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Sample records for chemical manufacturers associ

  1. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  2. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mensah, John Kenneth; Adei, Evans; Adei, Dina; Owusu Ansah, Gwendolyn

    2012-12-18

    Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers', manufacturers', retailers' and consumers' (end-users') preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Suppliers', manufacturers' and retailers' preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy development on improvement in quality of available

  3. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’) preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy

  4. Chemical Manufacturers, Importers, and Exporters: Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical manufacturers, importers, and exporters are required to operate within a system of allowances. This information will help those in the chemical industry understand their role in the phaseout of HCFCs in the United States.

  5. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  11. Boosting Manufacturing through Modular Chemical Process Intensification

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-01-06

    Manufacturing USA's Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification Deployment Institute will focus on developing breakthrough technologies to boost domestic energy productivity and energy efficiency by 20 percent in five years through manufacturing processes.

  12. Boosting Manufacturing through Modular Chemical Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-09

    Manufacturing USA's Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification Deployment Institute will focus on developing breakthrough technologies to boost domestic energy productivity and energy efficiency by 20 percent in five years through manufacturing processes.

  13. Chemical-mechanical polishing: Enhancing the manufacturability of MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The planarization technology of Chemical-Mechanical-Polishing (CMP), used for the manufacturing of multi-level metal interconnects for high-density Integrated Circuits (IC), is also readily adaptable as an enabling technology in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, particularly polysilicon surface micromachining. CMP not only eases the design and manufacturability of MEMS devices by eliminating several photolithographic and film issues generated by severe topography, but also enables far greater flexibility with process complexity and associated designs. Thus, the CMP planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. Examples of these enhancements include: an simpler extension of surface micromachining fabrication to multiple mechanical layers, a novel method of monolithic integration of electronics and MEMS, and a novel combination of bulk and surface micromachining.

  14. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Toll Manufacturing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on existing Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) regulations to persons who are involved in toll manufacturing of chemical substances which may be subject to the CDR rule.

  15. Chemical Manufacturers, Importers, and Exporters: Frequently Asked Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical manufacturers, importers, and exporters are required to operate within a system of allowances. This information will help those in the chemical industry understand their role in the phaseout of HCFCs in the United States.

  16. A Summary of the Manufacture of Important Inorganic Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.

    1983-01-01

    Manufacture, properties, uses, and economic aspects of inorganic chemicals are discussed in an industrial chemistry course. Provided and discussed is a flowchart used in the course. The flowchart is a logical method of presenting the important features of inorganic chemicals and a summarizing their method of manufacture. (JN)

  17. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  18. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  19. Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue cancer in a chemical manufacturing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, M.G.; Teta, M.J.; Greenberg, H.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Nested case-control studies of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (52 cases), multiple myeloma (20 cases), nonlymphocytic leukemia (39 cases), and lymphocytic leukemia (18 cases) were conducted within a cohort of employed men from two chemical manufacturing facilities and a research and development center. Exposure odds ratios were examined in relation to 111 work areas, 21 specific chemicals, and 52 chemical activity groups. Associations were observed for a maintenance and construction subgroup (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and a chlorohydrin production unit (nonlymphocytic leukemia). The odds ratio for the association of foremen and others with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 3.2 (CI95 = 1.47-7.2) based on 11 cases. A duration-response trend was observed for the chlorohydrin unit with three of four cases assigned 5+ years to that unit. An association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and assignment to strong acid alcohol production units (OR = 8.3; CI95 = 2.3-30.7) was not supported by a duration-response trend. Two highly correlated chemical groups, antioxidants (five cases) and nitriles (four cases), were over-represented among multiple myeloma cases. A duration effect was observed. However, examination of work histories did not reveal common jobs or departments among these cases.

  20. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. The Exposure Data Landscape for Manufactured Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information...

  2. The Exposure Data Landscape for Manufactured Chemicals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information on chemical toxicity and exposure from widely dispersed sources. The main objective of this analysis is to define important aspects of the exposure space and to catalog the available exposure information for chemicals being considered for analysis as part of the U.S. EPA ToxCast™ screening and prioritization program. Publicly available exposure data have been extracted into ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource), which combines information for hundreds of thousands of chemicals from >600 public sources. We use data from ACToR to assess the exposure data landscape for environmental chemicals. Of the roughly 100,000 chemicals that have at least limited toxicity information available, less than one-fifth also have exposure information — and for most of these the information is of limited utility (e.g., production volume). Readily accessible data on concentrations in exposure-related media are only available for a much smaller fraction. Among these, the largest number of chemicals is measured in water with over 1150 unique compounds, followed by 788 substances measured in soil, and 670 in air. These small numbers clearly reflect a focus of resources on those substances pre

  3. The Exposure Data Landscape for Manufactured Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information...

  4. 77 FR 38085 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical... 16263, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108, made application to...) and determined that the registration of Cayman Chemical Company to manufacture the listed basic...

  5. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  6. Statement of the steel manufacturers association

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the policy of the Steel Manufacturers Association regarding regulation of radioactively contaminated scrap metal. In general, the use of sound science combined with accurate cost/benefit analysis is identified as an acceptable basis for the imposition of regulations. An increase in contaminated scrap is attributed to the number of radioactive devices licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and a failure of the NRC to adequately track and control the disposition of these sources. Other topics briefly discussed include steel company preventative measures, potential health effects, economic effects, regulatory jurisdiction, and pre-melt and post-melt recommendations.

  7. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  8. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  9. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  10. 78 FR 51210 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals... manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid... Tapentadol (9780) II Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances...

  11. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  12. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying...

  13. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of... Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of... Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying effluent...

  17. 75 FR 77799 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions that EPA is... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources on October 29, 2009. 40 CFR...

  18. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.; Bately, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  19. Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Holger M.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. PMID:19528056

  20. Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger M; Calafat, Antonia M

    2009-07-27

    In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information.

  1. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...On October 29, 2009, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants for nine area source categories in the chemical manufacturing sector: Agricultural Chemicals and Pesticides Manufacturing, Cyclic Crude and Intermediate Production, Industrial Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing, Industrial Organic Chemical Manufacturing, Inorganic Pigments Manufacturing, Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing, Plastic Materials and Resins Manufacturing, Pharmaceutical Production and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing. Following that action, the Administrator received a petition for reconsideration. In response to the petition, the EPA is reconsidering and requesting comment on several provisions of the final rule. The EPA is also proposing certain revisions to its approach for addressing malfunctions and taking comment on those revisions. The EPA is further soliciting comment on the standards applicable during startup and shutdown periods, as set forth in the final rule. Additionally, the EPA is proposing amendments and technical corrections to the final rule to clarify applicability and compliance issues raised by stakeholders subject to the final rule.

  2. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2604(a)(1)(A)) for the manufacture of: (i) Chemical substances manufactured... ascertainable, manufacture, manufacturer, new chemical substance, person, possession or control, and test data... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances manufactured...

  3. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  4. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  5. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with National Association of Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) lays out the working agreement between the National Association of Manufacturers and EERE. The intent of the MOU is to support a variety of activities assisting manufacturing facilities to initiate and implement an energy management program, adopt clean energy and efficiency technologies, and to achieve continual efficiency improvements and intensity reductions.

  6. Application of ISO 9002 and FDA's good manufacturing practices to general chemical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J M; Weiler, E D

    1992-06-01

    Two manufacturing standards are discussed and compared, namely, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Good Manufacturing Practices and the International Standards Organization 9000 (ISO 9000) series. Conclusions are drawn relative to quality improvement strategies.

  7. Oil Heat Manufacturers Association (OMA) - update

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.

    1996-07-01

    Our industry must undergo a major paradigm shift if we are to prosper. We must change our {open_quotes}Fix it when it breaks{close_quotes} mind set to {open_quotes}Fix it so it won`t break.{close_quotes} Our main focus must be to improve Oilheat reliability. We have entered the era of the 100,000 mile tune-up. Meeting this challenge will require the best efforts of everyone in the industry from researchers, scientists, and engineers to manufacturers, dealers, sales people, installers, and service technicians.

  8. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals Inc... 16, 2012, Chattem Chemicals Inc., 3801 St. Elmo Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37409,...

  9. Slips, trips and falls at a chemical manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Swaen, G; Burns, C J; Collins, J J; Bodner, K M; Dizor, J F; Craun, B A; Bonner, E M

    2014-03-01

    Slips, trips and falls (STF) are a major cause of workplace injury. To examine risk factors for STF at a large US chemical manufacturing company. We conducted a case-control study of occupational STF. Cases were identified from company injury records between 1 April 2009 and 1 May 2011. Four controls per case were randomly selected from all active company workers employed during the same time. Data were collected through a questionnaire and from company medical examinations. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for personal, environmental and health-related risk factors for STF. There were 74 cases and 309 controls. The response rate was 65% for the cases and 68% for the controls. Most STF were unrelated to production activities. When examining all factors in a logistic regression model, increased OR were observed for increased body mass index (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), having arthritis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.01-4.37), lack of exercise (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.05), carrying materials (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.41-6.43) and being female (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.17-5.19). Reduced risk of STF was observed for never having smoked (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24-0.95), long service (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.81) and persons working over 8h a day (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.88). Risk factors for STF in a large US chemical company are similar to those reported from other workplaces, but we found that staying fit and healthy is important for reducing risk.

  10. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags.

  11. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  12. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR 39340, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg, Virginia 23805-9372... Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is...

  13. 40 CFR 63.149 - Control requirements for certain liquid streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing process unit. 63.149 Section 63.149 Protection of... Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage... open systems within a chemical manufacturing process unit. (a) The owner or operator shall comply...

  14. 77 FR 60144 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories..., made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a...

  15. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet on the national air toxics standards issued October 16, 2009 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the chemical manufacturing industry.

  16. Chemical, electrochemical, and technological aspects of sodium chlorate manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, K.; Tilak, B.V.

    1984-07-01

    A critical review of the chemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering principles involved in the production of sodium chlorate is presented. Various chlorate manufacturing technologies were discussed, with emphasis on materials of construction, and trends towards developing cost and energy effective methods for producing sodium chlorate.

  17. Control of a chemical precursor used in the illicit manufacture of fentanyl as a List I chemical. Interim rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2007-04-23

    This rulemaking controls the chemical N-phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) as a List I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). Clandestine laboratories are using this chemical to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substance fentanyl. The recent distribution of illicitly manufactured fentanyl has caused an unprecedented outbreak of hundreds of suspected fentanyl-related overdoses, at least 972 confirmed fentanyl-related deaths, and 162 suspected fentanyl-related deaths occurring mostly in Delaware, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. NPP has been identified as the starting material in several seized fentanyl clandestine laboratories. In addition to DEA's concern regarding the deaths associated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl, DEA is extremely concerned about the safety of law enforcement officers encountering these clandestine laboratories. Therefore, DEA is regulating NPP as a List I chemical through this Interim Rulemaking. DEA is soliciting comments on this Interim Rule. This rulemaking will subject handlers of NPP to the chemical regulatory provisions of the CSA and its implementing regulations, including 21 CFR Parts 1309, 1310, 1313, and 1316. This rulemaking does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of NPP. As such, all transactions involving NPP, regardless of size, shall be regulated. This rulemaking also specifies that chemical mixtures containing NPP will not be exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of NPP will be regulated and will be subject to control under the CSA.

  18. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from semiconductor manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers of semiconductors may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist semiconductor manufacturers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  19. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from monofilament fiber manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers of monofilament fibers may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist monofilament fiber manufacturers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  20. Control of a chemical precursor used in the illicit manufacture of fentanyl as a List I chemical. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-07-25

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the Interim Rule with Request for Comment published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2007. The Interim Rule controlled the chemical N-phenethyl-4- piperidone (NPP) as a List I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act. Clandestine laboratories are using this chemical to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substance fentanyl. No comments to the Interim Rule were received. This Final Rule finalizes the regulations without change.

  1. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Robinson, Sharon M

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  2. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  3. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  4. 78 FR 69134 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration: AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration: AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC. By Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 31, 2013, 78 FR 46372, AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC., Highway 50 and Hazel Avenue, Building 05001, Rancho...

  5. Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies.

  6. Retrospective Assessment of Exposure to Chemicals for a Microelectronics and Business Machine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Donald A.; Woskie, Susan R.; Jones, James H.; Silver, Sharon R.; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969–2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

  7. TNT Equivalency Testing of Chemical Mixtures in Continuous TNT Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    hemisphere 122 Figure Page 63 CAL-7 C-4 verification test, 18.75 kg (41.3 lb) hemisphere 124 64 CAL-8 Solid TNT cylinder calibration test, L/D...chemicals from an active TNT line, such as at Joliet AAP or Volunteer AAP. 2. Use cold nitrating acid and solid TNT flakes dispersed in the acid. 3... solid TNT flakes in the acid. The flakes would get caught in the mock cooling coils and block flow. The flakes would disperse differently than

  8. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  9. Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

  10. Adeno-associated virus vectorology, manufacturing, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Joshua C; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as an attractive vector for gene therapy. The benefits of using AAV for gene therapy include long-term gene expression, the inability to autonomously replicate without a helper virus, transduction of dividing and nondividing cells, and the lack of pathogenicity from wild-type infections. A number of Phase I and Phase II clinical trials utilizing AAV have been carried out worldwide (Aucoin et al., 2008; Mueller and Flotte, 2008). A number of challenges have been identified based upon data generated from these clinical trials. These challenges include (1) large scale manufacturing technologies in accordance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP), (2) tissue specific tropism of AAV vectors, (3) high-quality/high potency recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV), and (4) immune response to AAV capsids and transgene. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of AAV biology, AAV vectorology, rAAV manufacturing, and the current status on the latest rAAV clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...) received a petition from the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) requesting reconsideration..., amendment, or repeal of a rule.'' (5 U.S.C. 553(e)). The Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM...

  12. 77 FR 24988 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ..., verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background... Amphetamine (1100) II Phenylacetone (8501) II The company plans to manufacture bulk API, for distribution to... ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public...

  13. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...; verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws; and a review of the company's background... II. The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substance for distribution to its... AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public...

  14. Chemicals Determined Not Likely to Present an Unreasonable Risk Following Pre-Manufacture Notification Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the regulatory determination EPA has made following review of pre-manufacture notifications under section 5 of TSCA, as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century law, P.L. 114-182.

  15. 77 FR 60145 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMPAC Fine Chemicals..., California 95670, made application by letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered...

  16. 78 FR 23596 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 11,...

  17. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on September 25, 2012, Cayman...

  18. 78 FR 23959 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Company By Notice dated November 14, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 23, 2012, 77 FR 70188, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108, made... (7532) I AM-694 (7694) I Phenylacetone (8501) I The company plans to manufacture the listed...

  19. Chemical vapor deposition techniques and related methods for manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-25

    Methods of manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs made using the methods of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  20. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing plant on a single site. (10) The terms byproduct, EPA, importer, impurity, known to or reasonably... new chemical substance in a physical form different than that physical form approved in a previous... manufacturer does not release to surface waters any of the new chemical substance, or any waste...

  1. Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John S.

    2006-03-01

    The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

  2. 78 FR 12103 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Alltech Associates... application to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  3. A pilot study of workplace dermal exposures to cypermethrin at a chemical manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Timothy J; Geer, Laura A; Connor, Thomas H; Robertson, Shirley; Sammons, Deborah; Smith, Jerome; Snawder, John; Boeniger, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Exposure during the manufacture of pesticides is of particular concern due to their toxicity and because little is known about worker exposure, since most studies have focused on end-use application within agriculture or buildings. Even though dermal exposure can be expected to dominate for pesticides, little is known about workplace dermal exposures or even appropriate methods for their assessment. The current study begins to address this gap by evaluating alternative methods for assessing dermal exposure at a chemical manufacturing plant. For this pilot study, eight workers were recruited from a U.S. plant that produced the pesticide cypermethrin. Exposure was evaluated using three approaches: (1) survey assessment (questionnaire), (2) biological monitoring, and (3) workplace environmental sampling including ancillary measurements of glove contamination (interior and exterior). In each case, cypermethrin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Environmental measurements identified two potential pathways of cypermethrin exposure: glove and surface contamination. Workplace exposure was also indicated by urine levels (specific gravity adjusted) of the parent compound, which ranged from 35 to 253 μg/L (median of 121 μg/L) with no clear trend in levels from pre- to post-shift. An exploratory analysis intended to guide future studies revealed a positive predictive association (Spearman correlation, p ≤ 0.10) between post-shift urine concentrations and a subset of survey questions evaluating worker knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) of workplace dermal hazards, i.e., personal protective equipment self-efficacy, and inverse associations with behavior belief and information belief scales. These findings are valuable in demonstrating a variety of dermal exposure methods (i.e., behavioral attributes, external contamination, and biomarker) showing feasibility and providing measurement ranges and preliminary associations to support future and

  4. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites.

  5. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW

  6. Applications and use of in-situ chemical sensors in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolliver, Donald L.; Atkinson, George H.

    1997-07-01

    The use of in-situ chemical sensors in semiconductor wafer fabrication will increase significantly over the next five years. Advanced gas phase and liquid phase real time, non contaminating chemical sensors will be applied in four major categories of use. These four areas of application are: (1) Upstream measurements of trace contaminants in high purity process gases and liquids. (2) In-the-chamber or in-the- process bath measurements of chemical species of on line active process tools. (3) Real time, on line, downstream measurements of gas phase and liquid phase effluents coming from semiconductor wafer process tools. (4) Semiconductor industrial hygiene and safety monitors for toxic substances in the work place. This paper will review each of these major applications for both gases and liquids as they will need to be integrated into semiconductor wafer manufacturing over time. Some existing sensor applications currently exist. This review will focus extensively on in-situ real time chemical monitoring sensors.

  7. Styrene-Associated Health Outcomes at a Windblade Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    McCague, Anna-Binney; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Harney, Joshua M.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Edwards, Nicole; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Health risks of using styrene to manufacture windblades for the green energy sector are unknown. Methods Using data collected from 355 (73%) current windblade workers and regression analysis, we investigated associations between health outcomes and styrene exposure estimates derived from urinary styrene metabolites. Results The median current styrene exposure was 53.6 mg/g creatinine (interquartile range: 19.5–94.4). Color blindness in men and women (standardized morbidity ratios 2.3 and 16.6, respectively) was not associated with exposure estimates, but was the type previously reported with styrene. Visual contrast sensitivity decreased and chest tightness increased (odds ratio 2.9) with increasing current exposure. Decreases in spirometric parameters and FeNO, and increases in the odds of wheeze and asthma-like symptoms (odds ratios 1.3 and 1.2, respectively) occurred with increasing cumulative exposure. Conclusions Despite styrene exposures below the recommended 400 mg/g creatinine, visual and respiratory effects indicate the need for additional preventative measures in this industry. PMID:26305283

  8. Automated Manufacturing/Robotics Technology: Certificate and Associate Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuay, Paul L.

    A description is provided of the Automated Manufacturing/Robotics program to be offered at Delaware County Community College beginning in September 1984. Section I provides information on the use of reprogramable industrial robots in manufacturing and the rapid changes in production that can be effected through the application of automated…

  9. Chemical evolution of OB associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    It is determined that the existence of Al-26 and Pd-107 in meteorites in the early solar system indicates that our solar system probably formed inside an OB association that had been contaminated by the debris of at least one supernova. In addition to these radioactive tracers, the contamination of the material out of which the solar system formed would have significantly enriched the heavy element composition of the solar system relative to that of the average interstellar medium. It is found that the solar system would be enriched in those isotopes which are produced by the more massive stars, such as O-16, C-12, Ne-20, and some other r-process material. It is proposed that specific isotopic ratios and elemental ratios reflecting these differences would include the Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio, which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium and the cosmic rays, the C-12/C-13 ratio which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio, which would also be higher in the solar system than in the typical interstellar medium.

  10. Impact of current good manufacturing practices and emission regulations and guidances on the discharge of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment from manufacturing, use, and disposal.

    PubMed

    Velagaleti, Ranga; Burns, Philip K; Gill, Michael; Prothro, James

    2002-03-01

    The current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and effluent emission (use and disposal) regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturing effluent discharge and emission regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) require contained manufacture, use, and disposal of pharmaceuticals with the goal of minimizing the release of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment. However, debate has recently arisen in several scientific forums over whether these regulations adequately protect human and environmental health from the new pharmaceutical drugs introduced each year into the marketplace and the multitude of existing products, each with many distinct biochemical modes of actions. To address this issue, it is important to understand the relevance of current cGMP regulations and emission regulations that have a direct bearing on the releases of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment during the manufacture, use, and disposal of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances) and drug products. This knowledge may help us assess the quantity of residues that may be released into the environment. Additionally, the information on physical, chemical, and degradation and sorption properties of the pharmaceutical chemicals may help determine the net residue levels that could persist in the environment to evaluate if such residues have any bearing on human and environmental health. The scientific and regulatory aspects of issues related to the manufacture, use, and disposal of pharmaceutical chemicals are discussed in this article, with special emphasis on potential environmental exposure pathways during the life cycle of an active pharmaceutical ingredient or drug product. The mechanisms of degradation (transformation or depletion) and dilution of pharmaceutical residues that may be released into aquatic or terrestrial environmental compartments are described. Such degradation and dilution of pharmaceutical

  11. Impact of current good manufacturing practices and emission regulations and guidances on the discharge of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment from manufacturing, use, and disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Velagaleti, Ranga; Burns, Philip K; Gill, Michael; Prothro, James

    2002-01-01

    The current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and effluent emission (use and disposal) regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturing effluent discharge and emission regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) require contained manufacture, use, and disposal of pharmaceuticals with the goal of minimizing the release of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment. However, debate has recently arisen in several scientific forums over whether these regulations adequately protect human and environmental health from the new pharmaceutical drugs introduced each year into the marketplace and the multitude of existing products, each with many distinct biochemical modes of actions. To address this issue, it is important to understand the relevance of current cGMP regulations and emission regulations that have a direct bearing on the releases of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment during the manufacture, use, and disposal of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances) and drug products. This knowledge may help us assess the quantity of residues that may be released into the environment. Additionally, the information on physical, chemical, and degradation and sorption properties of the pharmaceutical chemicals may help determine the net residue levels that could persist in the environment to evaluate if such residues have any bearing on human and environmental health. The scientific and regulatory aspects of issues related to the manufacture, use, and disposal of pharmaceutical chemicals are discussed in this article, with special emphasis on potential environmental exposure pathways during the life cycle of an active pharmaceutical ingredient or drug product. The mechanisms of degradation (transformation or depletion) and dilution of pharmaceutical residues that may be released into aquatic or terrestrial environmental compartments are described. Such degradation and dilution of pharmaceutical

  12. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from presswood and laminated wood products manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Facilities engaged in the manufacture of presswood and laminated wood products may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those who manufacture presswood and laminated wood products in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  13. Intake to Production Ratio: A Measure of Exposure Intimacy for Manufactured Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health. Objectives: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. Methods: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population’s economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use. Results: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000–24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan. Conclusion: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. PMID:23222017

  14. Evolution of Associative Learning in Chemical Networks

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Simon; Vasas, Vera; Husbands, Phil; Fernando, Chrisantha

    2012-01-01

    Organisms that can learn about their environment and modify their behaviour appropriately during their lifetime are more likely to survive and reproduce than organisms that do not. While associative learning – the ability to detect correlated features of the environment – has been studied extensively in nervous systems, where the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well understood, mechanisms within single cells that could allow associative learning have received little attention. Here, using in silico evolution of chemical networks, we show that there exists a diversity of remarkably simple and plausible chemical solutions to the associative learning problem, the simplest of which uses only one core chemical reaction. We then asked to what extent a linear combination of chemical concentrations in the network could approximate the ideal Bayesian posterior of an environment given the stimulus history so far? This Bayesian analysis revealed the ‘memory traces’ of the chemical network. The implication of this paper is that there is little reason to believe that a lack of suitable phenotypic variation would prevent associative learning from evolving in cell signalling, metabolic, gene regulatory, or a mixture of these networks in cells. PMID:23133353

  15. Basic Education in the Workplace Exploratory Project. Canadian Manufacturers' Association. Perceptions of Workplace Literacy Skills in Manitoba's Manufacturing Sector. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Janis

    A project assessed perceptions of manufacturing employers regarding the workplace literacy skills of occupational groups in their industry in Manitoba. A mailed survey was sent to 125 members of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association; 41 completed it. The first part of the survey obtained information about the occupations in manufacturing and…

  16. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Iveson, Steven W.

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  17. 78 FR 33443 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates... manufacture high purity drug standards used for analytical applications only in clinical, toxicological, and forensic laboratories. No comments or objections have been received. DEA has considered the factors in 21 U...

  18. Chemical inertness of UV-cured optical elastomers within the printed circuit board manufacturing process for embedded waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin; Walczak, Karl; Thomas, Nicholas; Swatowski, Brandon; Demars, Casey; Middlebrook, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Embedding polymer optical waveguides (WGs) into printed circuit boards (PCBs) for intra-board or board-to-board high speed data communications requires polymer materials that are compatible and inert when exposed to common PCB manufacturing processes. Ensuring both WG functionality after chemical exposure and maintaining PCB manufacturing integrities within the production process is crucial for successful implementation. The PCB manufacturing flow is analyzed to expose major requirements that would be required for the successful implementation of polymer materials for embedded WG development. Chemical testing and analysis were performed on Dow Corning ® OE-4140 UV-Cured Optical Elastomer Core and Dow Corning® OE-4141 UV-Cured Optical Elastomer Cladding which are designed for low loss embedded optical WGs. Contamination testing was conducted to demonstrate polymer compatibility in both cured and uncured form. Various PCB chemicals were treated with uncured polymer material and tested for effective contamination. Fully polymerized multimode WGs were fabricated and exposed to PCB chemicals at temperatures and durations comparable to PCB manufacturing conditions. Chemical analysis shows that the chosen polymer is compatible and inert with most common PCB manufacturing processes.

  19. A cancer incidence and mortality study of Dow Chemical Canada Inc. manufacturing sites.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol; Harrison, Ken; Jammer, Brenda; Zuccarini, Dores; Lafrance, Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Previously, the mortality was reported in a cohort of male workers at an Ontario chemical plant. To expand the cohort and to investigate the mortality and cancer incidence risk among chemical manufacturing sites. We followed 5277 men and 1301 women from 1950 to 1999. Employees experienced lower mortality and cancer incidence rates than the general population for several major causes of death, including heart disease, respiratory cancer and many other cancers. There were no cases of angiosarcoma of the liver. We observed a lower mortality rate of prostate cancer [standardized mortality ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-1.32], but a higher incidence rate of prostate cancer [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.48]. Among the Sarnia employees, the incidence of pleural neoplasms was increased (5 observed versus 1.48 expected, SIR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.09-7.86). These cancers were included in the 12 deaths with malignant mesothelioma at Sarnia. Consistent with the earlier report, lower mortality rates were observed for the major classifications of disease and malignant neoplasms. The higher incidence rates of prostate cancer are not readily explainable but may reflect increased screening among current employees and recent retirees. Past asbestos exposure prior to 1980 is probably a contributor to the deaths due to malignant mesothelioma but is not reflected in lung cancer mortality. We find little indication of any other increased rates of mortality or cancer within the overall workforce of these chemical plants.

  20. Solar Photochemical Synthesis: From the Beginnings of Organic Photochemistry to the Solar Manufacturing of Commodity Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Oelgemöller, Michael

    2016-09-14

    Natural sunlight offers a cost-efficient and sustainable energy source for photochemical reactions. In contrast to the lengthy and small-scale "flask in the sun" procedures of the past, modern solar concentrator systems nowadays significantly shorten reaction times and enable technical-scale operations. After a brief historical introduction, this review presents the most important solar reactor types and their successful application in preparative solar syntheses. The examples demonstrate that solar manufacturing of fine chemicals is technically feasible and environmentally sustainable. After over 100 years, Ciamician's prophetic vision of "the photochemistry of the future" as a clean and green manufacturing methodology has yet to be realized. At the same time, his warning "for nature is not in a hurry but mankind is" is still valid today. It is hoped that this review will lead to a renewed interest in this truly enlightening technology, that it will stimulate photochemists and photochemical engineers to "go back to the roots onto the roofs" and that it will ultimately result in industrial applications in the foreseeable future.

  1. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network.

  2. Wastewater from the manufacture of rubber vulcanization accelerators: characterization, downstream monitoring and chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Puig, A; Ormad, P; Roche, P; Sarasa, J; Gimeno, E; Ovelleiro, J L

    1996-05-10

    The content of wastewater resulting from the manufacture of rubber antioxidants and accelerators by a factory situated in the Ebro basin (Spain) has been determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The change in the pollutants was studied in the riverbed via two modules which continuously gathered pollutants on various solid supports (activated carbon and XAD-2 resins). These modules were located in Bocal Station, lying a further 100 km downstream from the factory, and from the Zaragoza water supply. Forty-six different compounds were identified at Bocal Station, the majority resulting from the production of rubber additives. Due to the immunity of different waste substances, and to the toxic nature of some, we studied their reaction when subjected to techniques of chemical oxidation using ozone.

  3. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  4. Sustainable chemical manufacturing: a matter of resources, wastes, hazards, and costs.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development is gaining importance in the chemical industry. It encompasses social, environmental, and economical aspects. Herein, sustainable development is translated into four basic dimensions, called "sustainability stresses": resources, wastes, hazards, and costs. These sustainability stresses are discussed in some detail and their usefulness is illustrated by applying them to three manufacturing processes applied commercially by Shell, namely Shell's OMEGA, SMPO, and "low monol" technologies for producing ethene diol, styrene/propene oxide, and polyether polyols, respectively. These examples show that large reductions in sustainable stresses have been achieved in a few decades. They also show that the economical, environmental, and social issues are not in conflict when tackled at their roots: they can be all addressed simultaneously.

  5. Designation of Alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), a Precursor Chemical Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Phenylacetone, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine, as a List I Chemical. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-07-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical. This action does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of APAAN. As such, all transactions involving APAAN, regardless of size, shall be regulated. In addition, chemical mixtures containing APAAN are not exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of APAAN shall be regulated pursuant to the CSA. However, manufacturers may submit an application for exemption for those mixtures that do not qualify for automatic exemption.

  6. 78 FR 30331 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Alltech Associates... the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Methcathinone (1237) I N... Administration, Office of Diversion Control, Federal Register Representative (ODL), 8701 Morrissette...

  7. 75 FR 11229 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers' Association Insurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers' Association Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury....

  8. Multiple Classes of Environmental Chemicals are Associated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomonitoring of human tissues and fluids has shown that virtually all individuals, worldwide, carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals (Thornton et al. 2002; CDC 2009). Although the measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues or fluids is an indication of exposure, it does not by itself mean that the chemical or the exposure concentration is sufficient to cause a disease or an adverse effect. However, since humans are exposed to multiple chemicals, there may be a combination effect (e.g., additive, synergistic) on health risks associated with exposure even at low levels (Kortenkamp 2008). Further, biomonitoring studies show that humans carry a body burden of multiple classes of contaminants which are often not studied together. We used the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and 53 environmental contaminants across six classes (metals; perfluorinated compounds [PFCs]; phthalates; phenols; coplanar and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) using a novel method.

  9. Investigation of reports of sexual dysfunction among male chemical workers manufacturing stilbene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.M.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Ellenbecker, M.J.; Spark, R.F.; Smith, E.R. )

    1990-01-01

    A Health Hazard Evaluation was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in an area of a large chemical plant that manufactured the stilbene derivative 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, an intermediate used for the production of optical brightening agents. Men employed in the area reported problems with impotence. The study population consisted of 44 men aged 20-57 years (mean age 37) employed in the area at the time of the evaluation. An industrial hygiene investigation, health and work history questionnaire survey, physical examinations, and blood chemistry and serum hormone evaluation were conducted. Fourteen percent of the men reported symptoms of impotence over the preceding 6 or more months, 7% had potency problems of shorter duration, and 7% were not currently impotent but had experienced impotence for 6 or more months in the past; 36% experienced decreased libido, all since beginning work in the production area. Low levels of serum testosterone (less than 350 ng/dl) were observed in 37% of the men. The low serum testosterone concentrations were not accounted for fully by diurnal variation or an effect of rotating shift work. It is suggested that exposures to chemicals possessing estrogenic activity may be related to the observed health effects in these workers.

  10. An Easy to Manufacture Micro Gas Preconcentrator for Chemical Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Fung, Alexander G; LeVasseur, Michael K; Pedersen, Josephine M; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-08-25

    We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17.6 °C/s was observed. Adsorption and desorption flow parameters were optimized to be 90 SCCM and 25 SCCM, respectively, for a multicomponent gas mixture. Under testing conditions using Tenax TA sorbent, the device was capable of measuring analytes down to 22 ppb with only a 2 min sample loading time using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. Two separate devices were compared by measuring the same chemical mixture; both devices yielded similar peak areas and widths (fwhm: 0.032-0.033 min), suggesting reproducibility between devices.

  11. Effect of Chemical Grafting Parameters on the Manufacture of Functionalized PVOH Films Having Controlled Water Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas; Schlemmer, Daniel; Grupa, Uwe; Schmid, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical grafting of a single-layer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) film. The effect of the grafting parameters (grafting time, grafting temperature, and concentration of fatty acid chloride) on the hydrophobicity of the film surface and the film solubility were evaluated. The PVOH substrate film (cold-water soluble at 20°C) was manufactured by flat extrusion and had a thickness of 50 μm (±5 μm). The chemical grafting was performed using the transfer method with palmitoyl chloride (C16). The solubility, surface energy, and water vapor transmission rate of the grafted films were measured. The process parameters which produced the most hydrophobic PVOH film were found to be a fatty acid concentration of 3%, a grafting time of 14 min, and a grafting temperature of 130°C. These studies involved systematic adjustment of the hydrophobicity of one side of PVOH films. The results open up opportunities for packing fluids in water soluble packaging. PMID:28674687

  12. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of occupational exposure to rayon manufacturing chemicals on skin barrier to evaporative water loss.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Wu, Jyun-De; Sheu, Hamm-Min; Chang, Ho-Yuan

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of the occupational exposure to rayon manufacturing chemicals (RMC, containing predominantly carbon disulfide (CS(2)) and minor sulfuric acid) in a rayon factory on the basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL), barrier integrity (BI), and sequential increasing TEWL profiles. Six Thais and five Chinese workers in the spinning department of a rayon manufacturing plant and five healthy unexposed controls were recruited as the test subjects. An area of 4.5 x 5.5 cm on the mid-side of the volar forearm on the right hand was stripped by means of moderate pressure with commercially available adhesive tape by the same technician throughout the experiment. The skin was progressively stripped until glistening. TEWL was measured at every three and five tape strips on the right hand. The corresponding site on the left hand was measured parallel as the self-control. We found significant differences in basal TEWL and in BI between Chinese workers and Chinese controls, and between Thai workers and Chinese workers, respectively. Two-stage patterns of progressive TEWL profiles were found in such a chronic and repeated occupational exposure to RMC containing CS(2). The occupational exposure to RMC could result in the perturbation of the skin barrier function. Basal TEWL might be more sensitive to chronic skin irritant exposure. The TEWL profile achieved to the glistening stage might be necessary to avoid erroneous pattern estimation. Due to the lack of Thais control in this study, the racial difference in response to the RMC warrants further study.

  14. 77 FR 30026 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application, Ampac Fine Chemicals LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture Thebaine intermediates for sale to...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63... chloride 75092 h. Quinoline 91225 2. Metal compounds a. Arsenic compounds b. Cadmium compounds c....

  18. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances manufactured in... human exposures. 723.50 Section 723.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., during recreation, or for any personal use or enjoyment. (3) Environment has the same meaning as in...

  19. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  20. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  1. Empirical modelling of chemical exposure in the rubber-manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, H; Swuste, P; Boleij, J S

    1994-02-01

    As part of a study of working conditions chemical exposure was assessed in 10 rubber-manufacturing plants in The Netherlands. Personal exposures to airborne particulates, rubber fumes and solvents, and also dermal contamination, were measured. To identify factors affecting exposure the personal exposure levels and information on tasks performed, ventilation characteristics and production variables were used in multiple linear regression models. The exposure was generally very variable. The specific circumstances in each department of each plant determined the actual levels of exposure to a large extent. The factors affecting exposure turned out to be different for each of the types of exposure considered. The model for exposure to airborne particulates explained 40% of the total variability and incorporating the actual time spent on a task only slightly improved the model (R2 = 0.42). The handling of chemicals in powder form was the main factor affecting exposure, forced ventilation having a negligible effect. The model for exposure to curing fumes (measured as the cyclohexane-soluble fraction of the particulate matter) explained 50% of the variability. Both curing temperature and pressure determined the level of rubber fumes. Local exhaust ventilation showed a significant exposure reducing effect. The effect of curing different elastomers was not statistically significant. Dermal exposure to cyclohexane-soluble matter could only be explained to a limited extent (R2 = 0.22). Tasks with frequent contact with (warm) compound and maintenance tasks in the engineering services departments resulted in high dermal exposure. Tasks in which solvents were directly used explained 56% of the variation in solvent exposures. Exposure data, together with information on tasks, methods of work, ventilation and production throughout a branch of industry, can be used to derive empirical statistical models which occupational hygienists can apply to study factors affecting exposure

  2. Cancer mortality among petroleum refinery and chemical manufacturing workers in Texas.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S P; Labarthe, D; Downs, T; Burau, K; Whitehead, L; Vernon, S; Spitz, M; New, B; Sigurdson, A

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic historical cohort studies of petroleum refinery and chemical manufacturing workers in Texas were reviewed to examine their cancer mortality in comparison to the U.S. and to assess the possible impact of cancer mortality among these workers on the State of Texas as a whole. Summary standardized mortality ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for 20 cancer types, taking into account the heterogeneity of individual studies. There were 4314 cancer deaths among the 92,318 workers employed in 10 independent plant populations. Overall, there was a significant deficit in cancer mortality among petrochemical workers compared with the general U.S. population (SMR = 88, 95% CI = 80 to 96). Only the summary SMRs for brain cancer (SMR = 113, 95% CI = 96 to 133) and leukemias (SMR = 112, 95% CI = 94 to 130) approached statistical significance. Lung and liver cancer mortality excesses, noted for Texas as a whole, were decreased in these workers. Additional follow-up of these cohorts, their expansion to include minority and female workers, and additional study of possible occupational contributions to leukemia and brain cancer are recommended.

  3. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Dougall, James

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  5. Overview of several applications of chemical downstream etching (CDE) for IC manufacturing: advantages and drawbacks versus WET processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Buttet, Côme; Prevost, Emilie; Campo, Alain; Garnier, Philippe; Zoll, Stephane; Vallier, Laurent; Cunge, Gilles; Maury, Patrick; Massin, Thomas; Chhun, Sonarith

    2017-03-01

    Today the IC manufacturing faces lots of problematics linked to the continuous down scaling of printed structures. Some of those issues are related to wet processing, which are often used in the IC manufacturing flow for wafer cleaning, material etching and surface preparation. In the current work we summarize the limitations for the next nodes of wet processing such as metallic contaminations, wafer charging, corrosion and pattern collapse. As a replacement, we promoted the isotropic chemical dry etching (CDE) which is supposed to fix all the above drawbacks. Etching steps of SI3N4 layers were evaluated in order to prove the interest of such technique.

  6. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.

    1974-01-01

    A two year study of the major process variables associated with the manufacturing process for sealed, nickel-cadmium, areospace cells is summarized. Effort was directed toward identifying the major process variables associated with a manufacturing process, experimentally assessing each variable's effect, and imposing the necessary changes (optimization) and controls for the critical process variables to improve results and uniformity. A critical process variable associated with the sintered nickel plaque manufacturing process was identified as the manual forming operation. Critical process variables identified with the positive electrode impregnation/polarization process were impregnation solution temperature, free acid content, vacuum impregnation, and sintered plaque strength. Positive and negative electrodes were identified as a major source of carbonate contamination in sealed cells.

  7. 78 FR 49547 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Ibogaine (7260) I Lysergic acid diethylamide (7315) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I...

  8. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a pesticide... and PSES) or Table 3 of this part (NSPS and PSNS). A plant that manufactures a pesticide...

  9. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a pesticide... and PSES) or Table 3 of this part (NSPS and PSNS). A plant that manufactures a pesticide...

  10. Optimization of the chemical composition and manufacturing route for ODS RAF steels for fusion reactor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Baluc, N.

    2009-05-01

    As the upper temperature for use of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels is presently limited by a drop in mechanical strength at about 550 °C, Europe, Japan and the US are actively researching steels with high strength at higher operating temperatures, mainly using stable oxide dispersion. In addition, the numerous interfaces between matrix and oxide particles are expected to act as sinks for the irradiation-induced defects. The main R&D activities aim at finding a compromise between good tensile and creep strength and sufficient ductility, especially in terms of fracture toughness. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steels appear as promising materials for application in fusion power reactors up to about 750 °C. Six different ODS RAF steels, with compositions of Fe-(12-14)Cr-2W-(0.1-0.3-0.5)Ti-0.3Y2O3 (in wt%), were produced by powder metallurgy techniques, including mechanical alloying, canning and degassing of the milled powders and compaction of the powders by hot isostatic pressing, using various devices and conditions. The materials have been characterized in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. The results have been analysed in terms of optimal chemical composition and manufacturing conditions. In particular, it was found that the composition of the materials should lie in the range Fe-14Cr-2W-(0.3-0.4)Ti-(0.25-0.3)Y2O3, as 14Cr ODS RAF steels exhibit higher tensile strength and better Charpy impact properties and are more stable than 12Cr materials (no risk of martensitic transformation), while materials with 0.5% Ti or more should not be further investigated, due to potential embrittlement by large TiO2 particles.

  11. Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    Carreón, Tania; Hein, Misty J; Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Ruder, Avima M

    2015-01-01

    Background An earlier investigation found increased bladder cancer incidence among workers at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant that used o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene. The cohort was expanded to include additional workers (n=1875) and updated through 2007 to assess bladder cancer with improved exposure characterisation. Methods Work histories were updated and exposure categories and ranks were developed for o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene combined. Incident cancers were identified by linkage to six state cancer registries. Residency in time-dependent cancer registry catchment areas was determined. SIR and standardised rate ratios for bladder cancer were calculated by exposure category and cumulative rank quartiles for different lag periods. Cox regression was used to model bladder cancer incidence with estimated cumulative rank, adjusting for confounders. Indirect methods were used to control for smoking. Results Excess bladder cancer was observed compared to the New York State population (SIR=2.87, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.96), with higher elevations among workers definitely exposed (moderate/high) (SIR=3.90, 95% CI 2.57 to 5.68), and in the highest cumulative rank quartile (SIR=6.13, 95% CI 2.80 to 11.6, 10-year lag). Bladder cancer rates increased significantly with estimated cumulative rank (10-year lag). Smoking only accounted for an estimated 8% elevation in bladder cancer incidence. Conclusions Bladder cancer incidence remains elevated in this cohort and significantly associated with estimated cumulative exposure. Results are consistent with earlier findings in this and other cohorts. Despite other concurrent chemical exposures, we consider o-toluidine most likely responsible for the bladder cancer incidence elevation and recommend a re-examination of occupational exposure limits. PMID:24368697

  12. 78 FR 23959 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... applications only in clinical, toxicological, and forensic laboratories. No comments or objections have been received. DEA has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates...

  13. Men assigned to ethylene oxide production or other ethylene oxide related chemical manufacturing: a mortality study.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, H L; Ott, M G; Shore, R E

    1990-04-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the mortality experience of 2174 men employed between 1940 and 1978 by a large chemical company and who had been assigned to a chemical production department that used or produced ethylene oxide (EO). Comparisons were made with the general United States population, the regional population, and with a group of 26,965 unexposed men from the same plants. Comparisons with general United States death rates showed fewer deaths than expected in the EO group due to all causes and for total cancers. There was no statistically significant excess of deaths due to any cause. Seven deaths each due to leukaemia and pancreatic cancer were observed with 3.0 and 4.1 deaths expected. Among the subcohort of men who worked where both average and peak exposure levels were probably highest, however, one death due to pancreatic cancer (0.9 expected) and no deaths due to leukaemia were observed. Four of the seven who died from leukaemia and six of the seven who died from pancreatic cancer had been assigned to the chlorohydrin department where the potential for exposure to EO is judged to have been low. The relative risk of death due to each disease was strongly related to duration of assignments to that department. When men who worked in the chlorohydrin department were excluded, there was no evidence for an association of exposure to EO with pancreatic cancer or leukaemia. Together with the failure to show independent EO associations, the chlorohydrin department results suggest that leukaemia and pancreatic cancer may have been associated primarily with production of ethylene chlorohydrin or propylene chlorohydrin, or both. These results emphasise the importance of examining additional concurrent/asynchronous exposures among human populations exposed to EO.

  14. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Amphetamine (1100) II Methylphenidate (1724) II Methadone (9250) II Methadone Intermediate (9254) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled... Methadone Intermediate (9254) the company plans to produce Methadone HCL active pharmaceutical...

  15. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... manufacturer of Cocaine (9041), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans... consistent with the public interest. The investigation has included inspection and testing of the...

  16. 78 FR 46372 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Methylphenidate (1724) II Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will...

  17. Changes on physico-chemical, textural, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina".

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the physico-chemical and textural properties, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina" were studied. The pH increased during the last stages of processing but gradually declined over the curing period. TBARS values, hardness and chewiness increased with processing time from 0.14, 2.74 and 0.83 to 3.49 mg malonaldehyde/kg, 20.33 kg and 5.05 kg∗mm, respectively. Ripening time also affected the colour parameters: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) (P<0.001). The total average content of free fatty acid (FFA) increased significantly from 433.7 mg/100 g of fat in the raw pieces to 2655.5 mg/100 g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening stage. The main FFA at the end of the manufacturing process was palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by oleic (C18:1cis9), stearic (C18:0) and linoleic (C18:2n-6). A total of fifty five volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina", including esters, aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, ketones. Aldehydes reached their maximum level at the end of the post-salting stage. In the final product, esters became the dominant chemical compounds.

  18. The association of occupational metals exposure and oxidative damage, telomere shortening in fitness equipments manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Liu, Guan-Cen; Hsin, I-Lun; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2017-08-08

    The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants. MDA levels varied according to workers' roles at the manufacturing plants, and showed a trend as cutting>painting>welding>administration workers. Welders had marginally shorter average telomere lengths than the administrative workers (p=0.058). Cr and Mn levels were significantly greater in welders than they were in administrative workers. There were significantly positive correlations between MDA and Cr and Mn levels, the major components of welding fume. However, the association would be eliminated if co-metals exposure were considered simultaneously. In future, telomere length and MDA might be potential biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease in co-metals exposed workers.

  19. The association of occupational metals exposure and oxidative damage, telomere shortening in fitness equipments manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    KO, Jiunn-Liang; CHENG, Yu-Jung; LIU, Guan-Cen; HSIN, I-Lun; CHEN, Hsiu-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants. MDA levels varied according to workers’ roles at the manufacturing plants, and showed a trend as cutting>painting>welding>administration workers. Welders had marginally shorter average telomere lengths than the administrative workers (p=0.058). Cr and Mn levels were significantly greater in welders than they were in administrative workers. There were significantly positive correlations between MDA and Cr and Mn levels, the major components of welding fume. However, the association would be eliminated if co-metals exposure were considered simultaneously. In future, telomere length and MDA might be potential biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease in co-metals exposed workers. PMID:28420806

  20. 77 FR 55505 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; AMPAC Fine Chemicals LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... inspection and testing of the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to... (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company...

  1. 76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... issuing this final rule to stay the requirement for certain affected sources to comply with the title V... Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions EPA is reconsidering is a requirement that certain affected... affected sources to comply with the title V permit program. Because we believed that the reconsideration...

  2. Case studies of violations of workers' freedom of association: manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both national law and international human rights and labor rights norms. Presented here are the case studies of manufacturing workers.

  3. Mortality study of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 10 year update.

    PubMed

    Teta, M J; Benson, L O; Vitale, J N

    1993-08-01

    Men assigned to units producing ethylene oxide by the chlorohydrin or direct oxidation processes and to other departments using ethylene oxide in two chemical plants were followed up for mortality from 1940 to 1988 (n = 1896). Based on findings from a previous study of these workers to the end of 1978, which identified confounding exposures, workers assigned to one unit with low ethylene oxide exposure potential were excluded (n = 278). Average duration of exposure was over five years and average follow up was 27 years, with all subjects at least 10 years from first exposure. The data did not support associations of ethylene oxide with all cancer types combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or brain, pancreatic, or stomach cancers. There were also no duration-response trends. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total cancer was 86 (95% confidence interval 71-104) and did not increase for those hired the earliest and with long duration assignments. The results of this 10 year update and those of other recent studies of ethylene oxide workers do not confirm findings from animal studies and are not consistent with the earliest results reported among ethylene oxide workers.

  4. Mortality study of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 10 year update.

    PubMed Central

    Teta, M J; Benson, L O; Vitale, J N

    1993-01-01

    Men assigned to units producing ethylene oxide by the chlorohydrin or direct oxidation processes and to other departments using ethylene oxide in two chemical plants were followed up for mortality from 1940 to 1988 (n = 1896). Based on findings from a previous study of these workers to the end of 1978, which identified confounding exposures, workers assigned to one unit with low ethylene oxide exposure potential were excluded (n = 278). Average duration of exposure was over five years and average follow up was 27 years, with all subjects at least 10 years from first exposure. The data did not support associations of ethylene oxide with all cancer types combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or brain, pancreatic, or stomach cancers. There were also no duration-response trends. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total cancer was 86 (95% confidence interval 71-104) and did not increase for those hired the earliest and with long duration assignments. The results of this 10 year update and those of other recent studies of ethylene oxide workers do not confirm findings from animal studies and are not consistent with the earliest results reported among ethylene oxide workers. PMID:8398856

  5. Nonlithographic patterning and metal-assisted chemical etching for manufacturing of tunable light-emitting silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Chern, Winston; Hsu, Keng; Chun, Ik Su; Azeredo, Bruno P de; Ahmed, Numair; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Zuo, Jian-min; Fang, Nick; Ferreira, Placid; Li, Xiuling

    2010-05-12

    Semiconductor nanowires have potential applications in photovoltaics, batteries, and thermoelectrics. We report a top-down fabrication method that involves the combination of superionic-solid-state-stamping (S4) patterning with metal-assisted-chemical-etching (MacEtch), to produce silicon nanowire arrays with defined geometry and optical properties in a manufacturable fashion. Strong light emission in the entire visible and near infrared wavelength range at room temperature, tunable by etching condition, attributed to surface features, and enhanced by silver surface plasmon, is demonstrated.

  6. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  7. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  8. 77 FR 65135 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ89 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical... provisions in the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical...

  9. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.; Doan, D. J.; Carr, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    A program to determine and study the critical process variables associated with the manufacture of aerospace, hermetically-sealed, nickel-cadmium cells is described. The determination and study of the process variables associated with the positive and negative plaque impregnation/polarization process are emphasized. The experimental data resulting from the implementation of fractional factorial design experiments are analyzed by means of a linear multiple regression analysis technique. This analysis permits the selection of preferred levels for certain process variables to achieve desirable impregnated plaque characteristics.

  10. Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology to Identify Potential Reductions in Utility and Process Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Solutia Inc. chemical production facility in Springfield, Massachusetts. Solutia manufactures polymers, intermediates, and chemicals for a variety of products. The assessment focused on finding ways to reduce the plant's use of steam, electricity, compressed air, and water. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings could be about 9.6 million kWh for electricity and more than 338,000 MBtu for natural gas. Annual cost savings could amount to nearly $3.3 million.

  11. 77 FR 52368 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated May 9, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2012... Ibogaine (7260) I Lysergic acid diethylamide (7315) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I...

  12. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...(c)(3) and 112(k)(3)(B). The nine area source categories are Agricultural Chemicals and Pesticides... environment and human health* * *.'' In any judicial or administrative proceeding, the Administrator may...

  13. Determination of the chemical parameters and manufacturer of divins from their broadband transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevich, M. A.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Skorbanova, E. A.; Rogovaya, M. V.; Kambur, E. I.; Aseev, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of multiparametric data on transmission spectra of 24 divins (Moldovan cognacs) in the 190-2600 nm range allows identification of outliers and their removal from a sample under study in the following consideration. The principal component analysis and classification tree with a single-rank predictor constructed in the 2D space of principal components allow classification of divin manufacturers. It is shown that the accuracy of syringaldehyde, ethyl acetate, vanillin, and gallic acid concentrations in divins calculated with the regression to latent structures depends on the sample volume and is 3, 6, 16, and 20%, respectively, which is acceptable for the application.

  14. Advanced treatment by chemical oxidation of pulp and paper effluent from a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper.

    PubMed

    Tünay, O; Erdeml, E; Kabdaşli, I; Olmez, T

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the applicability of chemical oxidation processes to polish biologically treated effluent of a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper to comply with the discharge limit of 120 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the first step, a chemically assisted settling was applied. The optimum results were obtained with alum plus lime with the alum dose of 200 mg l(-1). In the second step, chemically assisted settling effluent was fed into an activated sludge system and over 80% COD removal was achieved. In the last step of the experimental study, a series of ozone oxidation and Fenton oxidation methods were tested to remove residual COD. Ozone oxidation provided 80% COD removal. An ozone dose of 40 mg min(-1) with a reaction time of two hours was found to be optimum. Catalytic ozonation by using ferric iron, as well as high pH ozonation, Fenton process and H2O2/O3 oxidation did not prove to be more efficient than plain ozonation under these study conditions.

  15. Regulation of drugs and chemicals used by the poultry industry. Good manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Boyd, L H

    1994-09-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are required to be followed in the use of animal drugs to produce medicated feeds. The authority is found in the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which states that medicated feed can be deemed adulterated if GMP were not followed in its production. This authority has been translated into GMP regulations applicable to all medicated feed production. More detailed GMP are imposed on those using high potency sources of drugs that require a withdrawal period (Category II). Less detailed GMP are imposed on all other drug uses (Category I and lower potency sources of Category II). Facility registration, medicated feed applications, and biennial inspections are also imposed on those required to follow the more detailed GMP regulations. The basic thrust of the regulations is assurance that drug use is correct in all respects and that the integrity of all medicated and nonmedicated feeds is maintained. The objective is food free of illegal drug residues, i.e., food safety. The GMP regulations are based on joint industry-government endeavor and reflect the practical realities of feed manufacturing. They are, for all practical purposes, good business practices assuring that medicated feeds make a positive contribution to food production and consumer confidence.

  16. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  17. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Drake, M A; Courtney, P D

    2008-08-01

    The effect of nonstarter Lactobacillus adjunct cultures on the microbial, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured using the "kosher make procedure" was investigated. The kosher make procedure, which uses a lower cooking temperature than traditional Swiss cheese making, is used by many American cheese manufacturers to allow for kosher-certified whey. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 non-starter Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from Swiss cheeses, Lactobacillus casei A26, L. casei B21, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus H2, as an adjunct. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. Cheeses were analyzed during ripening for microbial and chemical composition. Adjunct strain L. casei A26, which utilized citrate most readily in laboratory medium, dominated the Lactobacillus population within 30 d, faster than the other adjunct cultures. There were no significant differences in Propionibacterium counts, Streptococcus thermophilus counts, protein, fat, moisture, salt, and pH among the cheeses. Free amino acid concentration ranged from 5 to 7 mmol/100 g of cheese at 90 d of ripening and was adjunct strain dependent. Lactic, acetic, and propionic acid concentrations were not significantly different among the cheeses after a 90-d ripening period; however differences in propionic acid concentrations were apparent at 60 d, with the cheeses made with L. casei adjuncts containing less propionic acid. Citric acid was depleted by the end of warm room ripening in cheeses manufactured with adjunct L. casei strains, but not with adjunct L. rhamnosus. Cheeses made with L. casei A26 were most similar to the control cheeses in diacetyl and butyric/isobutyric acid abundance as evaluated by electronic nose during the first 3 mo of ripening. The 4 cheese types differed in their descriptive sensory profiles at 8 mo of age, indicating an adjunct strain-dependent effect on particular flavor attributes. Adjunct

  18. On the Concept "Chemical Equilibrium": The Associative Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussarsky, Esther; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1990-01-01

    Word associations were used to map high school students' concepts of "chemical equilibrium" and "equilibrium." It was found that the preconception of the two concepts was differentiated on noncritical dimensions. (Author/CW)

  19. On the Concept "Chemical Equilibrium": The Associative Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussarsky, Esther; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1990-01-01

    Word associations were used to map high school students' concepts of "chemical equilibrium" and "equilibrium." It was found that the preconception of the two concepts was differentiated on noncritical dimensions. (Author/CW)

  20. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.

    1972-01-01

    The effort and results of a program to determine and study the critical process variables associated with the manufacture of aerospace, hermetically-sealed, nickel-cadmium cells are reported. During the period, the impregnation/polarization process variable study was brought to a close with the completion of a series of related experiments. The results of the experiments are summarized. During this period, a general characterization of cell separator materials was initiated. The major conclusions resulting from the characterization of materials are included.

  1. The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Doull, J; Feron, V J; Goodman, J I; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Newberne, P M; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Waddell, W J; Wagner, B M

    2002-04-01

    This is the fifth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually taking into account the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of pyrazine derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated.

  2. Simulation of the Manufacture of a Chemical Product in a Competitive Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, T. W. F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an advanced simulation illustrating how basic engineering skills can be combined with economic considerations and risk-taking judgments to effectively design and operate a chemical processing unit in a competitive environment. The simulation is used as one of five projects in a technical management course. (SK)

  3. Changes in physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds throughout the manufacturing process of dry-cured foal loin.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Carballo, J

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical, textural, lipolytic and volatile compound changes that occur during the manufacture of dry-cured foal loin were studied. Hardness and chewiness increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1.67 kg and 0.48 kg ∗ mm to 18.33 kg and 5.01 kg∗mm, respectively during ripening process. The total average content of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.001), from 768.8 mg/100g of fat in the loins immediately after the seasoning period to 1271.1mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening period. In the final product, aldehydes became the dominant volatile compounds.

  4. Chemical Transport--Coping with Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes operations of CHEMTREC, a chemical emergency information system supported by the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. Presents data on transportation incidents involving hazardous materials and the most frequently involved chemicals in transportation incidents. (CS)

  5. Chemical Transport--Coping with Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes operations of CHEMTREC, a chemical emergency information system supported by the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. Presents data on transportation incidents involving hazardous materials and the most frequently involved chemicals in transportation incidents. (CS)

  6. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    PubMed

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available.

  7. Synthetic biology for manufacturing chemicals: constraints drive the use of non-conventional microbial platforms.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jeffrey; Wang, Qinhong; Wang, Yechun; Tang, Yinjie J

    2017-09-07

    Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions. Third, engineered enzymes may lack channeling capabilities for cascade-like transport of metabolites to overcome diffusion barriers or to avoid intermediate toxicity in the cytoplasmic environment. Fourth, moving engineered hosts from laboratory to industry is unreliable because genetic mutations and non-genetic cell-to-cell variations impair the large-scale fermentation outcomes. Therefore, synthetic biology strains often have unsatisfactory industrial performance (titer/yield/productivity). To overcome these problems, many different species are being explored for their metabolic strengths that can be leveraged to synthesize specific compounds. Here, we provide examples of non-conventional and genetically amenable species for industrial manufacturing, including the following: Corynebacterium glutamicum for its TCA cycle-derived biosynthesis, Yarrowia lipolytica for its biosynthesis of fatty acids and carotenoids, cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production from its sugar phosphate pathways, and Rhodococcus for its ability to biotransform recalcitrant feedstock. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies (e.g., genome-to-phenome mapping, single cell methods, and knowledge engineering) that may facilitate the development of novel cell factories.

  8. Factors associated with occupational injuries at a beverage manufacturing company in Harare, Zimbabwe--2008.

    PubMed

    Gonese, G; Tshimanga, M; Chirenda, J; Chadambuka, A; Gombe, N T; Shambira, G

    2011-01-01

    A beverage manufacturing company reported 59.3% increase in occupational injuries between 2006 and 2007. Factors associated with occupational injuries at this company in Harare were characterized, described the injuries, identified the hazards and control measures in place. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted. Two plants of a beverage manufacturing company in Harare. We interviewed randomly selected workers at the 2 plants of the company Prevalence of occupational injuries, Factors associated with injury, occupational hazards, control measures Of 392 workers interviewed, 53.3% reported having had a work-related injury. Twenty-six percent had not reported the injuries. Independent risk factors were: working in packaging department OR = 3.64 (95% CI: 2.25-5.88), having sleep disorder OR = 2.26 (95% CI: 1.21-4.22) and 7 day working week without rest OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.01-3.47). Hazards identified were noise, broken bottles, unguarded machines and coal dust. High risk areas were automated. Common injuries were cuts/lacerations (70.8%) and the most affected parts being the fingers 27.3% (57/209) and the hands 17.2% (36/209). Most injuries (74.8%) occurred in the packaging department due to breaking bottles. Prevalence of occupational injuries is high. We recommended regular machinery maintenance to minimize bottle breakages, reduction in working time and supply of adequate personal protective clothing.

  9. Development and manufacturability assessment of chemically-defined medium for the production of protein therapeutics in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wai Lam W; Bai, Yunling; Cheng, Cheng; Padawer, Ishai; Wu, Changjian

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of using internally developed chemically-defined (CD) media for cell culture-based therapeutic protein production over commercial media include better raw material control and medium vendor options, and most importantly, flexibility for process development and subsequent optimization needed for therapeutic protein production. Through several rounds of design of experiment (DOE) screening, and medium component supplementation and optimization studies, we successfully developed a CD basal medium (CDM) for CHO cell culture. The internally prepared liquid CDM demonstrated comparable cell culture performance to that from a commercially available control medium. However, when the same CDM formulation was transferred to two major commercial medium suppliers for manufacturing, cell culture performance utilizing these newly prepared media was significantly reduced compared with the in-house prepared counterpart. An investigation was launched to assess whether key medium components were sensitive to large-scale preparation of the final bulk media by the vendors. Further work necessitated the reformulation of the original CDM formulation into a core medium that was suitable for large-scale media manufacturing. The modified preparation of the core medium with two separate supplements to generate the final CDM was able to recover the expected cell culture performance and monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity. Confirmation of cell culture robustness in cell growth and production was corroborated in two additional mAb-expressing cell lines. This work demonstrates that a robust CD medium is not only one that performs during the development stage, but also one that must be reproducible by commercial media vendors. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Roles of chemical metrology in electronics industry and associated environment in Korea: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Namgoo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Joung Hae

    2015-03-01

    Chemical metrology is gaining importance in electronics industry that manufactures semiconductors, electronic displays, and microelectronics. Extensive and growing needs from this industry have raised the significance of accurate measurements of the amount of substances and material properties. For the first time, this paper presents information on how chemical metrology is being applied to meet a variety of needs in the aspects of quality control of electronics products and environmental regulations closely associated with electronics industry. For a better understanding of the roles of the chemical metrology within electronics industry, the recent research activities and results in chemical metrology are presented using typical examples in Korea where electronic industry is leading a national economy. Particular attention is paid to the applications of chemical metrology for advancing emerging electronics technology developments. Such examples are a novel technique for the accurate quantification of gas composition at nano-liter levels within a MEMS package, the surface chemical analysis of a semiconductor device. Typical metrological tools are also presented for the development of certified reference materials for fluorinated greenhouse gases and proficiency testing schemes for heavy metals and chlorinated toxic gas in order to cope properly with environmental issues within electronics industry. In addition, a recent technique is presented for the accurate measurement of the destruction and removal efficiency of a typical greenhouse gas scrubber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Essential Aspects in Assessing the Safety Impact of Interactions between a Drug Product and Its Associated Manufacturing System.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in the biotechnology industry is the utilization of plastic components in manufacturing systems for the production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or a finished drug product (FDP). If the API, the FDP, or any solution used to generate them (for example, process streams such as media, buffers, and the like) come in contact with a plastic at any time during the manufacturing process, there is the potential that substances leached from the plastic may accumulate in the API or FDP, affecting safety and/or efficacy. In this article the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the article outlines the safety assessment process for manufacturing systems, specifically addressing the topics of risk management and the role of compendial testing. Finally, the proper use of vendor-supplied extractables information is considered. Manufacturing suites used to produce biopharmaceuticals can include components that are made out of plastics. Thus it is possible that substances could leach out of the plastics and into manufacturing solutions, and it is further possible that such leachables could accumulate in the pharmaceutical product. In this article, the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the author proposes a process by which the impact on product safety of such leached substances can be assessed.

  12. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  13. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  14. Chemical and microstructural evolution on ODS Fe-14CrWTi steel during manufacturing stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olier, P.; Malaplate, J.; Mathon, M. H.; Nunes, D.; Hamon, D.; Toualbi, L.; de Carlan, Y.; Chaffron, L.

    2012-09-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising candidate materials for fission and fusion applications thanks to their improved properties related to both their fine grained microstructure and high density of Y-Ti-O nanoscale clusters (NCs). The Fe-14Cr-1 W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 ODS ferritic steel was produced by powder metallurgy: Iron-base gas atomized powders were mechanically alloyed with 0.3% Y2O3 particles in an attritor. Then, the ODS powders were encapsulated in a soft steel can, consolidated by hot extrusion and cold rolled under the shape of tube cladding. The present work investigates the evolution of the chemical composition and the microstructure after each stage of the fabrication route (i.e. mechanical alloying, extrusion and cold rolling). Chemical analysis indicates a significant increase of the carbon content and a moderate increase of oxygen and nitrogen after mechanical alloying compared to initial atomized powders. After extrusion, the measured oxygen content corresponds mainly to the oxygen coming from yttria addition during MA process. In addition, electron microprobe analyses are performed after hot extrusion to determine the concentration and the distribution of the constitutive elements (Cr, Ti, W, Y, O). The microstructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) in order to characterize the size distribution of Y-Ti-O particles. TEM results reveal a fine microstructure (average grain size of 600 nm in the transverse direction) including Y-Ti-O NCs with a mean diameter close to 3 nm after extrusion. A slight coarsening of Y-Ti-O NCs is evidenced by SANS after cold rolling and heat treatments.

  15. Manufacturing of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Nathalie; Grieger, Joshua C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to elicit robust and long-term transgene expression in vivo together with minimal immunogenicity and little to no toxicity are only a few features that make recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors ideally suited for many gene therapy applications. Successful preclinical studies have encouraged the use of rAAV for therapeutic gene transfer to patients in the clinical setting. Nevertheless, the use of rAAV in clinical trials has underscored the need for production and purification systems capable of generating large amounts of highly pure rAAV particles. To date, generating vector quantities sufficient to meet the expanding clinical demand is still a hurdle when using current production systems. In this chapter, we will provide a description of the current methods to produce clinical grade of rAAV under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) settings. PMID:27014711

  16. Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with tap water use during contact lens cleaning: manufacturer guidelines need to change.

    PubMed

    Legarreta, John E; Nau, Amy C; Dhaliwal, Deepinder K

    2013-03-01

    Contact lens-associated Acanthamoeba keratitis continues to be a significant cause of visual morbidity in the United States. Although exposure to water sources while wearing lenses has been a known risk factor for infection for decades, this behavior in several contact lens hygiene protocols continues to prevail. In this review, we surveyed the currently available contact lens cleaning solutions for both soft and rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and reviewed the cleaning instructions of the available solutions. Discrepancies between clinician recommendations and written instructions on a solution packages continues to persist, and we advocate a revision in current manufacturer guidelines to include explicit warnings against use of tap or distilled water sources for cleaning contact lenses or their storage cases.

  17. Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2006-06-28

    The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2% of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise from p-coumaric acid by pyrolysis of abaca fibers in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which released high amounts of p-coumaric acid (as the methyl derivative). Products from p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) propanoid units, with a predominance of the latter (H:G:S molar ratio of 1.5:1:4.9), were also released after Py-GC/MS of abaca fibers. Sinapyl and coniferyl acetates, which are thought to be lignin monomer precursors, were also found in abaca. The extractives content of the abaca fiber (0.4%) was low, and the most predominant compounds were free sterols (24% of total extract) and fatty acids (24% of total extract). Additionally, significant amounts of steroid ketones (10%), triglycerides (6%), omega-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), monoglycerides (4%), fatty alcohols (4%), and a series of p-hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) esterified with long chain alcohols and omega-hydroxyfatty acids were also found, together with minor amounts of steroid hydrocarbons, diglycerides, alpha-hydroxyfatty acids, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides.

  18. Electrochemical treatment of the effluent of a fine chemical manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Cañizares, P; Paz, R; Lobato, J; Sáez, C; Rodrigo, M A

    2006-11-02

    In this work, the electrochemical oxidation of an actual industrial wastewater with conductive-diamond anodes has been studied. The wastewater is the effluent of a fine chemicals plant. This effluent consists of an aqueous solution of solvents (ketones and alcohols) with a high concentration of aromatic compounds coming from the raw materials, intermediates and products of the different processes of the plant and its COD is around 6000 mg dm(-3). The electrolyses were carried out in a discontinuous operation mode under galvanostatic conditions, using a bench-scale plant equipped with a single compartment electrochemical flow cell. The conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation (CDEO) allowed achieving the complete mineralization of the waste with high current efficiencies. These efficiencies seem to strongly depend on the concentration, pH and temperature but not on the current density (in the range studied). This confirms that besides the hydroxyl radicals mediated oxidation, CDEO combines other important oxidation processes such as the direct electrooxidation on the diamond surface and the oxidation mediated by other electrochemically formed compounds generated on this electrode. Other two advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and Fenton oxidation) have been also studied in this work for comparison purposes. Both technologies were able to treat the wastes, but they obtained very different results in terms of efficiency and mineralization. The efficiency of ozonation and electrochemical oxidation were very similar (especially during the first stages), although the energy consumption required by the electrochemical process to remove at fixed percentage of COD or TOC was significantly smaller than that of ozonation. The possible accumulation of carboxylic acid as final products excludes the use of Fenton oxidation as a sole treatment technology.

  19. (Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1988-08-30

    This constitutes studies designed to provide data for assessing the mechanisms governing the distribution, fate and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards, associated with radon progeny and their secondary reaction products. The chemical and physical state of radon progeny are expected to influence their mobility and reactivity, and mechanisms of transport and entry into biological systems since these depend on processes such as attachment to and/or incorporation with aerosol particles. There is evidence that an appreciable fraction of the progeny are ionized and this program addresses the clustering, growth, and subsequent chemical conversion of these associated species. 2 refs.

  20. Negative resistance phenomenon in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for photovoltaic manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, H. C.; Aman-ur-Rehman, Won, I. H.; Park, W. T.; Lee, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The validity of effective frequency concept is investigated for dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges by using particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision simulations. This concept helps in analyzing DF CCP discharges in a fashion similar to single-frequency (SF) CCP discharges with effective parameters. Unlike the driving frequency of SF CCP discharges, the effective frequency in DF CCP is dependent on the ratio of the two driving currents (or voltages) and this characteristic makes it possible to control the ion flux and the ion bombardment energy independently. This separate control principally allows to increase the ion flux and plasma density for high deposition rates, while keeping the ion mean energy constant at low values to prevent the bombardment of highly energetic ions at the substrate surface to avoid unwanted damage in the solar cell manufacturing. The abrupt transition of the effective frequency leads to the phenomenon of negative resistance which is one of the several physical phenomena associated uniquely with DF CCP discharges. Using effective frequency concept, the plasma characteristics have been investigated in the negative resistance regime for solar cell manufacturing.

  1. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms among female workers in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Il; Son, Jun Seok; Kim, Young Ouk; Chae, Chang Ho; Kim, Ja Hyun; Kim, Chan Woo; Park, Hyoung Ouk; Lee, Jun Ho; Jung, Jun Ick

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has been known to maintain the body's balance of calcium and phosphorus as well as skeletal health. There has been increasing emphasis on the importance of vitamin D as recent studies have been reporting the specific functions of vitamin D in the cerebral nervous system and the association between the level of serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms. However, there is currently a paucity of research investigating the association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms in Korean subjects. Consequently, this study has aimed to determine the level of serum vitamin D and explore the association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms in Korean female workers. A medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and a blood test were conducted between February 3 and March 7, 2014 in 1054 subjects among female workers in the manufacturing industry who underwent physical examinations in a university hospital. From this data, we identified the level of serum vitamin D and investigated the association between serum vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms. The average serum vitamin D level of the 1054 subjects was 9.07 ± 3.25 ng/mL, and the number of subjects in the serum vitamin D deficiency group with less than 10 ng/mL was 721 (68.4 %). The odds ratio of the depressive symptom group with a CES-D score of 16 or above being in the deficiency group with a serum vitamin D level less than 10 ng/mL was found to be 1.55 (95 % CI = 1.15-2.07). 68.4 % of female workers in the manufacturing industry were in the deficiency group with serum vitamin D levels less than 10 ng/mL. Additionally, we identified an association between serum vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms. In the future, if serum vitamin D deficiency is checked regularly in workers, we expect to achieve better outcomes in managing their depressive symptoms.

  3. The manufacture of replacement low pressure carrier casings and associated stationary guide vane blading through on site component sample measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    In today`s competitive utility market place, the manufacture of replacement components by alternate manufacturing has become an increasingly important available option for turbine operators seeking to achieve substantive cost and lead time reductions in spare part purchasing. Essential to this strategy--in the absence of a total redesign of the component(s) or their assemblies--is the provision or access to the selected alternate manufacture of the necessary sample parts. This paper details the manufacture by reverse engineering of 3 replacement low pressure carrier guide vane blade casings for a 60 MW steam turbine complete with their associated blading and ancillary parts where the necessary sample parts and assemblies could not be released from site due to outage constraints.

  4. Mortality study update of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 15 year update.

    PubMed

    Swaen, Gerard M H; Burns, Carol; Teta, Jane M; Bodner, Kenneth; Keenan, Dave; Bodnar, Catherine M

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the long-term mortality patterns of workers with past exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). We redefined and updated a cohort of male workers employed in industrial facilities where EO was produced or used. All 2063 men were employed between 1940 and the end of 1988 and were observed for mortality through 2003. Cause specific Standardized Mortality Ratios were calculated. Internal analyses were made by applying Cox proportional hazards models to the data. No indications were found for excess cancer risks from EO exposures, including the lymphohematopoietic malignancies. There were 11 leukemia deaths and 11.8 expected and 12 non-Hodgkin lymphoma deaths and 11.5 expected. Proportional hazards modeling for all cause, leukemia and lymphoid malignancies mortality revealed no trends or associations with cumulative exposure. Despite the relatively high EO exposures in the past and extensive mortality follow-up, the cause specific mortality rates are comparable with those of the general US population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio analyses and the proportional hazards modeling for all cause mortality, leukemia and lymphoid malignancies mortality do not indicate exposure related effects in this cohort.

  5. Chemical Properties Associated with Bacterial Wetwood in Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    Zicai Xu; Theodor D. Leininger; Andy W.C. Lee; Frank H. Tainter

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial wetwood is a major cause of value loss in the red oak lumber industry in the United States. Red oak trees in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Florida were sampled and evaluated for certain chemical properties possibly associated with the wetwood condition. Specific variables investigated were pH and concentmtions of methane, cations (Na+. Ca++, K+, and Mg...

  6. Inactivation of lymphadenopathy associated virus by chemical disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Spire, B; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Montagnier, L; Chermann, J C

    1984-10-20

    Reverse transcriptase activity of lymphadenopathy associated virus was assayed after exposure to various standard chemical disinfectants. 25% ethanol or 1% glutaraldehyde should prove sufficient to disinfect medical instruments, and 0.2% sodium hypochlorite for cleaning floors and benches. 0.1% formalin is too slow to be recommended.

  7. Chemical kinetics of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid in superheated steam: effect of isomerization on mate (Ilex paraguariensis) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zanoelo, Everton Fernando; Benincá, Cristina

    2009-12-23

    A set of experiments was carried out to investigate the chemical stability of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) in the presence of superheated steam. A batch cylindrical reactor made of glass and isothermally operated between 398 and 499 K was used in the experiments. A high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector was applied to monitor the 5-CQA concentrations. The conversions of 5-CQA were correctly reproduced with a simplified kinetic model represented by a reversible pseudofirst-order reaction of isomerization. The effect of temperature on the forward rate constant was represented by the Arrhenius equation with parameters tuned on experimental data. The heat of isomerization of 5-CQA and the equilibrium constant at 298 K were calculated by involving the integrated form of the van't Hoff equation. The observed reaction was revealed to not be detrimental for the quality of manufactured leaves and branches of mate because the content of total chlorogenic acids was not changed.

  8. Guayule rubber: Cultivation and manufacture. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Rsearch Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of guayule as a natural rubber source. Cultivation methods and locations, physical and chemical properties, economic factors of cultivation through manufacture, production forecasts, effects of mixing with synthetic rubbers, and vulcanization are among the topics discussed. Industrial health hazards, performance in the world market, and applications are considered. (Contains a minimum of 206 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. As Others See Vocational Education. Book 1: A Survey of the National Association of Manufacturers. Research and Development Series No. 225A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ann R.; Russell, Jill Frymier

    A survey of manufacturers was conducted to assess views of National Association of Manufacturers members about vocational education, including its effectiveness, collaborative activities with vocational education, and manufacturers' suggestions for improvement. Findings based on the 775 returned surveys were that the most frequent grade awarded to…

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICANT ASSOCIATED FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN RODENTS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eryani, Laila; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K.C.; Guardiola, J. J.; Clair, H.B.; Prough, R.A.; Cave, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxicant associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) is a recently identified form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with exposure to industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants. Numerous studies have been conducted to test the association between industrial chemicals/ environmental pollutants and fatty liver disease both in vivo and in vitro. Objectives The objective of the paper is to report a list of chemicals associated with TAFLD. Methods Two federal databases of rodent toxicology studies– ToxRefDB (Environmental Protection Agency) and Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS, National Toxicology Program) were searched for liver endpoints. Combined, these two databases archive nearly 2000 rodent studies. TASH descriptors including fatty change, fatty necrosis, Oil red O positive staining, steatosis and lipid deposition were queried. Results Using these search terms, 123 chemicals associated with fatty liver were identified. Pesticides and solvents were the most frequently identified chemicals, while PCBs/dioxins were the most potent. About 44% of identified compounds were pesticides or their intermediates, and nearly 10% of pesticide registration studies in ToxRefDB were associated with fatty liver. Fungicides and herbicides were more frequently associated with fatty liver than insecticides. Conclusions More research on pesticides, solvents, metals and PCBs/dioxins in NAFLD/TAFLD is warranted due to their association with liver damage. PMID:25326588

  11. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between payments made by the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and prescribing by physicians within hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis of 2013 and 2014 Open Payments and Medicare Part D prescribing data for two classes of commonly prescribed, commonly marketed drugs: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs, overall and stratified by physician and payment type. Setting 306 hospital referral regions, United States. Participants 45 949 454 Medicare Part D prescriptions written by 623 886 physicians to 10 513 173 patients for two drug classes: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs. Main outcome measures Proportion, or market share, of marketed oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs prescribed by physicians among all drugs in each class and within hospital referral regions. Results Among 306 hospital referral regions, there were 977 407 payments to physicians totaling $61 026 140 (£46 174 600; €54 632 500) related to oral anticoagulants, and 1 787 884 payments totaling $108 417 616 related to non-insulin diabetes drugs. The median market share of the hospital referral regions was 21.6% for marketed oral anticoagulants and 12.6% for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs. Among hospital referral regions, one additional payment (median value $13, interquartile range, $10-$18) was associated with 94 (95% confidence interval 76 to 112) additional days filled of marketed oral anticoagulants and 107 (89 to 125) additional days filled of marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs (P<0.001). Payments to specialists were associated with greater prescribing of marketed drugs than payments to non-specialists (212 v 100 additional days filled per payment of marketed oral anticoagulants, 331 v 114 for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs, P<0.001). Payments for speaker and consulting fees for non-insulin diabetes drugs were associated with

  12. Rapid, Simple, and Versatile Manufacturing of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors at Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Samanta, Arabinda; Toelen, Jaan; Debyser, Zeger

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated viral (AAV) manufacturing at scale continues to hinder the application of AAV technology to gene therapy studies. Although scalable systems based on AAV–adenovirus, AAV–herpesvirus, and AAV–baculovirus hybrids hold promise for clinical applications, they require time-consuming generation of reagents and are not highly suited to intermediate-scale preclinical studies in large animals, in which several combinations of serotype and genome may need to be tested. We observed that during production of many AAV serotypes, large amounts of vector are found in the culture supernatant, a relatively pure source of vector in comparison with cell-derived material. Here we describe a high-yielding, recombinant AAV production process based on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection of HEK293 cells and iodixanol gradient centrifugation of concentrated culture supernatant. The entire process can be completed in 1 week and the steps involved are universal for a number of different AAV serotypes. Process conditions have been optimized such that final purified yields are routinely greater than 1 × 1014 genome copies per run, with capsid protein purity exceeding 90%. Initial experiments with vectors produced by the new process demonstrate equivalent or better transduction both in vitro and in vivo when compared with small-scale, CsCl gradient-purified vectors. In addition, the iodixanol gradient purification process described effectively separates infectious particles from empty capsids, a desirable property for reducing toxicity and unwanted immune responses during preclinical studies. PMID:20497038

  13. Manufacturing a Porous Structure According to the Process Parameters of Functional 3D Porous Polymer Printing Technology Based on a Chemical Blowing Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. J.; Shin, B. S.; Kang, B. S.; Yun, D. H.; You, D. B.; Hong, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new porous polymer printing technology based on CBA(chemical blowing agent), and describe the optimization process according to the process parameters. By mixing polypropylene (PP) and CBA, a hybrid CBA filament was manufactured; the diameter of the filament ranged between 1.60 mm and 1.75 mm. A porous polymer structure was manufactured based on the traditional fused deposition modelling (FDM) method. The process parameters of the three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer printing (PPP) process included nozzle temperature, printing speed, and CBA density. Porosity increase with an increase in nozzle temperature and CBA density. On the contrary, porosity increase with a decrease in the printing speed. For porous structures, it has excellent mechanical properties. We manufactured a simple shape in 3D using 3D PPP technology. In the future, we will study the excellent mechanical properties of 3D PPP technology and apply them to various safety fields.

  14. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-06

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  15. Dispersion and toxicity of selected manufactured nanomaterials in natural river water samples: effects of water chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Youn, Sejin; Hovsepyan, Anna; Llaneza, Veronica L; Wang, Yu; Bitton, Gabriel; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-01

    Experimental conditions that mimic likely scenarios of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) introduction to aquatic systems were used to assessthe effect of nanoparticle dispersion/solubility and water chemical composition on MN-toxicity. Aqueous suspensions of fullerenes (C60), nanosilver (nAg), and nanocopper (nCu) were prepared in both deionized water and filtered (0.45 microm) natural river water samples collected from the Suwannee River basin, to emphasize differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and solution ionic strengths (I). Two toxicity tests, the Ceriodaphnia dubia and MetPLATE bioassays were used. Results obtained from exposure studies show that water chemistry affects the suspension/solubility of MNs as well as the particle size distribution, resulting in a wide range of biological responses depending on the type of toxicity test used. Under experimental conditions used in this study, C60 exhibited no toxicity even when suspended concentrations exceeded 3 mg L(-1). MetPLATE results showed that the toxicity of aqueous suspensions of nCu tends to increase with increasing DOC concentrations, while increasing I reduces nCu toxicity. The use of the aquatic invertebrate C. dubia on the other hand showed a tendency for decreased mortality with increasing DOC and I. MetPLATE results for nAg showed decreasing trends in toxicity with increasing DOC concentrations and I. However, C. dubia exhibited contrasting biological responses, in that increasing DOC concentrations reduced toxicity, while the latter increased with increasing I. Overall, our results show that laboratory experiments that use DI-water and drastic MN-suspension methods may not be realistic as MN-dispersion and suspension in natural waters vary significantly with water chemistry and the reactivity of MNs.

  16. Manufacture of fiber-epoxy test specimens: Including associated jigs and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S. B.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental work on the manufacture and strength of graphite-epoxy composites is considered. The correct data and thus a true assessment of the strength properties based on a proper and scientifically modeled test specimen with engineered design, construction, and manufacture has led to claims of a very broad spread in optimized values. Such behavior is in the main due to inadequate control during manufacture of test specimen, improper curing, and uneven scatter in the fiber orientation. The graphite fibers are strong but brittle. Even with various epoxy matrices and volume fraction, the fracture toughness is still relatively low. Graphite-epoxy prepreg tape was investigated as a sandwich construction with intermittent interlaminar bonding between the laminates in order to produce high strength, high fracture toughness composites. The quality and control of manufacture of the multilaminate test specimen blanks was emphasized. The dimensions, orientation and cure must be meticulous in order to produce the desired mix.

  17. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 2, segment 3: Test plan for determining hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive test plan for determining the hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes is presented. The rationale for each test is based on a systematic analysis of historical accounts of accidents and a detailed study of the characteristics of each manufacturing process. The most hazardous manufacturing operations have been determined to be pressing, mixing, reaming, and filling. The hazard potential of a given situation is evaluated in terms of the probabilities of initiation, communication, and transition to detonation (ICT). The characteristics which affect the ICT probabilities include the ignition mechanisms which are present either in normal or abnormal operation, the condition and properties of the pyrotechnic material, and the configuration of the processing equipment. Analytic expressions are derived which describe the physical conditions of the system, thus permitting a variety of processes to be evaluated in terms of a small number of experiments.

  18. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  19. Adverse events associated with ultrasonic scalers: A manufacturer and user facility device experience database analysis.

    PubMed

    Thennukonda, Rajagopal Athmarao; Natarajan, Bhavani Rekha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) associated with ultrasonic scaler reported to the Food and Drug Administration manufacturer and user facility device experience (MAUDE) database. The authors reviewed the ultrasonic scaler units (USU) related AEs reported to MAUDE from October 1, 1995, to September 31, 2015. Analyses of details collected are presented. MAUDE received a total of 667 unique USU-related AE reports. Of 667 cases, MAUDE classified 628 instances (94.2%) as malfunction 27 (4%) as injurious, 10 (1.5%) as others, and 2 (0.3%) claiming the use of USU as cause of death. Of the 667 cases, 511 (76.6%) were used for endodontic application, and 147 (22%) as scaler applications. In 512 (76.8%) instances, there was separation of the tips, posing danger to patients or users, and 112 (16.8%) instances of overheating, 12 (1.8%) instances of breakage, and electrical issues in 8 (1.2%) instances. These AE resulted in 19 instances of thermal injury, 2 suspicious deaths, and hearing loss in 3 cases. In 4 cases, patient swallowed broken parts requiring additional medical care. Use of USU, a Class 2 device without exemption, carries a degree of risk to patient's safety, if not properly used. As of today, MAUDE data is the only reliable source of AE until another database or such study is carried out. Certain AE that has been largely anecdotal, such as hearing loss has been reported in this study. The findings from study reiterate that more in-depth analysis of AE of USU is needed. Until then operator needs to take all precautions to avoid AE when using USU.

  20. Positive Association Between Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Hyperuricemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Sarah Dee; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia in children is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, and future cardiovascular disease. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) levels have been shown to be positively associated with hyperuricemia in adults, but the association in children remains unexplored. We therefore examined the association between serum PFOA and PFOS levels and hyperuricemia in a representative sample of US children. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,772 participants ≤18 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2000 and 2003–2008. The main outcome of interest was hyperuricemia, defined as serum uric acid levels ≥6 mg/dL. We found that serum levels of PFOA and PFOS were positively associated with hyperuricemia, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, annual household income, physical activity, serum total cholesterol, and serum cotinine levels. Compared with subjects in quartile 1 (referent), subjects in quartile 4 had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for hyperuricemia of 1.62 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.37) for PFOA and 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.49) for PFOS. Our findings indicate that serum perfluoroalkyl chemical levels are significantly associated with hyperuricemia in children even at the lower “background” exposure levels of the US general population. PMID:23552989

  1. National Electrical Manufacturers Association and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Brain PET/CT Scanner.

    PubMed

    Grogg, Kira S; Toole, Terrence; Ouyang, Jinsong; Zhu, Xuping; Normandin, Marc D; Li, Quanzheng; Johnson, Keith; Alpert, Nathaniel M; El Fakhri, Georges

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a novel mobile human brain/small-animal PET/CT system. The scanner has a 35.7-cm-diameter bore and a 22-cm axial extent. The detector ring has 7 modules each with 3 × 4 cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal blocks, each consisting of 22 × 22 outer-layer and 21 × 21 inner-layer crystals, each layer 1-cm thick. Light is collected by 12 × 12 silicon photomultipliers. The integrated CT can be used for attenuation correction and anatomic localization. The scanner was designed as a low-cost device that nevertheless produces high-quality PET images with the unique capability of battery-powered propulsion, enabling use in many settings. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, and noise-equivalent counting rate were measured based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-2012 procedures. Reconstruction was done with tight energy and timing cuts-400-650 keV and 7 ns-and loose cuts-350-700 keV and 10 ns. Additional image quality measurements were made from phantom, human, and animal studies. Performance was compared with a reference scanner with comparable imaging properties. The full width at half maximum transverse resolution at a 1-cm (10-cm) radius was 3.2 mm (5.2-mm radial, 3.1-mm tangential), and the axial resolution was 3.5 mm (4.0 mm). A sensitivity of 7.5 and 11.7 kcps/MBq at the center for tight and loose cuts, respectively, increased to 8.8 and 13.9 kcps/MBq, respectively, at a 10-cm radial offset. The maximum noise-equivalent counting rate of 19.5 and 22.7 kcps for tight and loose cuts, respectively, was achieved for an activity concentration of 2.9 kBq/mL. Contrast recovery for 4:1 hot cylinder to warm background was 76% for the 25-mm-diameter cylinder but decreased with decreasing cylinder size. The quantitation agreed within 2% of the known activity distribution and concentration. Brain phantom and human scans have shown agreement in SUVs and image quality with the reference

  2. Drug development and manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  3. Microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio surface features and associated methods of manufacture and use

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2002-01-01

    A microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio features and ultrasmooth surfaces, and associated method of manufacture and use is described. An LIGA-produced shaped bit is used to contour polish the surface of a sacrificial mandrel. The contoured sacrificial mandrel is subsequently coated with a structural material and the mandrel removed to produce microdevices having micrometer-sized surface features and sub-micrometer RMS surface roughness.

  4. A further cohort study of workers employed at a factory manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry, with special reference to the chemicals 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), aniline, phenyl-beta-naphthylamine and o-toluidine.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, T; Hamilton, L; Jackson, J R

    2000-02-01

    To investigate mortality and cancer morbidity in workers from a factory manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry. The mortality (1955-96) and cancer morbidity experience (1971-92) of a cohort of 2160 male production workers from a chemical factory in north Wales were investigated. All subjects had at least 6 months employment at the factory and some employment in the period 1955-84. Detailed job histories were abstracted from company computerised records and estimates of individual cumulative exposure to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and its derivatives were obtained, with a job exposure matrix derived by a former factory hygienist. Durations of employment in the aniline, phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBN) and o-toluidine departments were also calculated. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. Based on serial rates for the general population of England and Wales, observed mortality for the total cohort was close to expectation for all causes (observed (obs) deaths 1131, expected (exp) deaths 1114.5, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 101), and for all cancers (obs 305, exp 300.2, SMR 102). There was a significant (p < 0.05) excess mortality from cancer of the bladder in the 605 study subjects potentially exposed to one or more of the four chemicals being investigated (obs 9, exp 3.25, SMR 277, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 127 to 526). This excess was dependent primarily on deaths occurring > 20 years after first exposure in those who started employment before 1955 (obs 7, exp 1.25, SMR 560, 95% CI 225 to 1154, p < 0.001). There were 30 subjects in the total study cohort who, on the basis of death certificates or cancer registration particulars, had had malignant bladder cancer. In separate analyses of the four exposure history variables (after adjustment for age), Poisson regression showed significant positive trends for risk of notification of bladder cancer increasing with cumulative duration of employment in

  5. A compilation of safety impact information for extractables associated with materials used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery, administration, and manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Carlson, Tage

    2014-01-01

    uses four uncertainty factors, each assigned a factor of 10, which consider the quality and relevance of the data, differences in route of administration, non-human species to human extrapolations, and inter-individual variation among humans. In addition to the risk index values, all extractables and most of their surrogates were classified for structural safety alerts using Cramer rules and for mutagenicity alerts using an in silico approach (Benigni/Bossa rule base for mutagenicity via Toxtree). Lastly, in vitro mutagenicity data (Ames Salmonella typimurium and Mouse Lymphoma tests) were collected from available databases (Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information and Carcinogenic Potency Database). The frequency distributions of the resulting data were established; in general risk index values were normally distributed around a band ranging from 5 to 20 mg/day. The risk index associated with 95% level of the cumulative distribution plot was approximately 0.1 mg/day. Thirteen extractables in the dataset had individual risk index values less than 0.1 mg/day, although four of these had additional risk indices, based on multiple different toxicological endpoints, above 0.1 mg/day. Additionally, approximately 50% of the extractables were classified in Cramer Class 1 (low risk of toxicity) and approximately 35% were in Cramer Class 3 (no basis to assume safety). Lastly, roughly 20% of the extractables triggered either an in vitro or in silico alert for mutagenicity. When Cramer classifications and the mutagenicity alerts were compared to the risk indices, extractables with safety alerts generally had lower risk index values, although the differences in the risk index data distributions, extractables with or without alerts, were small and subtle. Leachables from packaging systems, manufacturing systems, or delivery devices can accumulate in drug products and potentially affect the drug product. Although drug products can be analyzed for leachables (and material extracts

  6. Association of Yersinia enterocolitica with the manufacture of cheese and occurrence in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, D A

    1978-01-01

    Raw milk in southern Ontario frequently contains Yersinia enterocolitica. The potential for transmission of this organism by cheese manufactured from unpasteurized milk was evaluated by examination of milk and cheese curd samples from cheese manufacturing plants and finished cheddar and Italian cheeses. The incidence of Y. enterocolitica was lower in cheese curd samples (9.2%) than in raw milk (18.2%). Most of the curd samples showed a positive phosphatase test, indicating production from raw milk. One curd sample yielded Y. enterocolitica after 4 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C but was negative after 8 weeks. All samples of cheddar and Italian cheeses, most of which showed a positive phosphatase test, were negative for Y. enterocolitica. One out of 265 samples (0.4%) of pasteurized fluid dairy products contained Y. enterocolitica. PMID:211937

  7. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing... withdrawn, DEA will also provide written notice to the bidder and end-user, which will contain a statement... in the illegal manufacture of a controlled substance, DEA will provide written notice to the head...

  8. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administration. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing... withdrawn, DEA will also provide written notice to the bidder and end-user, which will contain a statement... in the illegal manufacture of a controlled substance, DEA will provide written notice to the head...

  9. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing... withdrawn, DEA will also provide written notice to the bidder and end-user, which will contain a statement... in the illegal manufacture of a controlled substance, DEA will provide written notice to the head...

  10. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administration. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing... withdrawn, DEA will also provide written notice to the bidder and end-user, which will contain a statement... in the illegal manufacture of a controlled substance, DEA will provide written notice to the head...

  11. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2604(a)(1)(A)) for the manufacture and processing of new... requirements under paragraph (j) of this section. (b) Definitions—(1) Act means the Toxic Substances Control...

  12. Increased Risk of Respiratory Mortality Associated with the High-Tech Manufacturing Industry: A 26-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Christiani, David C; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-06-03

    Global high-tech manufacturers are mainly located in newly industrialized countries, raising concerns about adverse health consequences from industrial pollution for people living nearby. We investigated the ecological association between respiratory mortality and the development of Taiwan's high-tech manufacturing, taking into account industrialization and socioeconomic development, for 19 cities and counties-6 in the science park group and 13 in the control group-from 1982 to 2007. We applied a linear mixed-effects model to analyze how science park development over time is associated with age-adjusted and sex-specific mortality rates for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Asthma and female COPD mortality rates decreased in both groups, but they decreased 9%-16% slower in the science park group. Male COPD mortality rates increased in both groups, but the rate increased 10% faster in the science park group. Science park development over time was a significant predictor of death from asthma (p ≤ 0.0001) and COPD (p = 0.0212). The long-term development of clustered high-tech manufacturing may negatively affect nearby populations, constraining health advantages that were anticipated, given overall progress in living standards, knowledge, and health services. National governments should incorporate the long-term health effects on local populations into environmental impact assessments.

  13. Increased Risk of Respiratory Mortality Associated with the High-Tech Manufacturing Industry: A 26-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Christiani, David C.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Global high-tech manufacturers are mainly located in newly industrialized countries, raising concerns about adverse health consequences from industrial pollution for people living nearby. We investigated the ecological association between respiratory mortality and the development of Taiwan’s high-tech manufacturing, taking into account industrialization and socioeconomic development, for 19 cities and counties—6 in the science park group and 13 in the control group—from 1982 to 2007. We applied a linear mixed-effects model to analyze how science park development over time is associated with age-adjusted and sex-specific mortality rates for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Asthma and female COPD mortality rates decreased in both groups, but they decreased 9%–16% slower in the science park group. Male COPD mortality rates increased in both groups, but the rate increased 10% faster in the science park group. Science park development over time was a significant predictor of death from asthma (p ≤ 0.0001) and COPD (p = 0.0212). The long-term development of clustered high-tech manufacturing may negatively affect nearby populations, constraining health advantages that were anticipated, given overall progress in living standards, knowledge, and health services. National governments should incorporate the long-term health effects on local populations into environmental impact assessments. PMID:27271647

  14. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

  15. Manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

  16. Association of polyfluoroalkyl chemical exposure with serum lipids in children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin; Emo, Brett; Vaughn, Michael; Bao, Jia; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Li, Jie; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-04-15

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as well as polymers of PFASs, have been widely used in commercial applications and have been detected in humans and the environment. Previous epidemiological studies have shown associations between particular PFAS chemicals and serum lipid concentrations in adults, particularly perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). There exists, however, limited information concerning the effect of PFASs have on serum lipids among children. In the present cross-sectional study, 225 Taiwanese children (12-15 years of age) were recruited to determine the relationship between serum level PFASs and lipid concentration. Results showed that eight out of ten particular PFASs were detected in the serum of >94% of the participants. Serum PFOS and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) levels were at an order of magnitude higher than the other PFASs, with arithmetical means of 32.4 and 30.7 ng/ml in boys and 34.2 and 27.4 ng/ml in girls, respectively. However, the variation in serum PFTA concentration was quite large. Following covariate adjustment, linear regression models revealed that PFOS, PFOA, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were positively associated with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG), particularly for PFOS and PFTA. Quartile analysis, with the lowest exposure quartile as a reference, yielded associations between serum PFTA and elevations in TC (p=0.002) and LDL (p=0.004). Though not statistically significant, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) appeared to decrease linearly across quartiles for PFOS and PFOA exposure. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between serum PFASs and lipid level in Taiwanese children. These findings for PFTA are novel, and emphasize the need to investigate the exposure route and toxicological evidence of PFASs beyond PFOS and PFOA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Physico-chemical characteristics of different types of vegetable fats and oils used in the manufacture of candies].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M I; López-Jiménez, J A; Pérez-Llamas, F; Zamora, S

    1997-01-01

    The quality of three vegetable fats (cocoa butter and two commercial fats) and three roasted nut oils (almond, hazelnut and peanut) used as raw material in the chocolate products manufacturing was studied. The hydroperoxide content, oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were determined and its health repercussion by atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. Two commercial fats and cocoa butter showed higher oxidative stability, atherogenic and thrombogenic properties than oils because of its different fatty acid profiles. Peroxide value was a low reliability parameter of raw material shelf live. Rancimat presented a good correlation with the unsaturation index of different fats and oils, it was a better index than peroxide value. In the chocolate products manufacturing it would be advisable a good raw material selection and formulation in order to get a balance between technological properties, organoleptic qualities and the influence on the health. Those raw material with less primary oxidation and higher oxidative stability were also those of higher atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes.

  18. Microscopic identification of asbestos fibres associated with African clay crafts manufacture.

    PubMed

    Khudu-Petersen, K; Bard, D; Garrington, N; Yarwood, J; Tylee, B

    2000-03-01

    The use of asbestos in manufacturing is a world-wide phenomenon, not just confined to the developed world. The activity described below shows that there are similar problems in the third world which need to be tackled. A sample of white fibrous material used in pot making by women in a village of Botswana was provided for analysis. The identification of fibres was carried out using established analytical and vibrational microspectroscopic methods. The occupational hygiene implications and the measures which may need to be taken in order to improve the safety of the pot making process are discussed in this article.

  19. Changes on physico-chemical properties, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds during the manufacture of celta dry-cured loin.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Franco, D; Carril, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2015-08-01

    The present study deals with the changes on the main technological characteristics and volatile compounds profile of a traditional Spanish dry-ripened loin from Celta pig breed. The evolution of physicochemical properties, colour, texture, free fatty acid profile and volatile compounds were assessed throughout the process seasoning, post-seasoning and after 30 and 60 days of dry-ripening. As it was expected, pH, moisture and activity water were significantly (P < 0.001) influenced by ripening time. Statistical analysis also displayed that colour parameters (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*) decreased significantly (P < 0.001) during the manufacturing process. On the other hand, lipid oxidation reached the highest levels at the end of process with mean values of 0.34 mg MDA/kg. Regarding total FFA, a significant (P < 0.001) increase was observed during the manufacturing process, being MUFA the most abundant at the end of process. Finally, sixty seven volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of Celta dry-cured loin. At the end of process, volatile compounds from microbial activity were the most abundant followed by volatile compounds from lipid oxidation.

  20. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used... article consisting of a positive image receiving sheet, a light sensitive negative sheet, and a sealed... incorporated into a photographic article, or if it is contained in a sealed reaction vessel or pipeline, or if...

  1. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used... article consisting of a positive image receiving sheet, a light sensitive negative sheet, and a sealed... incorporated into a photographic article, or if it is contained in a sealed reaction vessel or pipeline, or if...

  2. The influence of salt concentration on the chemical, ripening and sensory characteristics of Iranian white cheese manufactured by UF-Treated milk.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mostafa; Guzeler, Nuray; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2015-08-01

    Iranian White cheese was manufactured from ultrafiltered cows' milk using different concentrations of salt consisting of 1, 2.5, 4% and salt free. Chemical composition, proteolysis, counts for lactic acid bacteria and sensory evaluation were examined during 90 d of ripening. It was found that the use of different salt concentrations significantly influenced all chemical composition, proteolysis, total number of lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Increasing the salt concentrations caused a proportional decrease in proteolysis determined by both urea-PAGE of caseins and RP-HPLC of peptides. With increased salt concentration, total number of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Cheeses with 1 and 2.5% salt were suitable and acceptable in odour and flavour that may be due to the proportional level of proteolysis products. In conclusion, reducing salt concentration from 4 to 2.5 and 1% had no ineligible effect on the quality and acceptability of the cheese.

  3. Critical Factors Associated with Substance Abuse and Chemical Dependency in Nurse Anesthesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jack; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted survey to identify characteristics associated with chemical dependency among chemically dependent nurse anesthetists. Subjects were 21 nurse anesthetists who had been chemically dependent, had completed some form of drug treatment, and had been chemically free for at least one year. Investigated areas of employment setting, educational…

  4. Critical Factors Associated with Substance Abuse and Chemical Dependency in Nurse Anesthesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jack; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted survey to identify characteristics associated with chemical dependency among chemically dependent nurse anesthetists. Subjects were 21 nurse anesthetists who had been chemically dependent, had completed some form of drug treatment, and had been chemically free for at least one year. Investigated areas of employment setting, educational…

  5. Chemical speciation of lead dust associated with primary lead smelting.

    PubMed Central

    Spear, T M; Svee, W; Vincent, J H; Stanisich, N

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this article assessed geochemical factors relating to dust produced during primary lead smelting. Bulk dust samples and size-selective airborne dust samples were collected from four areas of a primary lead smelter and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and sequential chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction showed that the smelter dusts were composed primarily of sulfides, oxides, sulfates, and silicates of metal ores, with galena being the primary dust component. Sequential extraction revealed the solubility of lead compounds at less than 7% in the exchangeable and mildly acidic steps for the bulk dusts collected from four smelter areas. The later steps of the extraction procedure were more effective in dissolving the lead compounds associated with the bulk dust samples, with 43%, 26%, and 8% of the total lead, in the ore storage, sinter, and blast/dross smelter areas, respectively, being extracted in the residual step. Sequential extraction of coarse airborne dust samples from the ore storage and sinter plant showed that 1.2% and 4.1% of the total lead, respectively, was exchangeable. The finer particle size fractions from these areas of the smelter showed higher percentages of exchangeable lead. Of the course airborne dust from the blast/dross furnace processes, 65% of the total lead was exchangeable. However, the largest percentage of lead from these areas was associated with the finer particle-size fractions. If lead bioavailability is related to its solubility as determined through sequential extraction, the health hazards associated with lead exposure may be appreciably enhanced in the blast and dross furnace processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721256

  6. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  7. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  8. Combining U.S.-based prioritization tools to improve screening level accountability for environmental impact: the case of the chemical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2009-12-15

    There are two quantitative indicators that are most widely used to assess the extent of compliance of industrial facilities with environmental regulations: the quantity of hazardous waste generated and the amount of toxics released. These indicators, albeit useful in terms of some environmental monitoring, fail to account for direct or indirect effects on human and environmental health, especially when aggregating total quantity of releases for a facility or industry sector. Thus, there is a need for a more comprehensive approach that can prioritize a particular chemical (or industry sector) on the basis of its relevant environmental performance and impact on human health. Accordingly, the objective of the present study is to formulate an aggregation of tools that can simultaneously capture multiple effects and several environmental impact categories. This approach allows us to compare and combine results generated with the aid of select U.S.-based quantitative impact assessment tools, thereby supplementing compliance-based metrics such as data from the U.S. Toxic Release Inventory. A case study, which presents findings for the U.S. chemical manufacturing industry, is presented to illustrate the aggregation of these tools. Environmental impacts due to both upstream and manufacturing activities are also evaluated for each industry sector. The proposed combinatorial analysis allows for a more robust evaluation for rating and prioritizing the environmental impacts of industrial waste.

  9. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  10. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  11. Analysis and assessment of film materials and associated manufacturing processes for a solar sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradbury, E. J.; Jakobsen, R. J.; Sliemers, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Candidate resin manufacturers and film producers were surveyed to determine the availability of key materials and to establish the capabilities of fabricators to prepare ultrathin films of these materials within the capacity/cost/time constraints of the Halley program. Infrared spectra of three candidate samples were obtained by pressing each sample against an internal reflection crystal with the polymer sandwiched between the crystal and the metal backing. The sample size was such that less than one-fourth of the surface of the crystal was covered with the sample. This resulted in weak spectra requiring a six-fold expansion. Internal reflection spectra of the three samples were obtained using both a KRS-5 and a Ge internal reflection crystal. Subtracted infrared spectra of the three samples are presented.

  12. Search for associations containing young stars: chemical tagging IC 2391 and the Argus association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, G. M.; D'Orazi, V.; Melo, C.; Torres, C. A. O.; Gieles, M.; Quast, G. R.; Sterzik, M.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the possible connection between the open cluster IC 2391 and the unbound Argus association identified by the search for associations containing young stars survey. In addition to common kinematics and ages between these two systems, here we explore their chemical abundance patterns to confirm if the two substructures shared a common origin. We carry out a homogenous high-resolution elemental abundance study of eight confirmed members of IC 2391 as well as six members of the Argus association using UVES spectra. We derive spectroscopic stellar parameters and abundances for Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni and Ba. All stars in the open cluster and Argus association were found to share similar abundances with the scatter well within the uncertainties, where [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.03 for cluster stars and [Fe/H] = -0.06 ± 0.05 for Argus stars. Effects of overionization/excitation were seen for stars cooler than roughly 5200 K as previously noted in the literature. Also, enhanced Ba abundances of around 0.6 dex were observed in both systems. The common ages, kinematics and chemical abundances strongly support the fact that the Argus association stars originated from the open cluster IC 2391. Simple modelling of this system finds this dissolution to be consistent with two-body interactions.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  14. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand. PMID:22991565

  15. Chemical signals associated with life inhibit necrophoresis in Argentine ants

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Rust, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most conspicuous and stereotyped activities of social insects such as ants and honey bees is necrophoresis, the removal of dead colony members from the nest. Previous researchers suggested that decomposition products such as fatty acids trigger necrophoric behavior by ant workers. However, fatty acids elicit both foraging and necrophoric responses, depending on the current nest activities (e.g., feeding or nest maintenance). Furthermore, workers often carry even freshly killed workers (dead for <1 h) to refuse piles before significant decomposition has a chance to occur. Here, we show that the cuticular chemistry of Argentine ant workers, Linepithema humile, undergoes rapid changes after death. When the workers are alive or freshly killed, relatively large amounts of 2 characteristic ant-produced compounds, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, are present on the ants' cuticle. However, these compounds disappear from the cuticle within about 1 h after death. We demonstrate how this phenomenon supports an alternative mechanism of ant necrophoresis in which the precise recognition and rapid removal of dead nestmates are elicited by the disappearance of these chemical signals associated with life. PMID:19416815

  16. Pretreatment of ultra-high concentrated wastewater from phthalonitrile resin manufacturing by chemical precipitation, reduction and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingqing; Yuan, Yue; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Yuexi

    2016-05-05

    To remove the toxic and refractory pollutants in the phthalonitrile resin wastewater and improve its biodegradability, a combined process (i.e., CaCl2+AA+Fe/Cu/air) was developed to pretreat this wastewater obtained from a phthalonitrile resin manufacturing plant in southwestern China. First, CO3(2-) was precipitated and removed by adding CaCl2. Furthermore, its ultra-high concentrated NO2(-) (22.7±0.1 g/L) was reduced into N2 by adding amidosulphonic acid (AA). Meanwhile, two control experiments were setup to confirm the superiority of the combined process (i.e., CaCl2+AA). Subsequently, the wastewater was further treated by Fe/Cu/air process after the removal of CO3(2-) and NO2(-). The results suggest that the developed method not only could effectively remove the ultra-high concentrated CO3(2-) (>99%) and NO2(-) (>99%), but also could obtain high COD (58.8%) and colority (95.2%) removal efficiencies. Meanwhile, B/C ratio of this wastewater increased from 0.19 to 0.45, which suggests the biodegradability also was improved significantly. Finally, the high treatment efficiency was mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of CaCl2, AA and Fe/Cu/air. Therefore, the combined process is a promising pretreatment process for the ultra-high concentrated wastewater from phthalonitrile resin manufacturing.

  17. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J

    2009-11-01

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase (50 degrees C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38 degrees C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  18. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda.

  19. Principles of Toxicological Interactions Associated with Multiple Chemical Exposures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    across membranes. Any physiologically active chemical that alters the flow rate and volume of fluid in the cardiovascular or lymphatic system may also...antihypertensive (hypotensive) agents, and other cardiovascular drugs may influence the distribution of other chemicals. The rate at which an absorbed...coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic kidney disease, there is evidence that the pathologic process

  20. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H2O2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Hooreweder, Brecht Van; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H2O2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experience of the prospective bidder or end-user in the maintenance of effective controls against diversion... name and address of the prospective bidder; (3) The name and address of the prospective end-user, in... appropriate, prospective end-user; and (5) The end use of the chemical. (c) Within fifteen calendar days of...

  3. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... containing ergocristine will not be exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all... regulatory requirements at any concentration, unless an application for exemption of a chemical mixture is... process discussed below. The Table of Concentration Limits in 21 CFR 1310.12(c) is hereby modified to...

  4. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reagent pod containing a developer reagent and designed so that all the chemical substances required to... NIOSH Certified Equipment List, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH publication No. 80... exposure safeguards. Engineering controls such as, but not limited to, isolation, enclosure, local exhaust...

  5. Direct Head-to-Head Evaluation of Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Vectors Manufactured in Human versus Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Kondratov, Oleksandr; Marsic, Damien; Crosson, Sean M; Mendez-Gomez, Hector R; Moskalenko, Oleksandr; Mietzsch, Mario; Heilbronn, Regine; Allison, Jonathan R; Green, Kari B; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2017-08-10

    The major drawback of the Baculovirus/Sf9 system for recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) manufacturing is that most of the Bac-derived rAAV vector serotypes, with few exceptions, demonstrate altered capsid compositions and lower biological potencies. Here, we describe a new insect cell-based production platform utilizing attenuated Kozak sequence and a leaky ribosome scanning to achieve a serotype-specific modulation of AAV capsid proteins stoichiometry. By way of example, rAAV5 and rAAV9 were produced and comprehensively characterized side by side with HEK293-derived vectors. A mass spectrometry analysis documented a 3-fold increase in both viral protein (VP)1 and VP2 capsid protein content compared with human cell-derived vectors. Furthermore, we conducted an extensive analysis of encapsidated single-stranded viral DNA using next-generation sequencing and show a 6-fold reduction in collaterally packaged contaminating DNA for rAAV5 produced in insect cells. Consequently, the re-designed rAAVs demonstrated significantly higher biological potencies, even in a comparison with HEK293-manufactured rAAVs mediating, in the case of rAAV5, 4-fold higher transduction of brain tissues in mice. Thus, the described system yields rAAV vectors of superior infectivity and higher genetic identity providing a scalable platform for good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade vector production. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Employees' perception of lighting conditions in manufacturing plants: associations with illuminance measurements.

    PubMed

    Vahedi, Abdollah; Dianat, Iman

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the employees' subjective assessments of different aspects of lighting condition as well as task area illuminance in manufacturing plants. This field study was conducted between March and May 2013, in three packing plants (Saveh, central Iran). Data were collected by questionnaire and measurement of the task area illuminance levels. Data were analysed using contingency coefficient test, Spearman's correlation analysis and non-parametric Friedman tests. The recommended illuminance levels were not met in 46.9% of the work areas. This finding was in agreement with the employees' perception of light level, and with low satisfaction with lighting in the work environment. Adverse effects of lighting condition on job performance, changing posture for better viewing of the work area and eye tiredness were reported as 64%, 33% and 31% of the employees, respectively. Satisfaction with lighting was negatively correlated with the age of respondents (r=-0.229; P<0.010). The employees' satisfaction with lighting was also highly correlated with the employees' subjective assessments of the light level (r=0.779; P<0.001), type of artificial light sources (r=0.591; P<0.001), light colour (r=0.50; P<0.001) and use of daylight (r=0.254; P<0.004). The type of artificial light sources was correlated with job performance (r=0.311, P<0.001) and eye tiredness (r=0.273; P<0.002). The findings highlight the potential usefulness of subjective assessments to supplement objective measures and provide a more holistic approach to lighting design and planning.

  7. Improvement of the pad wear shape in fixed abrasive chemical-mechanical polishing for manufacturing optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, N. Y.; Tian, Y. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2015-07-01

    Fixed abrasive chemical mechanical polishing has some advantages in generating planarity surfaces of optical components. The surface after polishing has better uniformity, and the material removal rate is much more than the traditional chemical mechanical polishing. The pad wear shape has a significant effect on the uniformity of the surface in the chemical mechanical polishing process. The shape of the pad after wear is almost concave, and it has been challenging to create a flat surface. Therefore, there is a requirement for creating a better pad shape. The better the pad shape is, the more uniform the surface is. Kinematic analysis has been done to investigate the effect of the conditioning process on the pad shape. Some proposals are presented to create a better pad shape. In this paper, kinematic aspects of effects of the conditioner speed and the pad speed on the pad shape were investigated. In addition, a new model, including new designs of the conditioner and pad, is proposed. The conditioner in the new model is static instead of oscillation. The new model generates a better uniformity of the pad shape compared to the old model. The result was validated by an algorithm which was validated by the experiments reported in our previous paper.

  8. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75μm range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  9. Acid mediated chemical treatment to remove sugar from waste acid stream from nano-crystalline cellulose manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sampa; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Pulicharla, Rama; Berry, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) is a nano-scale biomaterial derived from highly abundant natural polymer cellulose. It is industrially produced by concentrated acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. However, presences of as high as 5-10% of sugar monomers in spent sulphuric acid during the manufacturing process, makes it unsuitable for such recycling or reuse of sulphuric acid. Currently, the industry has been using membrane and ion exchange technology to remove such sugars, however, such technologies cannot achieve the target of 80-90% removal. In the current investigation, thermal treatment and acid mediated thermal treatment have been evaluated for sugar removal from the spent sulphuric acid. Almost complete removal of sugar has been achieved by this approach. Maximum sugar removal efficiency (99.9%) observed during this study was at 120±1°C for 60min using 0.8 ratio (sample: acid) or at 100±1°C for 40min using 1.5 ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical, physical and microbial properties and microbial diversity in manufactured soils produced from co-composting green waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J; Sturm, E C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of adding biosolids to a green waste feedstock (100% green waste, 25% v/v biosolids or 50% biosolids) on the properties of composted products were investigated. Following initial composting, 20% soil or 20% fly ash/river sand mix was added to the composts as would be carried out commercially to produce manufactured soil. Temperatures during composting reached 50 °C, or above, for 23 days when biosolids were included as a composting feedstock but temperatures barely reached 40 °C when green waste alone was composted. Addition of biosolids to the feedstock increased total N, EC, extractable NH(4), NO(3) and P but lowered pH, macroporosity, water holding capacity, microbial biomass C and basal respiration in composts. Additions of soil or ash/sand to the composts greatly increased the available water holding capacity of the materials. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA amplicons separated bacterial communities according to addition of soil to the compost. For fungal ITS-RNA amplicons, PCA separated communities based on the addition of biosolids. Bacterial species richness and Shannon's diversity index were greatest for composts where soil had been added but for fungal communities these parameters were greatest in the treatments where 50% biosolids had been included. These results were interpreted in relation to soil having an inoculation effect and biosolids having an acidifying effect thereby favouring a fungal community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in the Chemical Industry. 1987 Survey of ACS Corporation Associates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    In July, 1986, the American Chemical Society (ACS) initiated a study which was intended to address future trends in the chemical industry. A survey was developed by and distributed to the member companies of Corporation Associates, which is the formal link between ACS and the chemical industry. The Executive Summary of the report, which makes up…

  12. The practice of quality-associated costing: application to transfusion manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    This article applies the new method of quality-associated costing (QAC) to the mixture of processes that create red cell and plasma products from whole blood donations. The article compares QAC with two commonly encountered but arbitrary models and illustrates the invalidity of clinical cost-benefit analysis based on these models. The first, an "isolated" cost model, seeks to allocate each whole process cost to only one product class. The other is a "shared" cost model, and it seeks to allocate an approximately equal share of all process costs to all associated products.

  13. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  14. Association of working hours with biological indices related to the cardiovascular system among engineers in a machinery manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Iwasaki, K; Oka, T; Hisanaga, N

    1999-10-01

    A field survey of 278 engineers (20-59 years) in a machinery manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the association of working hours with biological indices related to the cardiovascular system (heart rate variability, blood pressure and serum levels of magnesium, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cholesterol). Average working hours (defined as <"hours at workplace" + "half a commuting time">) and sleeping hours in this study were 60.2 +/- 6.3 hr/week and 6.6 +/- 0.8 hr/day respectively. There were no significant relationships between working hours and biological indices related to the cardiovascular system, but sleeping hours was closely related to working hours negatively. Furthermore, the serum DHEA-S level was significantly related to sleeping hours positively. Combining these two results, it appeared that long working hours might lower the serum DHEA-S level due to the reduction of sleeping hours.

  15. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, D.

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  16. An evaluation of the VOST method for non-halogenated compounds at a agricultural chemical manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Bursey, J.T.; McGaughey, J.F.; Merrill, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory testing and one field evaluation study have been performed to assess the performance of the VOST method non-halogenated volatile organic analytes listed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper reports on a second field evaluation study performed at a different source category to demonstrate that the methodology is riot source-specific. An incinerator that burned chemical waste was selected as the second test site. The field test was designed according to the guidelines of EPA Method 301, using gaseous dynamic spiking. Volatile organic compounds were spiked into two of four quadruple VOST trains as a gaseous spike. A minimum of ten quadruple sampling runs each was performed for VOST. Each quadruple run used four collocated sampling probes attached to four similar sampling trains, with two spiked trains and two unspiked trains. Statistical analysis of the results was performed according to the guidelines of EPA Method 301. Using the EPA Method 301 criteria for acceptable performance (correction factor between 0.70 and 1.30, with relative standard deviation of 50% or less), the VOST methodology showed acceptable performance in a chemical waste incinerator emissions matrix for the following compounds: benzene, n-hexane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and toluene.

  17. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  18. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  19. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in kenaf bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality papers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; Del Río, José C

    2004-07-28

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a high syringyl/guaiacyl ratio (5.4) and minor amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units. Simultaneously, sinapyl and coniferyl acetates were also identified, indicating that this lignin is partially acetylated. p-Hydroxycinnamic acids were found in only trace amounts. The main lipids identified by GC/MS of extracts from kenaf fibers were series of long-chain n-fatty acids, waxes, n-alkanes, and n-fatty alcohols. Free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones, as well as steryl glycosides, were also found. Finally, the fate of the main constituents of kenaf fibers in alkaline pulping was also investigated.

  20. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; del Río, José C

    2006-03-22

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by GC/MS of the hemp fibers extracts were series of n-alkanes, free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, waxes, and long-chain n-fatty acids. Other compounds such as n-aldehydes, n-fatty alcohols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones as well as steryl glycosides were also found.

  1. The Extreme Chemical Environments Associated with Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, Lucy

    Mass loss from dying stars is the main avenue by which material enters the interstellar medium, and eventually forms solar systems and planets. When stars consume all the hydrogen burning in their core, they start to burn helium, first in their centers, and then in a surrounding shell. During these phases, the so-called ``giant branches,'' large instabilities are created, and stars begin to shed their outer atmospheres, producing so-called circumstellar envelopes. Molecules form readily in these envelopes, in part by LTE chemistry at the base of the stellar photosphere, and also by radical reactions in the outer regions. Eventually most stars shed almost all their mass, creating ``planetary nebulae,'' which consist of a hot, ultraviolet-emitting white dwarf surrounded by the remnant stellar material. The environs in such nebulae are not conducive to chemical synthesis; yet molecular gas exits. The ejecta from these nebulae then flows into the interstellar medium, becoming the starting material for diffuse clouds, which subsequently collapse into dense clouds and then stars. This molecular ``life cycle'' is repeated many times in the course of the evolution of our Galaxy. We have been investigating the interstellar molecular life cycle, in particular the chemical environments of circumstellar shells and planetary nebulae, through both observational and laboratory studies. Using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), we have conducted broad-band spectral-line surveys to characterize the contrasting chemical and physical properties of carbon (IRC +10216) vs. oxygen-rich envelopes (VY CMa and NML Cyg). The carbon-rich types are clearly more complex in terms of numbers of chemical compounds, but the O-rich variety appear to have more energetic, shocked material. We have also been conducting surveys of polyatomic molecules towards planetary nebulae. Species such as HCN, HCO+, HNC, CCH, and H2CO appear to be common constituents of these objects, and their

  2. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOH001)

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.E.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site is located at 3550 Dixie Highway, Fairfield, Ohio. Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company produced hollow uranium slugs in a machine shop at the site in 1956. The work was performed for National Lead of Ohio in a contract with the Atomic Energy Commission to augment the capacity of the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald in the development of nuclear energy for defense-related projects. The current occupant of the building, Force Control, operates a multipurpose machine shop. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio. The survey was performed from February to May of 1995. The purpose of the survey was to verify that radioactivity from residues of {sup 238}U was remediated to a level below acceptable DOE guidelines levels.

  3. Development of a process for the manufacture of shelf stable dhal and its physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Mahwash; Jha, Alok; Rasane, Prasad; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-09-01

    Thermally processed, ready-to consume dhal with natural sensory attributes was developed. Product optimization was done using two variables, retort process time and ratio of water to dhal. Dhal were packed in retortable pouches and processed in a stationary air-steam retort. The product was characterized by a short lag period for the heating curve, j h (0.52-0.64), small heating rate index, f h (3.9-6.5 min) and a short lag factor for the cooling curve, j c (0.53-0.73) implying essentially convective heating regime. The total process time (B') was 11.56-40.25 min for F o value of 2.30-27.30 min. Process time of 25 min at 121 °C and ratio of water to dhal of 2.5 yielded a product that was microbiologically safe as well as sensorily acceptable. During storage, chemical parameters like thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid increased, while pH decreased with concomitant decrease in sensory scores. Textural properties like, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity underwent a significant (P < 0.05) increase during the storage.

  4. Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze

    1998-12-31

    Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

  5. Microbial levels in Michigan apple cider and their association with manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Bobe, Gerd; Thede, Donna J; Ten Eyck, Toby A; Bourquini, Leslie D

    2007-05-01

    In recent decades, apple cider has been implicated in a series of outbreaks of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and concentrations of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms in apple cider processed in Michigan and to evaluate the impact of thermal pasteurization, UV light radiation, and implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plans on these microbes. Cider samples were obtained from Michigan mills between 1997 and 2004 and analyzed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, generic E. coli, total coliforms, and aerobic bacteria. Neither E. coli O157:H7 nor Salmonella were detected in any tested cider samples, suggesting a very low frequency of pathogens in Michigan apple cider. The persistent and relatively high frequency of generic E. coli observed in samples obtained in all years indicates a continued risk of pathogen contamination in Michigan apple cider, especially when it is untreated. The use of thermal pasteurization or UV light radiation and reported implementation of HACCP plans were associated with lower frequency and counts of generic E. coli, total coliforms, and aerobic microorganisms. However, the relatively high counts of indicator organisms in some cider samples that were claimed to be treated according to these pathogen reduction measures indicates that some processors had inadequate practices, facilities, or equipment for pathogen reduction or did not consistently or adequately apply practices or pathogen-reduction equipment in an effective manner.

  6. Utilization of wastewater originated from naturally fermented virgin coconut oil manufacturing process for bioextract production: physico-chemical and microbial evolution.

    PubMed

    Tripetchkul, Sudarut; Kusuwanwichid, Sasithorn; Koonsrisuk, Songpon; Akeprathumchai, Saengchai

    2010-08-01

    Production of virgin coconut oil via natural fermentation has led to large amount of wastes being generated, i.e., coconut pulp and wastewater containing coconut crème. Objective of this study is to gain more insight into the feasibility of utilization of such wastes as raw materials together with several types of wastes such as fish waste and/or pineapple peel for bioextract production. Chemical, physico-chemical and biological changes including phytotoxicity of the fermented mixture were closely monitored. Physical observation suggested that fermentation of bioextract obtained with fish waste appeared to be complete within the first month of fermentation while bioextract obtained using pineapple waste seemed to be complete after 8 months post-fermentation. Fermentation broth is of blackish color with alcoholic as well as acidic odour with no gas bubble and/or yeast film present on top of the surface. During the whole fermentation interval, several attributes of both bioextracts, e.g., pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic acids, were statistically different. Further, the total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria present in pineapple bioextract were statistically higher than those of the fish bioextract (p<0.01). The highest germination indices of 123 and 106 were obtained at 21 and 14 days post-fermentation for fish and pineapple bioextracts, respectively. In addition, qualities of both bioextracts conformed well with those specified by the Thai standard for liquid biofertilizer after 1 month fermentation. Results further showed that wastewater derived from virgin coconut oil manufacturing process could effectively be employed together with other types of wastes such as fish waste and pineapple peel for bioextract production. However, for the best bioextract quality, fermentation should be carefully planned since over fermentation led to bioextract of low qualities.

  7. Manufacturing and Characterization of a Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Type 8 Reference Standard Material

    PubMed Central

    Ayuso, Eduard; Blouin, Véronique; Lock, Martin; McGorray, Susan; Leon, Xavier; Alvira, Mauricio R.; Auricchio, Alberto; Bucher, Stephanie; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Clark, K. Reed; Darmon, Christophe; Doria, Monica; Fountain, Will; Gao, Guangping; Gao, Kai; Giacca, Mauro; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Leuchs, Barbara; Melas, Catherine; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Müller, Marcus; Noordman, Yvet; Bockstael, Olivier; Ozawa, Keiya; Pythoud, Catherine; Sumaroka, Marina; Surosky, Richard; Tenenbaum, Liliane; van der Linden, Inge; Weins, Brigitte; Wright, J. Fraser; Zhang, Xinhua; Zentilin, Lorena; Bosch, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gene therapy approaches using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) and serotype 8 (rAAV8) have achieved significant clinical benefits. The generation of rAAV Reference Standard Materials (RSM) is key to providing points of reference for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for gene transfer vectors. Following the example of the rAAV2RSM, here we have generated and characterized a novel RSM based on rAAV serotype 8. The rAAV8RSM was produced using transient transfection, and the purification was based on density gradient ultracentrifugation. The rAAV8RSM was distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols to 16 laboratories worldwide. Mean titers and 95% confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles (mean, 5.50×1011 pt/ml; CI, 4.26×1011 to 6.75×1011 pt/ml), vector genomes (mean, 5.75×1011 vg/ml; CI, 3.05×1011 to 1.09×1012 vg/ml), and infectious units (mean, 1.26×109 IU/ml; CI, 6.46×108 to 2.51×109 IU/ml). Notably, there was a significant degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This outcome emphasizes the need to use RSMs to calibrate the titers of rAAV vectors in preclinical and clinical studies at a time when the field is maturing rapidly. The rAAV8RSM has been deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (VR-1816) and is available to the scientific community. PMID:25275822

  8. Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Changes During Manufacture of an Italian Goat Cheese Made from Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Dalzini, Elena; Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Sfameni, Chiara; Monastero, Paola; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina Nadia; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-12-09

    The aim of this work was to study the microbiological and physico-chemical changes throughout three cheesemaking replicates of Italian Formaggelle di capra cheese made from raw goat milk. Therefore, during the process, three samples of milk, curd and cheese at 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 30 days of ripening old cheese were taken from three cheesemaking replicates. The average of total mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae count in raw milk was 5.27±0.57 and 3.8±1.02 Log cfu/mL, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria was the predominant bacterial group during the process, and they developed in different ways in each of the media used (M17 and MRS agar). Variability of microbial concentrations was observed between three cheesemaking replicates. A correlation between the presence of higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae in milk and the presence of other contaminants bacteria such as Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase-positive and coagulase-positive staphylococci was observed. In cheesemaking replicate n. 2, E. coli level was 5.07±0.03 Log cfu/mL and increased by about 1 log until the last week of ripening, when the level decreased to 5.69±0.2 Log cfu/mL. The milk used for the cheesemaking replicate n. 2 was found to be contaminated also by coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.18±0.06 Log cfu/mL), but the behaviour of this group appeared to be very variable. In this study a first step of process control and microbial groups study was performed and the cheesemaking process was registered in the website www.ars-alimentaria.it, the Italian site supported by the Italian Board of Health.

  9. Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaguo; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2017-06-01

    Mechanical and chemical defects incurred by grinding and polishing as well as post-processing have been recognized as the most influential culprits that hamper the elevation of laser power/energy in high peak power/energy laser systems. In order to find out the causes for limiting the operational power of laser systems, the effects of these defects on laser damage and removal and mitigation of the defects were investigated in detail in the article. Cracks and scratches were created, annealed, etched and damaged so as to reveal the likely effects of mechanical defects on damage and potential techniques to reduce their influence. The results show that HF-based etching can open and smooth cracks/scratches, improving laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) at scratches by up to >250%. Thermal annealing did heal, to some extent, cracks but the LIDT is little improved. Both HF-etching and leaching proves to be effective in removing metallic contamination during polishing process and handling of optics, which can "contribute" to damage/damage density in fused silica. However, HF-based etching may degrade surface roughness, from <1 nm to >20 nm under some conditions when >20 μm material was etched away while the surface roughness was perceptibly altered by leaching (<1 nm to 1-2 nm). Although the LIDT might not be directly correlated to each individual kind of metallic contaminants or surface roughness, it is found that the surfaces with the highest LIDT's have some distinguished characteristics: clean surface (almost no metallic contamination) plus very smooth surface (RMS surface roughness: <5 nm). By removing metallic contamination and scratches, surface damage threshold of fused silica can exceed >30 J/cm2 (355 nm @3 ns, beam diameter 400 μm @1/e2), a significant progress.

  10. Different Methods of Manufacturing Fe-Based Oxygen Carrier Particles for Reforming Via Chemical Looping, and Their Effect on Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeton, J. P. E.; Bonn, C. D.; Müller, C. R.; Dennis, J. S.; Scott, S. A.

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a means of combusting carbonaceous fuels, which inherently separates the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the remaining combustion products, and has the potential to be used for the production of high-purity hydrogen. Iron-based oxygen carriers for CLC have been subject to considerable work; however, there are issues regarding the lifespan of iron-based oxygen carriers over repeated cycles. In this work, haematite (Fe2O3) was reduced in an N2+CO+CO2 mixture within a fluidised bed at 850°C, and oxidised back to magnetite (Fe3O4) in a H2O+N2 mixture, with the subsequent yield of hydrogen during oxidation being of interest. Subsequent cycles started from Fe3O4 and two transition regimes were studied; Fe3O4↔Fe0.947O and Fe3O4↔Fe. Particles were produced by mechanical mixing and co-precipitation. In the case of co-precipitated particles, Al was added such that the ratio of Fe:Al by weight was 9:1, and the final pH of the particles during precipitation was investigated for its subsequent effect on reactivity. This paper shows that co-precipitated particles containing additives such as Al may be able to achieve consistently high H2 yields when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe, and that these yields are a function of the ratio of [CO2] to [CO] during reduction, where thermodynamic arguments suggest that the yield should be independent of this ratio. A striking feature with our materials was that particles made by mechanical mixing performed much better than those made by co-precipitation when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe0.947O, but much worse than co-precipitated particles when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe.

  11. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles and the cellular responses were evaluated. Contrary to what happens with silica, no SiC cytotoxicity was observed but pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses of variable intensity were evidenced. Oxidative stress (H₂O₂ production) appeared related to SiC particle size, while iron level regulated pro-inflammatory response (TNFα production). To investigate the impact of surface reactivity on the biological responses, coarse SiC C1 and fine SiC F1 powders were submitted to different thermal treatments (650-1400 °C) in order to alter the oxidation state of the particle surface. At 1400 °C a decrease in TNFα production and an increase in HO·, COO(·-) radicals production were observed in correlation with the formation of a surface layer of crystalline silica. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between surface oxidation state and in vitro toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs.

  13. Chemical changes associated with lotus and water lily natto production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, S. D.; Fatimah, N.; Nopianti, R.

    2017-04-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting whole soybean seeds with pure culture of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and water lily (Nymphaea stellata) seeds as the raw materials for natto production. Chemical (proximate, amino acids and minerals) changes were observed on raw, steamed and fermented seeds. Proximate compositions of all samples were calculated in both wet basis and dry basis. In wet basis calculation, steaming and fermentation tended to lower the carbohydrates, ashes, fats and protein content which were attributed to the increase of moisture. The total amino acid, iron and magnesium contents of raw lotus seeds were 24.29%, 5.08 mg 100g-1 and 174.23 mg 100g-1 dry matter, respectively. After a 24h-fermentation at 40°C, the total amino acids decreased while iron and magnesium contents increased significantly reaching, in respective order, 9.9 mg 100g-1 and 411.36 mg 100g-1 dry matter. Changes in chemical composition after fermentation were more pronounced in lotus seeds than water lily seeds indicating that their nutrient composition were more suitable to support Bacillus subtilis growth.

  14. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  15. Chemical fluctuations associated with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves

    SciTech Connect

    Salby, M.L.; Callaghan, P. ); Soloman, S. NOAA, Boulder, CO ); Garcia, R.R. )

    1990-11-20

    Satellite retrievals of ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the Nimbus-7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) reveal distinct spectral features which are collocated in frequency with Kelvin wave temperature fluctuations. These features represent a significant component of the unsteady variance in retrievals of O{sub 3} and nighttime NO{sub 2} in the tropics and are very similar to Kelvin wave temperature disturbances. Chemical fluctuations occur symmetrically about the equator, in phase across the tropics, and propagate downward, all consistent with the behavior of equatorial Kelvin waves. The phase structure of ozone perturbations mirrors that of temperature fluctuations in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, only shifted 180{degree}. The regular phase tilt with altitude disappears in the middle to lower stratosphere, where it is replaced by more or less barotropic behavior. That change in phase structure marks a transition fromn photochemical control in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere to dynamical control in the lower stratosphere. Fluctuations in ozone are consistent with dynamical and chemical mechanisms operating on that species. The response of ozone in a detailed photochemical calculation driven by observed temperature variability locks into agreement with the observed ozone variability above about 4 mbar, where O{sub 3} is under photochemical control. At lower altitudes, vertical transport is able to explain both the magnitude and phase of the observed fluctuations in ozone. The same considerations have only mixed success in explaining the observed variability of nitrogen dioxide. The amplitude of nighttime NO{sub 2} fluctuations is underestimated in the photochemical calculation by about a factor of 2. Although large enough to explain the discrepancy, contributions from vertical transport have the wrong phase.

  16. Results of the radiological survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOH001)

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.; Carrier, R.F.; Mathis, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey of the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company facility, Fairfield, Ohio. The survey was performed in July and September 1992. The purpose of the survey was to determine if the facility had become contaminated with residuals containing radioactive materials during the work performed under government contract from February to September, 1956. The survey included gamma scanning over a circumscribed area around and outside of the building, and gamma scanning over most accessible indoor floor surfaces as well as the collection of soil and other samples for radionuclide analyses. Roof trusses were beta-gamma scanned in locations where floor contamination was found. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in indoor and outdoor samples, and radiation measurements over floor and overhead surfaces, in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines. Elevated uranium concentrations outdoors were limited to several small, isolated spots. Radiation measurements exceeded guidelines indoors over numerous spots and areas inside the building, mainly in the areas that had been used in the early government work.

  17. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  18. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  19. First reported fatalities associated with the 'research chemical' 2-methoxydiphenidine.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon P; Brandt, Simon D; Wallach, Jason; Morris, Hamilton; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2015-05-01

    2-Methoxydiphenidine, i.e. 1-[1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine, also known as 'MXP' or '2-MeO-diphenidine' (or 2-MXP), has been available as a 'research chemical' since 2013 as a purported alternative to the 'dissociative anesthetics' methoxetamine and ketamine. Three deaths which involved the detection of 2-MXP in post-mortem blood and urine were encountered in forensic casework. The 2-, 3- and 4-methoxyphenyl positional isomers were synthesized to confirm the identity and concentration of 2-MXP. The 2-MXP femoral blood concentrations in the cases were found to be 24.0, 2.0 and 1.36 mg/L (the latter with an alternative cause of death). Some additional prescription drugs were encountered at therapeutic concentrations in all three cases. Analysis of the biofluids allowed the detection and characterization of various metabolites, including the suggested presence of hydroxy-2-MXP as the main metabolite with the hydroxyl group located on the piperidine rather than the phenyl or benzyl moiety. Additional metabolites included O-desmethyl-2-MXP and hydroxylated O-desmethyl-2-MXP. Diphenidine and hydroxy-diphenidine, also showing the presence of the hydroxyl group on the piperidine ring, were also detected. It was not possible to identify whether these arose from 2-MXP biotransformation or whether they represented the presence of diphenidine as a separate substance. These are the first published fatalities involving 2-MXP and presents analytical data to assist analytical toxicologists with future casework.

  20. Comparison Between the Chemical Data Reporting Rule and the Toxics Release Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discussion of the basics of the CDR and TRI data collected by EPA, and a look at how combining these datasets can give users a more complete picture of chemical manufacturing and processing and the associated chemical waste generated.

  1. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM FILTER PRESS OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposures (inhalation and dermal) and releases (air, water, solids, and process streams) associated with the filtration of industrial wastewater sludge from an electronics manufacturing plant were characterized. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a target chemical (t...

  2. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM FILTER PRESS OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposures (inhalation and dermal) and releases (air, water, solids, and process streams) associated with the filtration of industrial wastewater sludge from an electronics manufacturing plant were characterized. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a target chemical (t...

  3. [Analysis of associations of polymorphic loci of a tumor suppressor gene TP53 with malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers].

    PubMed

    Mukhammadiyeva, G F; Bakirov, A B; Karimova, L K; Valeyeva, E T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the role of TP53 tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms in the occurrence of skin malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers. We carried out a comparative study of polymorphous loci Arg72Pro and dup16bp in TP53 gene in workers with skin cancer and hyperkeratosis (n = 68), occupied in continuous glass fiber manufacture, and in healthy workers (n = 52). The associations of both Pro and dup16 minor alleles of TP53 gene, and Arg/Pro-W/dup16 genotype combination with higher risks for skin oncologic diseases of occupational genesis have been revealed.

  4. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  5. The chemical composition of young galactic clusters and associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J. F.

    1986-09-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric data for main-sequence stars in the southern clusters NGC 2362, 3293, 4755, 6611, 6231, 6531, IC 2944, the Northern Hemisphere clusters h and Chi Per, Cep OBIII, Be 94, and a loose association obtained between April 1984-September 1985 using the South African Astronomical Observatory, Anglo-Australian, and Issac Newton telescopes are analyzed. The observed line strength and photometric data are compared with predictions derived using local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative-transfer codes. It is observed that, except for the stars of NGC 6611, the effective temperatures and gravities correlate well. Mean abundances for the southern clusters are derived and compared with the data of Lynga (1981); the good agreement between the average abundance for each cluster and those for normal objects indicate that the stars in this region formed from relatively homogeneous interstellar material.

  6. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  7. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  8. Manufacturers' Views of Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ann R.; Russell, Jill Frymier

    A survey of manufacturers was conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and the National Center for Research in Vocational Education to elicit the views of NAM members about vocational education--the effectiveness of vocational education, the collaborative activities between manufacturers and vocational education, and…

  9. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-02

    Nine Leuconostoc mesenteroides phages were isolated during blue cheese manufacture yielding faulty products with reduced eye formation. Their morphologies, restriction profiles, host ranges and long-term survival rates (25°C, 8°C, -20°C and -80°C) were analysed. Based on restriction analysis, six of them were further examined regarding resistance to physical (heat and high pressure homogenization, HPH) and chemical treatments (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, biocides A, C, E and F). According to their morphology, L. mesenteroides phages studied in the present work belonged to the Caudovirales order and Siphoviridae family. Six distinct restriction patterns were obtained with EcoRV, HindIII, ClaI and XhoI enzymes, revealing interesting phage diversity in the dairy environment. No significant reductions in phage counts were observed after ten months of storage at -20°C and -80°C, while slightly and moderate decrease in phage numbers were noticed at 8°C and 25°C, respectively. The phages subjected to heat treatments generally showed high resistance at 63°C and moderate resistance at 72°C. However, 80°C for 30 min and 90°C for 2 min led to complete inactivation of viral particles. In general, the best ethanol concentration tested was 75%, as complete inactivation for most Leuconostoc phages within 30 min of incubation was achieved. Peracetic acid, and biocides A, C, E and F were highly effective when used at the same or at a moderately lower concentration as recommended by the producer. Usually, moderate or high concentrations (600-1,600 ppm) of sodium hypochlorite were necessary to completely inactivate phage particles. Leuconostoc phages were partially inactivated by HPH treatments as remaining viral particles were found even after 8 passes at 100 MPa. This is the first report of L. mesenteroides phages isolated from an Argentinean dairy cheese plant. The results of this work could be useful for establishing the most effective physical and

  10. Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Cohen, Samuel M; Doull, John; Feron, Victor J; Goodman, Jay I; Marnett, Lawrence J; Munro, Ian C; Portoghese, Philip S; Waddell, William J; Wagner, Bernard M; Adams, Timothy B

    2005-08-01

    The current status of the GRAS evaluation program of flavoring substances operated by the Expert Panel of FEMA is discussed. The Panel maintains a rigorous rotating 10-year program of continuous review of scientific data related to the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Panel concluded a comprehensive review of the GRAS (GRASa) status of flavors in 1985 and began a second comprehensive review of the same substances and any recently GRAS materials in 1994. This second re-evaluation program of chemical groups of flavor ingredients, recognized as the GRAS reaffirmation (GRASr) program, is scheduled to be completed in 2005. The evaluation criteria used by the Panel during the GRASr program reflects the significant impact of advances in biochemistry, molecular biology and toxicology that have allowed for a more complete understanding of the molecular events associated with toxicity. The interpretation of novel data on the relationship of dose to metabolic fate, formation of protein and DNA adducts, enzyme induction, and the cascade of cellular events leading to toxicity provides a more comprehensive basis upon which to evaluate the safety of the intake of flavor ingredients under conditions of intended use. The interpretation of genotoxicity data is evaluated in the context of other data such as in vivo animal metabolism and lifetime animal feeding studies that are more closely related to actual human experience. Data are not viewed in isolation, but comprise one component that is factored into the Panel's overall safety assessment. The convergence of different methodologies that assess intake of flavoring substances provides a greater degree of confidence in the estimated intake of flavor ingredients. When these intakes are compared to dose levels that in some cases result in related chemical and biological effects and the subsequent toxicity, it is clear that exposure to these substances through flavor use presents no significant human health risk.

  11. Alkemio: association of chemicals with biomedical topics by text and data mining

    PubMed Central

    Gijón-Correas, José A.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Fontaine, Jean F.

    2014-01-01

    The PubMed® database of biomedical citations allows the retrieval of scientific articles studying the function of chemicals in biology and medicine. Mining millions of available citations to search reported associations between chemicals and topics of interest would require substantial human time. We have implemented the Alkemio text mining web tool and SOAP web service to help in this task. The tool uses biomedical articles discussing chemicals (including drugs), predicts their relatedness to the query topic with a naïve Bayesian classifier and ranks all chemicals by P-values computed from random simulations. Benchmarks on seven human pathways showed good retrieval performance (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 73.6 to 94.5%). Comparison with existing tools to retrieve chemicals associated to eight diseases showed the higher precision and recall of Alkemio when considering the top 10 candidate chemicals. Alkemio is a high performing web tool ranking chemicals for any biomedical topics and it is free to non-commercial users. Availability: http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/∼medlineranker/cms/alkemio. PMID:24838570

  12. Alkemio: association of chemicals with biomedical topics by text and data mining.

    PubMed

    Gijón-Correas, José A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Fontaine, Jean F

    2014-07-01

    The PubMed® database of biomedical citations allows the retrieval of scientific articles studying the function of chemicals in biology and medicine. Mining millions of available citations to search reported associations between chemicals and topics of interest would require substantial human time. We have implemented the Alkemio text mining web tool and SOAP web service to help in this task. The tool uses biomedical articles discussing chemicals (including drugs), predicts their relatedness to the query topic with a naïve Bayesian classifier and ranks all chemicals by P-values computed from random simulations. Benchmarks on seven human pathways showed good retrieval performance (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 73.6 to 94.5%). Comparison with existing tools to retrieve chemicals associated to eight diseases showed the higher precision and recall of Alkemio when considering the top 10 candidate chemicals. Alkemio is a high performing web tool ranking chemicals for any biomedical topics and it is free to non-commercial users. http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/∼medlineranker/cms/alkemio. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  14. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  15. Genotoxic risk in rubber manufacturing industry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Moretto, Angelo

    2014-10-15

    A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies among workers employed in the rubber manufacturing industry has indicated a significant excess cancer risk in a variety of sites. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently classified the "Occupational exposures in the rubber-manufacturing industry" as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). A genotoxic mechanism for the increased cancer risk was suggested on the basis of the evidence from the scientific literature. Exposure assessment studies have shown that workers in the rubber manufacturing industry may be exposed to different airborne carcinogenic and/or genotoxic chemicals, such as certain aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, although the available information does not allow to establish a causal association of cancer or genotoxic risk with particular substances/classes of chemicals or specific jobs. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate, by conducting a systematic review, the available biomonitoring studies using genotoxicity biomarkers in rubber manufacturing industry. This systematic review suggests that a genotoxic hazard may still be present in certain rubber manufacturing industries. A quantitative risk assessment needs further studies addressing the different, processes and chemicals in the rubber manufacturing industries.

  16. Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Other Antimicrobial Chemicals and Their Association with Couples’ Fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Smarr, Melissa M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Honda, Masato; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to parabens and other antimicrobial chemicals is continual and pervasive. The hormone-disrupting properties of these environmental chemicals may adversely affect human reproduction. Objective: We aimed to prospectively assess couples’ urinary concentrations of antimicrobial chemicals in the context of fecundity, measured as time to pregnancy (TTP). Methods: In a prospective cohort of 501 couples, we examined preconception urinary chemical concentrations of parabens, triclosan and triclorcarban in relation to TTP; chemical concentrations were modeled both continuously and in quartiles. Cox’s proportional odds models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for a priori–defined confounders. In light of TTP being a couple-dependent outcome, both partner and couple-based exposure models were analyzed. In all models, FOR estimates < 1.0 denote diminished fecundity (longer TTP). Results: Overall, 347 (69%) couples became pregnant. The highest quartile of female urinary methyl paraben (MP) concentrations relative to the lowest reflected a 34% reduction in fecundity (aFOR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.97) and remained so when accounting for couples’ concentrations (aFOR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.96). Similar associations were observed between ethyl paraben (EP) and couple fecundity for both partner and couple-based models (p-trend = 0.02 and p-trend = 0.05, respectively). No associations were observed with couple fecundity when chemicals were modeled continuously. Conclusions: Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of MP and EP among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models. Citation: Smarr MM, Sundaram R, Honda M, Kannan K, Buck Louis GM. 2016. Urinary concentrations of parabens and other antimicrobial chemicals and their association with couples’ fecundity. Environ

  17. Dairy maturation of milk used in the manufacture of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese: effects on physico-chemical characteristics, rennet-coagulation aptitude and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Sandri, Sandro; Pecorari, Mauro; Vecchia, Paola; Mariani, Primo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of dairy maturation on the physico-chemical characteristics and technological properties of milk used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese manufacture. Three different operating conditions (CF1, CF2 and CF3) were considered. Full cream milk from the evening milking was stored on the farm and delivered to the cheese factory in churns (CF1) or in thermoregulated tanks at a temperature not lower than 18 degrees C (CF2 and CF3). The natural creaming (10-12 h overnight) was performed in a traditional large flat vat containing 10-12 hl (CF1 and CF2) or in thermoregulated large flat vats containing 60 hl at about 15 degrees C (CF3). Twenty-four, 24 and 22 maturation trials were performed in CF1, CF2, and CF3, respectively, during 2 consecutive years. A significant increase (P

  18. Resistance to Increasing Chemical Classes of Fungicides by Virtue of "Selection by Association" in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D; Schnabel, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that Botrytis cinerea isolates with resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides exist in eastern strawberry fields. In this study, the fungicide resistance profiles of 2,130 isolates from flowers of commercial strawberry fields located in multiple states was determined over four consecutive strawberry production seasons. Producers were asked to alternate single-site fungicides that were considered low risk in their specific location based on resistance monitoring results in their fields. This recommendation led to an increase of chemical class diversity used in the spray programs. Results indicated that simultaneous resistance in individual isolates to two, three, four, five, six, and seven classes of fungicides increased over time. The increase in chemical class resistances within isolates was likely due to a process we termed "selection by association", where fungicide resistance traits were often linked to the trait being selected rather than the selectable trait itself. Data analysis also indicated that the odds were highest for isolates resistant to one chemical class (1CCR) to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl; for 2CCR isolates to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl and pyraclostrobin; and for 3CCR isolates to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and either cyprodinil or fenhexamid. We hypothesize that the more chemical classes are used in a spray program, the faster isolates will be selected with increasing numbers of chemical class resistances by virtue of selection by association if such isolates preexist in the population.

  19. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Simon, Jeremy M; McCoy, Eric S; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J

    2016-03-31

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders.

  20. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Simon, Jeremy M.; McCoy, Eric S.; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. PMID:27029645

  1. Premalignant and neoplastic skin lesions associated with occupational exposure to “tarry” byproducts during manufacture of 4,4'-bipyridyl

    PubMed Central

    Bowra, G T; Duffield, D P; Osborn, A J; Purchase, I F H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skin lesions have been identified in 20 workers manufacturing 4,4'-bipyridyl. The lesions were on the face, neck, and backs of the hands and arms. Larger localised lesions were removed surgically and examined histopathologically, but other lesions have been treated topically with fluorouracil cream. Histological diagnosis showed a progression from keratosis to Bowen's disease and, in six cases, to squamous cell carcinoma. Over 550 individuals associated with 4,4'-bipyridyl processes between 1961 and 1980 have been examined or questioned. All 20 patients identified worked in now obsolete production plants; 15 of whom were found among the 147 shift process operators. The time taken for the lesions to appear from first working on a 4,4'-bipyridyl plant was 6-19 years (average 12 years). Starting in the early 1960s three processes have been successively used to convert pyridine into 4,4'-bipyridyl. These differ in the reaction conditions used and in the efficiency of the conversion. In the two earlier plants a substantial quantity of pyridine was converted into polypyridyls and “tarry” byproducts, which caused operating difficulties and increased the risk of worker exposure. The exposure and occupational histories of the cases, including the fact that two had worked only on the obsolete production plants, indicates that the causative agent was present in these earlier processes. In-vitro tests for potential carcinogenicity on materials from the present plant and from an earlier process gave positive tests on the tarry byproducts from the earlier process, suggesting that they were the cause of the lesions. Tar impurity production on the present plant is minimal, and worker exposure to chemicals is low. No similar skin lesions have been seen in those who have worked only on the present plant. This observation supports the view that the causative agent was present only on the earlier plants but is not conclusive because of the shorter time that has elapsed

  2. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  3. Self-poisoning by drugs and chemicals: variations in demographics, associated factors and final outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed Ibrahim; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah; Mohd Zain, Zaininah

    2008-01-01

    Drug overdose exposures were compared with chemical poisoning in terms of demographics, associated factors and final outcomes. Deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) cases admitted to Penang General Hospital during the years 2000-2004 were studied. Chi-square, independent t-test and binary logistic were used whenever applicable. Indian patients were more likely to use household products, whereas Malay and Chinese patients were more likely to take drug overdoses (P=.001). Drug overdose victims experienced more socioeconomic problems (P=.05) and were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (P=.052). Chemical poisoning patients presented earlier (P=.011), were hospitalized for shorter time (P=.001) and had a higher rate of mortality (P=.01). The present study has identified a unique ethnic variation in the choice of suicide attempts from toxic substances. DSP associated with drug overdose showed significant morbidity, but increased mortality was seen in chemical poisoning.

  4. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  5. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  6. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of surface waters associated with animal feeding operations for estrogenic chemicals and activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogens and estrogenic activity (EA) were evaluated in surface waters associated with animal feeding operations. Water was sampled at 19 sites in 12 states using discrete (n=41) and POCIS (n=19) sampling methods. Estrogenic chemicals measured in unfiltered water by GC/MS2 included: estrone (E1),17...

  8. Manufacturing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Martin, Glen L.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, natural laminar flow (NLF) has been proven to be achievable on modern smooth airframe surfaces over a range of cruise flight conditions representative of most current business and commuter aircraft. Published waviness and boundary layer transition measurements on several modern metal and composite airframes have demonstrated the fact that achievable surface waviness is readily compatible with laminar flow requirements. Currently, the principal challenge to the manufacture of NLF-compatible surfaces is two-dimensional roughness in the form of steps and gaps at structural joints. Results of recent NASA investigations on manufacturing tolerances for NLF surfaces, including results of a flight experiment are given. Based on recent research, recommendations are given for conservative manufacturing tolerances for waviness and shaped steps.

  9. Antimicrobial Chemicals Are Associated with Elevated Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Indoor Dust Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Hickey, Roxana; Hsu, Tiffany; Betancourt Román, Clarisse M; Chen, Jing; Schwager, Randall; Kline, Jeff; Brown, G Z; Halden, Rolf U; Huttenhower, Curtis; Green, Jessica L

    2016-09-20

    Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The dust resistome was characterized by identifying antibiotic resistance genes annotated in the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) from the metagenomes of each sample using the Short, Better Representative Extract Data set (ShortBRED). The three most highly abundant antibiotic resistance genes were tet(W), blaSRT-1, and erm(B). The complete dust resistome was then compared against the measured concentrations of antimicrobial chemicals, which for triclosan ranged from 0.5 to 1970 ng/g dust. We observed six significant positive associations between the concentration of an antimicrobial chemical and the relative abundance of an antibiotic resistance gene, including one between the ubiquitous antimicrobial triclosan and erm(X), a 23S rRNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance to several antibiotics. This study is the first to look for an association between antibiotic resistance genes and antimicrobial chemicals in dust.

  10. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    PubMed

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  11. Antimicrobial Chemicals Are Associated with Elevated Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Indoor Dust Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The dust resistome was characterized by identifying antibiotic resistance genes annotated in the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) from the metagenomes of each sample using the Short, Better Representative Extract Data set (ShortBRED). The three most highly abundant antibiotic resistance genes were tet(W), blaSRT-1, and erm(B). The complete dust resistome was then compared against the measured concentrations of antimicrobial chemicals, which for triclosan ranged from 0.5 to 1970 ng/g dust. We observed six significant positive associations between the concentration of an antimicrobial chemical and the relative abundance of an antibiotic resistance gene, including one between the ubiquitous antimicrobial triclosan and erm(X), a 23S rRNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance to several antibiotics. This study is the first to look for an association between antibiotic resistance genes and antimicrobial chemicals in dust. PMID:27599587

  12. Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Other Antimicrobial Chemicals and Their Association with Couples' Fecundity.

    PubMed

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Honda, Masato; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2017-04-01

    Human exposure to parabens and other antimicrobial chemicals is continual and pervasive. The hormone-disrupting properties of these environmental chemicals may adversely affect human reproduction. We aimed to prospectively assess couples' urinary concentrations of antimicrobial chemicals in the context of fecundity, measured as time to pregnancy (TTP). In a prospective cohort of 501 couples, we examined preconception urinary chemical concentrations of parabens, triclosan and triclorcarban in relation to TTP; chemical concentrations were modeled both continuously and in quartiles. Cox's proportional odds models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for a priori-defined confounders. In light of TTP being a couple-dependent outcome, both partner and couple-based exposure models were analyzed. In all models, FOR estimates < 1.0 denote diminished fecundity (longer TTP). Overall, 347 (69%) couples became pregnant. The highest quartile of female urinary methyl paraben (MP) concentrations relative to the lowest reflected a 34% reduction in fecundity (aFOR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.97) and remained so when accounting for couples' concentrations (aFOR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.96). Similar associations were observed between ethyl paraben (EP) and couple fecundity for both partner and couple-based models (p-trend = 0.02 and p-trend = 0.05, respectively). No associations were observed with couple fecundity when chemicals were modeled continuously. Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of MP and EP among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models.

  13. Stable and non-competitive association of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida milleri and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis during manufacture of two traditional sourdough baked goods.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Manuel; Guerrini, Simona; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2012-08-01

    The microbiota occurring in all the manufacturing phases of two Italian sourdough sweet-leavened baked goods (a typical Genoese dry biscuit, Lagaccio, and a soft stuffed North Italian typical cake, Panettone) were investigated over a period of three years. The two sourdough mother sponges were characterized by the stable presence of three dominant microbial species in potential competition for carbohydrates: Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Candida milleri, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations of microbial isolates pointed out that each mother sponge harbored its own strains, well distinguishable by molecular methods of analysis but not differing in their main metabolic properties from those known for the corresponding species. The microbial and biochemical evolution during the whole production protocol of both manufactures demonstrated that the three microbial species grew at almost the same growth rates, without exhausting any of the main carbon substrates (maltose, glucose and fructose). The quite similar growth dynamics under practical conditions and the constant presence of all fermentable carbohydrates were recognized as responsible for the stable non competitive association of maltose-positive and maltose-negative species in both sourdoughs. However, the two sourdoughs were characterized by quite different LAB to yeast ratio, with values significantly higher in Panettone than in Lagaccio. The cause of this difference could mainly be ascribed to the temperature of the mother sponge regeneration phase, that, in the case of Panettone manufacture, occurred under conditions of moderate refrigeration.

  14. Occupational injuries in Ohio wood product manufacturing: a descriptive analysis with emphasis on saw-related injuries and associated causes.

    PubMed

    Beery, Lindsay; Harris, James R; Collins, James W; Current, Richard S; Amendola, Alfred A; Meyers, Alysha R; Wurzelbacher, Steven J; Lampl, Mike; Bertke, Stephen J

    2014-11-01

    Stationary sawing machinery is often a basic tool in the wood product manufacturing industry and was the source for over 2,500 injury/illness events that resulted in days away from work in 2010. We examined 9 years of workers' compensation claims for the state of Ohio in wood product manufacturing with specific attention to saw-related claims. For the study period, 8,547 claims were evaluated; from this group, 716 saw-related cases were examined. The sawmills and wood preservation sub-sector experienced a 71% reduction in average incidence rate and an 87% reduction in average lost-time incidence rate from 2001 to 2009. The top three injury category descriptions for lost-time incidents within saw-related claims were fracture (35.8%), open wounds (29.6%), and amputation (14.8%). For saw-related injuries, preventing blade contact remains important but securing the work piece to prevent kickback is also important. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Occupational Injuries in Ohio Wood Product Manufacturing: A Descriptive Analysis With Emphasis on Saw-Related Injuries and Associated Causes

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Lindsay; Harris, James R.; Collins, James W.; Current, Richard S.; Amendola, Alfred A.; Meyers, Alysha R.; Wurzelbacher, Steven J.; Lampl, Mike; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stationary sawing machinery is often a basic tool in the wood product manufacturing industry and was the source for over 2,500 injury/illness events that resulted in days away from work in 2010. Methods We examined 9 years of workers’ compensation claims for the state of Ohio in wood product manufacturing with specific attention to saw-related claims. For the study period, 8,547 claims were evaluated; from this group, 716 saw-related cases were examined. Results The sawmills and wood preservation sub-sector experienced a 71% reduction in average incidence rate and an 87% reduction in average lost-time incidence rate from 2001 to 2009. The top three injury category descriptions for lost-time incidents within saw-related claims were fracture (35.8%), open wounds (29.6%), and amputation (14.8%). Conclusions For saw-related injuries, preventing blade contact remains important but securing the work piece to prevent kickback is also important. PMID:25123487

  16. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  17. Physico-chemical properties of quartz from industrial manufacturing and its cytotoxic effects on alveolar macrophages: The case of green sand mould casting for iron production.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Pardi, Luca A; Bronco, Simona; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Muniz Miranda, Maurizio; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario; Romanelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-15

    Industrial processing of materials containing quartz induces physico-chemical modifications that contribute to the variability of quartz hazard in different plants. Here, modifications affecting a quartz-rich sand during cast iron production, have been investigated. Composition, morphology, presence of radicals associated to quartz and reactivity in free radical generation were studied on a raw sand and on a dust recovered after mould dismantling. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the processed dust and ROS and NO generation were evaluated on MH-S macrophages. Particle morphology and size were marginally affected by casting processing, which caused only a slight increase of the amount of respirable fraction. The raw sand was able to catalyze OH and CO2(-) generation in cell-free test, even if in a lesser extent than the reference quartz (Min-U-Sil), and shows hAl radicals, conventionally found in any quartz-bearing raw materials. Enrichment in iron and extensive coverage with amorphous carbon were observed during processing. They likely contributed, respectively, to increasing the ability of processed dust to release CO2- and to suppressing OH generation respect to the raw sand. Carbon coverage and repeated thermal treatments during industrial processing also caused annealing of radiogenic hAl defects. Finally, no cellular responses were observed with the respirable fraction of the processed powder.

  18. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  19. Developmental and reproductive effects of chemicals associated with unconventional oil and natural gas operations.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ellen; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila; Cheng, Amanda; Kassotis, Christopher D; Balise, Victoria; Nagel, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations have the potential to increase air and water pollution in communities located near UOG operations. Every stage of UOG operation from well construction to extraction, operations, transportation, and distribution can lead to air and water contamination. Hundreds of chemicals are associated with the process of unconventional oil and natural gas production. In this work, we review the scientific literature providing evidence that adult and early life exposure to chemicals associated with UOG operations can result in adverse reproductive health and developmental effects in humans. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) and formaldehyde] and heavy metals (including arsenic, cadmium and lead) are just a few of the known contributors to reduced air and water quality that pose a threat to human developmental and reproductive health. The developing fetus is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, which include air and water pollution. Research shows that there are critical windows of vulnerability during prenatal and early postnatal development, during which chemical exposures can cause potentially permanent damage to the growing embryo and fetus. Many of the air and water pollutants found near UOG operation sites are recognized as being developmental and reproductive toxicants; therefore there is a compelling need to increase our knowledge of the potential health consequences for adults, infants, and children from these chemicals through rapid and thorough health research investigation.

  20. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  1. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  2. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  3. Comparing the population neurodevelopmental burdens associated with children's exposures to environmental chemicals and other risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the population burden of an exposure that is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment, it is necessary to consider both the effect size associated with the exposure (i.e., the decrease in function per unit increase in biomarker level) and the prevalence of the exposure. An exposure with a modest effect size might, nevertheless, be associated with a substantial population burden if many children are exposed at levels at which the exposure is known to have a detrimental impact. This illustrates the important distinction between individual risk and population risk. A method is described that can be used to compare different risk factors in terms of their contributions to the population burden of neurodevelopmental impairment. Combining estimates of the incidence/prevalence/distribution of different conditions or exposures with estimates, derived from meta-analyses, for the impact of different risk factors on children's Full-Scale IQ scores (FSIQ), the total FSIQ losses associated with each were calculated for the U.S. population of children less than 5 years of age. The losses associated with non-chemical risk factors ranged widely: 34,000,000 FSIQ points for preterm birth, 17,000,000 for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 9,000,000 for iron deficiency, 136,000 for acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 37,000 for brain tumors. The FSIQ losses could be estimated for three chemicals: lead, 23,000,000 points; methylmercury, 285,000 points; and organophosphate pesticides, 17,000,000 points. Many caveats attend these calculations, but the findings suggest that in continuing to apply standards appropriate to evaluating the impact of chemical exposures on an individual child rather than on the population as a whole, we risk underestimating the population burdens associated with them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  5. Chemical changes associated with increased acid resistance of Er:YAG laser irradiated enamel.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Monroy, Jennifer Manuela; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm(2)), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm(2)), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm(2)), respectively. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution.

  6. An Informatics Approach to Evaluating Combined Chemical Exposures from Consumer Products: A Case Study of Asthma-Associated Chemicals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Gabb, Henry A.; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Simultaneous or sequential exposure to multiple environmental stressors can affect chemical toxicity. Cumulative risk assessments consider multiple stressors but it is impractical to test every chemical combination to which people are exposed. New methods are needed to prioritize chemical combinations based on their prevalence and possible health impacts. Objectives: We introduce an informatics approach that uses publicly available data to identify chemicals that co-occur in consumer products, which account for a significant proportion of overall chemical load. Methods: Fifty-five asthma-associated and endocrine disrupting chemicals (target chemicals) were selected. A database of 38,975 distinct consumer products and 32,231 distinct ingredient names was created from online sources, and PubChem and the Unified Medical Language System were used to resolve synonymous ingredient names. Synonymous ingredient names are different names for the same chemical (e.g., vitamin E and tocopherol). Results: Nearly one-third of the products (11,688 products, 30%) contained ≥ 1 target chemical and 5,229 products (13%) contained > 1. Of the 55 target chemicals, 31 (56%) appear in ≥ 1 product and 19 (35%) appear under more than one name. The most frequent three-way chemical combination (2-phenoxyethanol, methyl paraben, and ethyl paraben) appears in 1,059 products. Further work is needed to assess combined chemical exposures related to the use of multiple products. Conclusions: The informatics approach increased the number of products considered in a traditional analysis by two orders of magnitude, but missing/incomplete product labels can limit the effectiveness of this approach. Such an approach must resolve synonymy to ensure that chemicals of interest are not missed. Commonly occurring chemical combinations can be used to prioritize cumulative toxicology risk assessments. Citation: Gabb HA, Blake C. 2016. An informatics approach to evaluating combined chemical

  7. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one’s manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers’ response to an employee’s psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee’s manager’s gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. Methods A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. Results The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor

  8. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Jessica T; Cullen, Mark R; Desai, Manisha; Modrek, Sepideh

    2013-11-08

    Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one's manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers' response to an employee's psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee's manager's gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor of time to first acute injury (p

  9. Effect of chemical etching and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide resulting from manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S; Rondelli, G; Anderegg, J; Simpson, B; Budko, S

    2003-07-15

    The effect of chemical etching in a HF/HNO(3) acid solution and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide has been evaluated with the use of potentiodynamic, modified potentiostatic ASTM F746, and scratch tests. Scanning-electron microscopy, elemental XPS, and Auger analysis were employed to characterize surface alterations induced by surface treatment and corrosion testing. The effect of aging in boiling water on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and shape recovery was evaluated by means of measuring the wire electroresistance. After corrosion tests, as-received wires revealed uniformly cracked surfaces reminiscent of the stress-corrosion-cracking phenomenon. These wires exhibited negative breakdown potentials in potentiostatic tests and variable breakdown potentials in potentiodynamic tests (- 100 mV to + 400 mV versus SCE). Wires with treated surfaces did not reveal cracking or other traces of corrosion attacks in potentiodynamic tests up to + 900-1400-mV potentials and no pitting after stimulation at + 800 mV in potentiostatic tests. They exhibited corrosion behavior satisfactory for medical applications. Significant improvement of corrosion parameters was observed on the reverse scans in potentiodynamic tests after exposure of treated wires to potentials > 1000 mV. In scratch tests, the prepared surfaces repassivated only at low potentials, comparable to that of stainless steel. Tremendous improvement of the corrosion behavior of treated Nitinol wires is associated with the removal of defect surface material and the growth of stable TiO(2) oxide. The role of precipitates in the corrosion resistance of Nitinol-scratch repassivation capacity in particular-is emphasized in the discussion.

  10. Investigation of respiratory and dermal symptoms associated with metal working fluids at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Meza, Francisco; Chen, Lilia; Hudson, Naomi

    2013-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Four hundred seven workers were categorized as MWF exposed or MWF unexposed and completed questionnaires. Estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of dermatitis, asthma, and work-related asthma (WRA) symptoms were calculated. Airborne concentrations of MWF and endotoxin were measured, and work practices observed. MWF exposed workers had a significantly higher prevalence of dermatitis on wrists/forearms (PR 2.59; 95% CI 1.22, 5.46), asthma symptoms (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05, 2.13), and WRA symptoms (PR 2.10; 95% CI 1.22, 3.30) than unexposed workers. Airborne concentrations of MWF were below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for MWF aerosols (thoracic particulate mass). Despite MWF exposures below the NIOSH REL, exposed workers had a higher prevalence of asthma, WRA, and dermatitis symptoms than unexposed workers. Recommendations to reduce exposure included configuring mist collectors to automatically turn on when the machine is in use, and enforcing enclosure use. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Size distributions and exposure concentrations of nanoparticles associated with the emissions of oil mists from fastener manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Fang; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Chun-Wan; Chen, Da-Ren; Dai, Yu-Tung

    2011-12-30

    The aims of the present study were set out to measure size distributions and estimate workers' exposure concentrations of oil mist nanoparticles in three selected workplaces of the forming, threading, and heat treating areas in a fastener manufacturing plant by using a modified electrical aerosol detector (MEAD). The results were further compared with those simultaneously obtained from a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for the validation purpose. Results show that oil mist nanoparticles in the three selected process areas were formed mainly through the evaporation and condensation processes. The measured size distributions of nanoparticles were consistently in the form of uni-modal. The estimated fraction of nanoparticles deposited on the alveolar (AV) region was consistently much higher than that on the head airway (HD) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions in both number and surface area concentration bases. However, a significant difference was found in the estimated fraction of nanoparticles deposited on each individual region while different exposure metrics were used. Comparable results were found between results obtained from both NSAM and MEAD. After normalization, no significant difference can be found between the results obtained from SMPS and MEAD. It is concluded that the obtained MEAD results are suitable for assessing oil mist nanoparticle exposures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Associated with Metal Working Fluids at an Aircraft Engine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Francisco; Chen, Lilia; Hudson, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods 407 workers were categorized as MWF exposed or MWF unexposed and completed questionnaires. Estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of dermatitis, asthma, and work-related asthma (WRA) symptoms were calculated. Airborne concentrations of MWF and endotoxin were measured, and work practices observed. Results MWF exposed workers had a significantly higher prevalence of dermatitis on wrists/forearms (PR 2.59; 95% CI 1.22, 5.46), asthma symptoms (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05, 2.13) and WRA symptoms (PR 2.10; 95% CI 1.22, 3.30) than unexposed workers. Airborne concentrations of MWF were below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for MWF aerosols (thoracic particulate mass). Conclusions Despite MWF exposures below the NIOSH REL, exposed workers had a higher prevalence of asthma, WRA, and dermatitis symptoms than unexposed workers. Recommendations to reduce exposure included configuring mist collectors to automatically turn on when the machine is in use, and enforcing enclosure use. PMID:24122918

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of listeriosis-associated deaths due to Listeria monocytogenes contamination of deli meats originating from manufacture and retail.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths attributable to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ham and turkey formulated without and with growth inhibitors (GIs). Two contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) prepackaged deli meats with contamination originating solely from manufacture at a frequency of 0.4% (based on reported data) and (ii) retail-sliced deli meats with contamination originating solely from retail at a frequency of 2.3% (based on reported data). Using a manufacture-to-consumption risk assessment with product-specific growth kinetic parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate), reformulation with GIs was estimated to reduce human listeriosis deaths linked to ham and turkey by 2.8- and 9-fold, respectively, when contamination originated at manufacture and by 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, for products contaminated at retail. Contamination originating at retail was estimated to account for 76 and 63% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated without GIs and for 83 and 84% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated with GIs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that storage temperature was the most important factor affecting the estimation of per annum relative risk. Scenario analyses suggested that reducing storage temperature in home refrigerators to consistently below 7 degrees C would greatly reduce the risk of human listeriosis deaths, whereas reducing storage time appeared to be less effective. Overall, our data indicate a critical need for further development and implementation of effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination at the retail level.

  14. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  15. Fabric Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

  16. Behavioural and genetic evidence for C. elegans' ability to detect volatile chemicals associated with explosives.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-09-07

    Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles.

  17. Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. Methodology/Principal Findings We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles. PMID:20830309

  18. An analysis of molecular packing and chemical association in liquid water using quasichemical theory.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, A; Asthagiri, D; Pratt, L R; Ashbaugh, H S; Paulaitis, M E

    2006-06-14

    We calculate the hydration free energy of liquid TIP3P water at 298 K and 1 bar using a quasi-chemical theory framework in which interactions between a distinguished water molecule and the surrounding water molecules are partitioned into chemical associations with proximal (inner-shell) waters and classical electrostatic-dispersion interactions with the remaining (outer-shell) waters. The calculated free energy is found to be independent of this partitioning, as expected, and in excellent agreement with values derived from the literature. An analysis of the spatial distribution of inner-shell water molecules as a function of the inner-shell volume reveals that water molecules are preferentially excluded from the interior of large volumes as the occupancy number decreases. The driving force for water exclusion is formulated in terms of a free energy for rearranging inner-shell water molecules under the influence of the field exerted by outer-shell waters in order to accommodate one water molecule at the center. The results indicate a balance between chemical association and molecular packing in liquid water that becomes increasingly important as the inner-shell volume grows in size.

  19. Thermoreversible associating polymer networks. I. Interplay of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and polymer physics.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Robert S; Fredrickson, Glenn H

    2009-12-14

    Hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo simulations are used to study melts of unentangled, thermoreversibly associating supramolecular polymers. In this first of a series of papers, we describe and validate a model that is effective in separating the effects of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics on the dynamics and mechanics of these systems, and is extensible to arbitrarily nonequilibrium situations and nonlinear mechanical properties. We examine the model's quiescent (and heterogeneous) dynamics, nonequilibrium chemical dynamics, and mechanical properties. Many of our results may be understood in terms of the crossover from diffusion-limited to kinetically limited sticky bond recombination, which both influences and is influenced by polymer physics, i.e., the connectivity of the parent chains.

  20. Can persistent organic pollutants and plastic-associated chemicals cause cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Lind, L; Lind, P M

    2012-06-01

    During the last decade, associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and pesticides, and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and overt CV disease (CVD) have been reported in humans. Recently, associations between plastic-associated chemicals (PACs), such as bisphenol A and phthalates, and CVD have also begun to emerge. Several approaches to evaluating such associations have been used: accidents with a high level of exposure, occupational exposure studies, geographical studies of subjects living near a contaminated area and traditional case-control or cohort studies with measurements of circulating levels of different environmental contaminants in the general population. Exposure to POPs has consistently been associated with diabetes using all the approaches described above, including prospective studies. The evidence regarding associations between exposure to POPs and other CV risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity and lipids, is less strong and is mainly based on cross-sectional data. Associations between overt CVD and POPs have been reported using all the above approaches, but prospective data from population-based studies are still lacking to provide firm evidence of an important and independent role of POP exposure in the pathogenesis of CVD. Nevertheless, taken together, current evidence suggests that further longitudinal and experimental studies should be conducted to investigate the effect of exposure to both POPs and PACs, such as bisphenol A and phthalates.

  1. Association genetics of chemical wood properties in black poplar (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Fernando P; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark F; Stanton, Brian J; Neale, David B

    2013-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra) is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, although breeding for this specific end use is required. Our goal was to identify associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within candidate genes encoding cellulose and lignin biosynthetic enzymes, with chemical wood property phenotypic traits, toward the aim of developing genomics-based breeding technologies for bioethanol production. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry was used to determine contents of five- and six-carbon sugars, lignin, and syringyl : guaiacyl ratio. The association population included 599 clones from 17 half-sib families, which were successfully genotyped using 433 SNPs from 39 candidate genes. Statistical analyses were performed to estimate genetic parameters, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and single marker and haplotype-based associations. A moderate to high heritability was observed for all traits. The LD, across all candidate genes, showed a rapid decay with physical distance. Analysis of single marker-phenotype associations identified six significant marker-trait pairs, whereas nearly 280 haplotypes were associated with phenotypic traits, in both an individual and multiple trait-specific manner. The rapid decay of LD within candidate genes in this population and the genetic associations identified suggest a close relationship between the associated SNPs and the causative polymorphisms underlying the genetic variation of lignocellulosic traits in black poplar.

  2. Association between use of synthetic metalworking fluid and risk of developing rhinitis-related symptoms in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the association between synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) and rhinitis-related symptoms. At a plant manufacturing piston rings for automobiles, we interviewed grinders (19) and manufacturing workers (142) in operations where synthetic or semisynthetic MWF is handled, and administrative office workers (44) regarding the principal symptoms of rhinitis (nasal stuffiness, runny nose, anosmia, nasal itchiness, rhinorrhea, headache, epistaxis, and post-nasal drip). In addition, we assessed the current exposure of workers handling MWF to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between MWF surrogates indicative of MWF exposure and each rhinitis-related nasal symptom. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for sex, age, smoking habit, and duration of employment. Among grinders handling synthetic MWF, the frequency of complaints of the dominant symptoms was 66.7% for nasal stuffiness, 77.8% for anosmia, 77.8% for runny nose, and 50.0% for headache. These rates are quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. Twenty eight of 34 grinding and manufacturing workers (82.4%) sampled were exposed to MWF mist above the threshold limit of 0.2 mg/m(3) listed as a notice of intended change by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The percentage of workers exposed to MWF mist >0.5 mg/m(3) was 17.6%. Most workers were exposed to fungi levels >103 CFU/m(3). All exposures to endotoxins were <50 EU/m(3). Logistic regression analysis found that use of synthetic MWF was significantly associated with excess risk of nasal stuffiness (OR 3.5), nasal itchiness (OR 2.0), and runny nose (OR 2.1). The use of semi-synthetic MWF had little or no impact on the risk of developing rhinitis-related nasal symptoms. Grinding workers handling synthetic MWF had an increased risk of nasal stuffiness

  3. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-15

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  4. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  5. Chemical Analyses of Wasp-Associated Streptomyces Bacteria Reveal a Prolific Potential for Natural Products Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Clardy, Jon; Currie, Cameron R.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:21364940

  6. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  7. Inferring drug-disease associations from integration of chemical, genomic and phenotype data using network propagation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last few years, the knowledge of drug, disease phenotype and protein has been rapidly accumulated and more and more scientists have been drawn the attention to inferring drug-disease associations by computational method. Development of an integrated approach for systematic discovering drug-disease associations by those informational data is an important issue. Methods We combine three different networks of drug, genomic and disease phenotype and assign the weights to the edges from available experimental data and knowledge. Given a specific disease, we use our network propagation approach to infer the drug-disease associations. Results We apply prostate cancer and colorectal cancer as our test data. We use the manually curated drug-disease associations from comparative toxicogenomics database to be our benchmark. The ranked results show that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity and clearly outperforms previous methods. Our result also show that our method with off-targets information gets higher performance than that with only primary drug targets in both test data. Conclusions We clearly demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using network-based analyses of chemical, genomic and phenotype data to reveal drug-disease associations. The potential associations inferred by our method provide new perspectives for toxicogenomics and drug reposition evaluation. PMID:24565337

  8. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  9. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  10. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  11. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  12. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pool chemical-associated health events in public and residential settings - United States, 2003-2012, and Minnesota, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Robinson, Trisha J; Collier, Sarah A; Beach, Michael J

    2014-05-16

    Pool chemicals are added to treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive fountains) primarily to protect public health by inactivating pathogens and maximizing the effectiveness of disinfection by controlling pH. However, pool chemicals also can cause injuries when handled or stored improperly. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for injuries associated with pool chemicals in the United States per year during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis. In 2012 alone, an estimated 4,876 persons (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,821-6,930) visited an ED for injuries associated with pool chemicals. Almost half of the patients were aged <18 years. This report also describes a pool chemical-associated health event that occurred in Minnesota in 2013, which sent seven children and one adult to an ED. An investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) determined the cause to be poor monitoring of or response to pool chemistry. Pool chemical-associated health events are preventable. CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) (1) is a resource that state and local agencies can use to optimize prevention of injuries and illnesses associated with public treated recreational water venues, including pool chemical-associated health events.

  14. Chemical microsensors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  15. Microbial and chemical composition of liquid-associated bacteria in goats' rumen and fermenters.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality.

  16. Association of diphenylguanidine molecules and quantum-chemical calculations of the structure of its cyclic dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureiko, S. F.; Koll, A.; Przeslawska, M.

    2004-07-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of N,N'-diphenylguanidine (DPhG) molecule by the semiempirical MNDO-PM3 and AMI methods, ab initio HF/3-21G method and DFT B3LYP/6-3 1G(d,p) method give the arguments in favour of existence of this molecule as the asymmetric tautomer with the C=N- basic centre and the proton-donor NH2 group. The results of JR and UV spectra, the dipole moments and the molecular weights determination of DPhG in low-polarity solvents support this conclusion and prove the formation of cyclic self-associates with two PhN-H...N(Ph)=C H-bonds in solutions. The predominant contribution of these dimers to self-association of DPhG in solution was supported also by the quantumchemical calculations.

  17. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009-2011) and chemical constituents (2007-2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM10, PM2.5 and PM1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag03), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM2.5-10 and PM1-2.5. For PM2.5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag03 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou.

  18. Chemical characterisation of the globular cluster NGC 5634 associated to the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Lucatello, S.; D'Orazi, V.; Gratton, R. G.; Donati, P.; Sollima, A.; Sneden, C.

    2017-04-01

    As part of our on-going project on the homogeneous chemical characterisation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs), we studied NGC 5634, associated to the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, using high-resolution spectroscopy of red giant stars collected with VLT/FLAMES. We present here the radial velocity distribution of the 45 observed stars, 43 of which are cluster members, the detailed chemical abundance of 22 species for the seven stars observed with UVES-FLAMES, and the abundance of six elements for stars observed with GIRAFFE. On our homogeneous UVES metallicity scale, we derived a low-metallicity [Fe/H] =-1.867 ± 0.019 ± 0.065 dex (±statistical ±systematic error) with σ = 0.050 dex (7 stars). We found the normal anticorrelations between light elements (Na and O, Mg and Al), a signature of multiple populations typical of massive and old GCs. We confirm the associations of NGC 5634 to the Sgr dSph, from which the cluster was lost a few Gyr ago, on the basis of its velocity and position, and the abundance ratios of α and neutron capture elements. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 093.B-0583.Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A118

  19. 40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... policy, EPA will continue, as necessary, to address problems associated with imports in rulemaking and... insuring that chemical importation complies with TSCA just as domestic manufacturers are responsible for... TSCA.” This is appropriate when a chemical import is not clearly identified as a pesticide or...

  20. 76 FR 59998 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Postharvest Chemical Use Survey and All Associated Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Postharvest Chemical Use Survey and All Associated Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  1. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

  2. Safe food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also

  3. Suspended Manufacture of Biological Structures.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Samuel R; Cooke, Megan E; Cox, Sophie C; Snow, Martyn; Jeys, Lee; Jones, Simon W; Smith, Alan M; Grover, Liam M

    2017-04-01

    A method for the production of complex cell-laden structures is reported, which allows high-levels of spatial control over mechanical and chemical properties. The potential of this method for producing complicated tissues is demonstrated by manufacturing a complex hard/soft tissue interface and demonstrating that cell phenotype can be maintained over four weeks of culture.

  4. Community Colleges Critical to Manufacturing's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    The "Dream It. Do It." campaign was launched by a community that cares about its growth, its future and the future of its young people. Launched as a joint initiative with the National Association of Manufacturers and its Manufacturing Institute in a bold and committed effort to fill the talent shortage looming for U.S. manufacturers,…

  5. Development and evaluation of a tool for retrospective exposure assessment of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals and EMF in the car manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Mester, Birte; Schmeisser, Nils; Lünzmann, Hauke; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Langner, Ingo; Behrens, Thomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    A system for retrospective occupational exposure assessment combining the efficiency of a job exposure matrix (JEM) and the precision of a subsequent individual expert exposure assessment (IEEA) was developed. All steps of the exposure assessment were performed by an interdisciplinary expert panel in the context of a case-control study on male germ cell cancer nested in the car manufacturing industries. An industry-specific JEM was developed and automatic exposure estimation was performed based on this JEM. A subsample of exposure ratings was done by IEEA to identify determinants of disagreement between the JEM and the individual review. Possible determinants were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) of disagreement between ratings with regard to different dimensions (e.g. high versus low intensity of exposure). Disagreement in ≥20% of the sampled exposure ratings with a statistically significant OR was chosen as a threshold for inclusion of the exposure ratings into a final IEEA. The most important determinants of disagreement between JEM and individual review were working outside of the production line (disagreement 80%), low probability of exposure (disagreement 25%), and exposure depending on specific activities like usage of specific lacquers (disagreement 32%) for jobs within the production line. These determinants were the selection criteria of exposure ratings for the subsequent final IEEA. Combining a JEM and a subsequent final IEEA for a selected subset of exposure ratings is a feasible and labor-saving approach for exposure assessment in large occupational epidemiological studies.

  6. Nephropathy associated with animal, plant, and chemical toxins in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Chugh, Kirpal S

    2003-01-01

    Widespread human exposure to a variety of drugs, chemicals, and biologic products and recent awareness of their toxic manifestations has led to the recognition of toxic nephropathy as an important segment of renal disease in the tropical countries. Tropical nephrotoxins are distinctly different from those seen in the rest of the world and are derived from local fauna and flora or plant and chemical sources. The spectrum of exposure varies from country to country and even from community to community, depending on variations in the distribution of local plants and animal species and prevalent social practices. Acute renal failure (ARF), either alone or in association with liver failure, neurologic abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or pulmonary infections is the most common form of presentation. Traditional medicines prescribed by witch doctors (traditional healers) constitute a special class of nephrotoxins among several communities in Africa and Asia. The prevalence of nephropathy caused by traditional medicines is directly related to a combination of ignorance, poverty, lack of medical facilities, lax legislation, and widespread belief in indigenous systems of medicine in rural areas. These medicines are a mix of herbs and unknown chemicals administered orally or as enemas. Clustering of cases after exposure to a particular agent suggests the possibility of a toxic insult. Common animal nephrotoxins are venoms of viper snakes, sea snakes, stinging insects, and raw gallbladder and bile of carp and sheep. Botanical nephrotoxins are encountered both in common edible plants (djenkol beans, mushrooms) and medicinal herbs (impila, cat's claw). Mistaken identification of medicinal herbs by untrained workers and even deliberate trials of toxic substitutes derived from plants frequently lead to renal disease, the most commonly reported being the Chinese herbal nephropathy. Nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals can be secondary to

  7. Processes controlling the physico-chemical micro-environments associated with Pompeii worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, N.; Zbinden, M.; Gaill, F.

    2005-06-01

    Alvinella pompejana is a tube-dwelling polychaete colonizing hydrothermal smokers of the East Pacific Rise. Extreme temperature, low pH and millimolar sulfide levels have been reported in its immediate surroundings. The conditions experienced by this organism and its associated microbes are, however, poorly known and the processes controlling the physico-chemical gradients in this environment remain to be elucidated. Using miniature in situ sensors coupled with close-up video imagery, we have characterized fine-scale pH and temperature profiles in the biogeoassemblage constituting A. pompejana colonies. Steep discontinuities at both the individual and the colony scale were highlighted, indicating a partitioning of the vent fluid-seawater interface into chemically and thermally distinct micro-environments. The comparison of geochemical models with these data furthermore reveals that temperature is not a relevant tracer of the fluid dilution at these scales. The inner-tube micro-environment is expected to be supplied from the seawater-dominated medium overlying tube openings and to undergo subsequent conductive heating through the tube walls. Its neutral pH is likely to be associated with moderately oxidative conditions. Such a model provides an explanation of the atypical thermal and chemical patterns that were previously reported for this medium from discrete samples and in situ measurements. Conversely, the medium surrounding the tubes is shown to be dominated by the fluid venting from the chimney wall. This hot fluid appears to be gradually cooled (120-30 °C) as it passes through the thickness of the worm colony, as a result of a thermal exchange mechanism induced by the tube assemblage. Its pH, however, remains very low (pH˜4), and reducing conditions can be expected in this medium. Such a thermal and chemical buffering mechanism is consistent with the mineralogical anomalies previously highlighted and provides a first explanation of the exceptional ability of

  8. Safety risk categorization of organic extractables associated with polymers used in packaging, delivery and manufacturing systems for parenteral drug products.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    To develop and justify a Risk Evaluation Matrix for estimating the safety risk associated with extractables from plastic materials used in pharmaceutical applications and to apply that matrix to approximately 510 extractables to assess the risk that they would accumulate in drug products at levels sufficiently high to affect patient safety. The Risk Evaluation Matrix considers toxicological, availability and solubility characteristics of extractables. Safety Risk categories were established based on certain scaled values for these characteristics, Total Risk Scores were calculated for each extractable and the extractables were categorized with respect to their safety risk based on these calculations. The Total Risk Scores were normally distributed around a value of 20 to 23, corresponding to safety risk categories of moderate and intermediate risk. The range in Risk Scores defined by the mean ± one standard deviation encompassed the entire region of moderate and intermediate risk. Approximately 15% of the extractables were categorized as lowest risk while 3% of the extractables were categorized as highest risk. Categorization of extractables could facilitate the selection of materials for use in pharmaceutical systems, the analytical testing of extracts and the selection of target extractables.

  9. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  10. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Poppendieck, Dustin G; Grabanski, Carol B; Loehr, Raymond C

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from oil gas (OG) and coal gas (CG) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations (150-40,000 mg/kg) and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt %. SFE desorption (120 min) and water/XAD2 desorption (120 days) curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples, from ca. 10% to >90% for the two- and three-ring PAHs and from <1% to ca. 50% for the five- and six-ring PAHs. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition (C, H, N, S), or "hard" and "softs" organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. Fvalues for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well (linear correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.87, slope = 0.93), but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms.

  11. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  12. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  13. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  14. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides in Biomedical Device Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Riool, Martijn; de Breij, Anna; Drijfhout, Jan W; Nibbering, Peter H; Zaat, Sebastian A J

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of medical devices, such as catheters, artificial heart valves, prosthetic joints, and other implants, has grown significantly. Despite continuous improvements in device design, surgical procedures, and wound care, biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) are still a major problem in modern medicine. Conventional antibiotic treatment often fails due to the low levels of antibiotic at the site of infection. The presence of biofilms on the biomaterial and/or the multidrug-resistant phenotype of the bacteria further impair the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. Removal of the biomaterial is then the last option to control the infection. Clearly, there is a pressing need for alternative strategies to prevent and treat BAI. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered promising candidates as they are active against a broad spectrum of (antibiotic-resistant) planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Moreover, bacteria are less likely to develop resistance to these rapidly-acting peptides. In this review we highlight the four main strategies, three of which applying AMPs, in biomedical device manufacturing to prevent BAI. The first involves modification of the physicochemical characteristics of the surface of implants. Immobilization of AMPs on surfaces of medical devices with a variety of chemical techniques is essential in the second strategy. The main disadvantage of these two strategies relates to the limited antibacterial effect in the tissue surrounding the implant. This limitation is addressed by the third strategy that releases AMPs from a coating in a controlled fashion. Lastly, AMPs can be integrated in the design and manufacturing of additively manufactured/3D-printed implants, owing to the physicochemical characteristics of the implant material and the versatile manufacturing technologies compatible with antimicrobials incorporation. These novel technologies utilizing AMPs will contribute to development of novel and safe

  16. Using a Natural Analogue to Investigate Chemical Reactions Associated with Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Kaszuba, J.; Thyne, G.

    2008-12-01

    Capture and storage of carbon dioxide in deep underground geologic formations (geologic carbon sequestration) is currently the most advanced technology for reducing or mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. There are a number of scientific challenges associated with injection and storage of large amounts of CO2 in geologic formations. Understanding the chemical reactions that can occur among reservoir rocks, aqueous fluids, and supercritical carbon dioxide ± other gasses is one of these challenges. Natural analogues to CO2 sequestration are systems where carbon dioxide has been stored over geologic time scales. By studying these analogues we can determine important chemical reactions between the host rock and stored gases. The Moxa Arch is a structural feature located in the southern end of the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Carbon dioxide and methane were emplaced in Paleozoic rocks, including the 1000 feet thick Mississippian age Madison Limestone, of the Moxa Arch through natural processes. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the emplaced gas in these formations vary in the region of the Moxa Arch from 70-95% and are as low as ~ 15% in gas producing areas outside of the Moxa Arch. Methane, hydrogen sulfide and helium comprise the balance of the gas compositons. Geochemical reaction path and reactive transport models based upon the mineralogy of 12 core samples collected from three wells completed in the Madison Limestone near the Moxa Arch will be presented. These models help identify potential geochemical reactions between reservoir minerals and stored gasses.

  17. Late-onset peripheral ulcerative sclerokeratitis associated with alkali chemical burn.

    PubMed

    Iovieno, Alfonso; Anand, Seema; Dart, John K

    2014-12-01

    To report delayed-onset peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) following alkali injury. Retrospective case series. setting: Single institution (Cornea and External Disease Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital). participants: Six eyes of 5 patients with PUK and associated anterior scleritis that had a history of ocular alkali injury. observationprocedure: Patients were identified among PUK patients seen at Moorfields Eye Hospital over a 20-year period. main outcomes measures: Patients' demographics, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes. Recurrent PUK with scleritis following alkali burns occurred in 5 male patients/6 eyes (median age: 22 years, range 18-38) several years after the chemical trauma (average: 6.4 years; range 3-12). Management of PUK in these patients was similar to PUK arising from other etiologies. In this series of patients there was no evidence of an underlying vasculitic cause for the PUK. A localized autoimmune response may, however, be involved in the pathogenesis of these cases, as seen in an animal model of chemical injury or in late mustard gas keratitis. We hope that this case series will bring this newly described condition to the attention of ophthalmologists and that this may assist in their treatment, which, in this series, required systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable biodegradation of phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals by Phragmites australis-rhizosphere bacteria association.

    PubMed

    Toyama, T; Ojima, T; Tanaka, Y; Mori, K; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of two rhizobacteria (Sphingobium fuliginis TIK1 and Sphingobium sp. IT4) of Phragmites australis for the sustainable treatment of water polluted with phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was investigated. Strains TIK1 and IT4 have recently been isolated from Phragmites rhizosphere and shown to degrade various 4-alkylphenols-TIK1 via phenolic ring hydroxylation and meta-cleavage and IT4 via ipso-hydroxylation. The two strains also degraded bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol F, bisphenol P and bisphenol S (BPS). Thus, strains TIK1 and IT4 have wide degradation spectra for phenolic EDCs. The two strains utilized Phragmites root extracts as a sole carbon source and sustainably colonized Phragmites roots, where they degraded phenolic EDCs. In sequencing batch reactor experiments using Phragmites in association with TIK1 or IT4, both associations repeatedly removed phenolic EDCs from polluted secondary effluent water (BPA, BPS, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) from polluted secondary effluent water. The results suggest that hydroponic systems using Phragmites-TIK and Phragmites-IT4 associations would be useful for sustainable treatment of polluted waters containing various phenolic EDCs.

  19. Chemical constituents of Stereum subtomentosum and two other birch-associated basidiomycetes: an interspecies comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hybelbauerová, Simona; Sejbal, Jan; Dracínský, Martin; Hahnová, Alice; Koutek, Bohumír

    2008-05-01

    Metabolites of the wood-rotting fungus Stereum subtomentosum Pouzar (Basidiomycetes, order Russulales, family Stereaceae) occurring on birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees were phytochemically investigated for the first time. Three main metabolite chemotypes present in MeOH extracts of the fruit bodies, viz. steroids, fatty acids, and water-soluble sugars, were fractionated, isolated, and identified by 1D/2D NMR-spectroscopic analyses, NMR data comparisons, and chemical correlations combined with GC/MS experiments. Thirteen compounds including two 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy steroids, alpha,alpha'-trehalose, D-arabinitol, D-mannitol, and saturated/unsaturated fatty acids, were identified. Differences among S. subtomentosum and two other birch-associated fungal species, Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát, and Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.: Fr.) P. Karst (Basidiomycetes, order Polyporales, family Polyporaceae) were evaluated as regards the richness and abundance relationships in metabolite profiling.

  20. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

  1. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  2. Characterization of mucus-associated proteins from abalone (Haliotis) - candidates for chemical signaling.

    PubMed

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Stewart, Michael J; York, Patrick S; Degnan, Bernard M; Sobhon, Prasert; Hanna, Peter J; Chavadej, Jittipan; Cummins, Scott F

    2012-02-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. For free-spawning aquatic animals, such as the abalone (Haliotis), being in the close proximity to potential mating partners enhances reproductive success. In this study, we investigated whether chemical cues could be present in abalone mucus that enable species-specific aggregation. A comparative MS analysis of mucus obtained from trailing or fixed stationary Haliotis asinina, and from seawater surrounding aggregations, indicated that water-soluble biomolecules are present and that these can stimulate sensory activity in conspecifics. Purified extracts of trail mucus contain at least three small proteins [termed H. asinina mucus-associated proteins (Has-MAPs)-1-3], which readily diffuse into the surrounding seawater and evoke a robust cephalic tentacle response in conspecifics. Mature Has-MAP-1 is approximately 9.9 kDa in size, and has a glycine-rich N-terminal region. Has-MAP-2 is approximately 6.2 kDa in size, and has similarities to schistosomin, a protein that is known to play a role in mollusc reproduction. The mature Has-MAP-3 is approximately 12.5 kDa in size, and could only be identified within trail mucus of animals outside of the reproductive season. All three Has-MAP genes are expressed at high levels within secretory cells of the juvenile abalone posterior pedal gland, consistent with a role in scent marking. We infer from these results that abalone mucus-associated proteins are candidate chemical cues that could provide informational cues to conspecifics living in close proximity and, given their apparent stability and hydrophilicity, animals further afield. Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS. No claim to original Australian government works.

  3. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  4. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  5. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  6. 2001 Industry Studies: Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    oriented, 19 and manufacturers are employing the Internet and associated information technologies to better integrate supply chains and form extended...producers, and suppliers. Focus will shift from within the enterprise to the entire market, with business- to-business ( B2B ) e-commerce becoming a...sufficiently disruptive (e.g. the Internet ), alter the course of industries and the broader economy. The transformation of manufacturing has involved

  7. Comparative studies on the chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities and antitumor cell proliferation properties of soy milk manufactured by conventional and commercial UHT methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng; Yuan, Shaohong; Zou, Yanping; Tan, Yingying

    2010-03-24

    The aims of this work were to compare antiproliferation, antioxidant activities and total phytochemicals and individual isoflavone profiles in soy milk processed by various methods including traditional stove cooking, direct steam injection, direct ultrahigh temperature (UHT), indirect UHT, and a two-stage simulated industry method, and a selected commercial soy milk product. Various processing methods significantly affected total saponin, phytic acid, and total phenolic content and individual isoflavone distribution. The laboratory UHT and the two-stage processed soy milk exhibited relatively higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, saponin and phytic acid than those processed by the traditional and steam processed methods. Thermal processing caused obvious intertransformation but did not cause severe degradation except for breaking down of aglycons. Thermal processing significantly increased antioxidant capacities of soy milk determined by chemical analyses, but decreased cellular antioxidant capacities as compared to the raw soy milk. The raw and all processed soy milk exhibited antipoliferative activities against human HL-60 leukemia cells, AGS gastric tumor cells, and DU145 prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The raw soy milk, but not the processed soy milk, exhibited a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that various thermal processing methods change not only phytochemcials but also potential health-promoting effects of soy milk.

  8. Obesity, diabetes, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555-5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6-86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200-56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million-16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion. EDC exposures in the EU contribute

  9. Obesity, Diabetes, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective: The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. Results: The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555–5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6–86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200–56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million–16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion

  10. Systems Toxicology of Chemically Induced Liver and Kidney Injuries: Histopathology-Associated Gene Co-Expression Modules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    exposures and adverse histopathology assessments in Sprague–Dawley rats . We proposed a protocol for selecting gene modules associated with chemical-induced...for damage assessment, early inter- vention and treatment, and prediction of potential for recovery ( Parkes et al., 2012). Efforts in elucidating...organ-specific data on chemically induced gene expression changes coupled to graded histopathology assessments in male Sprague–Dawley rats (Igarashi

  11. Estimating the Potential Toxicity of Chemicals Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Stanek, John; DeWoskin, Robert S; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-07-19

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified 1173 chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback, or produced water, of which 1026 (87%) lack chronic oral toxicity values for human health assessments. To facilitate the ranking and prioritization of chemicals that lack toxicity values, it may be useful to employ toxicity estimates from quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Here we describe an approach for applying the results of a QSAR model from the TOPKAT program suite, which provides estimates of the rat chronic oral lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL). Of the 1173 chemicals, TOPKAT was able to generate LOAEL estimates for 515 (44%). To address the uncertainty associated with these estimates, we assigned qualitative confidence scores (high, medium, or low) to each TOPKAT LOAEL estimate, and found 481 to be high-confidence. For 48 chemicals that had both a high-confidence TOPKAT LOAEL estimate and a chronic oral reference dose from EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database, Spearman rank correlation identified 68% agreement between the two values (permutation p-value =1 × 10(-11)). These results provide support for the use of TOPKAT LOAEL estimates in identifying and prioritizing potentially hazardous chemicals. High-confidence TOPKAT LOAEL estimates were available for 389 of 1026 hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals that lack chronic oral RfVs and OSFs from EPA-identified sources, including a subset of chemicals that are frequently used in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

  12. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  17. Flame retardant polymeric foams: Manufacturing, applications, and hazards. July 1984-August 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for July 1984-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning flame-retardant compositions and additives used in the manufacture of polymeric foams. Latex, polyurethane, polyether, silicone rubber, phenol formaldehyde, polyisocyanurate, polystyrene, PVC and polyphenylene ether are among the foam polymers discussed relative to tests performed to evaluate the toxicity of flame retardants in smoke and during manufacturing. Applications including public transportation, furniture, automotive, medical, and building materials are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 303 citations, 61 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. The mechanics of manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.; Stori, J.; King, C.

    1996-10-01

    Economic pressures, particularly related to the quality of manufactured goods and `time-to-market` are forcing designers to think not only in terms of product design but also in terms of integrated product and process design, and finally in terms of deterministic manufacturing planning and control. As a result of these three high level needs, there is now an even greater need for comprehensive simulations that predict material behavior during a manufacturing process, the stresses and/or temperatures on associated tooling, and the final-product integrity. The phrase `manufacturing processes` of course covers a broad scope; it includes semiconductor manufacturing, injection molding of polymers, metal machining and precision lapping, wood and textile production, and the final assembly of piece-parts into a consumer product. It can be seen from this partial listing that the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and tribology can all play a role. The introduction to the paper will contain a review of manufacturing processes and describe where simulations have been successfully applied, and where simulations are still lacking. The best of the simulations are those where the models accurately fit the physical phenomena, where accurate constitutive equations are available, and where boundary conditions are realistic. Thus, the body of the paper will focus on the results from one of these more successful simulations. It has been used to predict the deflections of tooling and the most appropriate operating conditions for the manufacturing process under study. A new method for manufacturing planning is described. In this method, closed form, somewhat simplified, analytical models are used to determine manufacturing planning parameters and then the results from these simpler models are refined by the fuller simulations. A case study in machining parameter selection for peripheral finish milling operations is developed.

  19. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  20. Chemical and chemically-telated considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes.All chemistry-associated and other compatibility information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106; in accord with appropriate controls;will pose no unacceptable risk to workers; public safety; or the environment. In addition; it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety issue for tank C-106.

  1. Chemical and chemically-related considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1997-04-04

    New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes. All chemistry-associated and other compatibility Information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106, in accord with appropriate controls, will pose no unacceptable risk to workers, public safety, or the environment. In addition, it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety Issue for tank C-106.

  2. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database facilitates identification and understanding of chemical-gene-disease associations: arsenic as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Allan P; Murphy, Cynthia G; Rosenstein, Michael C; Wiegers, Thomas C; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of many chronic diseases involves interactions between environmental factors and genes that modulate physiological processes. Understanding interactions between environmental chemicals and genes/proteins may provide insights into the mechanisms of chemical actions, disease susceptibility, toxicity, and therapeutic drug interactions. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; ) provides these insights by curating and integrating data describing relationships between chemicals, genes/proteins, and human diseases. To illustrate the scope and application of CTD, we present an analysis of curated data for the chemical arsenic. Arsenic represents a major global environmental health threat and is associated with many diseases. The mechanisms by which arsenic modulates these diseases are not well understood. Methods Curated interactions between arsenic compounds and genes were downloaded using export and batch query tools at CTD. The list of genes was analyzed for molecular interactions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, KEGG pathway annotations, and inferred disease relationships. Results CTD contains curated data from the published literature describing 2,738 molecular interactions between 21 different arsenic compounds and 1,456 genes and proteins. Analysis of these genes and proteins provide insight into the biological functions and molecular networks that are affected by exposure to arsenic, including stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle, and specific protein signaling pathways. Integrating arsenic-gene data with gene-disease data yields a list of diseases that may be associated with arsenic exposure and genes that may explain this association. Conclusion CTD data integration and curation strategies yield insight into the actions of environmental chemicals and provide a basis for developing hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology of environmental diseases. While many reports describe the molecular response to arsenic, CTD

  3. The rubber manufacturing industry: a case report and review of cutaneous exposure and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Powers, Claire; Lampel, Heather P

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chemical carcinogens in rubber manufacturing remains a serious occupational health concern. Workers are exposed to these carcinogens via skin or inhalation. Rubber manufacturing work is associated with a high prevalence of dermatologic diseases such as eczema, allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. The role that epidermal exposure plays in the development of malignancies historically associated with the rubber industry is less certain. We present a case relevant to this discussion and review the role of skin exposure in the rubber industry, providing an overview of the cutaneous and systemic manifestations of occupational exposures in modern day rubber workers.

  4. Chemical characterization of extractable water soluble matter associated with PM10 from Mexico City during 2000.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Castillo, M E; Olivos-Ortiz, M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A; Cebrián, M E

    2005-11-01

    We report the chemical composition of PM10-associated water-soluble species in Mexico City during the second semester of 2000. PM10 samples were collected at four ambient air quality monitoring sites in Mexico City. We determined soluble ions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium), ionizable transition metals (Zn, Fe, Ti, Pb, Mn, V, Ni, Cr, Cu) and soluble protein. The higher PM(10) levels were observed in Xalostoc (45-174 microg m(-3)) and the lowest in Pedregal (19-54 microg m(-3)). The highest SO2 average concentrations were observed in Tlalnepantla, NO2 in Merced and O3 and NO(x) in Pedregal. The concentration range of soluble sulfate was 6.7-7.9 and 19-25.5 microg m(-3) for ammonium, and 14.8-29.19 for soluble V and 3.2-7.7 ng m(-3) for Ni, suggesting a higher contribution of combustion sources. PM-associated soluble protein levels varied between 0.038 and 0.169 mg m(-3), representing a readily inhalable constituent that could contribute to adverse outcomes. The higher levels for most parameters studied were observed during the cold dry season, particularly in December. A richer content of soluble metals was observed when they were expressed by mass/mass units rather than by air volume units. Significant correlations between Ni-V, Ni-SO4(-2), V-SO4(-2), V-SO2, Ni-SO2 suggest the same type of emission source. The variable soluble metal and ion concentrations were strongly influenced by the seasonal meteoclimatic conditions and the differential contribution of emission sources. Our data support the idea that PM10 mass concentration by itself does not provide a clear understanding of a local PM air pollution problem.

  5. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  6. Chemically modified peptide scaffolds target the CFTR-associated ligand PDZ domain.

    PubMed

    Amacher, Jeanine F; Zhao, Ruizhi; Spaller, Mark R; Madden, Dean R

    2014-01-01

    PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules that coordinate multiple signaling and trafficking pathways in the cell and that include active therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, and addiction. Our previous work characterized a PDZ interaction that restricts the apical membrane half-life of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Using iterative cycles of peptide-array and solution-binding analysis, we targeted the PDZ domain of the CFTR-Associated Ligand (CAL), and showed that an engineered peptide inhibitor rescues cell-surface expression of the most common CFTR disease mutation ΔF508. Here, we present a series of scaffolds containing chemically modifiable side chains at all non-motif positions along the CAL PDZ domain binding cleft. Concordant equilibrium dissociation constants were determined in parallel by fluorescence polarization, isothermal titration calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance techniques, confirming robust affinity for each scaffold and revealing an enthalpically driven mode of inhibitor binding. Structural studies demonstrate a conserved binding mode for each peptide, opening the possibility of combinatorial modification. Finally, we diversified one of our peptide scaffolds with halogenated substituents that yielded modest increases in binding affinity. Overall, this work validates our approach and provides a stereochemical foundation for further CAL inhibitor design and screening.

  7. DARPA DICE Manufacturing Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    product and process domains. The system will support Design for Manufacturing and Assembly ( DFMA ) with a set of tools to model manufacturing processes, and...concurrently in the product and process domains. The system will support DFMA with a set of tools to model manufacturing processes, and manage tradeoffs across... DFMA Design for Manufacturing and Assembly DICE DARPA Initiative In Concurrent Engineering MO Manufacturing Optimization 5 MSD Missile Systems Division

  8. Utilizing high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA ToxCast Program to assess biological activity of environmental contaminants: A case study of chemical mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring and surveillance is increasingly being utilized in conjunction with chemical monitoring to determine potential biological activity associated with environmental contaminants. Supervised approaches targeting specific chemical activity or molecular pathways...

  9. Utilizing high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA ToxCast Program to assess biological activity of environmental contaminants: A case study of chemical mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring and surveillance is increasingly being utilized in conjunction with chemical monitoring to determine potential biological activity associated with environmental contaminants. Supervised approaches targeting specific chemical activity or molecular pathways...

  10. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Edwards, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing processes allow for the manufacture of complex three dimensional components that otherwise could not be manufactured. Post treatment processes require the removal of any remnant bulk powder that may become entrapped within small cavities and channels within a component. This project focuses on several gross cleaning methods and the verification metrics associated with additive manufactured parts for oxygen propulsion usage.

  11. Sodium Chloride Enhances Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Production in a Serum-Free Suspension Manufacturing Platform Using the Herpes Simplex Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Adamson-Small, Laura; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry J.; Clément, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The increase in effective treatments using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors has underscored the importance of scalable, high-yield manufacturing methods. Previous work from this group reported the use of recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (rHSV) vectors to produce rAAV in adherent HEK293 cells, demonstrating the capacity of this system and quality of the product generated. Here we report production and optimization of rAAV using the rHSV system in suspension HEK293 cells (Expi293F) grown in serum and animal component-free medium. Through adjustment of salt concentration in the medium and optimization of infection conditions, titers greater than 1 × 1014 vector genomes per liter (VG/liter) were observed in purified rAAV stocks produced in Expi293F cells. Furthermore, this system allowed for high-titer production of multiple rAAV serotypes (2, 5, and 9) as well as multiple transgenes (green fluorescent protein and acid α-glucosidase). A proportional increase in vector production was observed as this method was scaled, with a final 3-liter shaker flask production yielding an excess of 1 × 1015 VG in crude cell harvests and an average of 3.5 × 1014 total VG of purified rAAV9 material, resulting in greater than 1 × 105 VG/cell. These results support the use of this rHSV-based rAAV production method for large-scale preclinical and clinical vector production. PMID:28117600

  12. Good Manufacturing Practice Production of Self-Complementary Serotype 8 Adeno-Associated Viral Vector for a Hemophilia B Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allay, James A.; Sleep, Susan; Long, Scott; Tillman, David M.; Clark, Rob; Carney, Gael; Fagone, Paolo; McIntosh, Jenny H.; Nienhuis, Arthur W.; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Nathwani, Amit C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To generate sufficient clinical-grade vector to support a phase I/II clinical trial of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated factor IX (FIX) gene transfer for hemophilia B, we have developed a large-scale, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible method for vector production and purification. We used a 293T-based two-plasmid transient transfection system coupled with a three-column chromatography purification process to produce high-quality self-complementary AAV2/8 FIX clinical-grade vector. Two consecutive production campaigns using a total of 432 independent 10-stack culture chambers produced a total of ∼2 × 1015 vector genomes (VG) by dot-blot hybridization. Benzonase-treated microfluidized lysates generated from pellets of transfected cells were purified by group separation on Sepharose beads followed by anion-exchange chromatography. The virus-containing fractions were further processed by gel filtration and ultrafiltration, using a 100-kDa membrane. The vector was formulated in phosphate-buffered saline plus 0.25% human serum albumin. Spectrophotometric analysis suggested ∼20% full particles, with only low quantities of nonviral proteins were visible on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gels. A sensitive assay for the detection of replication-competent AAV was developed, which did reveal trace quantities of such contaminants in the final product. Additional studies have confirmed the long-term stability of the vector at −80°C for at least 24 months and for at least 24 hr formulated in the clinical diluent and stored at room temperature within intravenous bags. This material has been approved for use in clinical trials in the United States and the United Kingdom. PMID:21410419

  13. Sodium Chloride Enhances Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Production in a Serum-Free Suspension Manufacturing Platform Using the Herpes Simplex Virus System.

    PubMed

    Adamson-Small, Laura; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry J; Clément, Nathalie

    2017-02-01

    The increase in effective treatments using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors has underscored the importance of scalable, high-yield manufacturing methods. Previous work from this group reported the use of recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (rHSV) vectors to produce rAAV in adherent HEK293 cells, demonstrating the capacity of this system and quality of the product generated. Here we report production and optimization of rAAV using the rHSV system in suspension HEK293 cells (Expi293F) grown in serum and animal component-free medium. Through adjustment of salt concentration in the medium and optimization of infection conditions, titers greater than 1 × 10(14) vector genomes per liter (VG/liter) were observed in purified rAAV stocks produced in Expi293F cells. Furthermore, this system allowed for high-titer production of multiple rAAV serotypes (2, 5, and 9) as well as multiple transgenes (green fluorescent protein and acid α-glucosidase). A proportional increase in vector production was observed as this method was scaled, with a final 3-liter shaker flask production yielding an excess of 1 × 10(15) VG in crude cell harvests and an average of 3.5 × 10(14) total VG of purified rAAV9 material, resulting in greater than 1 × 10(5) VG/cell. These results support the use of this rHSV-based rAAV production method for large-scale preclinical and clinical vector production.

  14. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    SciTech Connect

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The

  15. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  16. Multiple Classes of Environmental Chemicals are Associated with Liver Disease: NHANES 2003-2006 [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring of human tissues and fluids has shown that virtually all individuals, worldwide, carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals (Thornton et al. 2002; CDC 2009). Although the measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues or fluids is an indication of...

  17. Multiple Classes of Environmental Chemicals are Associated with Liver Disease: NHANES 2003-2006 [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring of human tissues and fluids has shown that virtually all individuals, worldwide, carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals (Thornton et al. 2002; CDC 2009). Although the measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues or fluids is an indication of...

  18. 76 FR 71310 - Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Chemical Use Surveys and All Associated Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Chemical Use Surveys and All Associated Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. The chemical chaperone phenylbutyrate rescues MCT8 mutations associated with milder phenotypes in patients with AHDS.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2016-12-15

    Mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter MCT8 prevent appropriate entry of thyroid hormones into brain cells during development and cause severe mental retardation in affected patients. Current treatment options are thyromimetic compounds that enter the brain independent of MCT8. Some MCT8 deficient patients (e.g. those carrying MCT8(delF501)) are not as severely affected than most others. We have shown that MCT8(delF501) protein has decreased protein stability, but significant residual function once it reaches the plasma membrane. We were able to rescue protein expression and function of MCT8(delF501) in a MDCK1 cell model by application of the chemical chaperone sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a drug that has been used to treat patients with cystic fibrosis and urea cycle defects over extended periods of time. Here we extend our previous study and report on the NaPB dependent rescue of a series of other pathogenic MCT8 mutants that are associated with milder patient phenotypes. We show that NaPB can functionally rescue expression and activities of Ser194Phe, Ser290Phe, Leu434Trp, Arg445Cys, Leu492Pro, and Leu568Pro mutations in MCT8 in a dose-dependent manner. The soy isoflavone genistein, a dietary supplement, which was effective in MCT8(delF501), was also effective in increasing expression and transport of these MCT8 mutants, but the effect size differed among mutants. Kinetic analyses revealed that Michaelis constants of the mutants towards the primary substrate T3 were not much different from the wild type value suggesting that these mutants are not impaired in their interaction with substrate, but rather destabilized by the mutation and degraded.

  20. Recent physical-chemical anomalies and associated ecological responses in southern California kelp forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. J.; Reed, D.; Washburn, L.; Bell, T. W.; Blanchette, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Time series data collected by the Santa Barbara Coastal Long-Term Ecological Research program on giant kelp forests and the environmental factors that influence them provide a unique opportunity to examine the extent and ecological consequences of recent anomalies in physical and chemical properties of a shallow water benthic marine ecosystem. Positive temperature anomalies have been recorded in all but two months since early 2013 with deviations ranging as high as 3.8 oC above the 14-year monthly mean, which is unprecedented in the time series. Positive anomalies in salinity (DS) were also observed every month since late 2012 and DS exceeded 0.3 for several months in 2013 and 2014. Positive DS values occurred in previous years, but were weaker and shorter in duration. Apart from 1-2 months, anomalies in nitrate, phosphate, and silicate turned consistently negative in late 2012. However, comparable anomalies in these nutrients occurred earlier in the record, especially before 2008 for nitrate and phosphate. Anomalies in key ecological characteristics of giant kelp forests associated with the large positive temperature anomalies have been much less striking. Water column chlorophyll a, the standing biomass of giant kelp and densities of many kelp forest consumers have been lower than normal in recent years, but not markedly so compared to other years in the time series. Shorter time series data on pigment concentrations in giant kelp revealed a declining trend in recent years, consistent with the below normal levels observed in kelp tissue nitrogen. The most dramatic change in kelp forests that coincided with the onset of the temperature anomalies was observed in sea stars, which first showed signs of a wasting disease in fall of 2013. The disease spread rapidly from north to south and by spring 2014 infections were prevalent throughout southern California. Large corresponding increases in the abundance of starfish prey have yet to be observed.

  1. The use of functional chemical-protein associations to identify multi-pathway renoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Meng, Kexin; Zhang, Rui; Yang, He; Liao, Chang; Zhu, Wenliang; Jiao, Jundong

    2014-01-01

    Typically, most nephropathies can be categorized as complex human diseases in which the cumulative effect of multiple minor genes, combined with environmental and lifestyle factors, determines the disease phenotype. Thus, multi-target drugs would be more likely to facilitate comprehensive renoprotection than single-target agents. In this study, functional chemical-protein association analysis was performed to retrieve multi-target drugs of high pathway wideness from the STITCH 3.1 database. Pathway wideness of a drug evaluated the efficiency of regulation of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in quantity. We identified nine experimentally validated renoprotectants that exerted remarkable impact on KEGG pathways by targeting a limited number of proteins. We selected curcumin as an illustrative compound to display the advantage of multi-pathway drugs on renoprotection. We compared curcumin with hemin, an agonist of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which significantly affects only one KEGG pathway, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism (adjusted p = 1.5×10-5). At the same concentration (10 µM), both curcumin and hemin equivalently mitigated oxidative stress in H2O2-treated glomerular mesangial cells. The benefit of using hemin was derived from its agonistic effect on HO-1, providing relief from oxidative stress. Selective inhibition of HO-1 completely blocked the action of hemin but not that of curcumin, suggesting simultaneous multi-pathway intervention by curcumin. Curcumin also increased cellular autophagy levels, enhancing its protective effect; however, hemin had no effects. Based on the fact that the dysregulation of multiple pathways is implicated in the etiology of complex diseases, we proposed a feasible method for identifying multi-pathway drugs from compounds with validated targets. Our efforts will help identify multi-pathway agents capable of providing comprehensive protection against renal injuries.

  2. Associations between levels of serum perfluorinated chemicals and adiponectin in a young hypertension cohort in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wen, Li Li; Lin, Lian-Yu; Wen, Ting-Wen; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Hsu, Sandy H J; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Pau-Chung; Su, Ta-Chen

    2011-12-15

    In animals, perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), specifically perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfate (PFOS), function as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonists. However, the relevance of animal (primarily rodent) data to humans is unresolved. While plasma adiponectin level is very responsive to PPAR gamma agonist drugs, it has not been determined whether adiponectin level is related to serum PFCs concentrations. In the present study, 287 subjects (12-30 years of age) were recruited to determine the relationship between serum level of PFCs and serum level of adiponectin. The results showed males had higher serum PFOS concentrations than females and that those with metabolic syndrome had lower serum PFOA than controls. Besides, it showed regional elevations of the perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) (median concentration: 7.11 ng/mL) in the study subjects. No relationship of PFOA, PFOS, PFUA, and the sum of all four PFCs was found to glucose homeostasis, adiponectin level, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers. The median and the range of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) concentration (in ng/mL; for four categories corresponding to the <50, 50-74, 75-89, and ≥90th percentiles) were 0.38 (0.38-1.68), 3.22 (1.73-4.65), 5.85 (4.75-8.29), 10.56 (8.40-25.40), respectively. After controlling for confounding factors, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the mean natural log-transformed level of adiponectin increased significantly across categories of PFNA (in ng/mL; 8.78, 8.73, 9.06, 9.36; P for trend = 0.010 in the full model). In conclusion, higher serum PFNA concentration is associated with elevated serum adiponectin concentration.

  3. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongtai; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Barzyk, Timothy M

    2017-09-13

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data. Six mobile- and industrial-source pollutants were chosen for analysis, including acetaldehyde, benzene, cyanide, particulate matter components of diesel engine emissions (namely, diesel PM), toluene, and 1,3-butadiene. ARM was then applied to quantify and visualize the associations between the chemical and socio-demographic variables. Census tracts with a high percentage of racial/ethnic minorities and populations with low income tended to have higher estimated chemical exposure concentrations (fourth quartile), especially for diesel PM, 1,3-butadiene, and toluene. In contrast, census tracts with an average population age of 40-50 years, a low percentage of racial/ethnic minorities, and moderate-income levels were more likely to have lower estimated chemical exposure concentrations (first quartile). Unsupervised data mining methods can be used to evaluate potential associations between environmental inequalities and social disparities, while providing support in public health decision-making contexts.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.15.

  4. Systems toxicology of chemically induced liver and kidney injuries: histopathology-associated gene co-expression modules.

    PubMed

    Te, Jerez A; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Wallqvist, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Organ injuries caused by environmental chemical exposures or use of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious health risk that may be difficult to assess because of a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ-specific histopathology outcomes via biomarkers will provide a foundation for designing precise and robust diagnostic tests. We identified co-expressed genes (modules) specific to injury endpoints using the Open Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (TG-GATEs) - a toxicogenomics database containing organ-specific gene expression data matched to dose- and time-dependent chemical exposures and adverse histopathology assessments in Sprague-Dawley rats. We proposed a protocol for selecting gene modules associated with chemical-induced injuries that classify 11 liver and eight kidney histopathology endpoints based on dose-dependent activation of the identified modules. We showed that the activation of the modules for a particular chemical exposure condition, i.e., chemical-time-dose combination, correlated with the severity of histopathological damage in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the modules could distinguish different types of injuries caused by chemical exposures as well as determine whether the injury module activation was specific to the tissue of origin (liver and kidney). The generated modules provide a link between toxic chemical exposures, different molecular initiating events among underlying molecular pathways and resultant organ damage. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Fatty acid composition and its association with chemical and sensory analysis of boar taint.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoye; Trautmann, Johanna; Wigger, Ruth; Zhou, Guanghong; Mörlein, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    A certain level of disagreement between the chemical analysis of androstenone and skatole and the human perception of boar taint has been found in many studies. Here we analyze whether the fatty acid composition can explain such inconsistency between sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of boar taint compounds. Therefore, back fat samples (n=143) were selected according to their sensory evaluation by a 10-person sensory panel, and the chemical analysis (stable isotope dilution analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of androstenone and skatole. Subsequently a quantification of fatty acids using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was conducted. The correlation analyses revealed that several fatty acids are significantly correlated with androstenone, skatole, and the sensory rating. However, multivariate analyses (principal component analysis) revealed no explanation of the fatty acid composition with respect to the (dis-)agreement between sensory and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between indoor chemical concentrations and subjective symptoms associated with sick building syndrome in newly built houses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Tomoko; Wang, Bing-Ling; Saijo, Yasuaki; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Shibata, Eiji; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Ogino, Keiki; Kishi, Reiko

    2010-02-01

    This study explored possible associations between chemical substances and sick building syndrome (SBS)-type symptoms of residents living in new houses in Japan. We randomly sampled 5,709 newly built conventional homes. In the end, 1,479 residents in 425 households completed a questionnaire survey and agreed to environmental monitoring for indoor aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be conducted in their homes. If the residents had complained about at least one SBS-related symptom, they were classified as suffering from SBS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select predictive chemical factors of SBS symptoms. About 14% of the subjects suffered from SBS. Many aldehydes and VOCs were associated factors of optical, nasal, and gular symptoms in univariate analysis. After adjustment for other possible risk factors, formaldehyde dose-dependently showed to be a significant risk factor for SBS. Several chemicals had tendency to be associated with SBS symptoms. Chemicals detected in Japanese newly built houses tend to increase the risk of subjective symptoms in residents suffering from SBS.

  7. High-throughput characterization of chemical-associated embryonic behavioral changes predicts teratogenic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Truong, Lisa; Mandrell, David; Marvel, Skylar; Zhang, Guozhu; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    New strategies are needed to address the data gap between the bioactivity of chemicals in the environment versus existing hazard information. We address whether a high-throughput screening (HTS) system using a vertebrate organism (embryonic zebrafish) can characterize chemical-elicited behavioral responses at an early, 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) stage that predict teratogenic consequences at a later developmental stage. The system was used to generate full concentration-response behavioral profiles at 24 hpf across 1060 ToxCast™ chemicals. Detailed, morphological evaluation of all individuals was performed as experimental follow-up at 5 days post-fertilization (dpf). Chemicals eliciting behavioral responses were also mapped against external HTS in vitro results to identify specific molecular targets and neurosignalling pathways. We found that, as an integrative measure of normal development, significant alterations in movement highlighted active chemicals representing several modes of action. These early behavioral responses were predictive for 17 specific developmental abnormalities and mortality measured at 5 dpf, often at lower (i.e., more potent) concentrations than those at which morphological effects were observed. Therefore, this system can provide rapid characterization of chemical-elicited behavioral responses at an early developmental stage that are predictive of observable adverse effects later in life.

  8. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  9. DARPA DICE Manufacturing Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturing and Assembly ( DFMA ) with a set of tools to model the manufacturing processes, and manage tradeoffs across multiple processes. The subject of...in the product and process domains. The system will support DFMA with a set of tools to model the manufacturing processes, and manage tradeoffs across...concurrently in the product and process domains. The system will support Design for Manufacturing and Assembly ( DFMA ) with a set af tools to model the

  10. DARPA DICE Manufacturing Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing and Assembly ( DFMA ) with a set of tools to model the manufacturing processes, and manage tradeoffs across multiple processes. The...multiple manufacturing engineers, and the product/process changes are traded concurrently in the product and process domains. The system will support DFMA ...Contract Data Requirements List CM Communications Manager DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DFMA Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

  11. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  12. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  13. The Relationship Between of Manufacturing Flexibility, Innovation Capability, and Operational Performance in Indonesian Manufacturing SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, U. S.; Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between manufacturing flexibility competence and operational performance with technological innovation capability as mediator variables. A survey method was applied to collect data pertaining to the variables being investigated. The findings indicated that manufacturing flexibility competence is positively associated with technological innovation capability and operational performance. The findings also suggested that technological innovation capability types mediated positively to the operational performance implication of manufacturing flexibility competence. This implies that manufacturing organizations pursuing manufacturing flexibility competence need to develop technological innovation capability in obtaining a high operational performance.

  14. Chemicals Reported for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) in Alphabetical Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For the 2012 CDR, 7,674 unique chemicals were reported by manufacturers (including importers).Chemicals are listed in alphabetical order by CA Index Name (for non-confidential chemicals) or by generic chemical name.

  15. Characterizing synthetic gypsum for wallboard manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Henkels, P.J.; Gynor, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    United States Gypsum Company (USGC) has developed specifications and guidelines covering the chemical and physical aspects of synthetic gypsum to help predict end use acceptability in wallboard manufacture. These guidelines are based in part on past experiences with natural and synthetic gypsum. Similarly, most wallboard manufacturers in North America have developed their own guidelines based in part on its unique history and particular experiences with synthetic gypsum. While there are similarities between manufacturers` guidelines, differences do exist. This paper discusses the importance of selected parameters contained in the FGD gypsum guidelines. In most cases, the parameters are equally relevant to other synthetic gypsums and the naturally occurring gypsum mineral as well.

  16. Planarization techniques for MEMS: enabling new structures and enhancing manufacturability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Planarization techniques such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) have emerged as enabling technologies for the manufacturing of multi- level metal interconnects used in high-density Integrated Circuits (IC). An overview of general planarization techniques for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and, in particular, the extension of CMP from sub-micron IC manufacturing to the fabrication of complex surface-micromachined MEMS will be presented. Planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. The CMP process and present examples of the use of CMP in fabricating MEMS devices such as microengines, pressure sensors, and proof masses for accelerometers along with its use for monolithically integrating MEMS devices with microelectronics are presented.

  17. Planarization techniques for MEMS: enabling new structures and enhancing manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James H.

    1998-04-01

    Planarization techniques such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) have emerged as enabling technologies for the manufacturing of multi-level metal interconnects used in high-density Integrated Circuits (IC). An overview of general planarization techniques for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and, in particular, the extension of CMP from sub-micron IC manufacturing to the fabrication of complex surface-micromachined MEMS will be presented. Planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. The CMP process and present examples of the use of CMP in fabricating MEMS devices such as microengines, pressure sensors, and proof masses for accelerometers along with its use for monolithically integrating MEMS devices with microelectronics are presented.

  18. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  19. A survey of neonatal jaundice in association with household drugs and chemicals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Familusi, J B; Dawodu, A H

    1985-12-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of exposure of women of child-bearing age and their families to household chemicals and medicaments, and the prevalence of neonatal jaundice in the exposed and unexposed families compared. Significant exposures to naphthalene, insecticides, mentholated balms, mentholated powders, and traditional herbs occurred in 45-87% of the families studied. The overall incidence of jaundice did not differ significantly in neonates from households with or without positive history of drugs/chemical exposures. Severe neonatal jaundice, as judged by the need for exchange blood transfusion or death of the infant, was however, significantly more frequent among neonates from families with positive history of naphthalene exposure than in those with negative history. Some household chemicals and medicaments may be important in the pathogenesis of neonatal jaundice in our environment, and health education aimed at eliminating exposure neonates and pregnant women to such agents is urgently necessary.

  20. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  1. Exposure of Unwounded Plants to Chemical Cues Associated with Herbivores Leads to Exposure-Dependent Changes in Subsequent Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Orrock, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered. PMID:24278210

  2. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered.

  3. Implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technician Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Roger

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) technician program was developed to provide training and technical assistance to meet the needs of business and industry in the face of the demands of high technology. The Computer and Automated Systems Association (CASA) of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers provided the incentive and guidelines…

  4. Implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technician Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Roger

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) technician program was developed to provide training and technical assistance to meet the needs of business and industry in the face of the demands of high technology. The Computer and Automated Systems Association (CASA) of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers provided the incentive and guidelines…

  5. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  6. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  7. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  8. Framework for Identifying Cybersecurity Risks in Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Bhinge, Raunak; Micali, Maxwell K.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Increasing connectivity, use of digital computation, and off-site data storage provide potential for dramatic improvements in manufacturing productivity, quality, and cost. However, there are also risks associated with the increased volume and pervasiveness of data that are generated and potentially accessible to competitors or adversaries. Enterprises have experienced cyber attacks that exfiltrate confidential and/or proprietary data, alter information to cause an unexpected or unwanted effect, and destroy capital assets. Manufacturers need tools to incorporate these risks into their existing risk management processes. This article establishes a framework that considers the data flows within a manufacturing enterprise and throughout its supplymore » chain. The framework provides several mechanisms for identifying generic and manufacturing-specific vulnerabilities and is illustrated with details pertinent to an automotive manufacturer. Finally, in addition to providing manufacturers with insights into their potential data risks, this framework addresses an outcome identified by the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.« less

  9. Framework for Identifying Cybersecurity Risks in Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Bhinge, Raunak; Micali, Maxwell K.; Robinson, Stefanie L.; Sutherland, John W.; Dornfeld, David

    2015-10-21

    Increasing connectivity, use of digital computation, and off-site data storage provide potential for dramatic improvements in manufacturing productivity, quality, and cost. However, there are also risks associated with the increased volume and pervasiveness of data that are generated and potentially accessible to competitors or adversaries. Enterprises have experienced cyber attacks that exfiltrate confidential and/or proprietary data, alter information to cause an unexpected or unwanted effect, and destroy capital assets. Manufacturers need tools to incorporate these risks into their existing risk management processes. This article establishes a framework that considers the data flows within a manufacturing enterprise and throughout its supply chain. The framework provides several mechanisms for identifying generic and manufacturing-specific vulnerabilities and is illustrated with details pertinent to an automotive manufacturer. Finally, in addition to providing manufacturers with insights into their potential data risks, this framework addresses an outcome identified by the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.

  10. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  11. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  12. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  13. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  14. Mesoscale Phenomena Associated with Mineral Surfaces and Pathway-Dependent Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. E.; Johnson, N. C.; Garcia Del Real, P.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Thomas, B.; Levard, C.

    2012-12-01

    Multiphase physicochemical transport and interfacial processes in natural and synthetic permeable media are pervasive in energy and Earth systems, where interfacial chemical reactions play an enormous role. These coupled reactions control the composition of our environment, including the atmosphere, oceans, and groundwaters, and the soils derived from interactions of atmospheric gases and natural waters with solid phases. Aqueous fluids, liquid hydrocarbons, and gases flow through permeable geological media along pathways that can be exceedingly complex at the nano- to microscales. Adding to this complexity are the chemical reactions occurring along these pathways that can irreversibly alter permeability and porosity as well as the compositions of fluid, gas, and solid phases, depending on physicochemical conditions. This talk will discuss the role of chemical reactions on mineral surfaces in several areas, including the structure of the electrical double layer at mineral/water interfaces and how it changes as a function of solution conditions, sequestration and transformation of environmental contaminants on mineral surfaces, mineral carbonation reactions and CO2 sequestration, and nanoparticle stability and transformations in natural systems. It will also include examples of pathway-dependent mesoscale chemical processes in the synthetic world involving energy materials. Examples in this area will include a synchrotron-based high-resolution 3D tomography study of Li-NiO battery electrodes under in operando conditions and metal-organic framework structures that can be used for hydrogen storage, separation, catalysis, and sequestration.

  15. Investigation of chemical properties and transport phenomena associated with pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Heather A.

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on

  16. Identification of compounds associated with testosterone depressions in fish exposed to bleached kraft pulp and paper mill chemical recovery condensates.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Andrew M; Solomon, Keith R; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Dubé, Monique G; Hewitt, L Mark

    2006-09-01

    In previous experiments, bleached kraft chemical recovery condensates generated during softwood pulp production have been identified as a primary source of substances causing testosterone depressions in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Recent toxicity identification evaluations have encountered inconsistencies in the potential of condensates and fractions to reduce steroid concentrations between three repeated exposures. To assess the sources of these inconsistencies, temporal assessments of condensate extractives and analytical methodologies were evaluated. Condensates were collected during a six-month period, extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. All unique extractives were cataloged by mass spectra, peak area, and gas chromatographic retention time, and nine were confirmed and quantified against authentic standards. Confirmed components included phenolic guaiacyl-based lignin degradation products, sulfur (S9), three diterpenoids, and a dimethoxy stilbene. Concentrations of confirmed condensate extractives were consistent in all samples collected. Spiking experiments of confirmed extractives revealed substantial losses following high-pressure liquid chromatographic fractionation and three different methods of fraction preparation. In an effort to propose chemical classes associated with biological activity, all unique condensate extractives in previously established bioactive and inactive fractions were classified based on their potential to depress testosterone in mummichog. Of 39 unique components in bioactive SPE extracts of condensates, six were associated with hormonal activity. Mass spectral interpretation indicated hydroxylated diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and a lignin-derived stilbene as classes of chemicals associated with steroid depressions.

  17. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M. )

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing multiple-band-gap, multiple- junction solar cells and photovoltaic modules. Amorphous silicon alloy material is deposited (using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) on a stainless-steel substrate using a roll-to-roll process that is continuous and automated. Rapid thermal equilibration of the metal substrate allows rapid throughput of large-area devices in smaller production machines. Potential improvements in the design, deposition, and module fabrication process are described. Problems are also discussed that could impede using these potential improvements. Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) proposes cost and time estimates for investigating and solving these problems. Manufacturing modules for less than $1.00 per peak watt and stable module efficiencies of greater than 10% are near-term goals proposed by ECD. 18 refs.

  18. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity Associated with Chemical Composition and Precipitation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, C.; Roberts, G. C.; Zauscher, M.; Suski, K.; Noblitts, S.; Sullivan, A. P.; Collett, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of ambient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations can be improved by simultaneously collecting information on the activation size of the CCN along with chemical composition of the ambient aerosol. A size scanning CCN instrument developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography was deployed as part of the Calwater project in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California during February and March of 2010. The instrument was capable of determining the critical diameter of activation for the ambient aerosol during a 20 minute scan. During the study period, the CCN activation size increased after each rain event and the activity slowly returned over the next few days. The critical diameter of the overall aerosol was largest (least active) immediately following precipitation events. The average critical diameter would typically decrease by 20% in the time between major precipitation events. This regeneration of the CCN activity can be partially attributed to the transport of sulfate and nitrate pollution to replace the particles that were washed out by the rain, but it may also be due to chemical changes via aging and oxidation mechanisms. Since CCN activity is determined by the particles size and chemical composition, the changes in critical diameter indicate a change in the chemical composition of the available CCN particles. By comparing the critical diameters with aerosol chemical data from a semi-real time aerosol ion chromatograph, the CCN activity was generally correlated with the mass loading of sulfate and nitrate. Deviations from the expected activity of sulfate and nitrate indicate the existence of other compounds that contribute to activity through additional dissolution and by reducing the surface tension. The contribution to CCN activity from additional compounds, including organic surfactants, can be estimated by observing the deviation of the measured critical diameters from values calculated using only the measured nitrate+sulfate mass

  19. Shared genes related to aggression, rather than chemical communication, are associated with reproductive dominance in paper wasps (Polistes metricus).

    PubMed

    Toth, Amy L; Tooker, John F; Radhakrishnan, Srihari; Minard, Robert; Henshaw, Michael T; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-01-28

    In social groups, dominant individuals may socially inhibit reproduction of subordinates using aggressive interactions or, in the case of highly eusocial insects, pheromonal communication. It has been hypothesized these two modes of reproductive inhibition utilize conserved pathways. Here, we use a comparative framework to investigate the chemical and genomic underpinnings of reproductive dominance in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. Our goals were to first characterize transcriptomic and chemical correlates of reproductive dominance and second, to test whether dominance-associated mechanisms in paper wasps overlapped with aggression or pheromone-related gene expression patterns in other species. To explore whether conserved molecular pathways relate to dominance, we compared wasp transcriptomic data to previous studies of gene expression associated with pheromonal communication and queen-worker differences in honey bees, and aggressive behavior in bees, Drosophila, and mice. By examining dominant and subordinate females from queen and worker castes in early and late season colonies, we found that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and genome-wide patterns of brain gene expression were primarily associated with season/social environment rather than dominance status. In contrast, gene expression patterns in the ovaries were associated primarily with caste and ovary activation. Comparative analyses suggest genes identified as differentially expressed in wasp brains are not related to queen pheromonal communication or caste in bees, but were significantly more likely to be associated with aggression in other insects (bees, flies), and even a mammal (mice). This study provides the first comprehensive chemical and molecular analysis of reproductive dominance in paper wasps. We found little evidence for a chemical basis for reproductive dominance in P. metricus, and our transcriptomic analyses suggest that different pathways regulate dominance in paper wasps

  20. Shared genes related to aggression, rather than chemical communication, are associated with reproductive dominance in paper wasps (Polistes metricus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In social groups, dominant individuals may socially inhibit reproduction of subordinates using aggressive interactions or, in the case of highly eusocial insects, pheromonal communication. It has been hypothesized these two modes of reproductive inhibition utilize conserved pathways. Here, we use a comparative framework to investigate the chemical and genomic underpinnings of reproductive dominance in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. Our goals were to first characterize transcriptomic and chemical correlates of reproductive dominance and second, to test whether dominance-associated mechanisms in paper wasps overlapped with aggression or pheromone-related gene expression patterns in other species. To explore whether conserved molecular pathways relate to dominance, we compared wasp transcriptomic data to previous studies of gene expression associated with pheromonal communication and queen-worker differences in honey bees, and aggressive behavior in bees, Drosophila, and mice. Results By examining dominant and subordinate females from queen and worker castes in early and late season colonies, we found that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and genome-wide patterns of brain gene expression were primarily associated with season/social environment rather than dominance status. In contrast, gene expression patterns in the ovaries were associated primarily with caste and ovary activation. Comparative analyses suggest genes identified as differentially expressed in wasp brains are not related to queen pheromonal communication or caste in bees, but were significantly more likely to be associated with aggression in other insects (bees, flies), and even a mammal (mice). Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive chemical and molecular analysis of reproductive dominance in paper wasps. We found little evidence for a chemical basis for reproductive dominance in P. metricus, and our transcriptomic analyses suggest that different pathways

  1. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  2. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  3. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  4. Bile acid aspiration associated with lung chemical profile linked to other biomarkers of injury after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Neujahr, D C; Uppal, K; Force, S D; Fernandez, F; Lawrence, C; Pickens, A; Bag, R; Lockard, C; Kirk, A D; Tran, V; Lee, K; Jones, D P; Park, Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspiration of gastrointestinal contents has been linked to worse outcomes following lung transplantation but uncertainty exists about underlying mechanisms. We applied high-resolution metabolomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with episodic aspiration (defined by bile acids in the BALF) to identify potential metabolic changes associated with aspiration. Paired samples, one with bile acids and another without, from 29 stable lung transplant patients were studied. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectroscopy was used to interrogate metabolomic contents of these samples. Data were obtained for 7068 ions representing intermediary metabolites, environmental agents and chemicals associated with microbial colonization. A substantial number (2302) differed between bile acid positive and negative samples when analyzed by false discovery rate at q = 0.01. These included pathways associated with microbial metabolism. Hierarchical cluster analysis defined clusters of chemicals associated with bile acid aspiration that were correlated to previously reported biomarkers of lung injury including T cell granzyme B level and the chemoattractants CXCL9 and CXCL10. These data specifically link bile acids presence in lung allografts to inflammatory pathways known to segregate with worsening allograft outcome, and provide additional mechanistic insight into the association between reflux and lung allograft injury.

  5. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  6. Chemical Leukoderma Associated with Methylphenidate Transdermal System: Data From the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Carmen; La Grenade, Lois; Diak, Ida-Lina; Brinker, Allen; Levin, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    To identify and characterize cases of chemical leukoderma, an underrecognized adverse event, associated with the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) reported to the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We searched the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System for reports of chemical leukoderma associated with MTS, received by the Food and Drug Administration from April 6, 2006 to December 23, 2014. We identified 51 cases of chemical leukoderma reported with the use of MTS. The median age was 11 years; 43 cases reported leukoderma at or near the application site only, and 7 reported leukoderma at other parts of the body in addition to the application site; 1 case did not provide enough information to confirm the affected site. The time to onset ranged from 2 months to 4 years after the initiation of MTS. MTS was discontinued in 31 cases. Thirteen patients were prescribed treatment for repigmentation. Three cases reported continued spread of leukoderma after MTS was discontinued. Nineteen cases were diagnosed as vitiligo, including 5 cases reporting histologic features consistent with vitiligo. Leukoderma was persistent in all cases. The median follow-up interval after the discontinuation of MTS in 23 cases was 14 months. As outlined in recent changes to the prescribing information for MTS, health care professionals need to be aware of the potential risk of chemical leukoderma caused by MTS, especially given that chemical leukoderma is often misdiagnosed as idiopathic vitiligo. MTS should be discontinued at the earliest sign of pigment loss and other treatment options considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Systems toxicology of chemically induced liver and kidney injuries: histopathology‐associated gene co‐expression modules

    PubMed Central

    Te, Jerez A.; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Organ injuries caused by environmental chemical exposures or use of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious health risk that may be difficult to assess because of a lack of non‐invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ‐specific histopathology outcomes via biomarkers will provide a foundation for designing precise and robust diagnostic tests. We identified co‐expressed genes (modules) specific to injury endpoints using the Open Toxicogenomics Project‐Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (TG‐GATEs) – a toxicogenomics database containing organ‐specific gene expression data matched to dose‐ and time‐dependent chemical exposures and adverse histopathology assessments in Sprague–Dawley rats. We proposed a protocol for selecting gene modules associated with chemical‐induced injuries that classify 11 liver and eight kidney histopathology endpoints based on dose‐dependent activation of the identified modules. We showed that the activation of the modules for a particular chemical exposure condition, i.e., chemical‐time‐dose combination, correlated with the severity of histopathological damage in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, the modules could distinguish different types of injuries caused by chemical exposures as well as determine whether the injury module activation was specific to the tissue of origin (liver and kidney). The generated modules provide a link between toxic chemical exposures, different molecular initiating events among underlying molecular pathways and resultant organ damage. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26725466

  8. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  9. The Association between Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Birth Weight–Implication of Buffer Exposure Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30km in Connecticut (2000–2006), in the New England region of the U.S. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics. PMID:26594233

  10. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    PubMed

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  11. 40 CFR 712.20 - Manufacturers and importers who must report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL INFORMATION RULES Manufacturers Reporting-Preliminary Assessment Information... chemical substance is listed in § 712.3, the following persons must submit the “Manufacturer's Report—Preliminary Assessment Information” (as described in § 712.28) for each plant site at which they manufactured...

  12. 40 CFR 712.20 - Manufacturers and importers who must report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL INFORMATION RULES Manufacturers Reporting-Preliminary Assessment Information... chemical substance is listed in § 712.3, the following persons must submit the “Manufacturer's Report—Preliminary Assessment Information” (as described in § 712.28) for each plant site at which they manufactured...

  13. 40 CFR 712.20 - Manufacturers and importers who must report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL INFORMATION RULES Manufacturers Reporting-Preliminary Assessment Information... chemical substance is listed in § 712.3, the following persons must submit the “Manufacturer's Report—Preliminary Assessment Information” (as described in § 712.28) for each plant site at which they manufactured...

  14. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    PubMed

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described.

  15. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  16. Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Bucher, J; Yang, R

    1991-01-01

    Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed using laboratory rodents offered diets containing fish caught in polluted waters. Induced cancers in rodents would corroborate field observations in fish; positive results from these studies would provide further evidence about potential human health hazards from eating substantial amounts of chemically contaminated fish. Nonetheless, fish and aquatic organisms should be viewed as environmental biological monitors of pollution or of potential human health hazards, and authorities responsible for assuring clean and safe rivers, bodies of water, and biota should give more attention to these valid biological indicators or sentinels of environmental pollution. Consequently, fish and other sea creatures alone should serve as alarms regarding whether water areas constitute public health hazards. PMID:2050050

  17. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  18. Chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Fabien; Tremblay, Thierry; Rouette, Justine; Cartier, Jacques-François

    2004-06-01

    Shellfish have the capacity to accumulate chemical contaminants found in their biotope and therefore present a potential risk for consumers. This study was conducted to assess the chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary. A survey was carried out on 162 recreational harvesters, and shellfish were sampled for chemical contaminant analysis. We quantified 10 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 10 chlorinated pesticides. We subsequently evaluated cancer and noncancer risks for four consumption scenarios based on our survey results and published results. Soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) were by far the most consumed shellfish species. Of the 56 selected contaminants, 36 were detected in the 23 homogenates of soft-shell clam meat. None of the contaminants found in the soft-shell clams were associated with intakes that exceed the main exposure limit recommendations proposed to prevent noncancer effects. However, several limits must be considered before drawing conclusions about the relative safety of shellfish consumption regarding this end point. Furthermore, inorganic arsenic and PCBs were present in sufficient concentrations to lead to cancer risks exceeding the level often considered acceptable for environmental exposure (1 x 10 (-4) to 1 x 10(-6)) in each of the four scenarios, even for the lowest observed scenario of 15 meals of soft-shell clams per year.

  19. Manufacturing Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development...PAUL R. SMITH 175 South 600 East #1 Provo, Utah 84601 (801) 377-8068 CAREER OBJECTIVE: Manufacturing Engineer using skills in development and...university classroom to aid in the education and train- ing of new manufacturing engineers. , . o i . o ., . . . . . - ,’ o . -2- 1.2. NEED There is a current

  20. DARPA DICE Manufacturing Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Assembly ( DFMA ) with a set of tools to model manufacturing processes, and manage tradeoffs across multiple processes. The subject of this report is the...manufacturing engineers, and product/process changes are traded concurrently in the product and process domains. The system will support DFMA with a...Requirements List DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DFMA Design for Manufacturing and Assembly DICE DARPA Initiative In Concurrent Engineering

  1. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  2. Automation in optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicove, Harvey M.; Moore, Duncan T.

    1991-01-01

    The optics industry has not followed the lead of the machining and electronics industries in applying advances in computer aided engineering (CAE), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), automation or quality management techniques. Automation based on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and flexible machining systems (FMS) has been widely implemented in these industries. Optics continues to rely on standalone equipment that preserves the highly skilled, labor intensive optical fabrication systems developed in the 1940's. This paper describes development initiatives at the Center for Optics Manufacturing that will create computer integrated manufacturing technology and support processes for the optical industry.

  3. Automation for optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicove, Harvey M.; Moore, Duncan T.

    1990-11-01

    The optics industry has not followed the lead of the machining and electronics industries in applying advances In computer aided engineering (CAE), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), automation or quality management techniques. Automationbased on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and flexible machining systems (FMS) has been widely implemented In these industries. Optics continues to rely on standalone equipment that preserves the highly skilled, labor intensive optical fabrication systems developed in the 1940's. This paper describes development initiatives at the Center for Optics Manufacturing that will create computer integrated manufacturing technology and support processes for the optical industry.

  4. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  5. Membrane associated qualitative differences in cell ultrastructure of chemically and high pressure cryofixed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, Bernd; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther

    2007-06-01

    Membrane contrast can sometimes be poor in biological samples after high pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS). The addition of water to the FS-medium has been shown to improve membrane contrast in animal tissue and yeast. In the present study we tested the effects of 1% and 5% water added to the FS-medium (2% osmium with 0.2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone) on the quality and visibility of membranes in high pressure frozen leaf samples of Cucurbita pepo L. plants and compared them to chemically fixed cells (3% glutaraldehyde post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide). The addition of water to the FS-medium drastically decreased the amounts of well preserved cells and did not significantly improve the quality nor visibility of membranes. In samples that were freeze substituted in FS-media containing 1% and 5% water the width of thylakoid membranes was found to be significantly increased of about 20% and the perinuclear space was up to 76% wider in comparison to what was found in samples which were freeze substituted without water. No differences were found in the thickness of membranes between chemically and cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted in the FS-medium without water. Nevertheless, in chemically fixed cells the intrathylakoidal space was about 120% wider than in cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted with or without water. The present results demonstrate that the addition of water to the FS-medium does not improve membrane contrast but changes the width of thylakoid membranes and the perinuclear space in the present plant material. The addition of water to the FS-medium is therefore not as essential for improved membrane contrast in the investigated plant samples as it was observed in cells of animal tissues and yeast cells.

  6. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie.

  8. Artificial plasma experiments. Chemical release observations associated with the CRRES program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    This report submitted is the final report and covers work performed under the contract for the period Apr. 12, 1985 - Dec. 23, 1993. The CRRES program investigated earth plasma environment by active experiments in which metal vapors were injected into the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere. The vapor clouds perturb the ambient ionospheric / magnetospheric environment and the effects could be monitored by passive observing instruments. Our part of the CRRES program, the Artificial Plasma Experiment program, was a ground based and aircraft based investigation to observe artificial chemical releases by optical techniques.

  9. Chemical Signatures Associated with the Freshening of Northern Atlantic Waters Between 1972 and 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Further insight into the possible causes of the freshening of deep water in the northern Atlantic between the GEOSECS survey (1972) and the TTO survey (1981) is provided by measurements of dissolved silica and dissolved oxygen. As all the northern end member waters are low in dissolved silica content and high in dissolved oxygen content, the message carried by these chemical properties of silica has to do with the extent to which the waters in the northern Atlantic have mixed with the high silica content waters of Antarctic origin. A change in the degree and pattern of this intrusion is noted between the GEOSECS and TTO surveys.

  10. Chemical Signatures Associated with the Freshening of Northern Atlantic Waters Between 1972 and 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Further insight into the possible causes of the freshening of deep water in the northern Atlantic between the GEOSECS survey (1972) and the TTO survey (1981) is provided by measurements of dissolved silica and dissolved oxygen. As all the northern end member waters are low in dissolved silica content and high in dissolved oxygen content, the message carried by these chemical properties of silica has to do with the extent to which the waters in the northern Atlantic have mixed with the high silica content waters of Antarctic origin. A change in the degree and pattern of this intrusion is noted between the GEOSECS and TTO surveys.

  11. Current Methods and Challenges for Epidemiological Studies of the Associations Between Chemical Constituents of Particulate Matter and Health.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Chang, Howard H; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Peng, Roger D; Waller, Lance A

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have been critical for estimating associations between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Because total PM mass is a temporally and spatially varying mixture of constituents with different physical and chemical properties, recent epidemiological studies have focused on PM constituents. Most studies have estimated associations between PM constituents and health using the same statistical methods as in studies of PM mass. However, these approaches may not be sufficient to address challenges specific to studies of PM constituents, namely assigning exposure, disentangling health effects, and handling measurement error. We reviewed large, population-based epidemiological studies of PM constituents and health and describe the statistical methods typically applied to address these challenges. Development of statistical methods that simultaneously address multiple challenges, for example, both disentangling health effects and handling measurement error, could improve estimation of associations between PM constituents and adverse health outcomes.

  12. Using Ambystoma mexicanum (Mexican Axolotl) Embryos, Chemical Genetics, and Microarray Analysis to Identify Signaling Pathways Associated with Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Athippozhy, Antony; Thorson, Jon S.; Voss, S. Randal

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian vertebrates are important models in regenerative biology because they present exceptional regenerative capabilities throughout life. However, it takes considerable effort to rear amphibians to juvenile and adult stages for regeneration studies and the relatively large sizes that frogs and salamanders achieve during development make them difficult to use in chemical screens. Here we introduce a new tail regeneration model using late stage Mexican axolotl embryos. We show that axolotl embryos completely regenerate amputated tails in 7 days before they exhaust their yolk supply and begin to feed. Further, we show that axolotl embryos can be efficiently reared in microtiter plates to achieve moderate throughput screening of soluble chemicals to investigate toxicity and identify molecules that alter regenerative outcome. As proof of principle, we identified integration 1 / wingless (Wnt), transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway antagonists that completely block tail regeneration and additional chemicals that significantly affected tail outgrowth. Furthermore, we used microarray analysis to show that inhibition of Wnt signaling broadly affects transcription of genes associated with Wnt, Fgf, Tgf-β, epidermal growth factor (Egf), Notch, nerve growth factor (Ngf), homeotic gene (Hox), rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/Mapk), myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (Myc), tumor protein 53 (p53), and retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Punctuated changes in the expression of genes known to regulate vertebrate development were observed; this suggests the tail regeneration transcriptional program is hierarchically structured and temporally ordered. Our study establishes the axolotl as a chemical screening model to investigate signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration. PMID:26092703

  13. Using Ambystoma mexicanum (Mexican axolotl) embryos, chemical genetics, and microarray analysis to identify signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, Larissa V; Athippozhy, Antony; Thorson, Jon S; Voss, S Randal

    2015-12-01

    Amphibian vertebrates are important models in regenerative biology because they present exceptional regenerative capabilities throughout life. However, it takes considerable effort to rear amphibians to juvenile and adult stages for regeneration studies, and the relatively large sizes that frogs and salamanders achieve during development make them difficult to use in chemical screens. Here, we introduce a new tail regeneration model using late stage Mexican axolotl embryos. We show that axolotl embryos completely regenerate amputated tails in 7days before they exhaust their yolk supply and begin to feed. Further, we show that axolotl embryos can be efficiently reared in microtiter plates to achieve moderate throughput screening of soluble chemicals to investigate toxicity and identify molecules that alter regenerative outcome. As proof of principle, we identified integration 1 / wingless (Wnt), transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway antagonists that completely block tail regeneration and additional chemicals that significantly affected tail outgrowth. Furthermore, we used microarray analysis to show that inhibition of Wnt signaling broadly affects transcription of genes associated with Wnt, Fgf, Tgf-β, epidermal growth factor (Egf), Notch, nerve growth factor (Ngf), homeotic gene (Hox), rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/Mapk), myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (Myc), tumor protein 53 (p53), and retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Punctuated changes in the expression of genes known to regulate vertebrate development were observed; this suggests the tail regeneration transcriptional program is hierarchically structured and temporally ordered. Our study establishes the axolotl as a chemical screening model to investigate signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  15. Chemical association in simple models of molecular and ionic fluids. III. The cavity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaoqi; Stell, George

    1992-01-01

    Exact equations which relate the cavity function to excess solvation free energies and equilibrium association constants are rederived by using a thermodynamic cycle. A zeroth-order approximation, derived previously by us as a simple interpolation scheme, is found to be very accurate if the associative bonding occurs on or near the surface of the repulsive core of the interaction potential. If the bonding radius is substantially less than the core radius, the approximation overestimates the association degree and the association constant. For binary association, the zeroth-order approximation is equivalent to the first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) of Wertheim. For n-particle association, the combination of the zeroth-order approximation with a ``linear'' approximation (for n-particle distribution functions in terms of the two-particle function) yields the first-order TPT result. Using our exact equations to go beyond TPT, near-exact analytic results for binary hard-sphere association are obtained. Solvent effects on binary hard-sphere association and ionic association are also investigated. A new rule which generalizes Le Chatelier's principle is used to describe the three distinct forms of behaviors involving solvent effects that we find. The replacement of the dielectric-continuum solvent model by a dipolar hard-sphere model leads to improved agreement with an experimental observation. Finally, equation of state for an n-particle flexible linear-chain fluid is derived on the basis of a one-parameter approximation that interpolates between the generalized Kirkwood superposition approximation and the linear approximation. A value of the parameter that appears to be near optimal in the context of this application is obtained from comparison with computer-simulation data.

  16. Chemical association in simple models of molecular and ionic fluids. III. The cavity function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. ); Stell, G. )

    1992-01-15

    Exact equations which relate the cavity function to excess solvation free energies and equilibrium association constants are rederived by using a thermodynamic cycle. A zeroth-order approximation, derived previously by us as a simple interpolation scheme, is found to be very accurate if the associative bonding occurs on or near the surface of the repulsive core of the interaction potential. If the bonding radius is substantially less than the core radius, the approximation overestimates the association degree and the association constant. For binary association, the zeroth-order approximation is equivalent to the first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) of Wertheim. For {ital n}-particle association, the combination of the zeroth-order approximation with a linear'' approximation (for {ital n}-particle distribution functions in terms of the two-particle function) yields the first-order TPT result. Using our exact equations to go beyond TPT, near-exact analytic results for binary hard-sphere association are obtained. Solvent effects on binary hard-sphere association and ionic association are also investigated. A new rule which generalizes Le Chatelier's principle is used to describe the three distinct forms of behaviors involving solvent effects that we find. The replacement of the dielectric-continuum solvent model by a dipolar hard-sphere model leads to improved agreement with an experimental observation. Finally, equation of state for an {ital n}-particle flexible linear-chain fluid is derived on the basis of a one-parameter approximation that interpolates between the generalized Kirkwood superposition approximation and the linear approximation. A value of the parameter that appears to be near optimal in the context of this application is obtained from comparison with computer-simulation data.

  17. Short-term associations of cause-specific emergency hospitalizations and particulate matter chemical components in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Pun, Vivian Chit; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Qiu, Hong; Ho, Kin-Fai; Sun, Zhiwei; Louie, Peter K K; Wong, Tze Wai; Tian, Linwei

    2014-05-01

    Despite an increasing number of recent studies, the overall epidemiologic evidence associating specific particulate matter chemical components with health outcomes has been mixed. The links between components and hospitalizations have rarely been examined in Asia. We estimated associations between exposures to 18 chemical components of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily emergency cardiorespiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong, China, between 2001 and 2007. Carbonaceous particulate matter, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium accounted for two-thirds of the PM10 mass. After adjustment for time-varying confounders, a 3.4-μg/m(3) increment in 2-day moving average of same-day and previous-day nitrate concentrations was associated with the largest increase of 1.32% (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.92) in cardiovascular hospitalizations; elevation in manganese level (0.02 μg/m(3)) was linked to a 0.91% (95% confidence interval: 0.19, 1.64) increase in respiratory hospitalizations. Upon further adjustment for gaseous copollutants, nitrate, sodium ion, chloride ion, magnesium, and nickel remained significantly associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations, whereas sodium ion, aluminum, and magnesium, components abundantly found in coarser PM10, were associated with respiratory hospitalizations. Most positive links were seen during the cold season. These findings lend support to the growing body of literature concerning the health associations of particulate matter composition and provide important insight into the differential health risks of components found in fine and coarse modes of PM10.

  18. Volatile chemicals from leaf litter are associated with invasiveness of a neotropical weed in Asia.

    PubMed

    Inderjit; Evans, Heather; Crocoll, Christoph; Bajpai, Devika; Kaur, Rajwant; Feng, Yu-Long; Silva, Carlos; Carreón, Jacinto Treviño; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Callaway, Ragan M

    2011-02-01

    Some invasive plant species appear to strongly suppress neighbors in their nonnative ranges but much less so in their native range. We found that in the field in its native range in Mexico, the presence of Ageratina adenophora, an aggressive Neotropical invader, was correlated with higher plant species richness than found in surrounding plant communities where this species was absent, suggesting facilitation. However, in two nonnative ranges, China and India, A. adenophora canopies were correlated with much lower species richness than the surrounding communities, suggesting inhibition. Volatile organic compound (VOC) signals may contribute to this striking biogeographical difference and the invasive success of A. adenophora. In controlled experiments volatiles from A. adenophora litter caused higher mortality of species native to India and China, but not of species native to Mexico. The effects of A. adenophora VOCs on seedling germination and growth did not differ between species from the native range and species from the nonnative ranges of the invader. Litter from A. adenophora plants from nonnative populations also produced VOCs that differed quantitatively in the concentrations of some chemicals than litter from native populations, but there were no chemicals unique to one region. Biogeographic differences in the concentrations of some volatile compounds between ranges suggest that A. adenophora may be experiencing selection on biochemical composition in its nonnative ranges.

  19. Exploratory factor analysis of fluoride removal efficiency associated with the chemical properties of geomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Park, Ji Hye; Han, Sung-Hee; Lim, You Young; Kong, Ki Jeong; Do, Jung Yun

    2017-07-15

    This study explored the chemical properties of geomaterials in relation with their fluoride removal efficiencies from water under acidic conditions. Two types each of as-received and engineered steel slags were tested, and their F(-) removal efficiencies were compared with those of other common or commercially available acid spill response materials. The chemical properties of the geomaterials were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine their surface elemental compositions and by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis to determine their surface areas. The F(-) removal efficiencies were calculated based on the fluoride concentrations in the remaining solutions using an ion chromatography technique. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to identify the dominant independent variables that influenced the F(-) removal efficiencies, revealing that the surface area was most closely correlated with the F(-) removal efficiency. A microscopic analysis of the geomaterials, conducted using an energy dispersion spectrometer technique after the F(-) sorption reaction had occurred revealed that the local Al, Si, or O concentration was an important latent independent variable for the F(-) removal efficiency. These variables had been hidden in the PCA results. Therefore, aluminosilicate-rich geomaterials with a high surface area offer primary candidates as effective sorbents for fluoride in water under acidic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Walsh, H.L.; Sperry, A.J.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brightbill, R.A.; Smith, G.; Foreman, W.T.; Manning, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100 %, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100 % in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.