Science.gov

Sample records for chemical process safety

  1. Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.…

  2. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

  3. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  5. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  6. Requirements analysis for safety-critical systems: A chemical batch processing example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delemos, R.; Saeed, A.; Anderson, T.

    1994-01-01

    An essential basis for the development of software for safety-critical systems is to establish high-quality requirements specifications. In the paper the authors present a methodology for requirements analysis that consists of: a framework which facilitates the systematic analysis of the safety requirements, a graph which records the safety specifications and their relationships, and a set of procedures for the quality analysis of the safety specifications. To illustrate the approach a case study, based on chemical batch processing, is presented.

  7. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous... the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DATES: Comments must be... elements of the standard; completing a compilation of written process safety information; performing...

  8. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  9. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  10. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1926.64 Section 1926.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.64 Process safety management of highly hazardous...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1926.64 Section 1926.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.64 Process safety management of highly hazardous...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1926.64 Section 1926.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.64 Process safety management of highly hazardous...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1926.64 Section 1926.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.64 Process safety management of highly hazardous...

  14. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  15. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  17. Combination of chemical analyses and animal feeding trials as reliable procedures to assess the safety of heat processed soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Brasil, Isabel Cristiane F; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Campello, Cláudio C; Maia, Fernanda Maria M; Campello, Maria Verônica M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele U

    2009-06-10

    This study assessed whether chemical analyses are sufficient to guarantee the safety of heat processing of soybeans (SB) for human/animal consumption. The effects of extrusion and dry-toasting were analyzed upon seed composition and performance of broiler chicks. None of these induced appreciable changes in protein content and amino acid composition. Conversely, toasting reduced all antinutritional proteins by over 85%. Despite that, the animals fed on toasted SB demonstrated a low performance (feed efficiency 57.8 g/100 g). Extrusion gave place to higher contents of antinutrients, particularly of trypsin inhibitors (27.53 g/kg flour), but animal performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better (feed efficiency 63.2 g/100 g). Upon the basis of chemical analyses, dry-toasting represents the treatment of choice. However, considering the results of the feeding trials, extrusion appears to be the safest method. In conclusion, in order to evaluate the reliability of any processing method intended to improve nutritional value, the combination of chemical and animal studies is necessary.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Safety data sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to comply with this... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Safety data sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to comply with this... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... materials that could foreseeably occur. Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR... requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning the hot work operations; it shall... action plan for the entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a). In addition,...

  4. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  5. Safety in Handling Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This manual describes safety procedures which should be observed in the chemistry laboratory. Accidents which may occur when working with chemicals such as peroxides, phosphorus, heavy metals, acids, etc., need special treatment. Quite suitable descriptions of such treatment are listed for each kind of possible accident in the laboratory.…

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the offering of a course in chemical and industrial hazards for junior and senior chemistry majors at City College of New York in 1972. Suggests inclusion of laboratory and industrial safety education as a formal part of chemistry or science curricula. (CC)

  7. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  8. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  9. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

  10. Chemical Process Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siirola, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

  11. Project on chemical safety in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J; Dutkiewicz, T

    1990-01-01

    This work focuses on main aspects of a proposed system of chemical safety in Poland. General principles have been formulated, including theoretical guidelines, definitions and functions. Additionally, organizational and legislative structures have been proposed. A basic principal of the system says that each activity related to the application of chemical compounds creates a risk of adverse health and environmental effects. According to the definition adopted, chemical safety means such levels of chemical compounds in the environment, coming from various sources, which ensure that the risk of adverse health effects and other negative effects will not surpass socially acceptable levels. The chemical safety system is aimed at preventing and limiting the risk of undesirable health and environmental effects from chemical compounds. It is proposed that the system be coordinated by the National Coordinating Committee on Chemical Safety. The most urgent task of the Committee would be to draft a law on human health protection against the harmful effects of chemical compounds.

  12. Chemical Processing Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Showers and Eyewash Fountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronaugh, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews safety and emergency equipment in their application to chemical laboratories. Discusses American National Standards (ANSI) for equipment. Presents practical considerations for the placement and purchase of equipment. (MVL)

  14. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process safety information. 68.65... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required...

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Robert D.

    1972-01-01

    The author discusses a system for establishing the relative potential of a chemical to release energy suddenly and to indicate release. This system is applicable to chemical storage and transportation. The system is based upon three simple tests requiring a minimum sample (1 go or 1 ml): (1) computation, (2) impact sensitivity, and (3) thermal…

  16. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  17. Lasers in chemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-04-15

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  18. Chemical Sensing in Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) rationale for chemical sensors in process analysis; (2) existing types of process chemical sensors; (3) sensor limitations, considering lessons of chemometrics; (4) trends in process control sensors; and (5) future prospects. (JN)

  19. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data; (6) Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used...

  20. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... data; (4) Reactivity data: (5) Corrosivity data; (6) Thermal and chemical stability data; and (7... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used...

  1. Potential of mass spectrometry metabolomics for chemical food safety.

    PubMed

    Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Chéreau, Sylvain; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to describe the most significant applications of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in the field of chemical food safety. A particular discussion of all the different analytical steps involved in the metabolomics workflow (sample preparation, mass spectrometry analytical platform and data processing) will be addressed.

  2. Striving for safety excellence in chemical and glovebox environments

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, M. L.; Vigil, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    Within Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division provides the foundation for maintaining the nuclear materials mission in support of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Plutonium research and production competencies reside in a suitably skilled and well-trained work force. Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of the actinide elements, specialized training, expert knowledge, and unique safety procedures are essential to the execution of NMT's mission. To ensure the highest degree of safety, NMT Division employs a behavior-based solution (ATOMICS) for assuring operations safety excellence. The subsequent mitigation efforts of the ATOMICS Process to enhance the safety culture of the NMT workforce in chemical and glovebox environments are the primary focus of this paper. The NMT ATOMICS Process demonstrates the application of LANLs first guiding principal of the Integrated Safety Management Program 'management commitment and worker involvement' as an integral element of the process. The vision of ATOMICS is to be the Department of Energy's (DOE) model of excellence in the application of safety performance.

  3. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Loizou, George D

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential "seismic" shift from the current "healthcare" model to a "wellness" paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human "data poor" to a human "data rich" environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm. PMID:27493630

  4. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, George D.

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential “seismic” shift from the current “healthcare” model to a “wellness” paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human “data poor” to a human “data rich” environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm. PMID:27493630

  5. Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

  6. Fundamentals of Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course that provides students with a fundamental understanding of the chemical, catalytic, and engineering sciences related to the chemical reactions taking place in a variety of reactors of different configurations. Also describes the eight major lecture topics, course examinations, and term papers. The course schedule is included.…

  7. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  8. [Chemical safety (1): The origin of the problem].

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J

    1988-01-01

    The genesis of the vast problem--of cognitive and applicatory nature--referred to as chemical safety, has been presented. Chemical safety studies involve all possible sources of man's exposure to chemical compounds, which is aimed at an effective control of adverse health effects. The authors have set up a definition according to which chemical safety occurs where exposure to chemical compounds coming from various sources causes a specific health risk not higher than the socially accepted level. The contribution of Poland to the International Program of Chemical Safety (IPCS) should promote the exchange of experiences and access to scientific and technological information. PMID:3070269

  9. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability.

  10. OSHA`s process safety management standard

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    On February 24, 1992, OSHA published the final rule for its Process Safety Management Standard (PSM) mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. (see Federal Register 57 FR 6356-6417). This standard imposes several responsibilities upon employers whose processes can cause large accident releases that could result in processes can cause large accident releases that could result in catastrophes. In contrast to OSHA`s Hazard Communication standard which focuses on routine daily exposures to hazardous materials, the PSM Standard is concerned with processes whereby the use, storage, manufacturing, handling or on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals which exceed threshold quantities, provides potential for a catastrophic release. The PSM Standard requires: a written program, plans, training, hazard analysis and compliance auditing. This paper outlines the provisions under this Standard pursuant to OSHA regulation 29 Code of Federal Regulation 1910.119.

  11. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety.

  12. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety. PMID:12909402

  13. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Developing Departmental Safety Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Palladino, George F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents rationale and guidelines for development of Safety Standard Operating Procedures (Safety SOP) specific for local conditions. Includes an outline of a Safety SOP developed for a department primarily focused on undergraduate education with a wide variety of expertise from common laborer to PhD with 20 years experience. (Author/JN)

  15. Chemically treated kindling and process

    SciTech Connect

    Earlywine, R.T.

    1984-10-09

    A chemically treated kindling and process for the production thereof wherein the kindling is comprised of a pressed mixture of wood fibers, alum, and cornstarch, and is saturated with a prepared composition comprising a plurality of chemically distinct compositions, each of the compositions containing a different predetermined amount of refined petroleum wax and refined oil.

  16. Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

    2000-11-01

    The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture.

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  18. Chemical Process Modeling and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartusiak, R. Donald; Price, Randel M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the features of Lehigh University's (Pennsylvania) process modeling and control program. Highlights the creation and operation of the Chemical Process Modeling and Control Center (PMC). Outlines the program's philosophy, faculty, technical program, current research projects, and facilities. (TW)

  19. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W.

    1990-01-01

    Safety issues specifically related to the analytical laboratory are discussed including hazardous reagents, transferring samples, cleaning apparatus, eye protection, and equipment damage. Special attention is given to techniques which not only endanger the technician but also endanger expensive equipment. (CW)

  1. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described. PMID:26979411

  2. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  3. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  4. Chemical Safety and Scientific Ethics in a Sophomore Chemistry Seminar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Anne E.; Griffith Freeman, R.

    1999-09-01

    A description of a course on chemical safety and scientific ethics is presented. The goals of this course are to impress upon the students the importance of safety in their professional lives; to empower the students to take charge of their own personal safety when working with chemicals; to illustrate and emphasize the vital importance of honesty and integrity within the scientific enterprise; and to explore issues of honesty and integrity through case studies that allow ethical decisions to be critically examined. The recent approaches and activities used to accomplish these goals are detailed. These include readings from chemical safety textbooks, chemical safety reports from news sources, and group discussions springing from problems in scientific ethics.

  5. Development of a written comprehensive chemical safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Sassone, D.M.; Holman, S.H.; Whyte, H.M.; Shinkel, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    It has become increasingly important for occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals to provide clear, definitive guidance to workers and supervisors on chemical safety. Internal OSH professionals find themselves in the role of consultants to their companies, providing {open_quotes}how-to`s{close_quotes} to line personnel. This has resulted in a need to provide information for chemical safety that extends beyond an MSDS, especially where requirements/guidance may be duplicative or conflicting. Requirements are contained in OSHA, DOT and internal documents; guidance includes ANSI, ASTM, and NFPA. OSH personnel, workers and supervisors at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), who must comply with DOE requirements, recognized the difficulty of complying with numerous regulations and guidelines. A document that resulted in {open_quotes}one-stop{close_quotes} shopping for chemical safety was proposed. This presentation describes our approach to simplifying chemical safety requirements and guidelines for LANL.

  6. CHEMISTRY FOR THE SAFETY MAN. SAFETY IN INDUSTRY--ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARDS SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CESTRONE, PATRICK F.

    THIS BULLETIN, ONE OF A SERIES ON SAFETY IN INDUSTRY, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE BACKGROUND WHICH WILL ENABLE THE SAFETY MAN TO UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE PRINCIPLES APPLIED IN CONTROLLING CHEMICAL HAZARDS. IT WAS PREPARED IN THE OFFICE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, DIVISION OF PROGRAMING AND RESEARCH, BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS. TOPICS INCLUDE (1) WHAT IS…

  7. Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-04-07

    Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

  8. Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph

    One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

  9. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  10. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  11. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  12. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J.; Nomura, Hideko

    2010-10-20

    We have developed a high-resolution combined physical and chemical model of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. Our aims were to use our model to calculate the chemical structure of disks on small scales (submilliarcsecond in the inner disk for objects at the distance of Taurus, {approx}140 pc) to investigate the various chemical processes thought to be important in disks and to determine potential molecular tracers of each process. Our gas-phase network was extracted from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry to which we added gas-grain interactions including freezeout and thermal and non-thermal desorption (cosmic-ray-induced desorption, photodesorption, and X-ray desorption), and a grain-surface network. We find that cosmic-ray-induced desorption has the least effect on our disk chemical structure while photodesorption has a significant effect, enhancing the abundances of most gas-phase molecules throughout the disk and affecting the abundances and distribution of HCN, CN, and CS, in particular. In the outer disk, we also see enhancements in the abundances of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. X-ray desorption is a potentially powerful mechanism in disks, acting to homogenize the fractional abundances of gas-phase species across the depth and increasing the column densities of most molecules, although there remain significant uncertainties in the rates adopted for this process. The addition of grain-surface chemistry enhances the fractional abundances of several small complex organic molecules including CH{sub 3}OH, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} to potentially observable values (i.e., a fractional abundance of {approx}>10{sup -11}).

  13. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  14. Toxicity testing in chemical safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2007-02-01

    The modern era of chemistry has resulted in dramatic improvements in the overall human condition. In addition to new pharmaceuticals, modern chemistry has brought with it enormous health and social benefits Introduction of chemistry-based technologies, however, has also been clearly associated with potential human health risks. The dramatic increase in pharmaceutical and chemical technologies in the post World War II era, coupled with associated examples of demonstrated human toxicity, led to development and application of an expanded and standardized battery of animal and other toxicity tests designed to characterize the potential hazards and risks associated with chemical exposures. This unit discusses the current approach to industrial chemical and pesticide toxicity testing.

  15. CHEMICAL SAFETY: ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-08-05

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  16. Chemical safety: asking the right questions

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, Helena M; Quigley, David; Freshwater, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  17. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  18. Chemical safety, health care costs and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Goldman, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    On May 22, 2013, the late Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), Senator David Vitter (R-LA) and 19 of their colleagues introduced bipartisan chemical safety legislation in the US Senate, "The Chemical Safety Improvement Act of 2013." The bill's purpose is to protect human health and the environment against the hazards of toxic chemicals, by requiring the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to examine the safety of all chemicals in consumer products. The bill is currently before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, chaired by Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA). This legislation is critically important for physicians and healthcare organizations because it creates significant new opportunities to prevent disease and cut healthcare costs. PMID:24136096

  19. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Chemical Safety and Emergency Response in Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for safety programs in small colleges/universities and secondary schools, addressing objectives of such programs and major program components. Sample forms are included (hazardous materials log sheet, laboratory class safety checklist, laboratory room safety checklist, injury accident report, noninjury accident report, and room…

  3. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  4. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  5. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  6. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  7. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOEpatents

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Organic Peroxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Edward S.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the thermodynamic instability of organic peroxides. The process of autoxidation which results in peroxide formation is described. Precautions necessary to prevent autoxidation hazards associated with these reagents are suggested. (CW)

  9. Chemical Processing. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reviews major organic and inorganic chemicals, their products, and the sociocultural impact of the chemical industry. Provides the following learning activity components: objectives, list of materials and equipment, procedures, student quiz with answers, and three references. (SK)

  10. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS
    Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2
    1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA.
    2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

  12. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  14. WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To encourage the consideration of environmental issues during chemical process design, the USEPA has developed techniques and software tools to evaluate the relative environmental impact of a chemical process. These techniques and tools aid in the risk management process by focus...

  15. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  16. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.203 Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish, implement, and...

  17. Chemical Processing of Electrons and Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synopsis of four lectures given in an elective senior-level electronic material processing course to introduce solid state electronics. Provides comparisons of a large scale chemical processing plant and an integrated circuit. (YP)

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  19. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits.

    PubMed

    Birkmire, John C; Lay, James R; McMahon, Mona C

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  20. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. The Assistant Administrator, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP), serves as...

  1. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830... Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE... a procedure for its USQ process on a schedule that allows DOE approval in a safety evaluation...

  2. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  3. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals.

  4. [Non-animal toxicology in the safety testing of chemicals].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Tuula; Tähti, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop predictive test methods better than animal experiments for assessing the safety of chemical substances to man. According to today's vision this is achieved by using human cell based tissue and organ models. In the new testing strategy the toxic effects are assessed by the changes in the critical parameters of the cellular biochemical routes (AOP, adverse toxic outcome pathway-principle) in the target tissues. In vitro-tests are rapid and effective, and with them automation can be applied. The change in the testing paradigm is supported by all stakeholders: scientists, regulators and people concerned on animal welfare.

  5. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  6. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOEpatents

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  7. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  8. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  9. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Safety Integration Plan process. 1106.4... OF CONTROL § 1106.4 The Safety Integration Plan process. (a) Each applicant in a transaction subject... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall...

  10. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  11. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

  12. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  13. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  14. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S

    2009-09-23

    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future.

  15. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  16. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  17. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to...; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits for...

  18. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to...; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits for...

  19. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    PubMed

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  20. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    PubMed

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given. PMID:18374483

  1. Enhanced membrane bioreactor process without chemical cleaning.

    PubMed

    Krause, S; Zimmermann, B; Meyer-Blumenroth, U; Lamparter, W; Siembida, B; Cornel, P

    2010-01-01

    In membrane bioreactors (MBR) for wastewater treatment, the separation of activated sludge and treated water takes place by membrane filtration. Due to the small footprint and superior effluent quality, the number of membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment is rapidly increasing. A major challenge in this process is the fouling of the membranes which results in permeability decrease and the demand of chemical cleaning procedures. With the objective of a chemical-free process, the removal of the fouling layer by continuous physical abrasion was investigated. Therefore, particles (granules) were added to the activated sludge in order to realise a continuous abrasion of the fouling layer. During operation for more than 8 months, the membranes showed no decrease in permeability. Fluxes up to 40 L/(m(2) h) were achieved. An online turbidity measurement was installed for the effluent control and showed no change during this test period. For comparison, a reference (standard MBR process without granules) was operated which demonstrated permeability loss at lower fluxes and required chemical cleaning. Altogether with this process an operation at higher fluxes and no use of cleaning chemicals will increase the cost efficiency of the MBR-process.

  2. Safety evaluation of chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors.

    PubMed

    Jonker, D; Freidig, A P; Groten, J P; de Hollander, A E M; Stierum, R H; Woutersen, R A; Feron, V J

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in hazard identification and risk assessment of chemical mixtures are reviewed. Empirical, descriptive approaches to study and characterize the toxicity of mixtures have dominated during the past two decades, but an increasing number of mechanistic approaches have made their entry into mixture toxicology. A series of empirical studies with simple chemical mixtures in rats is described in some detail because of the important lessons from this work. The development of regulatory guidelines for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures is discussed briefly. Current issues in mixture toxicology include the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution; the application of such modern, sophisticated methodologies as genomics, bioinformatics, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; and databases for mixture toxicity. Finally, the state of the art of our knowledge on the potential adverse health effects of combined exposures to chemicals and non-chemical stressors (noise, heat/cold, microorganisms, immobilization, restraint, or transportation), research initiatives in these fields, and the development of an indicator for the cumulative health impact of multiple environmental exposures are discussed. PMID:15329008

  3. Quantum-Chemical Studies on TATB Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, R. S.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Jadhav, P. M.; Ghule, V. D.; Soman, T.

    2010-04-01

    Quantum chemical studies have gained paramount importance in screening of thermodynamically feasible chemical processes. The current investigation attempts to select an appropriate process for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene (TATB), a reasonably powerful insensitive high explosive (IHE) through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Although, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB) routes for synthesis of TATB have been well established, this article demonstrates the predictive capability of thermochemical computations for the identification of a viable process. Thermochemical parameters of reaction species have been obtained from DFT B3LYP/6-31G* calculations and feasibility of the process has been worked out on the basis of free energies of reactions and equilibrium constant as derived from standard enthalpy and entropy of the reaction species. The detailed computational studies have revealed that the THB route is thermodynamically feasible and the same has been supported experimentally.

  4. Novel approaches to improving the chemical safety of the meat chain towards toxicants.

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Ratel, J; Bouhlel, J; Planche, C; Meurillon, M

    2015-11-01

    In addition to microbiological issues, meat chemical safety is a growing concern for the public authorities, chain stakeholders and consumers. Meat may be contaminated by various chemical toxicants originating from the environment, treatments of agricultural production or food processing. Generally found at trace levels in meat, these toxicants may harm human health during chronic exposure. This paper overviews the key issues to be considered to ensure better control of their occurrence in meat and assessment of the related health risk. We first describe potential contaminants of meat products. Strategies to move towards a more efficient and systematic control of meat chemical safety are then presented in a second part, with a focus on emerging approaches based on toxicogenomics. The third part presents mitigation strategies to limit the impact of process-induced toxicants in meat. Finally, the last part introduces methodological advances to refine chemical risk assessment related to the occurrence of toxicants in meat by quantifying the influence of digestion on the fraction of food contaminants that may be assimilated by the human body. PMID:26043665

  5. Novel approaches to improving the chemical safety of the meat chain towards toxicants.

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Ratel, J; Bouhlel, J; Planche, C; Meurillon, M

    2015-11-01

    In addition to microbiological issues, meat chemical safety is a growing concern for the public authorities, chain stakeholders and consumers. Meat may be contaminated by various chemical toxicants originating from the environment, treatments of agricultural production or food processing. Generally found at trace levels in meat, these toxicants may harm human health during chronic exposure. This paper overviews the key issues to be considered to ensure better control of their occurrence in meat and assessment of the related health risk. We first describe potential contaminants of meat products. Strategies to move towards a more efficient and systematic control of meat chemical safety are then presented in a second part, with a focus on emerging approaches based on toxicogenomics. The third part presents mitigation strategies to limit the impact of process-induced toxicants in meat. Finally, the last part introduces methodological advances to refine chemical risk assessment related to the occurrence of toxicants in meat by quantifying the influence of digestion on the fraction of food contaminants that may be assimilated by the human body.

  6. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  7. Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

    2002-04-26

    This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

  8. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  9. Chemical Aspects of the Impact Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, T.

    2007-12-01

    Impact cratering plays an integral role in the evolution and formation of planetary systems. Chemical anomalies are accepted phenomena at impact sites, but few, if any, published models adequately describe the kinetics and thermodynamics of impact-induced chemical changes. Utilizing XRF, ICP-MS, GDMS,and SHIRMP-RG, this study analyzed the trace chemical composition of shock- metamorphosed granite and obtained quantitative data, which were further analyzed using parametric frequentist statistics and resampling techniques. The concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Rb, and Sc changed in a statistically significant manner at the 99% confidence level. Based on chemical and thin section analyses, a cohesive model was developed to describe how impact-induced chemical changes form. As the impactor collides with the target material, most of the impactor melts. As the shock waves and subsequent rarefaction waves move through the target, partial melting of mineral phases begins. Material from the impacting body combines with the partial melt, thereby amalgamating an extraterrestrial component into the target. Characteristics of the amalgamation process are related to the partitioning coefficients, ionic radii, ionic charges, and electron configurations of the involved components. Ongoing work focuses on the determination of the relationship between chemical composition and proximity to interstitial boundaries.

  10. Chemical computing with reaction-diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, J; Gizynski, K; Guzowski, J; Gorecka, J N; Garstecki, P; Gruenert, G; Dittrich, P

    2015-07-28

    Chemical reactions are responsible for information processing in living organisms. It is believed that the basic features of biological computing activity are reflected by a reaction-diffusion medium. We illustrate the ideas of chemical information processing considering the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and its photosensitive variant. The computational universality of information processing is demonstrated. For different methods of information coding constructions of the simplest signal processing devices are described. The function performed by a particular device is determined by the geometrical structure of oscillatory (or of excitable) and non-excitable regions of the medium. In a living organism, the brain is created as a self-grown structure of interacting nonlinear elements and reaches its functionality as the result of learning. We discuss whether such a strategy can be adopted for generation of chemical information processing devices. Recent studies have shown that lipid-covered droplets containing solution of reagents of BZ reaction can be transported by a flowing oil. Therefore, structures of droplets can be spontaneously formed at specific non-equilibrium conditions, for example forced by flows in a microfluidic reactor. We describe how to introduce information to a droplet structure, track the information flow inside it and optimize medium evolution to achieve the maximum reliability. Applications of droplet structures for classification tasks are discussed.

  11. Rock fracture processes in chemically reactive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rock fracture is traditionally viewed as a brittle process involving damage nucleation and growth in a zone ahead of a larger fracture, resulting in fracture propagation once a threshold loading stress is exceeded. It is now increasingly recognized that coupled chemical-mechanical processes influence fracture growth in wide range of subsurface conditions that include igneous, metamorphic, and geothermal systems, and diagenetically reactive sedimentary systems with possible applications to hydrocarbon extraction and CO2 sequestration. Fracture processes aided or driven by chemical change can affect the onset of fracture, fracture shape and branching characteristics, and fracture network geometry, thus influencing mechanical strength and flow properties of rock systems. We are investigating two fundamental modes of chemical-mechanical interactions associated with fracture growth: 1. Fracture propagation may be aided by chemical dissolution or hydration reactions at the fracture tip allowing fracture propagation under subcritical stress loading conditions. We are evaluating effects of environmental conditions on critical (fracture toughness KIc) and subcritical (subcritical index) fracture properties using double torsion fracture mechanics tests on shale and sandstone. Depending on rock composition, the presence of reactive aqueous fluids can increase or decrease KIc and/or subcritical index. 2. Fracture may be concurrent with distributed dissolution-precipitation reactions in the hostrock beyond the immediate vicinity of the fracture tip. Reconstructing the fracture opening history recorded in crack-seal fracture cement of deeply buried sandstone we find that fracture length growth and fracture opening can be decoupled, with a phase of initial length growth followed by a phase of dominant fracture opening. This suggests that mechanical crack-tip failure processes, possibly aided by chemical crack-tip weakening, and distributed

  12. High-Throughput Toxicity Testing: New Strategies for Assessing Chemical Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the food industry has made progress in improving safety testing methods focused on microbial contaminants in order to promote food safety. However, food industry toxicologists must also assess the safety of food-relevant chemicals including pesticides, direct add...

  13. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  14. Solar chemical process for sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, M.

    1980-03-04

    A solar chemical process for converting sewer sludge from a gelatinous mass into a manageable product suitable for fertilizer includes the manufacture of a carbonaceous product by treating cellulose waste such as newspaper with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture until the cellulose product becomes substantially black. The black product is mixed with sludge in a ratio to produce a grainy product that can be chlorinated for sterility and spread as fertilizer. In a modified version of the process, coal ash is added to the sludge with the carbonaceous product for its nutrient value, and sand may be added with the coal ash to aid in aeration of the soil.

  15. NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  17. Molecular beam studies of elementary chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y T

    1987-05-15

    The experimental investigation of elementary chemical reactions is presently in a very exciting period. The advance in modern microscopic experimental methods, especially crossed molecular beams and laser technology, has made it possible to explore the dynamics and mechanisms of important elementary chemical reactions in great detail. Through the continued accumulation of detailed and reliable knowledge about elementary reactions, we will be in a better position to understand, predict, and control many time-dependent macroscopic chemical processes that are important in nature or to human society. In addition, because of recent improvements in the accuracy of theoretical predictions based on large-scale ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, meaningful comparisons between theoretical and experimental findings have become possible. In the remaining years of the 20th century, there is no doubt that the experimental investigation of the dynamics and mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions will play a very important role in bridging the gap between the basic laws of mechanics and the real world of chemistry.

  18. Application of Annotated Logic Program to Pipeline Process Safety Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    We have developed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation (abbr. EVALPSN), which can deal with defeasible deontic reasoning and contradiction, and we have already applied it to safety verification and control such as railway interlocking safety verification and traffic signal control. In this paper, we introduce process safety verification as an application of EVALPSN with a small example for brewery pipeline valve control. The safety verification control is based on EVALPSN defeasible deontic reasoning to avoid unexpected mix of different sorts of liquid in pipeline networks.

  19. Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

    2002-05-01

    Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal

  20. STS safety approval process for small self-contained payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gum, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    The safety approval process established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Get Away Special (GAS) payloads is described. Although the designing organization is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of its payload, the Get Away Special team at the Goddard Space Flight Center will act as advisors while iterative safety analyses are performed and the Safety Data Package inputs are submitted. This four phase communications process will ultimately give NASA confidence that the GAS payload is safe, and successful completion of the Phase 3 package and review will clear the way for flight aboard the Space Transportation System orbiter.

  1. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

  2. Economic-oriented stochastic optimization in advanced process control of chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process.

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  4. Great Safety Performance: an improvement process using leading indicators.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Dianne; Roithmayr, Tony

    2004-12-01

    The Great Safety Performance model uses leading indicators to drive injury prevention and provides a process to improve a company's safety outcomes by maximizing the conditions for safety within the workplace. The model asserts that leaders and workers need to jointly create conditions whereby everyone will know what to do, be able to do it, be equipped to do it, want to do it, and experience interactions that support safe performance in their job duties. These factors are referred to as the conditions for great performance. The Great Safety Performance model can serve as a vehicle to quantify, document, and demonstrate the efforts a company invests to create a safe workplace with safe work practices. By using the Great Safety Performance model, organizations can design and implement a variety of high leverage improvement initiatives specific to their business situations.

  5. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the act, the processed food will not...

  6. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the Act, the processed food will not...

  7. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE-STD-3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  8. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  9. Cultural safety as an ethic of care: a praxiological process.

    PubMed

    McEldowney, Rose; Connor, Margaret J

    2011-10-01

    New writings broadening the construct of cultural safety, a construct initiated in Aotearoa New Zealand, are beginning to appear in the literature. Therefore, it is considered timely to integrate these writings and advance the construct into a new theoretical model. The new model reconfigures the constructs of cultural safety and cultural competence as an ethic of care informed by a postmodern perspective. Central to the new model are three interwoven, co-occurring components: an ethic of care, which unfolds within a praxiological process shaped by the context. Context is expanded through identifying the three concepts of relationality, generic competence, and collectivity, which are integral to each client-nurse encounter. The competence associated with cultural safety as an ethic of care is always in the process of development. Clients and nurses engage in a dialogue to establish the level of cultural safety achieved at given points in a care trajectory.

  10. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  11. Assuring the Safety of Chemicals through Improved Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals are currently in commercial use and hundreds more are introduced each year. Of these, only a small fraction has been assessed adequately for potential risks. Existing chemical testing and exposure measurement protocols are expensive and time consuming. Fu...

  12. Installation of a multiplexed Raman system in a chemical process.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Lois G; Yee, Dupon; Pearson, Gary I; Wade, John

    2004-12-01

    A 785 nm laser dispersive Raman system was installed in a hazardous chemical production plant to monitor two reactors, a still, and a holding tank with measurement directly through sight glasses. Compositional information for several raw materials, intermediates, and products was obtained using partial least squares (PLS) calibrations. Discriminate analysis was used to exclude extremely poor spectra while including usable ones. Derivative/standard normal variate (SNV) treatment was found to be effective for correcting for background fluorescence and for large differences in spectral intensity. Final regression equations incorporated temperature fluctuations, occasional fluorescence, some sunlight effects, large intensity variations, and large compositional changes. Various installation problems were solved via data treatment or mechanical changes. The Raman system provides information for control of the process, resulting in cost savings and improved safety.

  13. The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

  14. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use...

  15. High pressure processing for food safety.

    PubMed

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Windyga, B; Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M; Pietrzak, D; Prestamo, G

    2005-01-01

    Food preservation using high pressure is a promising technique in food industry as it offers numerous opportunities for developing new foods with extended shelf-life, high nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics. High pressure is an alternative to thermal processing. The resistance of microorganisms to pressure varies considerably depending on the pressure range applied, temperature and treatment duration, and type of microorganism. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria are more resistant to pressure than Gram-negative bacteria, moulds and yeasts; the most resistant are bacterial spores. The nature of the food is also important, as it may contain substances which protect the microorganism from high pressure. This article presents results of our studies involving the effect of high pressure on survival of some pathogenic bacteria -- Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus hirae -- in artificially contaminated cooked ham, ripening hard cheese and fruit juices. The results indicate that in samples of investigated foods the number of these microorganisms decreased proportionally to the pressure used and the duration of treatment, and the effect of these two factors was statistically significant (level of probability, P

  16. Maiorchino Cheese: Physico-Chemical, Hygienic and Safety Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ravidà, Andrea; Mandanici, Alessandro; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Chetta, Michele; Verzera, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of traditional Maiorchino cheese (Italy) made from raw ewe’s milk or from a mixture with goat’s milk. Cheese samples from the same batch were analyzed after 20 days and 6, 8, 12, 17 and 24 months of ripening. A decrease in moisture level lead to progressive total solids concentration (fat, total nitrogen, total solids and chloride) during ripening. Aw values decreased from 0.97 (day 20) to 0.85 (month 24), while pH increased from 4.99 to 5.41 (6 months) followed a by reduction until 4.85 (month 24). In samples analysed 20 days after cheesemaking, aerobic mesophilic count was 1.8•107 CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae were 2.7•106 CFU/g, Staphylococcus spp. were 1.8•104 CFU/g, and yeasts 4.5•105 CFU/g. Sulphite reducing bacteria were not found. Lactic bacteria count at 30°C (LAB30) and 42°C (LAB42) was about 108 CFU/g (day 20); LAB30 reduced until month 8; LAB 42 reduced until month 12; both were not detectable at months 17 and 24. Cheese-making process does not consider commercial starter cultures and LAB group is heterogeneous because of its natural microflora. Yeasts were considered as typical microflora of Maiorchino. Volatile compounds were examined at 6, 12 and 24 months of ripening; 54 components were identified. Statistical analysis showed that the seasoning period of 12 months was the best for Maiorchino flavour attributes. The characterisation of Maiorchino traditional cheese may be considered as significant for this old traditional product, with the aim of obtaining the PDO certification. PMID:27800379

  17. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  18. Chemical Safety. Part II: Tips for Dealing with Laboratory Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of involving students in assessing the risks versus the benefits of specific laboratory activities, completing accident/incident reports, and performing periodic safety inspections. Concludes that involving students enhances their awareness of both hazards and precautions that must be taken. Provides them another avenue…

  19. Film processing investigation. [improved chemical mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present operational chemical mixing system for the Photographic Technology Division is evaluated, and the limitations are defined in terms of meeting the present and programmed chemical supply and delivery requirements. A major redesign of the entire chemical mixing, storage, analysis, and supply system is recommended. Other requirements for immediate and future implementations are presented.

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Cyclohexane as a Cryoscopic Solvent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffel, Margaret J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that cyclohexane be used as a solvent in experiments usually using benzene, which has been placed on the list of chemicals that are confirmed carcinogens. Reasons for selection of cyclohexane and experimental procedures using this solvent are described. (CS)

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

  2. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  3. Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide Hazards. Module SH-50. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agricultural chemical and pesticide hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module contains information concerning the safe handling, use, and storage of many chemicals that are frequently used in the control of pests. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  4. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  5. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  6. Commercialization of Turbulent Combustion Code CREBCOM for Chemical Industry Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Upendra

    2007-06-30

    This program developed the Kurchatov Institute’s CREBCOM (CRiteria and Experimentally Based COMbustion) code to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications described above, as well as for general purpose combustion calculations. The CREBCOM code uses a different approach to model the explosion phenomenon. The code models, with full 3D gas dynamics, the development of an explosion in three characteristics regimes: a) slow flames, b) fast flames, and c) detonation. The transition from one regime to another is governed by a set of empirical criteria and correlations. As part of the commercialization, the code was validated with the use of experimental data. The experimental data covered a range of thermodynamic initial conditions and apparatus scale. Proprietary experimental data were provided to the Kurchatov Institute by the DuPont for this purpose. The flame acceleration and detonation data was obtained from experiments in methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures carried out in two vessels with diameters of 20 and 27 cm. The experimental data covers a wide spectrum of initial temperature (20-525C) and pressure (1-3 atm). As part of this program, the Kurchatov Institute performed experiments in a 52 cm vessel in mixtures of methane-air at room temperature and pressure to be used in the validation of the code. The objective of these tests was to obtain frame acceleration data at a scale close to that found in actual industrial processes. BNL was responsible for managing the DOE/IPP portion of the program, and for satisfying DOE reporting requirements. BNL also participated in an independent assessment of the CREBOM code. DuPont provided proprietary experimental data to the Kurchatov Institute on flame acceleration and detonation in high temperature methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures in addition to the matching fund. In addition, DuPont also supplied to KI instrumentation for pressure and temperature measurement

  7. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods.

  8. Electron Beam Applications in Chemical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Dragusin, M.; Radoiu, M.; Moraru, R.; Oproiu, C.; Cojocaru, G.; Margarit, C.

    1997-05-01

    Our recent results in the field of polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation are presented. Two types of polymeric flocculants and three hydrogels are described. The effects of radiation absorbed dose and chemical composition of the irradiated solutions upon the polymeric materials characteristics are discussed. The required absorbed dose levels to produce the polymeric flocculants are in the range of 0.4 kGy to 1 kGy, and 4 kGy to 12 kGy for hydrogels. Experimental results obtained by testing polymeric flocculants with waste water from food industry are given. Plymeric materials processing was developed on a pilot small scale level with a 0.7 kW and 5.5 MeV linac built in Romania. A new facility for application of combined electron beam and microwave irradiation in the field of polymeric materials preparation is presently under investigation. Preliminary results have demonstrated that some polymeric flocculants characteristics, such as linearity, were improved by using combined electron beam and microwave irradiation. Also, the absorbed dose levels decreases in comparison with those required when only electron beam irradiation was used.

  9. [Water quality safety of ozonation and biologically activated carbon process in application].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Xi-Hui

    2009-11-01

    Ozonation and biologically activated carbon process, one of advanced treatment technologies, has been applied in many places at home and abroad. However, some emerging water quality problems appeared in operation. Drinking water treatment plant (6 x 10(5) m3/d) with ozonation and biologically activated carbon process (O3-BAC process) was investigated systematically, including microbial safety, the excessive growth of aquatic microorganism and chemical stability of water quality. And some experiments were done in the pilot plant (10 m3/h) at the same time. O3-BAC process is reliable in microbial safety, but operation management should be enhanced. A good number of aquatic microorganisms grow immoderately during operation of O3-BAC process, which is more serious especially in place with high temperature and humidity. With prolong of runtime, the growth of aquatic microorganisms varies regularly. That is hazardous to water quality safety. When raw water is low with alkalinity, decrease of pH in O3-BAC process is obvious. That will seriously affect on chemical stability. PMID:20063746

  10. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  11. Energy analysis of thermal, chemical, and metallurgical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Szargut, J.; Morris, D.R.; Steward, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book consists of the following chapters: The exergy concept and exergy losses; Calculation of exergy; Physical and chemical exergy of typical substances; Exergy analysis of typical thermal and chemical processes; Cumulative exergy consumption and cumulative degree of perfection; Reduction of external exergy losses; Exergy analysis of major thermal and chemical processes; Thermoeconomic applications of exergy; and Ecological applications of exergy.

  12. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Synthesis-Laboratory Fumehoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a procedure by which the performance of chemical hoods can be tested. This procedure uses a mixture of dry ice and water to create a "smoke" for use in the test. Implications for sash design, performance evaluations and testing under standard and nonstandard conditions are discussed. (CW)

  14. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Request for Information designed to identify issues related to modernization of the PSM Standard and... key information in a useable format, including by thoroughly reviewing categories of chemicals for which information is provided to first responders and the manner in which it is made available, so as...

  15. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

  16. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  17. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers.

  18. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  19. Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.

    PubMed

    Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries.

  20. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  1. Safety evaluation of chemically modified beta-lactoglobulin administered intravaginally.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuetao; Qiu, Lixia; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Yue; Meng, Yuanguang; Zhu, Yun; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no specific antiviral therapy for treatment of HPV infection. Jiang and colleagues previously reported that anhydride-modified proteins have inhibitory activities against multiple viruses including HPV. Here, we evaluated the safety of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin, designated JB01, vaginally applied in women infected by high-risk HPV. After the vaginal application of JB01 in 38 women for 3 months, no serious adverse events were reported, and normalization of the vaginal micro-environment has been observed. It can be concluded that JB01-BD is safe for vaginal use in HPV-infected women, suggesting its potential application for the treatment of HPV infection.

  2. Catastrophe model of the accident process, safety climate, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Lynn, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed (a) to address the evidence for situational specificity in the connection between safety climate to occupational accidents, (b) to resolve similar issues between anxiety and accidents, (c) to expand and develop the concept of safety climate to include a wider range of organizational constructs, (d) to assess a cusp catastrophe model for occupational accidents where safety climate and anxiety are treated as bifurcation variables, and environ-mental hazards are asymmetry variables. Bifurcation, or trigger variables can have a positive or negative effect on outcomes, depending on the levels of asymmetry, or background variables. The participants were 1262 production employees of two steel manufacturing facilities who completed a survey that measured safety management, anxiety, subjective danger, dysregulation, stressors and hazards. Nonlinear regression analyses showed, for this industry, that the accident process was explained by a cusp catastrophe model in which safety management and anxiety were bifurcation variables, and hazards, age and experience were asymmetry variables. The accuracy of the cusp model (R2 = .72) exceeded that of the next best log-linear model (R2 = .08) composed from the same survey variables. The results are thought to generalize to any industry where serious injuries could occur, although situationally specific effects should be anticipated as well.

  3. The medication process, workload and patient safety in inpatient units.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller de; Moura, Gisela Maria Schebella Souto de; Pasin, Simone Silveira; Funcke, Lia Brandt; Pardal, Bruna Machado; Kreling, Angélica

    2015-02-01

    Objective To conduct a survey of critical points in the medication process, its repercussions on the demands made on the nursing team and risks related to patient safety. Method This was a qualitative descriptive study that adopted an ecological-restorative approach. The data were collected through focus groups and photographs. Participants consisted of nurses and nursing technicians. Results Three categories emerged from the thematic analysis: challenges related to the process of prescribing and dispensing medication; medication administration with relation to work shift organization; and the use of new technologies to reduce medication errors. The results indicated that the medication process plays a central role in organizing nursing care, being that these professionals represent the last barrier for detecting medication prescription and administration errors. Conclusion By identifying vulnerabilities in the medication administration phase, the use of technology can help ensure patient safety. PMID:26761691

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  5. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  6. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  7. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  8. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J. A.; McKernan, S. A.; Vigil, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker

  9. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented.

  10. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  11. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  12. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  13. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  14. The Safety "Use Case": Co-Developing Chemical Information Management and Laboratory Safety Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph B.; McEwen, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the American Chemical Society's "Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs" identifies six skill sets that undergraduate chemistry programs should instill in their students. In our roles as support staff for chemistry departments at two different institutions (one a Primarily Undergraduate…

  15. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  16. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  17. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  18. Effects of chemical, physical, and technological processes on the nature of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Poms, Roland E; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented of studies of different processing techniques and their effect on the allergenicity and antigenicity of certain allergenic foods. An overview of investigated technologies is given with regard to their impact on the protein structure and their potential application in the production of hypoallergenic foods. The use of physical processes (such as heating, high pressure, microparticulation, ultrafiltration, and irradiation), chemical processes (such as proteolysis, fermentation, and refining by extraction), and biotechnological approaches, as well as the effects of these processes on individual allergenic foods, are included. Additionally, the implications of food processing for food allergen analysis with respect to food safety assessment and industrial quality control are briefly discussed.

  19. SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

    2005-10-12

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added

  20. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When...

  1. Program Prepares Students for Chemical-Processing Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a chemical-processing program at Saginaw Career Complex in Saginaw, Michigan. The program is preparing 42 11th- and 12th-graders to work as chemical-processing operators or technicians by the time they graduate from high school. It was developed in partnership with the Saginaw Career Complex--one of 51 centers in the state…

  2. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Toshio; Che, Dock-Chil; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  3. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  4. Investigating the Chemical Safety of Household Products. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Phil J.

    This document provides teaching guidelines and student material for a unit intended for use in high school science or consumer programs. Time allotment is from four to six hours of classroom time. The objective of this capsule is to investigate the chemical safety of household products by teaching students how to form a hypothesis through the…

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  6. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  7. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  8. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  9. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  10. Efficient Nonlinear Programming Algorithms for Chemical Process Control and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegler, Lorenz T.

    Optimization is applied in numerous areas of chemical engineering including the development of process models from experimental data, design of process flowsheets and equipment, planning and scheduling of chemical process operations, and the analysis of chemical processes under uncertainty and adverse conditions. These off-line tasks require the solution of nonlinear programs (NLPs) with detailed, large-scale process models. Recently, these tasks have been complemented by time-critical, on-line optimization problems with differential-algebraic equation (DAE) process models that describe process behavior over a wide range of operating conditions, and must be solved sufficiently quickly. This paper describes recent advances in this area especially with dynamic models. We outline large-scale NLP formulations and algorithms as well as NLP sensitivity for on-line applications, and illustrate these advances on a commercial-scale low density polyethylene (LDPE) process.

  11. [Global trends of food safety information associated with chemicals in food].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Uneyama, Chikako; Toda, Miou; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a number of food safety problems have frequently arisen and consumer concerns have drastically increased. In order to meet these concerns, we have been publishing a biweekly bulletin called "Food Safety Information" since April 2003, monitoring the latest information from overseas on food safety. In this paper, we analyze the recent trends of information on food chemicals in the bulletin published between April 2003 and March 2005 in order to clarify the problems that need to be followed up. Among the 1,199 entries on food chemicals included in the bulletin, about 50% were from the EU and European organizations such as the FSA (UK). Approximately 20% of the total information focused on food contaminants such as heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs and mycotoxins. Scientific evidence-based information on dietary supplements and herb products was also suggested to be important to protect public health as well as food contaminants. We monitor the latest information on food safety constantly and continuously, which is important for long-term follow up of food safety issues of concern. We also provide the bulletin to the general public through the website as well as to researchers and risk managers. PMID:16541754

  12. Management of process change in a chemical company.

    PubMed

    Parrott, J W; Weiler, E D

    1991-10-01

    Management of process changes in a multibusiness and multinational chemical company is a significant challenge for most organizations. A generic process that focuses first on a clean, documented baseline definition of manufacturing processes and second on defined responsibilities, procedures, and guidelines for reviewing proposed changes in processes is described. A corporate database is recommended to provide comprehensive data on products and manufacturing processes. Process stewards should be identified for each major product line or technology.

  13. 75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... processes used in the manufacturing or processing of a chemical substance or mixture or, in the case of a... on the public version of the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory) and submitted in..., identified by docket identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPPT-2010-0446, by one of the following......

  14. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  15. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  16. Chemical, thermal and impact processing of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Herbert, F.; Zolensky, M.

    1989-01-01

    The geological effects of impacts, heating, melting, core formation, and aqueous alteration on asteroids are reviewed. A review of possible heat sources appears to favor an important role for electrical induction heating. The effects of each geologic process acting individually and in combination with others, are considered; it is concluded that there is much evidence for impacts during alteration, metamorphism and melting. These interactions vastly increased the geologic diversity of the asteroid belt. Subsequent impacts of cool asteroids did not reduce this diversity. Instead new rock types were created by mixing, brecciation and minor melting.

  17. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

  18. Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

  19. Chemical interaction matrix between reagents in a Purex based process

    SciTech Connect

    Brahman, R.K.; Hennessy, W.P.; Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the responsible entity for the disposal of the United States excess weapons grade plutonium. DOE selected a PUREX-based process to convert plutonium to low-enriched mixed oxide fuel for use in commercial nuclear power plants. To initiate this process in the United States, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is under construction and will be operated by Shaw AREVA MOX Services at the Savannah River Site. This facility will be licensed and regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A PUREX process, similar to the one used at La Hague, France, will purify plutonium feedstock through solvent extraction. MFFF employs two major process operations to manufacture MOX fuel assemblies: (1) the Aqueous Polishing (AP) process to remove gallium and other impurities from plutonium feedstock and (2) the MOX fuel fabrication process (MP), which processes the oxides into pellets and manufactures the MOX fuel assemblies. The AP process consists of three major steps, dissolution, purification, and conversion, and is the center of the primary chemical processing. A study of process hazards controls has been initiated that will provide knowledge and protection against the chemical risks associated from mixing of reagents over the life time of the process. This paper presents a comprehensive chemical interaction matrix evaluation for the reagents used in the PUREX-based process. Chemical interaction matrix supplements the process conditions by providing a checklist of any potential inadvertent chemical reactions that may take place. It also identifies the chemical compatibility/incompatibility of the reagents if mixed by failure of operations or equipment within the process itself or mixed inadvertently by a technician in the laboratories. (aut0010ho.

  20. 2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. [Chemical compound safety: typology of competency accreditation for assay centers and analytical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Menditto, Antonio; Chiodo, Ferdinando

    2002-01-01

    The use of chemicals warrants many benefits on which modern society is entirely dependent. On the other hand, the lack of reliable information about the impact of the use of chemicals raises increasing concern. In order to guarantee the safety of chemicals it is mandatory to proceed to risk assessment, which in turn consists of hazard evaluation and exposure estimation. These activities are strictly dependent upon the availability of reliable data and information, produced by, e.g., test facilities, test laboratories and clinical laboratories, the specific competence of which has been properly recognised. All this applies in the pre-marketing phase as well as during the use of chemical substances. In this latter phase it is necessary to carry out an appropriate monitoring of environment, food and, in specific situations, human beings (biological monitoring). In the field of chemical safety, standards, legal instruments and operative instruments are nowadays available. These tools make it possible to assess both the quality of data and the competence of the entities involved in the production of the data themselves.

  3. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  4. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  5. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  6. Chemical Processes and Thresholds in Hawaiin Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are a useful natural laboratory for studying soil development particularly those that can be understood using a matrix of chonosequences and climosequences. The islands are formed over a stationary mantle plume and then are carried to the northwest on the Pacific Plate. Thus the islands get older with distance from the hotspot; Kauai has remnant shield surfaces whose lavas date to about 4,000 ky. It is possible to sample soils that are developing on different age flows ranging from a few hundred years to a few million years. Additionally, individual volcanoes are impacted by differing amounts of rainfall depending on location with respect to the northeasterly trade winds. Whereas rainfall over the open ocean near Hawaii is about 700 mm, rainfall over the Islands ranges from 150 to 11,000 mm. Hawaii is minimally impacted by mineral aerosol additions compared to continental areas and this has a significant impact on soil development. More than 100 soil profiles have been sampled along the Hawaii time-climate matrix with some surprising results. For example, in arid soils might be expected to develop smectite clays, but they are rich in halloysite and allophane. Importantly, these same soils show a trend from high-Mg calcite to dolomite as carbonates accumulate within the profiles - this is one of the first documented occurrences of pedogenic dolomite that is not associated with high levels of salts. It appears that lack of smectite formation lowers the incorporation of Mg into silicate clays and increases its incorporation into carbonates. This is an unusual pedogenic process that seems to be enhanced by the lack of substantial amounts of mica in the basalt derived soils. The only mica is in surface horizons that receive dust derived from distant continents. Without mica there is no template to allow smectite clay formation under the rapid wetting and drying regimes encountered in the arid soils. At the same time that halloysite is forming, iron

  7. Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400 μm were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2 mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

  8. Safety-oriented global analysis and parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Dinca, L.G.; Aldemir, T.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of safety-oriented global analysis (SOGA) is to determine the conditions under which the evolution of a dynamic system in time remains within the imposed constraints in view of the uncertainties on the system parameters and/or the observed systern state. Often the only generally applicable SOGA method for nonlinear systems is the direct integration of the governing equations, which can be computationally prohibitive. An alternative SOGA methodology has been under dridopment at the Ohio State University (OSU), and its application to reactor dynamics has been illustrated in previous presentations. In spite of the computational advantage of the OSU methodology over direct integration, the computational time and storage requirements are still limiting factors in implementation. A procedure to reduce the storage requirements was presented earlier. This paper describes how the computational time can be reduced using parallel processing.

  9. Interdisciplinary process improvement for enhancing blood transfusion safety.

    PubMed

    LaRocco, Mark; Brient, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    We describe a multipronged, multidisciplinary effort to improve the safety of blood transfusion in our hospital. System-wide practices related to the ordering, delivery, and transfusion of blood products were addressed including: (1) appropriate selection of patients and utilization of blood, (2) accurate blood product labeling and tracking, (3) reliable transportation of blood products between the transfusion service laboratory and the bedside, (4) electronic verification of patients and products at the point of transfusion, and (5) documentation of transfusion events in the patient's medical record. By implementing new technologies and focusing LEAN process improvement techniques on the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical phases of the transfusion cycle, we have been able to significantly reduce the risk of transfusion error in our patient population.

  10. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level.

  11. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

  12. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Sealed-bladdered chemical processing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Harless, D. Phillip

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus which enables a complete multi-stepped chemical treatment process to occur within a single, sealed-bladdered vessel 31. The entire chemical process occurs without interruption of the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 such as opening the sealed-bladdered vessel 31 between various steps of the process. The sealed-bladdered vessel 31 is loaded with a batch to be dissolved, treated, decanted, rinsed and/or dried. A pressure filtration step may also occur. The self-contained chemical processing apparatus 32 contains a sealed-bladder 32, a fluid pump 34, a reservoir 20, a compressed gas inlet, a vacuum pump 24, and a cold trap 23 as well as the associated piping 33, numerous valves 21,22,25,26,29,30,35,36 and other controls associated with such an apparatus. The claimed invention allows for dissolution and/or chemical treatment without the operator of the self-contained chemical processing apparatus 38 coming into contact with any of the process materials.

  14. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  15. Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92% at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability. PMID:25139029

  16. Nuclear instrumentation, process instrumentation and control, and engineered safety features. Volume nine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume nine covers nuclear instrumentation (detection of nuclear radiation, gas-filled detectors, measuring neutron population, BWR/PWR nuclear instrumentation), process instrumentation and control (what is process instrumentation, pressure detectors and transducers, temperature detectors and transducers, level detectors and transducers, flow detectors and transducers, mechanical position detectors and transducers, what are the major processes controlled, BWR and PWR process instrumentation and control), engineered safety features (why are engineered safety features provided, the design basis accident, engineered safety feature operation, PWR engineered safety feature systems, BWR engineered safety feature systems).

  17. Resist roughness improvement by a chemical shrink process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Tatsuro; Sekito, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuriko

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we will discuss the improvement of resist pattern roughness on NTD (Negative Tone Development) resist by chemical shrink process. Chemical shrink process is one of the most practical approaches to achieve small feature size CH (Contact Hole) or trench with ArF immersion lithography. We found that this shrink material has not only general benefits of shrink process like DOF (Depth of Focus) margin improvement, but also demonstrates a pattern smoothing effect through observation of the surface of shrink layer using SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope). Additionally, an improvement of LWR (Line Width Roughness) over 16% and an improvement of LCDU (Local Critical Dimension Uniformity) around 60% were observed.

  18. DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

  19. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  20. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  1. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year.

  2. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  3. Field programmable chemistry: integrated chemical and electronic processing of informational molecules towards electronic chemical cells.

    PubMed

    Wagler, Patrick F; Tangen, Uwe; Maeke, Thomas; McCaskill, John S

    2012-07-01

    The topic addressed is that of combining self-constructing chemical systems with electronic computation to form unconventional embedded computation systems performing complex nano-scale chemical tasks autonomously. The hybrid route to complex programmable chemistry, and ultimately to artificial cells based on novel chemistry, requires a solution of the two-way massively parallel coupling problem between digital electronics and chemical systems. We present a chemical microprocessor technology and show how it can provide a generic programmable platform for complex molecular processing tasks in Field Programmable Chemistry, including steps towards the grand challenge of constructing the first electronic chemical cells. Field programmable chemistry employs a massively parallel field of electrodes, under the control of latched voltages, which are used to modulate chemical activity. We implement such a field programmable chemistry which links to chemistry in rather generic, two-phase microfluidic channel networks that are separated into weakly coupled domains. Electric fields, produced by the high-density array of electrodes embedded in the channel floors, are used to control the transport of chemicals across the hydrodynamic barriers separating domains. In the absence of electric fields, separate microfluidic domains are essentially independent with only slow diffusional interchange of chemicals. Electronic chemical cells, based on chemical microprocessors, exploit a spatially resolved sandwich structure in which the electronic and chemical systems are locally coupled through homogeneous fine-grained actuation and sensor networks and play symmetric and complementary roles. We describe how these systems are fabricated, experimentally test their basic functionality, simulate their potential (e.g. for feed forward digital electrophoretic (FFDE) separation) and outline the application to building electronic chemical cells. PMID:22309763

  4. THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

  5. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP) & QUICK SCREENS, ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS & EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-02-21

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process.

  6. Treatment Process Requirements for Waters Containing Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringfellow, W. T.; Camarillo, M. K.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Jordan, P. D.; Heberger, M. G.; Reagan, M. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of chemical additives are used as part of the hydraulic fracturing (HyF) process. There is concern that HyF chemicals will be released into the environment and contaminate drinking water, agricultural water, or other water used for beneficial purposes. There is also interest in using produced water (water extracted from the subsurface during oil and gas production) for irrigation and other beneficial purposes, especially in the arid Southwest US. Reuse of produced water is not speculative: produced water can be low in salts and is being used in California for irrigation after minimal treatment. In this study, we identified chemicals that are used for hydraulic fracturing in California and conducted an analysis to determine if those chemicals would be removed by a variety of technically available treatment processes, including oil/water separation, air stripping, a variety of sorption media, advanced oxidation, biological treatment, and a variety of membrane treatment systems. The approach taken was to establish major physiochemical properties for individual chemicals (log Koc, Henry's constant, biodegradability, etc.), group chemicals by function (e.g corrosion inhibition, biocides), and use those properties to predict the fate of chemical additives in a treatment process. Results from this analysis is interpreted in the context of what is known about existing systems for the treatment of produced water before beneficial reuse, which includes a range of treatment systems from oil/water separators (the most common treatment) to sophisticated treatment trains used for purifying produced water for groundwater recharge. The results show that most HyF chemical additives will not be removed in existing treatment systems, but that more sophisticated treatment trains can be designed to remove additives before beneficial reuse.

  7. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

  8. Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Darko; Murić, Branka; Pantelić, Dejan; Panić, Bratimir

    2009-07-01

    Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

  9. Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

  10. The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

  11. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments.

  12. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. PMID:22608267

  13. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  14. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

  15. Computerized aid improves safety decision process for survivors of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women.

  16. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... published April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals with Disabilities: For... Verification Process AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... ``Integrity Verification Process.'' The Integrity Verification Process shares similar characteristics...

  17. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process,'' issued 2006, with...

  18. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste

    The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  19. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  20. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  1. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  2. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  3. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Ef...

  5. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  6. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Chemical Process Technical Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as chemical process technical operators. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process…

  7. A POLLUTION REDUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has be...

  8. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  10. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  11. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  12. Forest Canopy Processes in a Regional Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Paul; Staebler, Ralf; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Zhang, Junhua; McLinden, Chris; Kharol, Shailesh; Moran, Michael; Robichaud, Alain; Zhang, Leiming; Stroud, Craig; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Forest canopies have typically been absent or highly parameterized in regional chemical transport models. Some forest-related processes are often considered - for example, biogenic emissions from the forests are included as a flux lower boundary condition on vertical diffusion, as is deposition to vegetation. However, real forest canopies comprise a much more complicated set of processes, at scales below the "transport model-resolved scale" of vertical levels usually employed in regional transport models. Advective and diffusive transport within the forest canopy typically scale with the height of the canopy, and the former process tends to dominate over the latter. Emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons arise from the foliage, which may be located tens of metres above the surface, while emissions of biogenic nitric oxide from decaying plant matter are located at the surface - in contrast to the surface flux boundary condition usually employed in chemical transport models. Deposition, similarly, is usually parameterized as a flux boundary condition, but may be differentiated between fluxes to vegetation and fluxes to the surface when the canopy scale is considered. The chemical environment also changes within forest canopies: shading, temperature, and relativity humidity changes with height within the canopy may influence chemical reaction rates. These processes have been observed in a host of measurement studies, and have been simulated using site-specific one-dimensional forest canopy models. Their influence on regional scale chemistry has been unknown, until now. In this work, we describe the results of the first attempt to include complex canopy processes within a regional chemical transport model (GEM-MACH). The original model core was subdivided into "canopy" and "non-canopy" subdomains. In the former, three additional near-surface layers based on spatially and seasonally varying satellite-derived canopy height and leaf area index were added to the original model

  13. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes.

  14. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process.

    PubMed

    Minissale, M; Dulieu, F

    2014-07-01

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O2) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N2 on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  15. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Edward D.

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  16. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  17. Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS): Human in vivobiomonitoring data for complementing results from in vitro toxicology -A Commentary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program for assessing the health and environmental impact of manufactured chemicals. This is a broad program wherein one of the tasks is to develop high throughput...

  18. Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

  19. Mixtures of Chemical Pollutants at European Legislation Safety Concentrations: How Safe Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Raquel N.; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E. V.; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B.; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

  20. Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Raquel N; Arukwe, Augustine; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Balzamo, Stefania; Baun, Anders; Belkin, Shimshon; Blaha, Ludek; Brion, François; Conti, Daniela; Creusot, Nicolas; Essig, Yona; Ferrero, Valentina E V; Flander-Putrle, Vesna; Fürhacker, Maria; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Hogstrand, Christer; Jonáš, Adam; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B; Loos, Robert; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik; Pillai, Smitha; Polak, Natasa; Potalivo, Monica; Sanchez, Wilfried; Schifferli, Andrea; Schirmer, Kristin; Sforzini, Susanna; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Søfteland, Liv; Turk, Valentina; Viarengo, Aldo; Werner, Inge; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zounková, Radka; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations. PMID:24958932

  1. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HCl vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others.

  2. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  3. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  4. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  5. Margins of safety provided by COSHH Essentials and the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Nicas, Mark

    2006-03-01

    COSHH Essentials, developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the Chemical Control Toolkit (Toolkit) proposed by the International Labor Organization, are 'control banding' approaches to workplace risk management intended for use by proprietors of small and medium-sized businesses. Both systems group chemical substances into hazard bands based on toxicological endpoint and potency. COSSH Essentials uses the European Union's Risk-phrases (R-phrases), whereas the Toolkit uses R-phrases and the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. Each hazard band is associated with a range of airborne concentrations, termed exposure bands, which are to be attained by the implementation of recommended control technologies. Here we analyze the margin of safety afforded by the systems and, for each hazard band, define the minimal margin as the ratio of the minimum airborne concentration that produced the toxicological endpoint of interest in experimental animals to the maximum concentration in workplace air permitted by the exposure band. We found that the minimal margins were always <100, with some ranging to <1, and inversely related to molecular weight. The Toolkit-GHS system generally produced margins equal to or larger than COSHH Essentials, suggesting that the Toolkit-GHS system is more protective of worker health. Although, these systems predict exposures comparable with current occupational exposure limits, we argue that the minimal margins are better indicators of health protection. Further, given the small margins observed, we feel it is important that revisions of these systems provide the exposure bands to users, so as to permit evaluation of control technology capture efficiency. PMID:16172140

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of Primary Biological Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bioaerosols on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that biological matter represents a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affects the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of primary biological particles in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  7. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA) on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  8. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  9. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases.

  10. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep and 25 {micro

  11. [Chemical safety as a problem of epidemiology of non-infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Shestopalov, N V; Shandala, M G

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of adopted in sanitary science methodology for the study and evaluation of the biological action and hygienic significance of environmental factors there was shown the need for the use of laws and methodology of classical epidemiology to ensure the chemical safety in the recognition and elimination of the group of diseases of chemical etiology, outbreaks of similar non infectious diseases. It is stated that individually small "non-toxic" doses of chemicals, but "loading" a large population and forming a large collective dose apparently can be implemented in a stochastic population health damage, detectable only on the basis of large-scale epidemiological studies to assess the risk. These approaches are presented to be especially important for agents in the environment, optimal for which is not absence, but the presence for provision of necessary target effect (pesticides, disinfectants and other household products, etc.). The main task of the epidemiological analysis of local toxic "bursts" and large-scale "epidemics" of this kind is an optimization of the complex of measures implemented by an adequate assessment of their medical, social and economic performance. PMID:24340593

  12. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates. PMID:27088667

  13. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  14. Effects of Semiconductor Processing Chemicals on Conductivity of Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chung Wei; Ren, F.; Chi, G.C.; Hung, S. C.; Huang, Y. P.; Kim, J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Pearton, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemicals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase of resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can persist for more than 5 hours. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals.

  15. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

  16. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.

  17. Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palo, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

  18. Optimization of Ethanol Autothermal Reforming Process with Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, D.; Valters, K.; Bažbauers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of carbon formation, hydrogen yield and efficiency of the ethanol autothermal reforming process on critical process factors is studied in the work by using chemical equilibrium calculations with a process simulation model made in the ChemCAD environment. The studied process factors are carbon-to-steam ratio S/C, air-to-fuel ratio λ and temperature in the reactor TATR. Since the goal of the reforming process is to achieve possibly higher values of H2 concentration in the reforming gas, by operating reformer at the maximum efficiency at the same time, the optimization of the reforming process was done by using objective functions which include hydrogen yield and the amount of heat supplied to the process. As a result it was found that the maximum process efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of obtained hydrogen energy to the energy supplied to the process in the studied range of process factors is 0,61, and this value can be achieved at λ value of 0,1, S/C values of 2,5-3 and temperatures in the reactor TATR 680 - 695°C. Hydrogen yield under these conditions is 4,41-4,55 mol/molC2H5OH.

  19. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    PubMed

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  20. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    PubMed

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. PMID:18241983

  1. Solar Processes for the Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D. M.

    1993-06-01

    Solar technologies are being developed to address a wide range of environmental problems. Sunlight plays a role in the passive destruction of hazardous substances in soil, water, and air. Development of processes that use solar energy to remediate environmental problems or to treat process wastes is underway in laboratories around the world. This paper reviews progress in understanding the role of solar photochemistry in removing man-made chemicals from the environment, and developing technology that uses solar photochemistry for this purpose in an efficient manner.

  2. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  3. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  4. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  5. The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health (WLT).

    PubMed

    Wexler, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Thorp, Nick; Faustman, Elaine; Breskin, Donna D

    2012-03-01

    The World Library of Toxicology, Chemical Safety, and Environmental Health, commonly referred to as the World Library of Toxicology (WLT), is a multilingual online portal of links to key global resources, representing a host of individual countries and multilateral organizations. The Site is designed as a network of, and gateway to, toxicological information and activities from around the world. It is built on a Wiki platform by a roster of Country Correspondents, with the aim of efficiently exchanging information and stimulating collaboration among colleagues, and building capacity, with the ultimate objective of serving as a tool to help improve global public health. The WLT was publicly launched on September 7, 2009, at the Seventh Congress of Toxicology in Developing Countries (CTDC-VII) in Sun City, South Africa.

  6. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition (phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Plahutnik, F.

    1981-01-01

    A dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process demonstrated is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Testing of decomposition reactor heat shields to insure that the shield provides adequate personnel protection assuming a worst case explosion was completed. Minor modifications to a production reactor heat shield provided adequate heat shield integrity. Construction of the redesigned PDU (Process Development Unit) to accommodate all safety related information proceeded on schedule. Structural steel work was completed as is the piping and instrumentation design work. Major pieces of process equipment were received and positioned in the support structure and all transfer piping and conduits to the PDU were installed. Construction was completed on a feed system for supplying DCS to an intermediate sized reactor. The feed system was successfully interfaced with a reactor equipped with a modified heat shield. Reactor checkout was completed.

  7. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  8. Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

  9. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  10. Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

  11. A behavior- and observation-based monitoring process for safety management.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Cesar F; Frutuoso E Melo, Paulo Fernando F

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a combination of a behavior-based monitoring process--using an at-risk behavior and unsafe condition observation system--and an observation-based safety adherence monitoring process that can indicate the compliance level with well-defined and agreed safety critical aspects and operational practices and procedures will be an effective safety management tool. This tool herein described represents a particular case, developed by a Praxair Inc. subsidiary in Brazil. Other safety surveillance systems usually adopted in industrial environments can rarely be used on construction sites. They also do not share information, knowledge and skills among the safety staff and other professionals invited to observe, usually covering specific tasks or specific professionals only, not a complete working area, which causes functional observing and monitoring limitations in terms of capturing behaviors and environmental safety issues. This tool also offers a wide range of learning opportunities and continuous improvement.

  12. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  13. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  14. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  15. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  16. Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for heterogeneous reactions of importance in the stratosphere and the troposphere. It involves the elucidation of the mechanism of the interaction of HC1 vapor with ice surfaces, which is the first step in the heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, as well as the investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of soot particles emitted by biomass and fossil fuels. The techniques being employed include turbulent flow- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and optical ellipsometry, among others. The next section summarizes our research activities during the first year of the project, and the section that follows consists of the statement of work for the second year.

  17. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  18. Collaborative decision support and documentation in chemical safety with KnowSEC.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Joachim; Striffler, Albrecht; Brandt, Marc; Neumann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To protect the health of human and environment, the European Union implemented the REACH regulation for chemical substances. REACH is an acronym for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals. Under REACH, the authorities have the task of assessing chemical substances, especially those that might pose a risk to human health or environment. The work under REACH is scientifically, technically and procedurally a complex and knowledge-intensive task that is jointly performed by the European Chemicals Agency and member state authorities in Europe. The assessment of substances under REACH conducted in the German Environment Agency is supported by the knowledge-based system KnowSEC, which is used for the screening, documentation, and decision support when working on chemical substances. The software KnowSEC integrates advanced semantic technologies and strong problem solving methods. It allows for the collaborative work on substances in the context of the European REACH regulation. We discuss the applied methods and process models and we report on experiences with the implementation and use of the system. PMID:27110289

  19. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  20. Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

  1. Physics-based model for electro-chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinsuo

    2013-07-01

    Considering the kinetics of electrochemical reactions and mass transfer at the surface and near-surface of the electrode, a physics-based separation model for separating actinides from fission products in an electro-refiner is developed. The model, taking into account the physical, chemical and electrochemical processes at the electrode surface, can be applied to study electrorefining kinetics. One of the methods used for validation has been to apply the developed model to the computation of the cyclic voltammetry process of PuCl{sub 3} and UCl{sub 3} at a solid electrode in molten KCl-LiCl. The computed results appear to be similar to experimental measures. The separation model can be applied to predict materials flows under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Parametric studies can be conducted based on the model to identify the most important factors that affect the electrorefining processes.

  2. Integration between chemical oxidation and membrane thermophilic biological process.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, G; Collivignarelli, M C; Crotti, B M; Pedrazzani, R

    2010-01-01

    Full scale applications of activated sludge thermophilic aerobic process for treatment of liquid wastes are rare. This experimental work was carried out at a facility, where a thermophilic reactor (1,000 m(3) volume) is operated. In order to improve the global performance of the plant, it was decided to upgrade it, by means of two membrane filtration units (ultrafiltration -UF-, in place of the final sedimentation, and nanofiltration -NF-). Subsequently, the integration with chemical oxidation (O(3) and H(2)O(2)/UV processes) was taken into consideration. Studied solutions dealt with oxidation of both the NF effluents (permeate and concentrate). Based on experimental results and economic evaluation, an algorithm was proposed for defining limits of convenience of this process.

  3. Human-based systems in drug and chemical safety testing--toward replacement, the 'single R'.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The Three Rs was a concept originally conceived as a means of reducing the suffering of laboratory animals that are used largely in identifying any potential safety issues with chemicals to which humans may be exposed. However, with growing evidence of the shortcomings of laboratory animal testing to reliably predict human responsiveness to such chemicals, questions are now being asked as to whether it is appropriate to use animals as human surrogates at all. This raises the question of whether, of the original Three Rs, two--Reduction and Refinement--are potentially redundant, and whether, instead, we should concentrate on the third R: Replacement. And if this is the best way forward, it is inevitable that this R should be based firmly on human biology. The present review outlines the current state-of-the-art regarding our access to human biology through in vitro, in silico and in vivo technologies, identifying strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, and goes on to address the prospect of achieving a single R, with some suggestions as to how to progress toward this goal.

  4. Contamination and changes of food factors during processing with modeling applications-safety related issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical and microbiological contamination of food during processing and preservation can result in foodborne illness outbreaks and food poisoning. Chemical contaminations can occur through exposure of foods to illegal additives, pesticides and fertilizer residues, toxic compounds formed by microbes...

  5. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  6. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. PMID:26827259

  7. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  8. Commercial Processing and its effect on the Microbiological Safety of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though egg shell microbiology has been studied over the years, little of it describes how modern US processing conditions impact microbial populations. When safety based regulations are implemented, this information can be used to determine critical steps critical to product safety. Shell egg surf...

  9. Postharvest processing technologies to improve food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens is an ongoing problem. The limitations of conventional sanitation methods have prompted research into novel interventions. In addition to advanced applications of gas-phase chemical sanitizers, several promising physic...

  10. An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process.

  11. Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, R. Grollier

    Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

  12. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

  13. High-pressure processing--effects on microbial food safety and food quality.

    PubMed

    Considine, Kiera M; Kelly, Alan L; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Sleator, Roy D

    2008-04-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal process capable of inactivating and eliminating pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. This novel technology has enormous potential in the food industry, controlling food spoilage, improving food safety and extending product shelf life while retaining the characteristics of fresh, preservative-free, minimally processed foods. As with other food processing methods, such as thermal processing, HPP has somewhat limited applications as it cannot be universally applied to all food types, such as some dairy and animal products and shelf-stable low-acid foods. Herein, we discuss the effects of high-pressure processing on microbial food safety and, to a lesser degree, food quality.

  14. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J.; Sharp, K.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition process for the production of polycrystalline silicon is discussed. Experimental data indicate that the ease of ignition and explosion severity of dichlorosilane (DCS)/air mixtures is substantially attenuated if the DCS is diluted with hydrogen. Redesign of the process development unit to accommodate safety related information is described. Several different sources of trichlorosilane were used to generate a mixture of redistributed chlorosilanes via Dowex ion exchange resin. The unseparated mixtures were then fed to an experimental reactor in which silicon was deposited and the deposited silicon analyzed for electrically active impurities. At least one trichlorosilane source provided material of requisite purity. Silicon grown in the experimental reactor was converted to single crystal material and solar cells fabricated and tested.

  15. Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in fractured-porous media: Benchmarks and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.; Shao, H.; Görke, U.; Kalbacher, T.; Bauer, S.; McDermott, C. I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The book comprises an assembly of benchmarks and examples for porous media mechanics collected over the last twenty years. Analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is essential to many applications in environmental engineering, such as geological waste deposition, geothermal energy utilisation, carbon capture and storage, water resources management, hydrology, even climate change. In order to assess the feasibility as well as the safety of geotechnical applications, process-based modelling is the only tool to put numbers, i.e. to quantify future scenarios. This charges a huge responsibility concerning the reliability of computational tools. Benchmarking is an appropriate methodology to verify the quality of modelling tools based on best practices. Moreover, benchmarking and code comparison foster community efforts. The benchmark book is part of the OpenGeoSys initiative - an open source project to share knowledge and experience in environmental analysis and scientific computation.

  16. The influence of dispositional mindfulness on safety behaviors: a dual process perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Changxu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the dual process model of human cognition, this study investigated the influence of dispositional mindfulness on operators' safety behaviors and its boundary conditions. In a sample of 212 nuclear power plant control room operators, it was found that both safety compliance and safety participation behaviors were positively influenced by dispositional mindfulness as measured by the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. This effect was still positive after controlling for age, intelligence, work experience and conscientiousness. Moreover, two boundary conditions were identified: the impact of dispositional mindfulness of safety behaviors was stronger among operators who were either more experienced or more intelligent. Theoretically, the framework we used to understand the benefit of mindfulness on safety behaviors has been proved to be useful. Practically, it provides a new and valid criterion that could be used in operators' selection and training program to improve organizational safety.

  17. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  18. Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

    2005-02-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

  19. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  20. Optimization of chemical etching process in niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Trabia, M.; Culbreth, W.; Subramanian, S.

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting niobium cavities are important components of linear accelerators. Buffered chemical polishing (BCP) on the inner surface of the cavity is a standard procedure to improve its performance. The quality of BCP, however, has not been optimized well in terms of the uniformity of surface smoothness. A finite element computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the chemical etching process inside the cavity. The analysis confirmed the observation of other researchers that the iris section of the cavity received more etching than the equator regions due to higher flow rate. The baffle, which directs flow towards the walls of the cavity, was redesigned using optimization techniques. The redesigned baffle significantly improves the performance of the etching process. To verify these results an experimental setup for flow visualization was created. The setup consists of a high speed, high resolution CCD camera. The camera is positioned by a computer-controlled traversing mechanism. A dye injecting arrangement is used for tracking the fluid path. Experimental results are in general agreement with CFD and optimization results.

  1. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to nanocellulose: structure and chemical process.

    PubMed

    Lee, H V; Hamid, S B A; Zain, S K

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  2. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  3. PETRO-SAFE '91 conference papers: Volume 3 (Drilling and production environment and safety), Volume 4 (Transportation and storage environment and safety) and Volume 5 (Processing and refining environment and safety)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries to discuss state of the art knowledge in those fields. The following topics were addressed: drilling and production environment and safety; transportation and storage environment and safety; and processing and refining environment and safety. Separate papers are processed for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  4. [Establishment of standards and specifications for chemical substances in foods and evaluation of exposure to maintain food safety].

    PubMed

    Maitani, Tamio

    2005-01-01

    Currently, consumers are very anxious about many chemical substances contained in foods. To maintain food safety, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan establishes standards and specifications on toxic chemical substances in foods, establishes analytical methods for surveillance, and investigates the daily dietary intake of food contaminants every year. This paper describes what sorts of standards and specifications for toxic chemical substances in foods have been established and what kinds of research on daily dietary intake have been performed. As the subjects for description, pesticide residues, toxic metals, dioxins, acrylamide, food additives, genetically modified food products, so-called health foods, and food allergens are included.

  5. An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughen, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

  6. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions on... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with...

  7. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions on... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with...

  8. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be... subject to environmental review under the Board's environmental rules at 49 CFR part 1105, the Board will... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... ongoing environmental review process under 49 CFR part 1105. The procedures governing the process shall be as follows: (1) In accordance with 49 CFR 244.17, FRA will provide its findings and conclusions...

  10. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  11. Modular microcomponents for a flexible chemical process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwesinger, Norbert

    2000-08-01

    Different types of modular micro components such as pumps, values, reactors, separators, residence structures, extractors have been developed. Silicon was used as basic material. Most external dimensions of all different modules are equal. The components contain deep micro structures like channels or groves produced in dry or in wet chemical etching procedures. Different types of bonding technologies were applied to cover the flow structures. Openings positioned at the surface allow the connection with external standard tubes. These openings are arranged on each module at the same position. Due to this basic design a highly flexible combination of the micro modules is possible. Specific process conditions of chemical reactions can be adapted very easily and cost effective by means of module combinations. Holders for the modules contain the fluidic/electric connectors and allow their flexible combination. They are made of PEEK or PTFE. Fixing and sealing of external tubes to the modules can be realised by simple screwing procedures of standard tubes into the holders. Due to this simple screwing procedure all modules can be exchanged on demand. Operating pressures up to the limitation values of the external tubes can be applied to the modules. Electrical contacts arranged inside the holders allow the electrical connection of the modules to an external power supply, as well as a read out of electrical signals delivered from possibly integrated specific sensors. Stand alone examinations of single modules as well as specific chemical reactions in modular combinations were carried out to verify the performance of the micro devices. Successful and hopeful results were found in all cases.

  12. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  13. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  14. The first field trials of the chemically synthesized malaria vaccine SPf66: safety, immunogenicity and protectivity.

    PubMed

    Amador, R; Moreno, A; Valero, V; Murillo, L; Mora, A L; Rojas, M; Rocha, C; Salcedo, M; Guzman, F; Espejo, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the first field study performed to assess the safety, immunogenicity and protectivity of the synthetic malaria vaccine SPf66 directed against the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Clinical and laboratory tests were performed on all volunteers prior to and after each immunization, demonstrating that no detectable alteration was induced by the immunization process. The vaccines were grouped as high, intermediate or low responders according to their antibody titres directed against the SPf66 molecule. Two of the 185 (1.08%) SPf66-vaccinated and nine of the 214 (4.20%) placebo-vaccinated volunteers developed P. falciparum malaria. The efficacy of the vaccine was calculated as 82.3% against P. falciparum and 60.6% against Plasmodium vivax.

  15. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, N A

    1990-02-01

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2008-01-15

    High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

  17. Process and technique factors associated with patient ratings of session safety during psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah F; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between patient ratings of in-session safety with psychotherapeutic techniques and process. Ninety-four participants received Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP) at a university-based clinic. Patient experiences of therapeutic process were self-assessed early in treatment using the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ Stiles, 1980). Techniques implemented in session were identified using the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS: Hilsenroth et al., 2005). Alliance was evaluated with the Combined Alliance Short Form-Patient Version (CASF-P; Hatcher and Barends, 1996). Safety significantly correlated with session depth, smoothness, and positivity. Safety was significantly related to the interaction of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral techniques, but to neither individual subscale Safety significantly correlated with CASF-P Total, Confident Collaboration, and Bond. Patient experiences of safety are consistent with exploration and depth of session content. Integration of some CB techniques within a psychodynamic model may facilitate a sense of safety. Safety is notably intertwined with the therapeutic relationship.

  18. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Material flow simulation in a nuclear chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Mahgerefteh, M.

    1984-01-01

    At a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant the special nuclear materials (SNM) are received as constituents of spent fuel assemblies, are converted to liquid form, and undergo a series of chemical processes. Uncertainties in measurements of SNM at each stage of reprocessing limit the accuracy of simple material balance accounting as a safeguards method. To be effective, a formal safeguards program must take into account all sources of measurement error yet detect any diversion of SNM. An analytical method for assessing the accountability of selected constituent SNM is demonstrated. A combined discrete-continuous, time-dependent model using the GASP IV simulation language is developed to simulate mass flow, material accountability and measurement error at each stage of the reprocessing plant.

  20. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  1. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  2. A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Fisher, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we examine software safety risk in three flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Risk Measurement (TPRM) methodology to the Constellation hazard analysis process to quantify the technical and process risks involving software safety in the early design phase of these projects. We analyzed 154 hazard reports and collected metrics to measure the prevalence of software in hazards and the specificity of descriptions of software causes of hazardous conditions. We found that 49-70% of 154 hazardous conditions could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. The application of the TPRM methodology identified process risks in the application of the hazard analysis process itself that may lead to software safety risk.

  3. Chemical Processing and Characterization of Fiber Reinforced Nanocomposite Silica Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Steven Shannon

    Ultrasound techniques, acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy, are used to investigate and characterize concentrated fluid phase nanocomposites. In particular, the data obtained from ultrasound methods are used as tools to improve the understanding of the fundamental process chemistry of concentrated, multicomponent, nanomaterial dispersions. Silicon nitride nanofibers embedded in silica are particularly interesting for lightweight nanocomposites, because silicon nitride is isostructural to carbon nitride, a super hard material. However, the major challenge with processing these composites is retarding particle-particle aggregation, to maintain highly dispersed systems. Therefore, a systematic approach was developed to evaluate the affect of process parameters on particle-particle aggregation, and improving the chemical kinetics for gelation. From the acoustic analysis of the nanofibers, this thesis was able to deduce that changes in aspect ratio affects the ultrasound propagation. In particular, higher aspect ratio fibers attenuate the ultrasound wave greater than lower aspect fibers of the same material. Furthermore, our results confirm that changes in attenuation depend on the hydrodynamical interactions between particles, the aspect ratio, and the morphology of the dispersant. The results indicate that the attenuation is greater for fumed silica due to its elastic nature and its size, when compared to silica Ludox. Namely, the larger the size, the greater the attenuation. This attenuation is mostly the result of scattering loss in the higher frequency range. In addition, the silica nanofibers exhibit greater attenuation than their nanoparticle counterparts because of their aspect ratio influences their interaction with the ultrasound wave. In addition, this study observed how 3M NH 4 Cl's acoustic properties changes during the gelation process, and during that change, the frequency dependency deviates from the expected squared of the frequency, until the

  4. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group of chemicals, known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been identified as having the potential to cause adverse health effect in humans and wildlife. Among this group DDT, DDE, PCBs, endosulfan, methoxychlor, diethylphthalate, diethylhexylphalate, and bisphenol...

  5. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  6. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-09-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5°C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3×10 5 cfu/g, 3.0×10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  7. Parameter Optimization of Nitriding Process Using Chemical Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Firat; Lippmann, Nils

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamics of chemical kinetics, an investigation to search for an optimum condition for a gas nitriding process is performed over the solution space spanned by the initial temperature and gas composition of the furnace. For a two-component furnace atmosphere, the results are presented in temporal variations of gas concentrations and the nitrogen coverage on the surface. It seems that the exploitation of the nitriding kinetics can provide important feedback for setting the model-based control algorithms. The present work shows that when the nitrogen gas concentration is not allowed to exceed 6 pct, the Nad coverage can attain maximum values as high as 0.97. The time evolution of the Nad coverage also reveals that, as long as the temperature is above the value where nitrogen poisoning of the surface due to the low-temperature adsorption of excess nitrogen occurs, the initial ammonia content in the furnace atmosphere is much more important in the nitriding process than is the initial temperature.

  8. An assessment of patient safety in acupuncture process under EMR support.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Chang; Hung, Ming-Chien; Hsiao, Shih-Jung; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Chang, Mei-Man

    2011-12-01

    With the facilitating roles of IT, this study is to investigate the safety issues of the acupuncture process in the current practices under EMR support. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 80 Chinese medicine practice hospitals and clinics in Taiwan. Concerns over patient safety during the acupuncture process were raised, such as an inconsistency between the practice and prescription and a lack of monitoring patient's condition during the treatment. Confirming the physicians' prescription and documenting patients' reaction for patient record management are needed to add to the EMR system for patient safety while performing acupuncture. The results of this study can be used by the government or medical institutes to assess the work flow and set up standards of EMRs design for their acupuncture treatment to ensure patient safety and to enhance healthcare quality.

  9. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  10. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  11. School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s Investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tinney, Veronica A.; Denton, Jerad M.; Sciallo-Tyler, Lucy; Paulson, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the 17 April 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries, and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades kindergarten–12, a nursing care facility, and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries. Objectives: The goal of this commentary is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous chemicals, and highlight the need for additional regulations to prevent future siting of schools near these facilities. Discussion: We summarize the findings of the CSB’s investigation related to the damaged school buildings and the lack of regulation surrounding the siting of schools near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Conclusions: In light of the current lack of federal authority for oversight of land use near educational institutions, state and local governments should take a proactive role in promulgating state regulations that prohibit the siting of public receptors, such as buildings occupied by children, near facilities that store hazardous chemicals. Citation: Tinney VA, Denton JM, Sciallo-Tyler L, Paulson JA. 2016. School siting near industrial chemical facilities: findings from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board’s investigation of the West Fertilizer Explosion. Environ Health Perspect 124:1493–1496; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP132 PMID:27483496

  12. Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.

    PubMed

    Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

    2014-03-01

    For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products.

  13. System safety management lessons learned from the US Army acquisition process

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition directed the Army Safety Center to provide an audit of the causes of accidents and safety of use restrictions on recently fielded systems by tracking residual hazards back through the acquisition process. The objective was to develop lessons learned'' that could be applied to the acquisition process to minimize mishaps in fielded systems. System safety management lessons learned are defined as Army practices or policies, derived from past successes and failures, that are expected to be effective in eliminating or reducing specific systemic causes of residual hazards. They are broadly applicable and supportive of the Army structure and acquisition objectives. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was given the task of conducting an independent, objective appraisal of the Army's system safety program in the context of the Army materiel acquisition process by focusing on four fielded systems which are products of that process. These systems included the Apache helicopter, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), the Tube Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire Guided (TOW) Missile and the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). The objective of this study was to develop system safety management lessons learned associated with the acquisition process. The first step was to identify residual hazards associated with the selected systems. Since it was impossible to track all residual hazards through the acquisition process, certain well-known, high visibility hazards were selected for detailed tracking. These residual hazards illustrate a variety of systemic problems. Systemic or process causes were identified for each residual hazard and analyzed to determine why they exist. System safety management lessons learned were developed to address related systemic causal factors. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Stabilized leachates: sequential coagulation-flocculation + chemical oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Rivas, F Javier; Beltrán, Fernando; Carvalho, Fátima; Acedo, Benito; Gimeno, Olga

    2004-12-10

    The combined sedimentation-chemical oxidation treatment of medium-stabilized landfill leachates has been investigated. The sequence of stages implemented was: (a) coagulation-flocculation by pH decrease (pH 2) to acidic conditions (COD removal approximately 25% related to COD0 approximately 7500 ppm); (b) coagulation-flocculation by Fe(III) addition (0.01 M) at pH 3.5 (COD removal approximately 40% related to COD of supernatant after step (a); (c) Fenton (Fe(III) = 0.01 M; H2O2 = 1.0 M) oxidation (COD removal approximately 80% related to COD of supernatant after step (a); and (d) coagulation-flocculation of Fenton's effluent at pH 3.5 (COD removal approximately 90% related to COD of supernatant after step (a). The use of Kynch theory allows for the design of clarifiers based on the amount of solids fed. For a general example of 1000 m3 day(-1) of a feeding stream, clarifier area values of 286,111 and 231 m2 were calculated for compacting indices of 3.7, 2.67 and 2.83 corresponding to the first, second and third consecutive sedimentation processes, respectively, (steps (a), (b) and (d)).

  15. Characterization of biomass burning particles: chemical composition and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.; Degouw, J.; Warneke, C.

    2003-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission in April and May of 2002, a forest fire plume was intercepted over Utah on May 19. Gas phase species acetonitrile (CH3CN) (a biomass burning tracer) and carbon monoxide (CO) measured greater than five fold enhancements over background concentrations during this plume crossing. In the 100 sec plume crossing, the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument acquired 202 positive mass spectra of biomass burning particles. Many of these particles contained potassium in addition to organics, carbon, and NO+ (which is a signature for any nitrogen containing compound such as ammonium or nitrate). From characterization of the particle mass spectra obtained during the plume crossing, a qualitative signature has been determined for identifying biomass burning particles. By applying this analysis to the entire ITCT mission, several transport events of smoke plumes have been identified and were confirmed by gas phase measurements. Additional species, such as sulfate, found in the mass spectra of the transported particles indicated processing or aging of the biomass burning particles that had taken place. The analysis has been extended to other field missions (Crystal-Face, ACCENT, and WAM) to identify biomass burning particles without the added benefit of gas phase measurements.

  16. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  17. An Alternative Treatment of Trace Chemical Constituents in Calculated Chemical Source Terms for Hanford Tank Farms Safety Analsyes

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-09-26

    Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank accident analyses require chemical waste toxicity source terms to assess potential accident consequences. Recent reviews of the current methodology used to generate source terms and the need to periodically update the sources terms has brought scrutiny to the manner in which trace waste constituents are included in the source terms. This report examines the importance of trace constituents to the chemical waste source terms, which are calculated as sums of fractions (SOFs), and recommends three changes to the manner in which trace constituents are included in the calculation SOFs.

  18. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

  19. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

  20. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : II. Data Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to begin repair of the environmental quality of the planet, there is a need to embrace sustainable development at many levels of the chemical industry and society. One way that the chemical industry is responding to this need is through sustainability evaluations, retrof...

  1. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2014-06-24

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  2. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2015-02-17

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  3. In vitro Perturbations of Targets in Cancer Hallmark Processes Predict Rodent Chemical Carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes ...

  4. Experimental investigation of Mars meandering rivers: Chemical precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Lim, Y.; Cleveland, J.; Reid, E.; Jew, C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, meandering streams occur where the banks are resistant to erosion, which enhances narrow and deep channels. Often this is because the stream banks are held firm by vegetation. The ancient, highly sinuous channels with cutoffs found on Mars are enigmatic because vegetation played no role in providing bank cohesion and enhancing fine sediment deposition. Possible causes of the meandering therefore include ice under permafrost conditions and chemical processes. We conducted carbonate flume experiments to investigate possible mechanisms creating meandering channels other than vegetation. The experiment includes a tank that dissolves limestone by adding CO2 gas and produces artificial spring water, peristaltic pumps to drive water through the system, a heater to control the temperature of the spring water, and a flume where carbonate sediment deposits. Spring water containing dissolved calcium and carbonate ions moves through a heater to increase temperature, and then into the flume. The flume surface is open to the air to allow CO2 degassing, decrease temperature, and increase pH, which promotes carbonate precipitation. A preliminary experiment was done and successfully created a meander pattern that evolved over a 3-day experiment. The experiment showed lateral migration of the bend and avulsion of the stream, similar to a natural meander. The lateral variation in flow speed increased the local residence time of water, thus increasing the degassing of CO2 on the two sides of the flow and promoting more precipitation. This enhanced precipitation on the sides provided a mechanism to build levees along the channel and created a stream confined in a narrow path. This mechanism also potentially applies to Earthly single thread and/or meandering rivers developed and recorded before vegetation appeared on Earth's surface.

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  6. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  7. The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are some of the most thoroughly tested and evaluated of all food additives. Products including aspartame and saccharin, have undergone several rounds of risk assessment by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in relation to a number of potential safety concerns, including carcinogenicity and more recently, effects on body weight gain, glycemic control and effects on the gut microbiome. The majority of the modern day sweeteners; acesulfame K, advantame, aspartame, neotame and sucralose have been approved in the United States through the food additive process, whereas the most recent sweetener approvals for steviol glycosides and lo han guo have occurred through the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) system, based on scientific procedures. While the regulatory process and review time of these two types of sweetener evaluations by the FDA differ, the same level of scientific evidence is required to support safety, so as to ensure a reasonable certainty of no harm.

  8. Safety Assessment and Biological Effects of a New Cold Processed SilEmulsion for Dermatological Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Ana; Gonçalves, Lídia; Pinto, Pedro C.; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion). The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53). EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids. PMID:24294598

  9. Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-31

    This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... to hazmat employees (critical). § 173.24(b)(1)Accepting for transportation or transporting a...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety..., consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5, means an occurrence involving a commercial... to hazmat employees (critical). § 173.24(b)(1)Accepting for transportation or transporting a...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... to hazmat employees (critical). § 173.24(b)(1)Accepting for transportation or transporting a...

  13. Education Department Begins Process to Implement HEA Reauthorization with New Campus Safety Provisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has announced the beginning of the process to develop rules for new requirements in the recently passed Higher Education Act (HEA). Highlights of the HEA that affect campus public safety departments include measures that: (1) Require a fire log be maintained at an institution of higher education for events that…

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  15. Information technology may not be 'it' for patient safety. Processes outweigh computers in improving quality.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jan

    2006-02-01

    While there is no question that information technology (IT) is inextricably tied to the future of health care delivery, claims that it is the cure-all for patient safety may be overrated. The key to success is managing change in organizational processes.

  16. 78 FR 56268 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... the Federal Register published April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cameron... the Federal Register a notice (78 FR 32010) to solicit comments and announce a public workshop... Verification Process, Comment Extension AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration,...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) The FMCSA's rating process is built upon the operational tool known as the CR. This tool was developed... responsibility to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). (b) As directed, FMCSA promulgated a... accident information. (b) The CR is an in-depth examination of a motor carrier's operations and is used...

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes of Produce and Seafood Processors and Food Safety Educators Regarding Nonthermal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…

  19. 77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of... comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1210, ``Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital... practices for developing software life-cycle processes for digital computers used in safety systems...

  20. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

  1. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces.

  2. A method to assess safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production process.

    PubMed

    Grecco, Cláudio H S; Vidal, Mario C R; Santos, Isaac J A L; Carvalho, Paulo V R

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzylguanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluordesoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuropsychiatry. This paper presents a method to access safety and resilience in radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The method uses resilience indicators in order to proactively evaluate and manage the safety.

  3. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  4. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-01-01

    Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

  5. Corrosion Resistance of Various High Chromium Alloys in Simulated Chemical Processing Nuclear Plant Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.A.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    High chromium nickel alloys were tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to determine their corrosion performance in the high temperature aggressive chemical environments of liquid waste evaporators used in the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. The results of these tests, which included a variety of base metal alloys I weld filler material combinations, are presented and discussed.

  6. The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations to Illustrate Chemical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas Scott; Rohrer, Kristen; Schultz, Emeric

    2012-01-01

    Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist's quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings…

  7. WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

  8. Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawar, Wassef W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)

  9. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  10. [Chemical analytical aspects of hygiene safety of the use of methyl tertiary-butyl ether in the production of gasoline].

    PubMed

    Malysheva, A G; Rastyannikov, E G; Kozlova, N Yu; Artyushina, I Yu

    2014-01-01

    There was developed, certified and recommended for the practical application the technique for control in the water used as a high-octane oxygenated gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether with the use of chromatography-mass spectrometry method with a sensitivity of (0.005 mg/dm3) below the level of existing foreign regulations. Technique is introduced into the Federal Information Fund to ensure the unity of measurements. The possibility of applying the proposed method of analysis for monitoring chemical contamination of water sources and the quality control and safety of drinking water has been shown.

  11. Chemical Thinning Process for Fabricating UV-Imaging CCDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, TOdd; Grunthaner, Paula; Nikzad, Shouleh; Wilson, Rick

    2004-01-01

    The thinning stage of the postfabrication process reported in the immediately preceding article is notable in its own right. Although the thinning process was described in the preceding article as part of an overall process of fabrication of a supported charge-coupled device (CCD), it is more generally applicable to both free-standing and supported devices that have been fabricated in die and wafer formats. Like the thermocompression bonding process described in the preceding article, the thinning process is compatible with CCD-fabrication processes, as well as postfabrication processes that enhance the response of CCDs to ultraviolet (UV) light, including the delta-doping process. CCDs that are thinned by this process and then delta-doped exhibit high quantum efficiencies that are stable with time and with exposure to the environment.

  12. Safety Training for the Developmentally Disabled in Icon Recognition for the Safe Use of Hazardous Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This unique document is a training manual for individuals such as job coaches and janitorial crew supervisors who train and work with Developmentally Disabled (DD) workers in vocational classrooms and on job sites. These workers need to be taught the importance of safety in the workplace using methods appropriate to their developmental needs. The…

  13. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  14. PARTITIONING OF GADOLINIUM IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Best, D.; Stone, M.; Click, D.

    2011-04-27

    A combination of short-term beaker tests and longer-duration Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were performed to investigate the relative partitioning behaviors of gadolinium and iron under conditions applicable to the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The testing was performed utilizing non-radioactive simple Fe-Gd slurries, non-radioactive Sludge Batch 6 simulant slurries, and a radioactive real-waste slurry representative of Sludge Batch 7 material. The testing focused on the following range of conditions: (a) Fe:Gd ratios of 25-100; (b) pH values of 2-6; (c) acidification via addition of nitric, formic, and glycolic acids; (d) temperatures of {approx}93 C and {approx}22 C; and (e) oxalate concentrations of <100 mg/kg and {approx}10,000 mg/kg. The purpose of the testing was to provide data for assessing the potential use of gadolinium as a supplemental neutron poison when dispositioning excess plutonium. Understanding of the partitioning behavior of gadolinium in the CPC was the first step in assessing gadolinium's potential applicability. Significant fractions of gadolinium partitioned to the liquid-phase at pH values of 4.0 and below, regardless of the Fe:Gd ratio. In SRAT simulations targeting nitric and formic acid additions of 150% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.5-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were both {approx}20%. In contrast, in a SRAT simulation utilizing a nitric and formic acid addition under atypical conditions (due to an anomalously low insoluble solids content), the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.7, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were {approx}60% and {approx}70%, respectively. When glycolic acid was used in combination with nitric and formic acids at 100% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.6-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were 60-80% and 3-5%, respectively

  15. Indicators and Metrics for Evaluating the Sustainability of Chemical Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metric-based method, called GREENSCOPE, has been developed for evaluating process sustainability. Using lab-scale information and engineering assumptions the method evaluates full-scale epresentations of processes in environmental, efficiency, energy and economic areas. The m...

  16. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy....

  17. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy

  18. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  19. Increasing patient safety and efficiency in transfusion therapy using formal process definitions.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Andrzejewski, Chester; Merrigan, Karen; Cobleigh, Rachel; Frederick, Kimberly; Katz-Bassett, Ethan; Henneman, Philip L

    2007-01-01

    The administration of blood products is a common, resource-intensive, and potentially problem-prone area that may place patients at elevated risk in the clinical setting. Much of the emphasis in transfusion safety has been targeted toward quality control measures in laboratory settings where blood products are prepared for administration as well as in automation of certain laboratory processes. In contrast, the process of transfusing blood in the clinical setting (ie, at the point of care) has essentially remained unchanged over the past several decades. Many of the currently available methods for improving the quality and safety of blood transfusions in the clinical setting rely on informal process descriptions, such as flow charts and medical algorithms, to describe medical processes. These informal descriptions, although useful in presenting an overview of standard processes, can be ambiguous or incomplete. For example, they often describe only the standard process and leave out how to handle possible failures or exceptions. One alternative to these informal descriptions is to use formal process definitions, which can serve as the basis for a variety of analyses because these formal definitions offer precision in the representation of all possible ways that a process can be carried out in both standard and exceptional situations. Formal process definitions have not previously been used to describe and improve medical processes. The use of such formal definitions to prospectively identify potential error and improve the transfusion process has not previously been reported. The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of formally defining processes and to describe how formal definitions of blood transfusion processes can be used to detect and correct transfusion process errors in ways not currently possible using existing quality improvement methods.

  20. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  1. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conventional drinking water treamtent processes of coagulation, flocculation, and filtration as well as specialized treatment processes have been examined for their capacity to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A groupf od EDCs including 4-nonylphenol, diethylphth...

  2. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  3. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

  4. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 61 Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to improve the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) biennial renewal process to enhance the safety...

  5. Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS): human in vivo biomonitoring data for complementing results from in vitro toxicology--a commentary.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Williams, Marc A; Sobus, Jon R

    2012-12-17

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted the Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program for assessing the health and environmental impact of manufactured chemicals. This is a broad program wherein one of the tasks is to develop high throughput screening (HTS) methods and follow-up confirmation for toxicity at realistic environmental exposure levels. The main tools under this task are in vitro toxicity testing, in silico molecular modeling, and in vivo (systemic) measurements documentation. The in vivo research component is intended to support and corroborate in vitro chemical toxicity prioritization with observations of systemic perturbations and statistical parameters derived from intact (living) organisms. Based on EPA's Biomonitoring Framework for human health research, such observations are intended to link environmental exposures to a cascade of biomarker chemicals to help identify and clarify adverse outcome pathways within the context of systems biology. This commentary discusses the issues regarding interpretation of in vitro changes from HTS as an adverse result, an adaptive (non-adverse) response, or a random/irrelevant occurrence. A second goal is to inform in vitro strategies as to relevant dosing (potency) levels at the cellular level that reflect realistic systemic exposures. Although we recognize the high value of in vivo animal toxicity testing, herein we focus on observational (minimally invasive) human biomonitoring methods and propose complementary in vivo testing that could help guide the design of high-throughput analyses and the ultimate interpretation of their outcomes.

  6. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  7. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  8. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  9. Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew A.; Giraldo, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Chemical process simulation is one of the most fundamental skills that is expected from chemical engineers, yet relatively few graduates have the opportunity to learn, in depth, how a process simulator works, from programming the unit operations to the sequencing. The University of Calgary offers a "hands-on" postgraduate course in Chemical…

  10. The EPC approach to estimating safety from exposure to environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Jones, H D; Freeman, R W; Wernke, M J; Williams, P L; Roberts, S M; James, R C

    1994-12-01

    Reference doses (RfDs) and reference concentrations (RfCs) developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) are typically used in the quantitation of risk of potential adverse human health effects from exposure to environmental chemicals. For a large number of chemicals, however, USEPA RfDs and RfCs have not yet been determined. Thus, for risk assessments that involve a large number of chemicals, there is insufficient toxicity information with which to evaluate potential adverse human health effects for all chemicals present at a particular site. Due to this insufficiency, the risk assessor must either (1) ignore potential exposures on the assumption that omitting these exposures does not significantly alter decisions concerning the remediation of the site or (2) undertake a lengthy and costly analysis to generate the necessary RfDs or RfCs. A potential solution to this problem is to develop estimated permissible concentrations (EPCs), values which represent permissible environmental concentrations or related acceptable daily dosages derived from occupational exposure limits. In the present analysis, acceptable daily dosages determined using the EPC method were compared to USEPA RfDs or RfCs which were converted to dosages based on standard exposure assumptions. Based on a comparative analysis of EPCs and USEPA reference values for 103 chemicals, it was found that EPC daily dosages represent a reasonably conservative surrogate value when USEPA or state reference values are unavailable. Given that there are hundreds of chemicals with occupational exposure limits but no state or USEPA reference values, acceptance of the EPC methodology would provide an interim solution for the problem of insufficient toxicity information for a substantial number of environmental chemical contaminants.

  11. IRQN award paper: Operational rounds: a practical administrative process to improve safety and clinical services in radiology.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Lane F; Dickerson, Julie M; Lehkamp, Todd W; Gessner, Kevin E; Moskovitz, Jay; Hutchinson, Sally

    2008-11-01

    As part of a patient safety program in the authors' department of radiology, operational rounds have been instituted. This process consists of radiology leaders' visiting imaging divisions at the site of imaging and discussing frontline employees' concerns about patient safety, the quality of care, and patient and family satisfaction. Operational rounds are executed at a time to optimize the number of attendees. Minutes that describe the issues identified, persons responsible for improvement, and updated improvement plan status are available to employees online. Via this process, multiple patient safety and other issues have been identified and remedied. The authors believe that the process has improved patient safety, the quality of care, and the efficiency of operations. Since the inception of the safety program, the mean number of days between serious safety events involving radiology has doubled. The authors review the background around such walk rounds, describe their particular program, and give multiple illustrative examples of issues identified and improvement plans put in place.

  12. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.

  13. Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.

    2008-07-15

    The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

  14. A review on the impact of systematic safety processes for the control of error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Gianfranco; Pinnarelli, Luigi; Scopelliti, Lucia; Sommella, Lorenzo; Ricciardi, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Among risk management initiatives, systematic safety processes (SSPs), implemented within health care organizations, could be useful in managing patient safety. The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic literature review assessing the impact of SSPs on different error categories. Articles that investigated the relation between SSPs, clinical and organizational outcomes were selected from scientific literature. The proportion and impact of proactive and reactive SSPs were calculated among five error categories. Proactive interventions impacted more positively than reactive ones in reducing medication errors, technical errors and errors due to personnel. PSSPs and RSSPs had similar effects in reducing errors related to a wrong procedure. A single reactive study influenced non-positively communication errors. A relevant prevalence of the impact of proactive processes on reactive ones is reported. This article can help decision makers in identifying which SSP can be the most appropriate against specific error categories. PMID:19564841

  15. Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

  16. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  17. Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

  18. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  19. Evaluating the safety of microbial enzyme preparations used in food processing: update for a new century.

    PubMed

    Pariza, M W; Johnson, E A

    2001-04-01

    Microbial enzymes used in food processing are typically sold as enzyme preparations that contain not only a desired enzyme activity but also other metabolites of the production strain, as well as added materials such as preservatives and stabilizers. The added materials must be food grade and meet applicable regulatory standards. The purpose of this report is to present guidelines that can be used to evaluate the safety of the metabolites of the production strain that are also present in the enzyme preparation, including of course, but not limited to, the desired enzyme activity itself. This discussion builds on previously published decision tree mechanisms and includes consideration of new genetic modification technologies, for example, modifying the primary structure of enzymes to enhance specific properties that are commercially useful. The safety of the production strain remains the primary consideration in evaluating enzyme safety, in particular, the toxigenic potential of the production strain. Thoroughly characterized nonpathogenic, nontoxigenic microbial strains, particularly those with a history of safe use in food enzyme manufacture, are logical candidates for generating a safe strain lineage, through which improved strains may be derived via genetic modification by using either traditional/classical or rDNA strain improvement strategies. The elements needed to establish a safe strain lineage include thoroughly characterizing the host organism, determining the safety of all new DNA that has been introduced into the host organism, and ensuring that the procedure(s) that have been used to modify the host organism are appropriate for food use. Enzyme function may be changed by intentionally altering the amino acid sequence (e.g., protein engineering). It may be asked if such modifications might also affect the safety of an otherwise safe enzyme. We consider this question in light of what is known about the natural variation in enzyme structure and function

  20. Evaluating the safety of microbial enzyme preparations used in food processing: update for a new century.

    PubMed

    Pariza, M W; Johnson, E A

    2001-04-01

    Microbial enzymes used in food processing are typically sold as enzyme preparations that contain not only a desired enzyme activity but also other metabolites of the production strain, as well as added materials such as preservatives and stabilizers. The added materials must be food grade and meet applicable regulatory standards. The purpose of this report is to present guidelines that can be used to evaluate the safety of the metabolites of the production strain that are also present in the enzyme preparation, including of course, but not limited to, the desired enzyme activity itself. This discussion builds on previously published decision tree mechanisms and includes consideration of new genetic modification technologies, for example, modifying the primary structure of enzymes to enhance specific properties that are commercially useful. The safety of the production strain remains the primary consideration in evaluating enzyme safety, in particular, the toxigenic potential of the production strain. Thoroughly characterized nonpathogenic, nontoxigenic microbial strains, particularly those with a history of safe use in food enzyme manufacture, are logical candidates for generating a safe strain lineage, through which improved strains may be derived via genetic modification by using either traditional/classical or rDNA strain improvement strategies. The elements needed to establish a safe strain lineage include thoroughly characterizing the host organism, determining the safety of all new DNA that has been introduced into the host organism, and ensuring that the procedure(s) that have been used to modify the host organism are appropriate for food use. Enzyme function may be changed by intentionally altering the amino acid sequence (e.g., protein engineering). It may be asked if such modifications might also affect the safety of an otherwise safe enzyme. We consider this question in light of what is known about the natural variation in enzyme structure and function

  1. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  2. Best Practices for Chemotherapy Administration in Pediatric Oncology: Quality and Safety Process Improvements (2015).

    PubMed

    Looper, Karen; Winchester, Kari; Robinson, Deborah; Price, Andrea; Langley, Rachel; Martin, Gina; Jones, Sally; Holloway, Jodi; Rosenberg, Susanne; Flake, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The administration of chemotherapy to children with cancer is a high-risk process that must be performed in a safe and consistent manner with high reliability. Clinical trials play a major role in the treatment of children with cancer; conformance to chemotherapy protocol requirements and accurate documentation in the medical record are critical. Inconsistencies in the administration and documentation of chemotherapy were identified as opportunities for errors to occur. A major process improvement was initiated to establish best practices for nurses who administer chemotherapy to children. An interdisciplinary team was formed to evaluate the current process and to develop best practices based on current evidence, protocol requirements, available resources, and safety requirements. The process improvement focused on the establishment of standardized and safe administration techniques, exact administration times, and consistent electronic documentation that could easily be retrieved in medical record audits. Quality improvement tools including SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation), process mapping, PDSA (Plan, Do. Study, Act) cycles, and quality metrics were used with this process improvement. The team established best practices in chemotherapy administration to children that have proven to be safe and reliable. Follow-up data have demonstrated that the project was highly successful and improved accuracy, patient and nurse safety, and effectiveness of chemotherapy administration.

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Risk Management: A Growing Concern in University Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Edward W.; Ghee, William K.

    1985-01-01

    This article (1) defines risk management and discusses alternatives to treating exposures facing those operating chemical laboratories; (2) indicates how two Virginia universities did or did not apply the risk management concept to their laboratory settings; and (3) identifies potential sources of information on this subject. (JN)

  4. The Role of Labeling in Chemical Health and Safety: Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of constructing labels is to communicate those scientific facts related to hazards and to select and describe the reasonable precautions that should be taken to prevent otherwise unforseeable harm. Recent developments in the use of combined numeric and pictorial symbols in chemical label construction are described. (JN)

  5. Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Substances--A Major Campus Environmental Health & Safety Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald A.; Sorensen, Alfred J.

    1980-01-01

    A broad spectrum of potentially hazardous chemicals offers serious exposure risks to members of college and university communities. A formal program is needed to minimize exposure to these substances and maintain a prevention oriented protective program. The University of Massachusetts has developed such a program. (JN)

  6. High-throughput Raman chemical imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A line-scan hyperspectral system was developed to enable Raman chemical imaging for large sample areas. A custom-designed 785 nm line-laser based on a scanning mirror serves as an excitation source. A 45° dichroic beamsplitter reflects the laser light to form a 24 cm × 1 mm excitation line normally ...

  7. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin indus...

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Is Thioacetamide a Serious Health Hazard in Inorganic Chemistry Laboratories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elo, Hannu

    1987-01-01

    Describes the potential health hazards of using thioacetamide in introductory courses where students are involved in qualitative inorganic analysis. Describes the chemical as possessing carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and mutagenic properties. Cautions that thioacetamide has caused various biochemical changes in the liver, and recommends limited uses…

  9. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by

  10. Numerical Simulation of Rheological, Chemical and Hydromechanical Processes of Thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramchenkov, E.; Khramchenkov, M.

    2015-04-01

    Mathematical model of clot lysis in blood vessels is developed on the basis of equations of convection-diffusion. Fibrin of the clot is considered stationary solid phase, and plasminogen, plasmin and plasminogen-activators - as dissolved fluid phases. As a result of numerical solution of the model predictions of lysis process are gained. Important influence of clot swelling on the process of lysis is revealed.

  11. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

    2008-09-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

  12. [Investigation on chemical constituents of processed products of Eucommiae Cortex].

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Sheng, Chen; Li, Wei-dong; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2014-11-01

    According to the 2010 Chinese pharmacopeia, salt processed and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were pre- pared. HPLC-DAD analysis of the content of the bark and leaf of Eucommiae Cortex showed that the bark of Eucommiae Cortex mainly contained lignans such as pinoresinol glucose and iridoid including genipin, geniposide, geniposidic acid, while the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex consisted of flavonoids such as quercetin and phenolic compound such as chlorogenic acid. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 18 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased approximately by 30% and 85%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times, 23 times, 28 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in salted Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 25%, 40% and 40%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 98%, 70%, 70%, respectively. The content of caffeic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of caffeic acid was decreased by about 50% in the salted Eucommiae Cortex. While the content of caffeic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex was decreased approximately 75%; the content of chlorogenic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 1/6 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of chlorogenic acid in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased by 40% and 75%, respectively; the content of quercetin in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was only 1/40 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of quercetin in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 60% and 50%, respectively.

  13. EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

  14. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  15. Chemical Safety Assessment Using Read-Across: Assessing the Use of Novel Testing Methods to Strengthen the Evidence Base for Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Amcoff, Patric; Benigni, Romualdo; Blackburn, Karen; Carney, Edward; Cronin, Mark; Deluyker, Hubert; Gautier, Francoise; Judson, Richard S.; Kass, Georges E.N.; Keller, Detlef; Knight, Derek; Lilienblum, Werner; Mahony, Catherine; Rusyn, Ivan; Schultz, Terry; Schwarz, Michael; Schüürmann, Gerrit; White, Andrew; Burton, Julien; Lostia, Alfonso M.; Munn, Sharon; Worth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Safety assessment for repeated dose toxicity is one of the largest challenges in the process to replace animal testing. This is also one of the proof of concept ambitions of SEURAT-1, the largest ever European Union research initiative on alternative testing, co-funded by the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe. This review is based on the discussion and outcome of a workshop organized on initiative of the SEURAT-1 consortium joined by a group of international experts with complementary knowledge to further develop traditional read-across and include new approach data. Objectives The aim of the suggested strategy for chemical read-across is to show how a traditional read-across based on structural similarities between source and target substance can be strengthened with additional evidence from new approach data—for example, information from in vitro molecular screening, “-omics” assays and computational models—to reach regulatory acceptance. Methods We identified four read-across scenarios that cover typical human health assessment situations. For each such decision context, we suggested several chemical groups as examples to prove when read-across between group members is possible, considering both chemical and biological similarities. Conclusions We agreed to carry out the complete read-across exercise for at least one chemical category per read-across scenario in the context of SEURAT-1, and the results of this exercise will be completed and presented by the end of the research initiative in December 2015. Citation Berggren E, Amcoff P, Benigni R, Blackburn K, Carney E, Cronin M, Deluyker H, Gautier F, Judson RS, Kass GE, Keller D, Knight D, Lilienblum W, Mahony C, Rusyn I, Schultz T, Schwarz M, Schüürmann G, White A, Burton J, Lostia AM, Munn S, Worth A. 2015. Chemical safety assessment using read-across: assessing the use of novel testing methods to strengthen the evidence base for decision making. Environ Health Perspect 123:1232

  16. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-06-17

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically.

  17. On Chemical Modeling an Alchemical Process: The Use of Combined Chemical Methods in a Historical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodygin, Mikhail Yu.; Rodygin, Irene V.

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory work is an important component of a course in the History of Chemistry and Alchemy, though it can only be illustrative and not comprehensive. The course should exercise both the cognitive and research abilities of an university student. Therefore methods of modeling are of prime importance at this stage of instruction. Modeling can be both a priori and experimental. The experiment can use the alchemist's materials, or it can reproduce the procedure with modern reagents. A good example for the use of this method is a recipe for the preparation of the Philosopher's Stone attributed to Lullius and cited by J. Ripley in Liber Duodecium Portarum. Thus, the Ripley's recipe is not only considered to be the first indication of the existence of acetone, but it may also indicate the formation of acetyl acetone and its derivatives. Thus, as far as the history of alchemy is concerned, the use of an experimental model not only allows us to solve a number of specific problems such as recipe interpretation and product identification, but it allows also to probe the essence of alchemical work. The combination of empirical and speculative modelings leads to the interaction of the exact methods of chemistry with the broad historico-chemical generalizations, thus introducing some additional dimensions to the definition of historico-chemical practice.

  18. The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are some of the most thoroughly tested and evaluated of all food additives. Products including aspartame and saccharin, have undergone several rounds of risk assessment by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in relation to a number of potential safety concerns, including carcinogenicity and more recently, effects on body weight gain, glycemic control and effects on the gut microbiome. The majority of the modern day sweeteners; acesulfame K, advantame, aspartame, neotame and sucralose have been approved in the United States through the food additive process, whereas the most recent sweetener approvals for steviol glycosides and lo han guo have occurred through the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) system, based on scientific procedures. While the regulatory process and review time of these two types of sweetener evaluations by the FDA differ, the same level of scientific evidence is required to support safety, so as to ensure a reasonable certainty of no harm. PMID:26930537

  19. Safety evaluation of chemicals in food: toxicological data profiles for pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Vettorazzi, G.; Miles-Vettorazzi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of the scientific information used over the past several years by the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues in carrying out toxicological evaluations are classified systematically according to compound and subject for the first time in this paper. It is hoped that those engaged in the toxicological assessment of pesticide chemicals, for the purpose of standardizing pesticide tolerances or for developing criteria of acceptability, will profit from this classification. PMID:779805

  20. Chemical and biological microstructures as probed by dynamic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.M. ); Klafter, J. ); Levitz, P. )

    1991-03-29

    The dynamic process of electronic energy transfer (DET) is shown to be an important tool for probing the microstructure of molecular systems, particularly those in which donors and acceptors occupy specifically labeled sites of spatially confining host matrices. Special attention is given to analyzing the temporal behavior of the direct energy transfer reaction for systems in which the dipolar coupling is between a donor and randomly distributed acceptors. This dynamic process is dependent on two competing lengths when the donor and acceptor distribution is determined by the microstructure of the confining system: R{sub p}, the dominant length characterizing the size of the confinement, and R{sub o}, which scales the strength of the dipolar coupling. When energy transfer processes are viewed in the context of these two competing lengths, a picture emerges of the microstructure of the confinement that is consistent with and corroborated by other structural probes. The authors believe that their approach to analyzing the dynamics of the DET process broadens the scope of the applicability of the concept of the spectroscopic ruler and that the temporal analysis technique, which they demonstrate using model porous glasses, can be generally applied to other systems.

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

  3. Encyclopedia of chemical processing and design. Volume 19

    SciTech Connect

    Maiketta, J.J.; Cunningham, W.A

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from chemists and engineers from academia and industry, and covers the environmental impact of energy, epoxy resins, essential oils, and ethanol among other subjects beginning with the letter ''e''. Contents, abridged are: conversion to SI units; energy, low heat sources; engineering contractors; enhanced oil recovery costs; enzyme processing; equipment, used; essential oils; and esterification.

  4. Functionalized sorbent for chemical separations and sequential forming process

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2012-03-20

    A highly functionalized sorbent and sequential process for making are disclosed. The sorbent includes organic short-length amino silanes and organic oligomeric polyfunctional amino silanes that are dispersed within pores of a porous support that form a 3-dimensional structure containing highly functionalized active binding sites for sorption of analytes.

  5. Polystannanes: processible molecular metals with defined chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Caseri, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Polystannanes are a unique class of materials as those inorganic polymers (more precisely organometallic polymers) appear to be hitherto the only characterized polymers with a backbone of covalently bound metal atoms. This review reflects the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization (in particular (119)Sn NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy), physical properties and material properties of polystannanes, and their processing into (oriented) films and fiber blends.

  6. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

  7. Chemical mechanical polishing of Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide and Indium gallium arsenide films and related environment and safety aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matovu, John Bogere

    As scaling continues with advanced technology nodes in the microelectronic industry to enhance device performance, the performance limits of the conventional substrate materials such as silicon as a channel material in the front-end-of-the-line of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) need to be surmounted. These challenges have invigorated research into new materials such as III-V materials consisting of InP, GaAs, InGaAs for n-channel CMOS and Ge for p-channels CMOS to enhance device performance. These III-V materials have higher electron mobility that is required for the n-channel while Ge has high hole mobility that is required for the p-channel. Integration of these materials in future devices requires chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a smooth and planar surface to enable further processing. The CMP process of these materials has been associated with environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues due to the presence of P and As that can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous hydrides. The safe handling of As contaminated consumables and post-CMP slurry waste is essential. In this work, the chemical mechanical polishing of InP, GaAs and InGaAs films and the associated environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues are discussed. InP removal rates (RRs) and phosphine generation during the CMP of blanket InP films in hydrogen peroxide-based silica particle dispersions in the presence and absence of three different multifunctional chelating carboxylic acids, namely oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are reported. The presence of these acids in the polishing slurry resulted in good InP removal rates (about 400 nm min-1) and very low phosphine generation (< 15 ppb) with very smooth post-polish surfaces (0.1 nm RMS surface roughness). The optimized slurry compositions consisting of 3 wt % silica, 1 wt % hydrogen peroxide and 0.08 M oxalic acid or citric acid that provided the best results on blanket InP films were used to evaluate

  8. Microlithographic wet chemical processing in a capillary space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Russell

    1994-05-01

    The patented device and procedure described provide a method of processing the flat, thin-film coated surfaces encountered in the ultraclean manufacture of integrated circuit wafers, photomasks, panel displays or other similar substrates. The device provides a means of delivering liquids and vapors to those surfaces while temperature, evaporation and particulate contamination are controlled as a natural consequent of its physical configuration. The essential mechanism exploits the surface tension of liquids and the differences in the wettability of surfaces. By juxtaposing the target surface with a prepared surface on the processing device and maintaining a separation of a few millimeters, the gap formed provides a reaction space into which liquids are easily distributed exploiting so-called capillary behavior. While placing the liquid reagent on the hydrophobic, horizontal surface of the processor, the hydrophilic substrate surface suspended above it is transported laterally. The substrate surface then engages the liquid edge which, driven by its own surface tension, quickly fills the gap. The ending of the reaction and removal of the liquid is effected by further transporting the substrate with its captive liquid reactants to a trench provided in the processor surface where the liquid flows down and away. Thus, the processor surface is seen as a series of 'mesas' allowing a sequence of wet process, rinse and vapor treatments, all with the simple lateral movement of the substrate. The effects of improved reaction kinetics on process precision as well as the benefits mentioned above are discussed and compared to previous immersion and spin methods. Critical dimension measurement data are presented from large photomask substrates processed by the instrument.

  9. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

  10. Chemical-cleaning solvent and process testing. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.M.; Leedy, W.S.

    1983-04-01

    Laboratory and pilot plant investigations were conducted to develop and qualify chemical cleaning solvents, procedures, analysis methods and monitoring techniques to safely remove magnetite, copper and copper oxide sludges from the secondary side of nuclear steam generators. The results of this program found that a two-step procedure involving two different solvents should be used. A solvent composed of 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1% hydrazine (N/sub 2/H/sub 4/), 5 to 10 mL/L CI-801 (a nonproprietary corrosion inhibitor), pH adjusted to 7.0 with ammonia used at a temperature of 93/sup 0/C (200/sup 0/C) will dissolve magnetite in a reasonable period of time. Corrosion produced by this solvent in tests on materials of which steam generators are constructed was reasonably low in all cases. A solvent composed of 5% EDTA, 2% hydrogen peroxide, with the pH first adjusted to 7.0 with ammonia and then to 10.0 with ethylenediamine (EDA) was developed to dissolve copper and copper oxides. This solvent is most effective when used at ambient temperature.

  11. Radical formation, chemical processing, and explosion of interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The ultraviolet radiation in interstellar space is shown to create a sufficient steady-state density of free radicals in the grain mantle material consisting of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen to satisfy the critical condition for initiation of chain reactions. The criterion for minimum critical particle size for maintaining the chain reaction is of the order of the larger grain sizes in a distribution satisfying the average extinction and polarization measures. The triggering of the explosion of interstellar grains leading to the ejection of complex interstellar molecules is shown to be most probable where the grains are largest and where radiation is suddenly introduced; i.e., in regions of new star formation. Similar conditions prevail at the boundaries between very dark clouds and H II regions. When the energy released by the chemical activity of the free radicals is inadequate to explode the grain, the resulting mantle material must consist of extremely large organic molecules which are much more resistant to the hostile environment of H II regions than the classical dirty-ice mantles made up of water, methane, and ammonia.

  12. Application of chemical mechanical polishing process on titanium based implants.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Z; Ozdemir, A; Basim, G B

    2016-11-01

    Modification of the implantable biomaterial surfaces is known to improve the biocompatibility of metallic implants. Particularly, treatments such as etching, sand-blasting or laser treatment are commonly studied to understand the impact of nano/micro roughness on cell attachment. Although, the currently utilized surface modification techniques are known to improve the amount of cell attachment, it is critical to control the level of attachment due to the fact that promotion of bioactivity is needed for prosthetic implants while the cardiac valves, which are also made of titanium, need demotion of cells attachment to be able to function. In this study, a new alternative is proposed to treat the implantable titanium surfaces by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) technique. It is demonstrated that the application of CMP on the titanium surface helps in modifying the surface roughness of the implant in a controlled manner (inducing nano-scale smoothness or controlled nano/micro roughness). Simultaneously, it is observed that the application of CMP limits the bacteria growth by forming a protective thin surface oxide layer on titanium implants. It is further shown that there is an optimal level of surface roughness where the cell attachment reaches a maximum and the level of roughness is controllable through CMP. PMID:27524033

  13. Patient-centered transfer process for patients admitted through the ED boosts satisfaction, improves safety.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    To improve safety and patient flow, administrators at Hallmark Health System, based in Melrose, MA, implemented a new patient-centered transfer process for patients admitted through the ED at the health system's two hospitals. Under the new approach, inpatient nurses come down to the ED to take reports on new patients in a process that includes the ED care team as well as family members. The inpatient nurses then accompany the patients up to their designated floors. Since the new patient-transfer process was implemented in June 2012, patient satisfaction has increased by at least one point on patient satisfaction surveys. Administrators anticipate that medical errors or omissions related to the handoff process will show a drop of at least 50%, when data is tabulated.

  14. Process chemicals in the oil and gas industry: potential occupational hazards.

    PubMed

    Cottle, M K; Guidotti, T L

    1990-01-01

    Numerous chemicals are used in various processes of the oil and gas industry: drilling, cementing, completion, stimulation, and production. The number and the complexity of composition of process chemicals has increased greatly over the last three decades. The occupational hazards of exposure to these agents has received little attention. We reviewed the various processes in the industry, the type of chemicals used in each process, and some of their characteristics. We placed emphasis on those for which significant toxicity has been established or is suspected, and those for which there is incomplete information on their chemistry and health hazards. This report is intended to form a basis for a more complete survey of the process chemicals, and to draw attention to the possibilities for toxic exposure resulting from use of these agents in the oil and gas industry. The ultimate objective is to promote the safe use of these agents in the industry. PMID:2190356

  15. Establishment of Compact Chemical Process by Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shin-Ichiro; Suzuki, Akira

    The organic reaction using supercritical water is not only harmonization with earth environment, it was also expected the compatible possibility of high reaction rate and high reaction controllability that was not obtained by the liquid phase reaction or gas phase reaction. However, the conventional supercritical water reaction system was not enough to elicit performance of supercritical water due to side reaction or excessive decomposition during heating process or cooling process. The micro reactor which was characterized by the high heat exchange rate and high mixing performance was applied to the supercritical water reaction system. The micro mixer for the quick heating and quenching was developed. As a result, the innovative organic reaction and inorganic reaction were developed.

  16. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    PubMed

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  17. Laser ablation of maskant used in chemical milling process for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Lopresto, V.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; de Iorio, I.; Rinaldi, N.

    2010-09-01

    Chemical etching is a non-traditional machining process where a chemical solution is used to remove unwanted material by dissolution. To shape the etched area, before the process, a chemical inert paint (maskant) is applied on the surface. Then the maskant is trimmed away and the uncovered area is subject to the etching. The maskant cut could be obtained mechanically or by laser ablation. In this work, the effect of process parameters, cutting speed and beam power, on interaction phenomena and defect formation in laser cutting of polymeric maskant is studied, using a 30W CO2 laser source.

  18. Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-05-19

    In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a

  19. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  20. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  1. Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Gordon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill…

  2. 75 FR 52057 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ..., PA. 14945-N Vulcan 4 03-31-2011 Construction Materials LP SE, db/a Vulcan Materials Company, Atlanta... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  3. 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

    1997-01-01

    The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

  4. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

  5. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  6. Active Chemical Sensing With Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    We present an active-perception strategy to optimize the temperature program of metal-oxide sensors in real time, as the sensor reacts with its environment. We model the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), where actions correspond to measurements at particular temperatures, and the agent is to find a temperature sequence that minimizes the Bayes risk. We validate the method on a binary classification problem with a simulated sensor. Our results show that the method provides a balance between classification rate and sensing costs.

  7. Vesicle-based method and apparatus for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species

    SciTech Connect

    Davalos, Rafael V.; Ellis, Christopher R. B.

    2008-03-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

  8. Vesicle-based method for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species

    SciTech Connect

    Davalos, Rafael V.; Ellis, Christopher R. B.

    2010-08-17

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

  9. Decision document for chemical process related activities, interim response action at Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of this action are to: Sample chemical process equipment/piping and ancillary materials to determine decontamination status; decontaminate if chemical-agent vapors are found inside the piping/equipment above decontamination limits as established by Federal regulations; and dismantle equipment/piping and ancillary materials in preparation for removal/disposal.

  10. Swimming Pool Water Treatment Chemicals and/or Processes. Standard No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Chemicals or processes used or intended for use, in the treatment of swimming pool water are covered. Minimum public health limits or acceptability in regard to toxicity, biocidal effectiveness, and chemical behavior and analysis are presented. The appendices give guidelines to the scientific and statistically sound evaluations to determine the…

  11. 40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section 372.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.20 Process for modifying covered...

  12. Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Transplantation with Allogeneic Skin Tumors to Treat Chemically-Induced Skin Tumors in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jianhua; Ge, Chunlei; Dong, Suwei; Li, Zhen; Li, Ruilei; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Mei; Chen, Yun; Zou, Yingying; Qian, Zhongyi; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jinyan; Zhu, Zhitao; Liu, Zhimin; Song, Xin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transplantation with allogeneic cells has become a promising modality for cancer therapy, which can induce graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. This study was aimed at assessing the safety, efficacy, and tissue type GVT (tGVT) response of transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat chemically-induced skin tumors in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS FVB/N and ICR mice were exposed topically to chemicals to induce skin tumors. Healthy ICR mice were transplanted with allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to test the safety. The tumor-bearing ICR mice were transplanted with, or without, allogeneic skin tumors to test the efficacy. The body weights (BW), body condition scores (BCS), tumor volumes in situ, metastasis tumors, overall survival, and serum cytokines were measured longitudinally. RESULTS Transplantation with no more than 0.03 g allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to healthy ICR mice was safe. After transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat tumor-bearing mice, it inhibited the growth of tumors slightly at early stage, accompanied by fewer metastatic tumors at 24 days after transplantation (21.05% vs. 47.37%), while there were no statistically significant differences in the values of BW, BCS, tumor volumes in situ, metastasis tumors, and overall survival between the transplanted and non-transplanted groups. The levels of serum interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly reduced in the controls (P<0.05), but not in the recipients, which may be associated with the tGVT response. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors is a safe treatment in mice, which can induce short-term tGVT response mediated by IL-2. PMID:27587310

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Transplantation with Allogeneic Skin Tumors to Treat Chemically-Induced Skin Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jianhua; Ge, Chunlei; Dong, Suwei; Li, Zhen; Li, Ruilei; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Mei; Chen, Yun; Zou, Yingying; Qian, Zhongyi; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jinyan; Zhu, Zhitao; Liu, Zhimin; Song, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Transplantation with allogeneic cells has become a promising modality for cancer therapy, which can induce graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. This study was aimed at assessing the safety, efficacy, and tissue type GVT (tGVT) response of transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat chemically-induced skin tumors in mice. Material/Methods FVB/N and ICR mice were exposed topically to chemicals to induce skin tumors. Healthy ICR mice were transplanted with allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to test the safety. The tumor-bearing ICR mice were transplanted with, or without, allogeneic skin tumors to test the efficacy. The body weights (BW), body condition scores (BCS), tumor volumes in situ, metastasis tumors, overall survival, and serum cytokines were measured longitudinally. Results Transplantation with no more than 0.03 g allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to healthy ICR mice was safe. After transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat tumor-bearing mice, it inhibited the growth of tumors slightly at early stage, accompanied by fewer metastatic tumors at 24 days after transplantation (21.05% vs. 47.37%), while there were no statistically significant differences in the values of BW, BCS, tumor volumes in situ, metastasis tumors, and overall survival between the transplanted and non-transplanted groups. The levels of serum interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly reduced in the controls (P<0.05), but not in the recipients, which may be associated with the tGVT response. Conclusions Our results suggest that transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors is a safe treatment in mice, which can induce short-term tGVT response mediated by IL-2. PMID:27587310

  15. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Salviano Dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1-10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. PMID:26904662

  16. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    PubMed Central

    Salviano dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. PMID:26904662

  17. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Salviano Dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1-10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food.

  18. Fiber optic sensor design for chemical process and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendran, R. S.; Harris, D.; Wang, L.; Machavaram, V. R.; Chen, R.; Kukureka, St. N.; Fernando, G. F.

    2007-07-01

    Cure monitoring is a term that is used to describe the cross-linking reactions in a thermosetting resin system. Advanced fiber reinforced composites are being used increasingly in a number of industrial sectors including aerospace, marine, sport, automotive and civil engineering. There is a general realization that the processing conditions that are used to manufacture the composites can have a major influence on its hot-wet mechanical properties. This paper is concerned with the design and demonstration of a number of sensor designs for in-situ cure monitoring of a model thermosetting resin system. Simple fixtures were constructed to enable a pair of cleaved optical fibers with a defined gap between the end-faces to be held in position. The resin system was introduced into this gap and the cure kinetics were followed by transmission infrared spectroscopy. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the cure process using the data obtained at different cure temperatures. The same sensor system was used to detect the ingress of moisture in the cured resin system.

  19. High-throughput Raman chemical imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2014-05-01

    A line-scan hyperspectral system was developed to enable Raman chemical imaging for large sample areas. A custom-designed 785 nm line-laser based on a scanning mirror serves as an excitation source. A 45° dichroic beamsplitter reflects the laser light to form a 24 cm x 1 mm excitation line normally incident on the sample surface. Raman signals along the laser line are collected by a detection module consisting of a dispersive imaging spectrograph and a CCD camera. A hypercube is accumulated line by line as a motorized table moves the samples transversely through the laser line. The system covers a Raman shift range of -648.7-2889.0 cm-1 and a 23 cm wide area. An example application, for authenticating milk powder, was presented to demonstrate the system performance. In four minutes, the system acquired a 512x110x1024 hypercube (56,320 spectra) from four 47-mm-diameter Petri dishes containing four powder samples. Chemical images were created for detecting two adulterants (melamine and dicyandiamide) that had been mixed into the milk powder.

  20. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry