevalence of asthma due to persulphates in chemical workers with exposure to ammonium and sodium persulphate. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed in 32 of 33 employees of a persulphate producing chemical plant. Eighteen of 23 workmen from the same plant with no exposure to persulphates were taken as controls. Also, information was collected from medical records of the seven subjects who had left the persulphate production for medical reasons since 1971. Data were recalled by a questionnaire, skin prick tests were performed with five environmental allergens, and ammonium and sodium persulphate (80 mg/ml). Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to the same environmental allergens as in the skin test, and total IgE were measured. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by standard procedures. Workplace concentrations of ammonium and sodium persulphate were estimated by area and personal monitoring. The amount of persulphate was analysed as sulphur by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. RESULTS: Work related rhinitis was reported by one subject with exposure to persulphates, conjunctivitis and bronchitis were reportedly related to work by two controls. There were no cutaneous reactions to persulphates in either group. Four non-atopic subjects exposed to persulphates, and two controls, one atopic and one non-atopic, were considered to be hyperresponsive to histamine. Three subjects exposed to persulphates with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (provocation dose of histamine causing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD15 FEV1) < or = 1 mg) did not show variability in peak expiratory flow of > or = 20%, the rest refused peak flow measurements

  8. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  9. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  10. High spatial resolution fiber optical sensors for simultaneous temperature and chemical sensing for energy industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Aidong; Huang, Sheng; Li, Shuo; Zaghloul, Mohamed; Ohodnicki, Paul; Buric, Michael; Chen, Kevin P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper demonstrates optical fibers as high-temperature sensor platforms. Through engineering and onfiber integration of functional metal oxide sensory materials, we report the development of an integrated sensor solution to perform temperature and chemical measurements for high-temperature energy applications. Using the Rayleigh optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) distributed sensing scheme, the temperature and hydrogen concentration were measured along the fiber. To overcome the weak Rayleighbackscattering intensity exhibited by conventional optical fibers, an ultrafast laser was used to enhance the Rayleigh scattering by a direct laser writing method. Using the Rayleigh-enhanced fiber as sensor platform, both temperature and hydrogen reaction were monitored at high temperature up to 750°C with 4-mm spatial resolution.

  11. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: recent updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-01

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2). Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  12. Combined physical-chemical and biological treatment of poorly biodegradable industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; Zaror, Claudio; Carrasco, Virginia; Mondaca, Maria Angelica; Mansilla, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be implemented. In this context, this paper presents experimental results on the application of a combined sequential ozonation-activated carbon-biological system to treat effluents containing chlorinated aromatic contaminants from chlorine based pulp bleaching. The experimental system consisted of an ozone bubble column reactor (0.3 dm3), an activated carbon fixed bed reactor (0.2 dm3), and an aerobic bioreactor (20 dm3). Ozone was produced from pure O2 using a generator rated at 2 mmol O3 h(-1). The bleaching effluent was pretreated and fed into the aerated sequencing batch bioreactor containing preconditioned biological sludge (3-4 g VSS dm(-3)), and cultured for 24 h. Samples of raw and treated effluents were assayed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), using standard techniques. The presence of potential genotoxic activity in untreated and treated samples was assessed using the Ames tests. Results show that biological treatment of raw samples could not remove mutagenic activity on its own. On the other hand, ozonation followed by activated carbon treatment and biological treatment successfully removed genotoxicity in all cases. Reductions in BOD, COD, TOC, AOX, and phenols by biological treatment increased when samples were pretreated with ozone/activated carbon.

  13. Monitoring, modelling and environmental exposure assessment of industrial chemicals in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Fox, K; Griessbach, E; Johnsen, S; Kinnunen, J; Lecloux, A; Murray-Smith, R; Peterson, D R; Schröder, R; Silvani, M; ten Berge, W F; Toy, R J; Feijtel, T C

    2000-12-01

    Monitoring and laboratory data play integral roles alongside fate and exposure models in comprehensive risk assessments. The principle in the European Union Technical Guidance Documents for risk assessment is that measured data may take precedence over model results but only after they are judged to be of adequate reliability and to be representative of the particular environmental compartments to which they are applied. In practice, laboratory and field data are used to provide parameters for the models, while monitoring data are used to validate the models' predictions. Thus, comprehensive risk assessments require the integration of laboratory and monitoring data with the model predictions. However, this interplay is often overlooked. Discrepancies between the results of models and monitoring should be investigated in terms of the representativeness of both. Certainly, in the context of the EU risk assessment of existing chemicals, the specific requirements for monitoring data have not been adequately addressed. The resources required for environmental monitoring, both in terms of manpower and equipment, can be very significant. The design of monitoring programmes to optimise the use of resources and the use of models as a cost-effective alternative are increasing in importance. Generic considerations and criteria for the design of new monitoring programmes to generate representative quality data for the aquatic compartment are outlined and the criteria for the use of existing data are discussed. In particular, there is a need to improve the accessibility to data sets, to standardise the data sets, to promote communication and harmonisation of programmes and to incorporate the flexibility to change monitoring protocols to amend the chemicals under investigation in line with changing needs and priorities.

  14. Chemical composition of turmeric oil--a byproduct from turmeric oleoresin industry and its inhibitory activity against different fungi.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Anandharamakrishnan, C; Sakariah, K K

    2001-01-01

    Curcumin, the yellow coloring pigment of turmeric is produced industrially from turmeric oleoresin. The mother liquor after isolation of curcumin from oleoresin known as curcumin removed turmeric oleoresin (CRTO) was extracted three times with n-hexane at room temperature for 30 min to obtain turmeric oil. The turmeric oil was subjected to fractional distillation under vacuum to get two fractions. These fractions were tested for antifugal activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium digitatum by spore germination method. Fraction II was found to be more active. The chemical constituents of turmeric oil, fraction I and fraction II were determined by GC and identified by GC-MS. Aromatic turmerone, turmerone and curlone were major compounds present in fraction II along with other oxygenated compounds.

  15. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; del Río, José C

    2006-03-22

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by GC/MS of the hemp fibers extracts were series of n-alkanes, free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, waxes, and long-chain n-fatty acids. Other compounds such as n-aldehydes, n-fatty alcohols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones as well as steryl glycosides were also found.

  16. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  17. Welding duplex stainless steels for maximum corrosion resistance in chemical process industry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, T.G.; Gunn, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication of process plant, pipework etc in ferritic-austenitic steels commonly entails fusion welding. The weld thermal cycle can significantly influence material corrosion behavior and hence service performance. The paper reviews the situation, with emphasis on arc welding as most commonly employed by industry. An outline is given of the major metallurgical changes due to welding which take place in the heat affected zone in base steel and in the fused weld metal. The weld thermal cycle experienced alters the ferrite/austenite structure from that in the parent material, and can induce intermetallic precipitation. Nitrogen may also be lost from the weld metal. These changes affect corrosion resistance, and must be controlled to achieve optimum service properties. The consequences of surface oxidation in the weld area and of local residual stresses are also considered, and it is pointed out that resistance to stress corrosion cracking in chloride or sour, H{sub 2}S media is dependent on ferrite/austenite balance. The main factors in formulating a welding procedure are described. Depending on the material composition and joint heat sink, arc energy should be held between minimum and maximum levels to promote adequate austenite formation in the weld area without inducing intermetallic formation. Nitrogen loss should be minimized, and adequate filler should be added: slight overalloying of the consumable is preferred, provided that intermetallic precipitation is avoided.

  18. Regulation of drugs and chemicals used by the poultry industry. Good manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Boyd, L H

    1994-09-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are required to be followed in the use of animal drugs to produce medicated feeds. The authority is found in the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which states that medicated feed can be deemed adulterated if GMP were not followed in its production. This authority has been translated into GMP regulations applicable to all medicated feed production. More detailed GMP are imposed on those using high potency sources of drugs that require a withdrawal period (Category II). Less detailed GMP are imposed on all other drug uses (Category I and lower potency sources of Category II). Facility registration, medicated feed applications, and biennial inspections are also imposed on those required to follow the more detailed GMP regulations. The basic thrust of the regulations is assurance that drug use is correct in all respects and that the integrity of all medicated and nonmedicated feeds is maintained. The objective is food free of illegal drug residues, i.e., food safety. The GMP regulations are based on joint industry-government endeavor and reflect the practical realities of feed manufacturing. They are, for all practical purposes, good business practices assuring that medicated feeds make a positive contribution to food production and consumer confidence.

  19. Detection of industrial gaseous chemical plumes using hyperspectral imagery in the emissive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Michael D., Jr.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2005-08-01

    For the past ten years, much of the research in hyperspectral image data exploitation techniques has been focused on detection of ground targets. As a passive remote sensing technique, hyperspectral imagers have performed reasonably well in detecting the presence of a variety of objects; from crop species to land mines to mineral deposits to vehicles under camouflage. These often promising results have prompted new studies of hyperspectral remote sensing for other applications - including atmospheric monitoring. Should technologies like hyperspectral imaging prove effective in emission source monitoring, organizations interested in environmental assessment could transition from inspection using hand-held analytical instruments to a truly standoff technique. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of a set of hyperspectral exploitation techniques applied to the task of gas detection. This set of techniques is a sampling of approaches that have appeared in the literature, and all of the methods discussed have demonstrated utility in the reflective regime. Specifically, we look at signature-based detection, anomaly detection, transformations (i.e. rotations) of the spectral space, and even dedicated band combinations and scatter plots. Using real LWIR hyperspectral data recently collected on behalf of the US Environmental Protection Agency, we compare performance in detecting three different industrial gases.

  20. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil.

  1. Communication of epidemiology study results by industry: the Dow Chemical Company approach.

    PubMed

    Collins, James J; Bodner, Kenneth M; Baase, Catherine M; Burns, Carol; Jammer, Brenda; Bloemen, Louis J

    2004-11-01

    Communicating epidemiology study results to subjects, affected workers, and community members is an important part of compliance and alignment with our company's policies, industry's Responsible Care Principles, and the doctrines of Good Epidemiology Practices. It is the responsibility of the investigators to interpret their research appropriately for each audience, and to assure that all who have a need or right to know get information in a form meaningful to them. We discuss study communication with examples from a recent evaluation of communication efforts within Dow and our experience with occupational and community studies on dioxin. We also discuss how we currently structure worker and community communication based on this experience. Since each Dow protocol must include a communication plan, when we agree to undertake a study, we are also agreeing to communicate study results. Depending upon the nature and type of the study, there may also be some prestudy communication. We encourage all investigators to share the results of their studies more broadly than just scientific publication and plan for the study communication before the study is initiated.

  2. Physico-chemical characterisation of glass soiling in rural, urban and industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, T; Chabas, A; Verney-Carron, A; Cachier, H; Triquet, S; Darchy, S

    2014-01-01

    Glass materials are broadly used in the built environment (windows, facades, roofs, museum showcases, and solar panels) due to their optical (transparency) and thermal properties. Their interaction with the multiphase atmospheric medium results in a more or less pronounced transparency loss called soiling. This phenomenon leads to a loss of amenity of artefacts; consequently, high cleaning costs have to be supported by public and private entities. Complete understanding of the nature of surface deposit appears thus extremely important for addressing strategies to control it. The present research is based on the sheltered exposure, in different environments, of durable glass panels during 1 year. At these different locations, airborne pollutant concentrations have also been monitored. Three environments have been investigated: rural (R), urban (U) and industrial (I). Results show that the mass of the deposit and the optical impairment of the glass (haze) are too spread to allow discriminating between different environments. However, the analyses of soluble species and particulate organic matter allow identifying factors responsible for soiling and highlighted the reactivity of deposit to relative humidity which favours post-deposit evolution.

  3. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, D.; Maggioni, S.; Boriani, E.; Gemma, S.; Molteni, M.; Lombardo, A.; Colombo, A.; Bordonali, S.; Rotella, G.; Lodi, M.; Benfenati, E.

    2011-05-15

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. - Research highlights: {yields} We study the toxicity of leachate from a non-hazardous industrial waste landfill. {yields} We perform chemical analyses, risk assessments and in vitro assays on HepG2 cells. {yields} Risk models suggest toxic effects due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. {yields} In vitro assays show that leachate inhibits cell proliferation at low doses. {yields} Leachate can induce cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells at high doses.

  4. [Pollution status of phenolic compounds in the soil and sediment from a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexia; Wei, Enze; Xian, Qiming

    2014-08-01

    A determination method of 12 phenolic compounds in soil and sediment samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for clean-up was developed. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0. 410 μg/kg to 13. 1 μg/kg (dry weight), and the average recoveries ranged from 70. 7% to 122% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1. 2% to 16%. Based on this method, the levels of 12 phenolic compounds were investigated in 17 soil surrounding a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River and seven sediment samples collected in the river. It was found that 11 of the 12 phenolic compounds were detected in all of the 24 samples, and only hydroquinone was below the MDL. The contents of the total 12 phenolic compounds were 10. 16-30. 66 mg/kg in the soil and 18. 00-29. 83 mg/kg in the sediment, with the average contents of 18. 26 and 22. 51 mg/kg respectively. It showed that 4-nitro- phenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6- trichlorophenol were five major phenolic contaminants in the soil and sediment in this study. The pollution levels of the 12 phenolic compounds were low in the soil of the chemical industrial park as well as in the sediment of the Yangtze River, which implied a comparatively low risk for the environment.

  5. Comparison of in vivo (Draize method) and in vitro (Corrositex assay) dermal corrosion values for selected industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Jody L; Drake, Kevin D; Maier, Kurt J

    2003-01-01

    Skin irritation is a common occupational hazard for employees engaged in the manufacture, transport, and use of industrial chemicals. The most common method used to evaluate dermal irritation and/or corrosion has typically been in vivo tests using rabbits (Draize method). Several in vitro test methods have been developed, with Corrositex being the first to gain approval by a regulatory agency (U.S. Department of Transportation). The purpose of this study was to compare the results of in vitro (Corrositex) assays of dermal irritation/corrosion to in vivo test data for several industrial chemical formulations and to determine the predictability and usefulness of the Corrositex assay for these types of products. Twenty-four (24) formulations were qualified, categorized, and evaluated using the Corrositex method and the results compared to available animal data for each of the formulations. The Corrositex assay accurately predicted a corrosive end point in 8 (57.1%) of the 14 formulations identified as corrosive by the in vivo evaluations. Corrositex accurately predicted a noncorrosive end point for 1 (10%) of 10 formulations determined to be noncorrosive in animal studies. The Corrositex assay overpredicted the packing group for 12 (50%) of the 24 formulations, and underpredicted the packing group for 7 (29.2%) of the 24 formulations. Compared to the in vivo results, Corrositex correctly classified as corrosive or noncorrosive 37.5% of the formulations tested. A concordance of 20.8% for the packing group assignments of the evaluated formulations was calculated. The Corrositex assay did not accurately predict a corrosive end point or packing group assignment for all of the formulations used in this study. Manufacturers should assess the relevance of this method to their products prior to relying on it for compliance with hazardous material and worker safety regulations.

  6. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-11-16

    Enzymes have enormous potential for reducing energy requirements and environmental problems in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. The explosion of tools that has come out of molecular biology during the last 20 years has made it possible to evolve enzymes for features never required in nature. Scientists can speed up the rate and channel the direction of evolution by controlling mutagenesis and the accompanying selection pressures. Darwinian evolution carried out in the test tube offers a unique opportunity for biotechnology: the ability to tailor enzymes for optimal performance in a wide range of applications. Thus it is possible, for example, to evolve enzymes that carry out reactions on nonnatural substrates or even to carry out reactions for which there is no counterpart in nature. Due to the vast size of the potential sequence space, however, explorations by directed evolution must be guided by sound principles and workable strategies. During the course of this group, this laboratory has continued to make significant progress in the evolution of industrial enzymes as well as in developing general methods for in vitro evolution.

  7. A chemical and microbiological characterization and toxicity assessment of the Pančevo industrial complex wastewater canal sediments, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Čučak, Dragana I; Spasojević, Jelena M; Babić, Olivera B; Maletić, Snežana P; Simeunović, Jelica B; Rončević, Srđan D; Dalmacija, Božo D; Tamaš, Ivica; Radnović, Dragan V

    2017-03-01

    The wastewater canal Vojlovica of the Pančevo industrial area, Serbia, is the main collector of the effluents from the local industrial complex. The canal is directly connected to the Europe's second largest river, the Danube. Here, we present a chemical and microbiological analysis of the sediment in order to determine the fate of pollutants over the years, as well as its current condition. Dry matter, clay and organic matter content, a Kjeldahl ammonia, phosphorus, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations were measured. Microbiological analysis included heterotrophic and oil-degrading bacterial counts, isolation of the phenanthrene-degrading bacteria, and identification of cyanobacteria. Generally, in comparison to the results from previous studies, concentrations of the measured pollutants have been in a decline. Specifically, the metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were reduced whereas microbial counts and toxicity tests did not indicate significant pollution. The obtained results are probably a consequence of an improved wastewater treatment and microbial degradation of pollutants.

  8. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, September 29--December 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-01-15

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. In this report attention is focused on random mutagenesis of pNB esterase -- improved activity and stability. The most thermostable esterases obtained by sequential random mutagenesis (6H7) and random mutagenesis plus recombination (6sF9) each contain 9 amino acid mutations and a number of silent mutations, relative to the wild-type sequence. Eight of the mutations are present in both genes, for a total of ten potentially adaptive mutations. Because several of these mutations occurred in the same generation, it is difficult to identify the mutations responsible for the increases in activity and stability. In order to aid in this identification, the thermostable genes were recombined with the wild-type gene, in hopes of removing neutral mutations. The gene from the first-generation variant, with five amino acid substitutions was also recombined with wild-type.

  9. Carbon-supported platinum alloy catalysts for phenol hydrogenation for making industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, S.T.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Phenol is available in large quantities in liquids derived from coal and biomass. Phenol hydrogenation is an industrially important reaction to produce cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Cyclohexane, cyclohexene and benzene are obtained as minor products in this reaction. Cyclohexanone is an important intermediate in the production of caprolactam for nylon 6 and cyclohexanol for adipic acid production. In USA, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone are produced by benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane over nickel or noble metal catalysts, followed by oxidation of cyclohexane to produce a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Then cyclohexanol is dehydrogenated in the presence of Cu-Zn catalyst to cyclohexanone. Usually phenol hydrogenation is also carried out by using Ni catalyst in liquid phase. However, a direct single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol to give cyclohexanone selectively is more advantageous in terms of energy savings and process economics, since processing is simplified and the endothermic step of cyclohexanol dehydrogenation can be avoided, as demonstrated by Montedipe and Johnson Matthey using promoted Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. While it is not the purpose of this paper to dwell on the relative merits of these routes, it is necessary to mention that while using monometallic catalysts, generally the problem of catalyst deactivation of sintering as well as coking is frequently encountered. Addition and alloying of noble metal (e.g. Pt) with a second metal can result in a catalyst with better selectivity and activity in the reaction which is more resistant to deactivation. This paper presents the results on the single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol over carbon-supported Pt-M (M=Cr, V, Zr) alloy catalysts to yield mainly cyclohexanone or cyclohexanol.

  10. Detailed industrial hygiene survey formaldehyde production, Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. , Bishop, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.W.; Johnson, M.L.; Holmes, L.; Hedley, W.H.; Barrett, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A survey to assess techniques to control occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000) and methanol (67561) was conducted at the Celanese Chemical Company (SIC-2819) formaldehyde production unit at Bishop, Texas, in October 1982. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was expected to be low since the production process was isolated and enclosed, except for the process sample, and the loading and discharge points. Other control measures included water scrubbers on the formaldehyde storage tanks, enclosed ventilation systems, natural ventilation, and the use of personal protective equipment. The results of analysis of the formaldehyde samples were considered unreliable and were discarded. Breathing zone samples of methanol showed generally low concentrations. It was noted that since methanol was produced at the facility and the necessity of unloading trucks or rail cars was eliminated, a major source of methanol exposure was eliminated. The authors conclude that the workers are not overexposed to methanol on a short or long term basis. Due to the lack of analytical data, no conclusions concerning formaldehyde exposure could be drawn; however, engineering controls appear to be effective.

  11. Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.C.; Chang, C.J. )

    1992-10-01

    If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by a semi-batch SWO process. Within a one-hour treatment, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction reached 89% for CPL waste (6.90 MPa, 260[degree]C) and 95% for dyeing waste (6.90 MPa, 240[degree]C). There is also a great improvement in hue, especially for the dyeing waste. When CPL wastewater was treated by the SWO process using a chromium metal powder as a catalyst, COD reduction improved further under the same operating conditions. A kinetic model was used to illustrate the oxidation mechanism and the effectiveness of the catalyst. The oxygen concentration in the effluent showed that oxygen consumption corresponded to COD reduction. With the monitoring of concentrations of total soluble chromium in the effluent, a suitable reaction period could be found in order to meet the standard of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Chemical industry voluntary test program for phthalate esters: health effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Astill, B.; Barber, E.; Lington, A.; Moran, E.; Mulholland, A.; Robinson, E.; Scheider, B.

    1986-03-01

    The Chemical Manufacturers' Association voluntary test program on phthalate esters is described, and the results of certain key aspects of the program are presented. Representative phthalate esters were chosen for genotoxicity testing and peroxisome proliferation screening, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its initial metabolic products were tested in the genotoxicity battery. A comparative metabolism study was performed with DEHP in the mouse, rat, and cynomologus monkey, together with a study of the metabolism of DEHP in the rodent at several dose levels, and after prolonged feeding. A standard test for peroxisome proliferation in the rat, employing 21 days of feeding and several end points is described, based on DEHP as a reference compound. DEHP is shown to be nongenotoxic in the test battery, and its initial major metabolites are also nongenotoxic. A nonlinear dose response with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP in the rodent is demonstrated. Quantitative differences exist between the mouse and rat, and the cynomologus monkey with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP, beta-oxidation being a much less used pathway in the monkey. The significance of these results in interpreting the hepatocellular carcinogenesis of DEHP in the Fischer 344 rat is discussed.

  13. Chemical industry voluntary test program for phthalate esters: health effects studies.

    PubMed Central

    Astill, B; Barber, E; Lington, A; Moran, E; Mulholland, A; Robinson, E; Scheider, B

    1986-01-01

    The Chemical Manufacturers' Association voluntary test program on phthalate esters is described, and the results of certain key aspects of the program are presented. Representative phthalate esters were chosen for genotoxicity testing and peroxisome proliferation screening, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its initial metabolic products were tested in the genotoxicity battery. A comparative metabolism study was performed with DEHP in the mouse, rat, and cynomologus monkey, together with a study of the metabolism of DEHP in the rodent at several dose levels, and after prolonged feeding. A standard test for peroxisome proliferation in the rat, employing 21 days of feeding and several end points is described, based on DEHP as a reference compound. DEHP is shown to be nongenotoxic in the test battery, and its initial major metabolites are also nongenotoxic. A nonlinear dose response with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP in the rodent is demonstrated. Quantitative differences exist between the mouse and rat, and the cynomologus monkey with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP, beta-oxidation being a much less used pathway in the monkey. The significance of these results in interpreting the hepatocellular carcinogenesis of DEHP in the Fischer 344 rat is discussed. PMID:3709458

  14. Chemical changes in an industrial waste liquid during post-injection movement in a limestone aquifer, Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Godsy, E.M.; Pascale, C.A.; Vecchioli, John

    1979-01-01

    An industrial waste liquid containing organonitrile compounds and nitrate ion has been injected into the lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida since June 1975. Chemical analyses of water from monitor wells and backflow from the injection well indicate that organic carbon compounds are converted to CO2 and nitrate is converted to N2. These transformations are caused by bacteria immediately after injection, and are virtually completed within 100 m of the injection well. The zone near the injection well behaves like an anaerobic filter with nitrate respiring bacteria dominating the microbial flora in this zone.Sodium thiocyanate contained in the waste is unaltered during passage through the injection zone and is used to detect the degree of mixing of injected waste liquid with native water at a monitor well 312 m (712 ft) from the injection well. The dispersivity of the injection zone was calculated to be 10 m (33 ft). Analyses of samples from the monitor well indicate 80 percent reduction in chemical oxygen demand and virtually complete loss of organonitriles and nitrate from the waste liquid during passage from the injection well to the monitor well. Bacterial densities were much lower at the monitor well than in backflow from the injection well.

  15. Potential for chemical transport beneath a storm-runoff recharge (retention) basin for an industrial catchment in Fresno, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A wide variety of chemicals from urban runoff were found at elevated concentrations in sediment that accumulated in a storm-runoff recharge basin in an industrial part of the city of Fresno. The chemicals include as many as 20 inorganic elements and about the same number of organic compounds, primarily organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Most of these contaminants were found to be sorbed to the upper 4 centimeters of sediment, which also is the maximum depth to which atmospheric lead-210 penetrated. None of the contaminants were detected above background concentrations in the sediment at depths greater than 16 centimeters. In shallow sediment, zinc is the inorganic element that showed the greatest enrichment; its concentration was 38 times higher in surface sediment (0-1 centimeter) than in deeper strata (below 16 centi- meters). Organic carbon enrichment in the surface sediment was nearly 1,000 times. Although batch- elutriation experiments demonstrated the potential for leaching of contaminants attached to sediments, a sharp decrease in concentrations with increasing sediment depth, and the extremely low level of contaminants in two monitor wells adjacent to the basin, confirmed the absence of contaminant transport to the water table. Continued long-term protection for ground water is afforded by an approximately 8-meter-thick unsaturated zone beneath the basin. On the basis of its hundredfold-higher concentration in the recharge pond then in ground water, zinc is indicated as the most sensitive surrogate for monitoring possible ground-water degradation by inorganic cations.

  16. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer as a tool for passive sampling monitoring of hydrophobic chemicals in the salmon farm industry.

    PubMed

    Tucca, Felipe; Moya, Heriberto; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-11-15

    Current monitoring programs are focused on hydrophobic chemicals detection in aquatic systems, which require the collection of high volumes of water samples at a given time. The present study documents the preliminary use of the polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a passive sampler for the detection of a hydrophobic chemical used by salmon industries such as cypermethrin. Initially, an experimental calibration in laboratory was performed to determine the cypermethrin equilibrium between sampler and aquatic medium, which was reached after seven days of exposure. A logarithm of partitioning coefficient EVA-water (logKEVA-W) of 5.6 was reported. Field deployment of EVA samplers demonstrated average concentrations of cypermethrin in water to be 2.07 ± 0.7 ng L(-)(1) close to salmon cages, while near-shore was 4.39 ± 0.8 ng L(-)(1). This was a first approach for assessing EVA samplers design as a tool of monitoring in water for areas with salmon farming activity.

  17. Remediation of lignin and its derivatives from pulp and paper industry wastewater by the combination of chemical precipitation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    De los Santos Ramos, W; Poznyak, T; Chairez, I; Córdova R, I

    2009-09-30

    In the present work the degradation of the lignin and its derivatives in the residual water of a paper industry by simple ozonation was investigated. The remediation of lignin was realized using the combination of the pre-treatment with chemical precipitation, using concentrated sulfuric acid (97.1%) at the pH 1 and 3, and of the simple ozonation of the filtered residual water at the pH 1, 3, 8 and 12. Since the high residues content (the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 70,000 mg/L) in the experiments the diluted samples (1:10) were used. The previous precipitation has showed a significant effect on the reduction of the COD (77%) and color (96.1%). The sludge precipitated contents sulfolignin, which in the reaction with sulfuric acid was formed. In ozonation of the filtered residual water during 25 min at the pH 1, 3, 8 and 12 the follows by-products were formed: fumaric, maleic, malonic and formic acids. The biodegradability of the treated water in ozonation increases up 0.067-0.29. The effect of the precipitation and the ozonation conditions on the decolorization kinetics was evaluated.

  18. Biocidal potential and chemical composition of industrial essential oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia var. super and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    PubMed

    de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo Ortiz; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2017-08-12

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia or L. x hybrida var. Super) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. x intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0(2.4)]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. x intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis and Lolium perenne. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical speciation in waters influenced by lead-zinc metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Tepavitcharova, Stefka; Todorov, Tihomir; Dassenakis, Manos; Paraskevopoulou, Vasiliki

    2010-10-01

    The Lead-Zinc Company region, Kardjali city, Bulgaria, is known to be highly polluted with heavy metals from its pyrometallurgical activities. The polluted levels and the chemical speciation in surface natural waters in the region as well as in the wastewaters of the factory were investigated in January 2008 by application of monitoring studies, thermodynamic modeling, and interpretation in terms of the "softness-hardness" factor. It was found that the levels of trace metals pollution of surface waters were lower than the legislation limits for the regions with Pb and Zn production. The wastewater treatment facilities of the company were found to operate properly, and the quality of the cleaned waters in station Kar4 was comparable to the other surface waters studied (e.g., station Kar5). The trace metals were divided into three groups: (1) Fe(3+) and Al(3+), being "hard" acids, existed in all the studied waters as hydroxy species Fe(OH)2(+), AlOH(2+), and Al(OH)2(+), followed by the phosphate species AlPO4(0) and Al(2)(OH)(2)PO4(0); (2) Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+) being "soft" acids with crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) = 0 were present in natural waters mainly as free Me(2+) ions. Small concentrations of their MeSO4(0), MeCO3(0) species, and of MeCl2(0) (Me = Zn, Cd) species were also calculated. In the wastewaters, two more species [Me(SO4)2(2-) and Me(SO4)3(4-)] of the softer Zn and Cd metals were also calculated; (3) Cu(2+) and Pb(2+), as "soft" acids with CFSE not equal to 0 preferentially coordinated with softer CO3(2-) ions and in natural waters existed mainly as MeCO3(0) and PbHCO3(+), followed by free Me(2+)ions and MeOH(+). In the wastewaters, MeSO4(0) and Pb(SO4)2(2-) species increased at the expense of the free Me(2+) ions. The highest self-cleaning capability of natural waters was found with respect to Al and Fe, followed by Mn and Cd. The lowest corresponded to Pb, Cu, and Zn.

  20. Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable