Science.gov

Sample records for chemical threat agents

  1. The threat of mid-spectrum chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Aas, Pål

    2003-01-01

    There is a spectrum of several threat agents, ranging from nerve agents and mustard agents to natural substances, such as biotoxins and new, synthetic, bioactive molecules produced by the chemical industry, to the classical biological warfare agents. The new, emerging threat agents are biotoxins produced by animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Examples of such biotoxins are botulinum toxin, tetanus toxin, and ricin. Several bioactive molecules produced by the pharmaceutical industry can be even more toxic than are the classical chemical warfare agents. Such new agents, like the biotoxins and bioregulators, often are called mid-spectrum agents. The threat to humans from agents developed by modern chemical synthesis and by genetic engineering also must be considered, since such agents may be more toxic or more effective in causing death or incapacitation than classical warfare agents. By developing effective medical protection and treatment against the most likely chemical and mid-spectrum threat agents, the effects of such agents in a war scenario or following a terrorist attack can be reduced.

  2. Chemical threats.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E

    2006-06-01

    The use of chemical agents as military weapons has been recognized for many centuries but reached the most feared and publicized level during World War I. Considerable political effort has been exercised in the twentieth century to restrict military strategies with chemicals. However, considerable concern currently exists that chemical weapons may be used as agents in civilian terrorism. The distribution of acetaminophen tablets contaminated with potassium cyanide and the release of sarin in the Tokyo sub-way system show that larger-scale deployment of chemical agents can be a reality. This reality makes it necessary for civilian disaster-planning strategies to incorporate an understanding of chemical agents, their effects, and the necessary treatment.

  3. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

  4. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems.

  5. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K

    2012-02-17

    There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and biothreat pathogens through any of the four sensory means mentioned previously.

  6. Detection of chemical threat agents in drinking water by an early warning real-time biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Green, U; Kremer, J H; Zillmer, M; Moldaenke, C

    2003-12-01

    Having a safe water supply for civilian organizations and military personnel is an important objective to avoid toxic contamination of civilians and soldiers. Chemical warfare (CW) agents, especially organophosphorous nerve compounds, are the most toxic of known chemical agents. The Daphnia Toximeter system is a continuously working test system that uses Daphnia magna as a sensitive organism for monitoring drinking water. Both small doses (allowable for short-term water ingestion) and graduated higher concentrations induced toxic reactions in the Daphnia Toximeter system, leading to alarms sounding. The system is sensitive to a wide range of CW agents and their hydrolysis products. Concentrations below acute human toxicity can be discovered in a very short time, with the actual time depending on the concentrations applied. In every case alarms were triggered within 2 h at concentrations in water low enough for that water to be allowed for use as drinking water in exceptional conditions. PMID:14608606

  7. Structural Studies on Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase Directed Towards Development of Therapeutic Biomolecules for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases and Protection Against Chemical Threat Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel

    Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase are important targets for treatment of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, respectively, both of which impose major burdens on the health care systems in Western society. Acetylcholinesterase is the target of lethal nerve agents, and paraoxonase is under consideration as a bioscavenger for their detoxification. Both are thus the subject of research and development in the context of nerve agent toxicology. The crystal structures of the two enzymes are described, and structure/function relationships are discussed in the context of drug development and of development of means of protection against chemical threats.

  8. Biomedical effects of chemical-threat-agent antidote and pretreatment drugs. An abstracted bibliography. Volume 1. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, J.M.; Reams, G.G.; DeJohn, C.A.

    1986-04-01

    The bibliographic abstracts in this report are part of a project to assess biomedical effects of chemical-warfare antidote agents and related pre-treatment drugs. Specific attention is focused on the biomedical effects in the following general areas: vision, auditory, spatial orientation, musculoskeletal, cardipulmonary, cognitive performance, pharmacology, cutaneous stimuli, and cortical effects. In some cases, the bibliography addresses other therapeutic drugs that may be used simultaneously with chemical-warfare antidotes.

  9. Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

  10. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  11. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  12. Exposure Levels for Chemical Threat Compounds; Information to Facilitate Chemical Incident Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2013-01-01

    Exposure Standards, Limits and Guidelines for Chemical Threat Compunds ABSTRACT Exposure criteria for chemical warfare (CW) agents and certain toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) used as CW agents (such as chlorine fill in an improvised explosive device) have been developed for protection of the civilian general public, civilian employees in chemical agent processing facilities and deployed military populations. In addition, compound-specific concentrations have been developed to serve as how clean is clean enough clearance criteria guiding facility recovery following chemical terrorist or other hazardous release events. Such criteria are also useful to verify compound absence, identify containment boundaries and expedite facility recovery following chemical threat release. There is no single right value or concentration appropriate for all chemical hazard control applications. It is acknowledged that locating and comparing the many sources of CW agent and TIC exposure criteria has not been previously well-defined. This paper summarizes many of these estimates and assembles critical documentation regarding their derivation and use.

  13. Detection of chemical agent aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jay A.; Ahl, Jeffrey L.; D'Amico, Francis M.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Moon, Raphael; Swim, Cynthia R.

    1999-05-01

    One of the major threats presented by a chemical agent attack is that of a munition exploding overhead and 'raining' aerosols which can contaminate surfaces when they impact. Since contact with these surfaces can be fatal, it is imperative to know when such an attack has taken place and the likely threat density and location. We present the results of an experiment designed to show the utility of a CO2 lidar in detecting such an attack. Testing occurred at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah and involved the simulation of an explosive airburst chemical attack. Explosions occurred at a height of 30 m and liquid droplets from two chemicals, PEG-200 (polyethylene glycol 200) and TEP (triethylphosphate), were expelled and fell to the ground. The munition was the U.S. Army M9 Simulator, Projectile, Airburst, Liquid (SPAL) system that is designed for chemical warfare training exercises. The instrument that was used to detect the presence of the aerosols was the Laser Standoff Chemical Detector (LSCD) which is a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system that utilizes a rapidly tunable, pulsed CO2 laser. The LIDAR scanned a horizontal path approximately 5 - 8 m above the ground in order to measure the concentration of liquid deposition. The LIDAR data were later correlated with card data to determine how well the system could predict the location and quantity of liquid deposition on the ground.

  14. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  15. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  16. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  17. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  18. Multi-Agent Patrolling under Uncertainty and Threats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaofei; Wu, Feng; Shen, Lincheng; Chen, Jing; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a multi-agent patrolling problem where information is distributed alongside threats in environments with uncertainties. Specifically, the information and threat at each location are independently modelled as multi-state Markov chains, whose states are not observed until the location is visited by an agent. While agents will obtain information at a location, they may also suffer damage from the threat at that location. Therefore, the goal of the agents is to gather as much information as possible while mitigating the damage incurred. To address this challenge, we formulate the single-agent patrolling problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and propose a computationally efficient algorithm to solve this model. Building upon this, to compute patrols for multiple agents, the single-agent algorithm is extended for each agent with the aim of maximising its marginal contribution to the team. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on problems of multi-agent patrolling and show that it outperforms a baseline algorithm up to 44% for 10 agents and by 21% for 15 agents in large domains. PMID:26086946

  19. Multi-Agent Patrolling under Uncertainty and Threats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaofei; Wu, Feng; Shen, Lincheng; Chen, Jing; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a multi-agent patrolling problem where information is distributed alongside threats in environments with uncertainties. Specifically, the information and threat at each location are independently modelled as multi-state Markov chains, whose states are not observed until the location is visited by an agent. While agents will obtain information at a location, they may also suffer damage from the threat at that location. Therefore, the goal of the agents is to gather as much information as possible while mitigating the damage incurred. To address this challenge, we formulate the single-agent patrolling problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and propose a computationally efficient algorithm to solve this model. Building upon this, to compute patrols for multiple agents, the single-agent algorithm is extended for each agent with the aim of maximising its marginal contribution to the team. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on problems of multi-agent patrolling and show that it outperforms a baseline algorithm up to 44% for 10 agents and by 21% for 15 agents in large domains. PMID:26086946

  20. Medical defense against blistering chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Smith, W J; Dunn, M A

    1991-08-01

    First used in World War I, chemical blistering agents present a serious medical threat that has stimulated renewed interest in the light of extensive use in recent conflicts. Current medical management cannot yet prevent or minimize injury from the principal agent of concern--sulfur mustard. Research directed at this goal depends on defining effective intervention in the metabolic alterations induced by exposure to sulfur mustard.

  1. Biosensor technology: recent advances in threat agent detection and medicine.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Jeffrey; Siltanen, Christian; Zhou, Qing; Revzin, Alexander; Simonian, Aleksandr

    2013-11-21

    Biosensors are of great significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of analytical problems and challenges in very diverse areas such as defense, homeland security, agriculture and food safety, environmental monitoring, medicine, pharmacology, industry, etc. The expanding role of biosensing in society and a real-world environment has led to an exponential growth of the R&D efforts around the world. The world market for biosensor devices, according to Global Industry Analysts, Inc., is expected to reach $12 billion by 2015. Such expedient growth is driven by several factors including medical and health problems, such as a growing population with a high risk of diabetes and obesity, and the rising incidence of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, etc.; significant problems with environmental monitoring; and of course serious challenges in security and military applications and agriculture/food safety. A review paper in the biosensor technology area may be structured based on (i) the principles of detection, such as the type of transducer platform, bioanalytical principles (affinity or kinetic), and biorecognition elements origin/properties (i.e. antibodies, enzymes, cells, aptamers, etc.), and (ii) the application area. This review follows the latter strategy and focuses on the applications. This allows discussion on how different sensing strategies are brought to bear on the same problem and highlights advantages/disadvantages of these sensing strategies. Given the broad range of biosensor related applications, several particularly relevant areas of application were selected for review: biological threat agents, chemical threat agents, and medicine.

  2. University of Texas countermeasures to biological and chemical threats program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornguth, Steve E.

    2002-07-01

    Developments in the continental US and the international scene have alerted the defense community to the threat of biological and chemical agents on civilian and military populations. The objective of the program will lead to the protection of US and allied forces from biological/chemical threats. The following focus areas are being developed and integrated in our program: (1) scientific validation; (2) medical countermeasures; and (3) communication and integrated conversion of data to knowledge. We are developing binder elements for the sensors and platforms for these sensor systems. To rapidly determine whether individuals have been exposed to threat agents, archival data sets have been established through a partnership with the Texas Department of Health. Large scale, real-time symptomatic diagnoses of patients from emergency medical facilities are being electronically collected and sent to an archival data facility for identification of emergent disease. The ability to diagnose emergent disease can be reduced to twenty-four hours from the week to several weeks currently required.

  3. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

  4. Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2009-12-01

    The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed. PMID:20052435

  5. Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2009-12-01

    The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed.

  6. Handheld chemical threat monitor for the soldier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Henning, Patrick F.; Weling, Ani S.; Landers, Franklin M.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2003-08-01

    A small, low-cost sensor capable of autonomous detection of a wide variety of chemical agents in either vapor, particulate or liquid phase is urgently needed. It now appears that this need also extends to homeland defense and the vast network of civilian security forces including police, fire, public health and emergency medical personnel. We are developing a low-cost, compact infrared Chemical Threat Monitor (CTM) that could meet this need. This palm-sized handheld instrument combines Foster-Miller's unique optical "wedge" technology coupled to novel, disposable infrared fiber optic sensors for sample collection. These technologies will be coupled to emerging high sensitivity, low-cost uncooled linear array infrared detectors optimized for this application. This combination will provide the individual user with most of the capability of today"s expensive FTIR units in a miniature robust unit that has no moving parts. In this paper we will describe the CTM device, its operation, and present preliminary results on liquid chemical agent simulants.

  7. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  8. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  9. Confronting unknown planetary boundary threats from chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Persson, Linn M; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; MacLeod, Matthew; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-11-19

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimitate a "safe operating space for humanity". One of the planetary boundaries is determined by "chemical pollution", however no clear definition was provided. Here, we propose that there is no single chemical pollution planetary boundary, but rather that many planetary boundary issues governed by chemical pollution exist. We identify three conditions that must be simultaneously met for chemical pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat. We then discuss approaches to identify chemicals that could fulfill those conditions, and outline a proactive hazard identification strategy that considers long-range transport and the reversibility of chemical pollution.

  10. Exposure levels for chemical threat compounds: information to facilitate chemical incident response.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta

    2013-01-01

    Although not widely known, a robust set of peer-reviewed public health and occupational exposure levels presently exist for key chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and certain acutely toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) identified as terrorist attack threats. Familiarity with these CWA and TIC exposure levels and their historic applications has facilitated emergency management decision-making by public and environmental health decision-makers. Specifically, multiple air, soil, and water exposure levels for CWAs and TICs summarized here have been extensively peer-reviewed and published; many have been recognized and are in use by federal and state health agencies as criteria for hazard zone prediction and assessment, occupational safety, and "how clean is clean enough" decisions. The key, however, is to know which criteria are most appropriate for specific decisions. While public safety is critical, high levels of concern often associated with perceived or actual proximity to extremely toxic chemical agents could result in overly cautious decisions that generate excessive delays, expenditure of scarce resources, and technological difficulties. Rapid selection of the most appropriate chemical exposure criteria is recommended to avoid such problems and expedite all phases of chemical incident response and recovery. PMID:24340456

  11. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism.

  12. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism. PMID:15605928

  13. Medical support in a nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment.

    PubMed

    Handke, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    This account shows how military personnel deployed abroad are often exposed to particularly stressful events and how they must cope with enormous challenges. Shortly after the ground offensive started in Iraq, 109 soldiers were deployed, at very short notice, from Germany to Kuwait on March 21, 2003, as Extending Operation Forces in the area of operations. They reinforced the German NBC defense battalion that was already stationed on the Persian Gulf. From March 21 to May 6, 2003, I was assigned to Camp Doha, Kuwait, as the senior medical officer of the German contingent participating in Operation Enduring Freedom. The situation changed drastically when Operation Iraqi Freedom started on March 20, 2003, when the camp was attacked by Iraqi missiles. Medical support was then provided under the conditions of an acute conventional and NBC threat situation. Providing medical support in multinational operations is one of the tasks specified in the operational spectrum of the Medical Service. As a result of the growing threat posed worldwide by terrorist acts involving the use not only of conventional weapons but also of NBC agents, it is becoming increasingly important for medical personnel to receive appropriate training in how to behave and in how to treat patients in a NBC threat environment. We must make every effort to fully understand this new type of threat environment and to address it effectively. PMID:18214132

  14. Medical support in a nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment.

    PubMed

    Handke, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    This account shows how military personnel deployed abroad are often exposed to particularly stressful events and how they must cope with enormous challenges. Shortly after the ground offensive started in Iraq, 109 soldiers were deployed, at very short notice, from Germany to Kuwait on March 21, 2003, as Extending Operation Forces in the area of operations. They reinforced the German NBC defense battalion that was already stationed on the Persian Gulf. From March 21 to May 6, 2003, I was assigned to Camp Doha, Kuwait, as the senior medical officer of the German contingent participating in Operation Enduring Freedom. The situation changed drastically when Operation Iraqi Freedom started on March 20, 2003, when the camp was attacked by Iraqi missiles. Medical support was then provided under the conditions of an acute conventional and NBC threat situation. Providing medical support in multinational operations is one of the tasks specified in the operational spectrum of the Medical Service. As a result of the growing threat posed worldwide by terrorist acts involving the use not only of conventional weapons but also of NBC agents, it is becoming increasingly important for medical personnel to receive appropriate training in how to behave and in how to treat patients in a NBC threat environment. We must make every effort to fully understand this new type of threat environment and to address it effectively.

  15. Lightweight standoff chemical agent detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditillo, John T.; Gross, Robert L.; Althouse, Mark L.; Lagna, William M.; Loerop, William R.; Deluca, Paul; Quinn, Thomas G.; Grim, Larry B.

    1995-02-01

    The lightweight standoff chemical agent detector (LSCAD) is an infrared Michelson interferometer operating in the 8 - 12 micron band and is designed primarily for military applications. The first group of prototypes has been delivered and is undergoing testing. A secondary and no less important mission of LSCAD is its application to the civilian environmental monitoring field. Trials with earlier systems at industrial sites have been successful. The system is designed to be operated from a vehicle while on the move. Platforms which have been used are road vehicles, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles (UAV), and scanning from a fixed emplacement. To meet the restrictions of military applications, the prototype system has a weight of about 22 lbs and is approximately 0.3 cu ft in size. It employs an onboard instrument control, data collection, and analysis and detection decision system which is key to its real-time operation. The hardware, data system, and preliminary results are discussed.

  16. Modeling and Visualizing Flow of Chemical Agents Across Complex Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kramer, Marc; Chaderjian, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Release of chemical agents across complex terrain presents a real threat to homeland security. Modeling and visualization tools are being developed that capture flow fluid terrain interaction as well as point dispersal downstream flow paths. These analytic tools when coupled with UAV atmospheric observations provide predictive capabilities to allow for rapid emergency response as well as developing a comprehensive preemptive counter-threat evacuation plan. The visualization tools involve high-end computing and massive parallel processing combined with texture mapping. We demonstrate our approach across a mountainous portion of North California under two contrasting meteorological conditions. Animations depicting flow over this geographical location provide immediate assistance in decision support and crisis management.

  17. Emerging natural threats and the deliberate use of biological agents.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael I; Marty, Aileen M

    2006-06-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing awareness and interest by the medical community, the media, and government at all levels regarding the need to plan for and defend against biological weapons. This article offers an overview of various new and emerging natural biological threats.

  18. Prepare Your School for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sechena, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Recent accidents highlight that chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) agent exposure risk isn't just about terrorism. In this article, the author, a parent and public health physician, wrestles with the fact that total protection from CBRs is probably not feasible in her son's or in the majority of American schools. Capital investments, for…

  19. Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self-presentations.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard; Björklund, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (N = 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = -0.41 [-0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (d = 0.44 [-0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (d = 0.49 [-0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (d = 0.04 [-0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (d = 0.23 [-0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed.

  20. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    PubMed

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials.

  1. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  2. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  3. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: a review.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Stenbæk Schmidt, Michael; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Käll, Mikael

    2015-09-17

    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent Boston Marathon bombing and nerve gas attacks on civilians in the Middle East. To prevent such tragic disasters, security personnel must be able to find, identify and deactivate the threats at multiple locations and levels. This involves major technical and practical challenges, such as detection of ultra-low quantities of hazardous compounds at remote locations for anti-terror purposes and monitoring of environmental sanitation of dumped or left behind toxic substances and explosives. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of todays most interesting and rapidly developing methods for label-free ultrasensitive vibrational "fingerprinting" of a variety of molecular compounds. Performance highlights include attomolar detection of TNT and DNT explosives, a sensitivity that few, if any, other technique can compete with. Moreover, instrumentation needed for SERS analysis are becoming progressively better, smaller and cheaper, and can today be acquired for a retail price close to 10,000 US$. This contribution aims to give a comprehensive overview of SERS as a technique for detection of explosives and chemical threats. We discuss the prospects of SERS becoming a major tool for convenient in-situ threat identification and we summarize existing SERS detection methods and substrates with particular focus on ultra-sensitive real-time detection. General concepts, detection capabilities and perspectives are discussed in order to guide potential users of the technique for homeland security and anti-warfare purposes. PMID:26398417

  4. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: a review.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Stenbæk Schmidt, Michael; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Käll, Mikael

    2015-09-17

    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent Boston Marathon bombing and nerve gas attacks on civilians in the Middle East. To prevent such tragic disasters, security personnel must be able to find, identify and deactivate the threats at multiple locations and levels. This involves major technical and practical challenges, such as detection of ultra-low quantities of hazardous compounds at remote locations for anti-terror purposes and monitoring of environmental sanitation of dumped or left behind toxic substances and explosives. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of todays most interesting and rapidly developing methods for label-free ultrasensitive vibrational "fingerprinting" of a variety of molecular compounds. Performance highlights include attomolar detection of TNT and DNT explosives, a sensitivity that few, if any, other technique can compete with. Moreover, instrumentation needed for SERS analysis are becoming progressively better, smaller and cheaper, and can today be acquired for a retail price close to 10,000 US$. This contribution aims to give a comprehensive overview of SERS as a technique for detection of explosives and chemical threats. We discuss the prospects of SERS becoming a major tool for convenient in-situ threat identification and we summarize existing SERS detection methods and substrates with particular focus on ultra-sensitive real-time detection. General concepts, detection capabilities and perspectives are discussed in order to guide potential users of the technique for homeland security and anti-warfare purposes.

  5. A New Understanding of Chemical Agent Release

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, G; Greenman, R; Theofanous, T

    2002-07-24

    The evolution of thickened chemical agent released at supersonic velocities, due to a missile defense intercept or a properly functioning warhead, has been misunderstood. Current and historical experimental and modeling efforts have attributed agent breakup to a variety of droplet breakup mechanisms. According to this model, drops of agent fragment into subsequent generations of smaller drops until a stable drop size is reached. Recent experimental data conducted in a supersonic wind tunnel show that agent breakup is not driven by any droplet breakup mechanism. The breakup of agent is instead governed by viscoelastic behavior and aerodynamic history effects. This viscoelastic breakup mechanism results in the formation of threads and sheets of liquid, instead of drops. The evolution and final state of agent released has broad implications not only for aerobreakup models, but also for all atmospheric dispersion models.

  6. Chemical Computer Man: Chemical Agent Response Simulation (CARS). Technical report, January 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.G.; Mioduszewski, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    The Chemical Computer Man: Chemical Agent Response Simulation (CARS) is a computer model and simulation program for estimating the dynamic changes in human physiological dysfunction resulting from exposures to chemical-threat nerve agents. The newly developed CARS methodology simulates agent exposure effects on the following five indices of human physiological function: mental, vision, cardio-respiratory, visceral, and limbs. Mathematical models and the application of basic pharmacokinetic principles were incorporated into the simulation so that for each chemical exposure, the relationship between exposure dosage, absorbed dosage (agent blood plasma concentration), and level of physiological response are computed as a function of time. CARS, as a simulation tool, is designed for the users with little or no computer-related experience. The model combines maximum flexibility with a comprehensive user-friendly interactive menu-driven system. Users define an exposure problem and obtain immediate results displayed in tabular, graphical, and image formats. CARS has broad scientific and engineering applications, not only in technology for the soldier in the area of Chemical Defense, but also in minimizing animal testing in biomedical and toxicological research and the development of a modeling system for human exposure to hazardous-waste chemicals.

  7. Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1999-02-23

    This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.

  8. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  9. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  10. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  11. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  12. The Respiratory Toxicity of Chemical Warefare Agents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation is one of the most important routes of exposure for chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and thus, the lung remains a critical target of injury. Depending on the mode of action by which the CWAs cause injury, the nature of injury, the location being impacted within the respi...

  13. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  14. I-SCAD® standoff chemical agent detector overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Mirela O.; Griffin, Matthew T.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a system-level description of the I-SCAD® Standoff Chemical Agent Detector, a passive Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) based remote sensing system, for detecting chemical vapor threats. The passive infrared detection system automatically searches the 7 to 14 micron region of the surrounding atmosphere for agent vapor clouds. It is capable of operating while on the move to accomplish reconnaissance, surveillance, and contamination avoidance missions. Additionally, the system is designed to meet the needs for application on air and sea as well as ground mobile and fixed site platforms. The lightweight, passive, and fully automatic detection system scans the surrounding atmosphere for chemical warfare agent vapors. It provides on-the-move, 360-deg coverage from a variety of tactical and reconnaissance platforms at distances up to 5 km. The core of the system is a rugged Michelson interferometer with a flexure spring bearing mechanism and bi-directional data acquisition capability. The modular system design facilitates interfacing to many platforms. A Reduced Field of View (RFOV) variant includes novel modifications to the scanner subcomponent assembly optical design that gives extended performance in detection range and detection probability without sacrificing existing radiometric sensitivity performance. This paper will deliver an overview of system.

  15. Environmental mimics of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Claborn, David M

    2004-12-01

    There are several natural and artificial factors that mimic the effects of chemical warfare agents, thereby causing unwarranted alarm and confusion on the battlefield. Symptoms associated with chemical warfare include paralysis, muscle tremors, heavy salivation, severe burns, blistering, and corrosive skin injuries among others. Similar symptoms can be produced from a variety of environmental sources, artificial and natural. This article reviews several published and unpublished examples of environmental factors that produce syndromes similar to those caused by these agents. Examples of such mimics include pesticides, blistering exudates from insects and plants, various types of bites, and naturally occurring diseases. The potential for confusion caused by these factors is discussed and means of discriminating between warfare agents and naturally occurring events are identified. Recommendations for the use of this information and for needed research are also discussed. PMID:15646185

  16. Self-Decontaminating Fibrous Materials Reactive toward Chemical Threats.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Su, Xiao; Martis, Vladimir; Zhang, Yunfei; Hatton, T Alan

    2016-07-13

    Polymers that possess highly nucleophilic pyrrolidinopyridine (Pyr) and primary amino (vinylamine, VAm) groups were prepared by free-radical copolymerization of N,N-diallylpyridin-4-amine (DAAP) and N-vinylformamide (NVF) followed by acidic hydrolysis of NVF into VAm. The resulting poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) copolymers were water-soluble and reacted with water-dispersible polyurethane possessing a high content of unreacted isocyanate groups. Spray-coating of the nylon-cotton (NYCO), rayon, and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (Kevlar 119) fibers pretreated with phosphoric acid resulted in covalent bonding of the polyurethane with the hydroxyl groups on the fiber surface. A second spray-coating of aqueous solutions of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) on the polyurethane-coated fiber enabled formation of urea linkages between unreacted isocyanate groups of the polyurethane layer and the amino groups of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF). Fibers with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) attached were compared with fibers modified by adsorption of water-insoluble poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine) (polyBPP) in terms of the stability against polymer leaching in aqueous washing applications. While the fibers modified by attachment of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) exhibited negligible polymer leaching, over 65% of adsorbed polyBPP detached and leached from the fibers within 7 days. Rayon fibers modified by poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) were tested for sorption of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in the presence of moisture using dynamic vapor sorption technique. Capability of the fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) to facilitate hydrolysis of the sorbed DMMP in the presence of moisture was uncovered. The self-decontaminating property of the modified fibers against chemical threats was tested using a CWA simulant diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in aqueous media at pH 8.7. Fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) facilitated hydrolysis of DFP with the half-lives up to an order of magnitude

  17. Self-Decontaminating Fibrous Materials Reactive toward Chemical Threats.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Su, Xiao; Martis, Vladimir; Zhang, Yunfei; Hatton, T Alan

    2016-07-13

    Polymers that possess highly nucleophilic pyrrolidinopyridine (Pyr) and primary amino (vinylamine, VAm) groups were prepared by free-radical copolymerization of N,N-diallylpyridin-4-amine (DAAP) and N-vinylformamide (NVF) followed by acidic hydrolysis of NVF into VAm. The resulting poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) copolymers were water-soluble and reacted with water-dispersible polyurethane possessing a high content of unreacted isocyanate groups. Spray-coating of the nylon-cotton (NYCO), rayon, and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (Kevlar 119) fibers pretreated with phosphoric acid resulted in covalent bonding of the polyurethane with the hydroxyl groups on the fiber surface. A second spray-coating of aqueous solutions of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) on the polyurethane-coated fiber enabled formation of urea linkages between unreacted isocyanate groups of the polyurethane layer and the amino groups of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF). Fibers with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) attached were compared with fibers modified by adsorption of water-insoluble poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine) (polyBPP) in terms of the stability against polymer leaching in aqueous washing applications. While the fibers modified by attachment of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) exhibited negligible polymer leaching, over 65% of adsorbed polyBPP detached and leached from the fibers within 7 days. Rayon fibers modified by poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) were tested for sorption of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in the presence of moisture using dynamic vapor sorption technique. Capability of the fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) to facilitate hydrolysis of the sorbed DMMP in the presence of moisture was uncovered. The self-decontaminating property of the modified fibers against chemical threats was tested using a CWA simulant diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in aqueous media at pH 8.7. Fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) facilitated hydrolysis of DFP with the half-lives up to an order of magnitude

  18. Bacterial spores and chemical sporicidal agents.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A D

    1990-01-01

    Bacterial spores are among the most resistant of all living cells to biocides, although the response depends on the stage of sporulation. The development of resistance to some agents such as chlorhexidine occurs much earlier in sporulation than does resistance to glutaraldehyde, which is a very late event. During germination or outgrowth or both, resistance is lost and the cells become as susceptible to biocides as nonsporulating bacteria. Mechanisms of spore resistance to, and the action of, biocides are discussed, and possible means of enhancing antispore activity are considered. The clinical and other uses of sporicidal and sporostatic chemical agents are described. Images PMID:2187595

  19. Differential mobility spectroscopy for chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. Todd

    2006-05-01

    General Dynamics ATP (GDATP) and Sionex Corporation (Sionex) are carrying out a cooperative development for a handheld chemical agent detector, being called JUNO TM, which will have lower false positives, higher sensitivity, and improved interference rejection compared with presently available detectors. This enhanced performance is made possible by the use of a new principle of ion separation called Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS). The enhanced selectivity is provided by the field tunable nature of the Sionex differential mobility technology (microDMxTM) which forms the analytical heart of the JUNO system and enables fingerprinting of molecules by characterization of the ionized molecular behavior under multiple electric field conditions. This enhanced selectivity is valuable in addressing not only the traditional list of chemical warfare agents (CWA) but also the substantial list of Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) which may be released in warfare or terrorist situations. Experimental results showing the ability of the microDMx to reject interferences, detect and resolve live agents are presented. An additional breakthrough in the technology was realized by operating the device at a reduced pressure of around 0.5 atmospheres. This reduced pressure operation resulted in roughly doubling the spectrometers resolution over what has previously been reported [1]. Advances have also been made in power consumption and packaging leading to a device suitable for portable, handheld, applications. Experimental results illustrating the performance of the microDMx technology employed in JUNO are highlighted.

  20. Comparative sporicidal effects of liquid chemical agents.

    PubMed Central

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1996-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, cupric ascorbate (plus a sublethal amount of hydrogen peroxide), sodium hypochlorite, and phenol to inactivate Bacillus subtilis spores under various conditions. Each chemical agent was distinctly affected by pH, storage time after activation, dilution, and temperature. Only three of the preparations (hypochlorite, peracetic acid, and cupric ascorbate) studied here inactivated more than 99.9% of the spore load after a 30-min incubation at 20 degrees C at concentrations generally used to decontaminate medical devices. Under similar conditions, glutaraldehyde inactivated approximately 90%, and hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and phenol produced little killing of spores in suspension. By kinetic analysis at different temperatures, we calculated the rate of spore inactivation (k) and the activation energy of spore killing (delta E) for each chemical agent. Rates of spore inactivation had a similar delta E value of approximately 20 kcal/mol (ca.83.68 kJ/mol) for every substance tested. The variation among k values allowed a quantitative comparison of liquid germicidal agents. PMID:8593054

  1. State-of-the-art therapeutic medical countermeasures for viral threat agents.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Aruna; Metz, Matthew; Stundick, Melissa; Larsen, Joseph C

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the perceived threat of biological agents being used against civilian populations. This has prompted an urgent need for the development and procurement of medical countermeasures (MCMs) against highly pathogenic viruses that can prevent morbidity and mortality from infections caused by these agents. To date, antiviral drug development has been largely focused on clinically prevalent chronic infections due to their commercial viability. This has left a huge gap in the drug development path for acute infections of biodefense importance. In this review, we discuss the antiviral research and development initiatives focusing specifically on poxviruses, filoviruses, and equine encephalitis viruses (EEV). We discuss the benefits and technical challenges in the current development strategies and the hurdles in the licensure path for MCMs against these highly pathogenic viruses under the FDA Animal Rule, and we provide recommendations for the path forward.

  2. Non-infectious plasmid engineered to simulate multiple viral threat agents.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Monica; Sagripanti, Jose-Luis

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and construct a non-virulent simulant to replace several pathogenic viruses in the development of detection and identification methods in biodefense. A non-infectious simulant was designed and engineered to include the nucleic acid signature of VEEV (Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus), Influenza virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, Machupo virus, Lassa virus, Yellow Fever virus, Ebola virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus, Junin virus, Marburg virus, Dengue virus, and Crimean-Congo virus, all in a single construct. The nucleic acid sequences of all isolates available for each virus species were aligned using ClustalW software in order to obtain conserved regions of the viral genomes. Specific primers were designed to permit the identification and differentiation between viral threat agents. A chimera of 3143 base pairs was engineered to produce 13 PCR amplicons of different sizes. PCR amplification of the simulant with virus-specific primers revealed products of the predicted length, in bands of similar intensity, and without detectable unspecific products by electrophoresis analysis. The simulant described could reduce the need to use infectious viruses in the development of detection and diagnostic methods, and could also be useful as a non-virulent positive control in nucleic acid-based tests against biological threat agents.

  3. The occupational physician and chemical disasters: old problem, new threats.

    PubMed

    Borron, S W

    2006-01-01

    Chemical disasters continue to occur, in spite of significant progress in process engineering, industrial hygiene practices, and improved enforcement of health and safety legislation. In addition to the ever-present risk of unintentional incidents, recent geopolitical events have raised the specter of chemical terrorism. Terrorists or even disgruntled employees may exploit lapses in chemical plant security and ready access to large quantities commodity chemicals, capable of causing great harm to the population if suddenly and unexpectedly released. Occupational physicians, who are uniquely equipped to understand the health hazards associated with industrial chemicals should be involved in prevention of planning for, and response to chemical disasters. Measures for improving preparedness include training and collaboration, not only with plant health and safety personnel but also with public safety and health care providers, through drills and assessment of needs and capacities. Occupational physicians should be aware that communications and other systems often fail in disasters, requiring multiple alternatives. Likewise, occupational health specialists should be prepared to deal with mass casualties, including psychological casualties which may be difficult to distinguish from those of organic etiology. Chemical disaster preparedness is an urgent and demanding responsibility for occupational physicians everywhere.

  4. The occupational physician and chemical disasters: old problem, new threats.

    PubMed

    Borron, S W

    2006-01-01

    Chemical disasters continue to occur, in spite of significant progress in process engineering, industrial hygiene practices, and improved enforcement of health and safety legislation. In addition to the ever-present risk of unintentional incidents, recent geopolitical events have raised the specter of chemical terrorism. Terrorists or even disgruntled employees may exploit lapses in chemical plant security and ready access to large quantities commodity chemicals, capable of causing great harm to the population if suddenly and unexpectedly released. Occupational physicians, who are uniquely equipped to understand the health hazards associated with industrial chemicals should be involved in prevention of planning for, and response to chemical disasters. Measures for improving preparedness include training and collaboration, not only with plant health and safety personnel but also with public safety and health care providers, through drills and assessment of needs and capacities. Occupational physicians should be aware that communications and other systems often fail in disasters, requiring multiple alternatives. Likewise, occupational health specialists should be prepared to deal with mass casualties, including psychological casualties which may be difficult to distinguish from those of organic etiology. Chemical disaster preparedness is an urgent and demanding responsibility for occupational physicians everywhere. PMID:17017362

  5. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  6. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  7. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  8. Modelling threats to water quality from fire suppression chemicals and post-fire erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kevin; Ziemniak, Chris; Elliot, William; Samuels, William

    2014-05-01

    Misapplication of fire retardant chemicals into streams and rivers may threaten aquatic life. The possible threat depends on the contaminant concentration that, in part, is controlled by dispersion within flowing water. In the event of a misapplication, methods are needed to rapidly estimate the chemical mass entering the waterway and the dispersion and transport within the system. Here we demonstrate a new tool that calculates the chemical mass based on aircraft delivery system, fire chemical type, and stream and intersect geometry. The estimated mass is intended to be transferred into a GIS module that uses real-time stream data to map and simulate the dispersion and transport downstream. This system currently accounts only for aqueous transport. We envision that the GIS module can be modified to incorporate sediment transport, specifically to model movement of sediments from post-fire erosion. This modification could support assessment of threats of post-fire erosion to water quality and water supply systems.

  9. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  10. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  11. Exposure assessment for chemical and physical agents.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure assessment to either chemical or physical agents, as applicable, is a necessary step for both etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease and health surveillance of workers. The assessment can be carried out by measurements of concentrations in air of the substance by either fixed or personal samplers. The former give an indication of the general environment, the latter, applied near the mouth of the worker, provide personalized information. Dermal exposure (deposition) and absorption occur in the occupational setting, but their measurement is so complex that there are no routine methods and no exposure limits established. Oral exposure is accidental or associated with poor hygienic practices, is very difficult to assess, and there are no occupational exposure limits of oral intake. Also accidental injuries caused by needles or other sharp objects that might be contaminated by chemicals occur but exposure assessment in this condition is almost impossible. Exposure is also assessed by biologic monitoring that entails measurements of the substance and/or of its metabolite(s) in accessible fluids, generally urine, blood, or expired air. Biochemical changes, e.g., enzyme inhibition, associated with exposure are also measured. The results of these measurements are compared with existing limit values in order to conclude on the safety of the working conditions. Since the limit values are derived with the application of conservative assumptions, there are no fine lines between health and disease. Therefore, in the clinical setting values below the limit can be generally regarded as safe. Values above the limits should be considered in conjunction with all other information to judge on the likelihood that the disease under investigation may have been caused by exposure to the substance. PMID:26563782

  12. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  13. The NIH Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Program: overview and special challenges.

    PubMed

    Jett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Intentional exposures to toxic chemicals can stem from terrorist attacks, such as the release of sarin in the Tokyo subway system in 1995, as well as from toxic industrial accidents that are much more common. Developing effective medical interventions is a critical component of the overall strategy to overcome the challenges of chemical emergencies. These challenges include the rapid and lethal mode of action of many toxic chemicals that require equally fast-acting therapies, the large number of chemicals that are considered threats, and the diverse demographics and vulnerabilities of those who may be affected. In addition, there may be long-term deleterious effects in survivors of a chemical exposure. Several U.S. federal agencies are invested in efforts to improve preparedness and response capabilities during and after chemical emergencies. For example, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Program supports investigators who are developing therapeutics to reduce mortality and morbidity from chemical exposures. The program awards grants to individual laboratories and includes contract resource facilities and interagency agreements with Department of Defense laboratories. The range of high-quality research within the NIH CounterACT Program network is discussed. PMID:27398820

  14. The NIH Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Program: overview and special challenges.

    PubMed

    Jett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Intentional exposures to toxic chemicals can stem from terrorist attacks, such as the release of sarin in the Tokyo subway system in 1995, as well as from toxic industrial accidents that are much more common. Developing effective medical interventions is a critical component of the overall strategy to overcome the challenges of chemical emergencies. These challenges include the rapid and lethal mode of action of many toxic chemicals that require equally fast-acting therapies, the large number of chemicals that are considered threats, and the diverse demographics and vulnerabilities of those who may be affected. In addition, there may be long-term deleterious effects in survivors of a chemical exposure. Several U.S. federal agencies are invested in efforts to improve preparedness and response capabilities during and after chemical emergencies. For example, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Program supports investigators who are developing therapeutics to reduce mortality and morbidity from chemical exposures. The program awards grants to individual laboratories and includes contract resource facilities and interagency agreements with Department of Defense laboratories. The range of high-quality research within the NIH CounterACT Program network is discussed.

  15. Compilation of existing chemical agent guidelines table as of September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1998-08-01

    Public Law 99-145 requires the US Department of the Army to dispose of the lethal chemical agents and munitions stockpile stored at eight Army installations throughout the continental US and Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was greater than the threat from transportation and demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warfare agent munitions. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the US Army jointly coordinate and direct the CSEPP. The Compilation of Existing Chemical Agent Guidelines Table was developed under the direction of FEMA and the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). The purpose of this Table is to identify established chemical warfare agent guidelines, standards, and interim standards as of September 1997, and place them in an explanatory context for ready use by the CSEPP community. This Table summarizes and organizes information from numerous agencies and review bodies responsible for recommending exposure guidelines [e.g., The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Committee on Toxicology (COT), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), FEMA, Army and other federal agencies]. This Table provides references for the interested reader, but does not provide data and assumptions on which exposure guidelines were based, or comment on the rationale or appropriateness of the given values. To do so is beyond the scope of work for this task.

  16. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule; King, J.; Hauschild, Veronique

    2007-05-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

  18. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. PMID:27260452

  19. [Chemical treatment and decomposition technique of the chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals].

    PubMed

    Kaise, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The old Japanese army developed several chemical warfare agents on Ohkuno Island in Seto inland sea, Hiroshima Japan, during the period between 1919 and 1944. These chemical agents including yperite (mustard; irritating agent), lewisite (irritating agent), diphenylchloroarsine (DA; vomiting agent), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC; vomiting agent) and other poisonous gases were manufactured to be used in China. After World War II, the old Japanese army abandoned or dumped these agents into seas inside or outside of Japan and interior of China. Rather than being used for terrorism, these chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals may cause injury to some workers at the digging site of abandoned chemical weapons. Moreover, the leakage of chemical agents or an explosion of the bomb may result in environmental pollution, as a result, it is highly possible to cause serious health damage to the residents. There are still many abandoned or dumped warfare agents in Japan and China, therefore chemical agents containing arsenic are needed to be treated with alkaline for decomposition or to decompose with oxidizing agent. Presently, a large quantity of chemical agents and the contaminated soil are processed by combustion, and industrial waste is treated with sulfur compounds as the insoluble sulfur arsenic complex. This report describes the methods for the disposal of these organic arsenic agents that have been implemented until present and examines the future prospects. PMID:19122436

  20. Nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism: understanding the threat and designing responses.

    PubMed

    Simon, J D

    1999-01-01

    Today nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) terrorism is a serious issue. The threat of terrorist or rogue states acquiring and using NBC weapons has ushered in a new age of terrorism; an age that is far more dangerous than any previous period. It is an age of terrorism with which no one yet knows how to deal. This article reviews recent trends in terrorism, and identifies groups that have both the potential and the motive to use weapons of mass destruction. In addition, it discusses the design and implemention of effective measures to meet this threat, as well as the role of CISM teams in preparation for, and in the aftermath of, an incident involving NBC weapons.

  1. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Sheltering Facts About Personal Cleaning Public Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated ...

  2. The induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Luke, David P.; Terhune, Devin B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the general consensus that synaesthesia emerges at an early developmental stage and is only rarely acquired during adulthood, the transient induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents has been frequently reported in research on different psychoactive substances. Nevertheless, these effects remain poorly understood and have not been systematically incorporated. Here we review the known published studies in which chemical agents were observed to elicit synaesthesia. Across studies there is consistent evidence that serotonin agonists elicit transient experiences of synaesthesia. Despite convergent results across studies, studies investigating the induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents have numerous methodological limitations and little experimental research has been conducted. Cumulatively, these studies implicate the serotonergic system in synaesthesia and have implications for the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon but methodological limitations in this research area preclude making firm conclusions regarding whether chemical agents can induce genuine synaesthesia. PMID:24146659

  3. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  4. Fate of sessile droplet chemical agents in environmental substrates in the presence of physiochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaz, H. K.; Dang, A. L.; Atkinson, T.; Zand, A.; Nowakowski, A.; Kamensky, K.

    2014-05-01

    A general-purpose multi-phase and multi-component computer model capable of solving the complex problems encountered in the agent substrate interaction is developed. The model solves the transient and time-accurate mass and momentum governing equations in a three dimensional space. The provisions for considering all the inter-phase activities (solidification, evaporation, condensation, etc.) are included in the model. The chemical reactions among all phases are allowed and the products of the existing chemical reactions in all three phases are possible. The impact of chemical reaction products on the transport properties in porous media such as porosity, capillary pressure, and permeability is considered. Numerous validations for simulants, agents, and pesticides with laboratory and open air data are presented. Results for chemical reactions in the presence of pre-existing water in porous materials such as moisture, or separated agent and water droplets on porous substrates are presented. The model will greatly enhance the capabilities in predicting the level of threat after any chemical such as Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) release on environmental substrates. The model's generality makes it suitable for both defense and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Early indicators of exposure to biological threat agents using host gene profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rina; Hammamieh, Rasha; Neill, Roger; Ludwig, George V; Eker, Steven; Lincoln, Patrick; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Dhokalia, Apsara; Mani, Sachin; Mendis, Chanaka; Cummings, Christiano; Kearney, Brian; Royaee, Atabak; Huang, Xiao-Zhe; Paranavitana, Chrysanthi; Smith, Leonard; Peel, Sheila; Kanesa-Thasan, Niranjan; Hoover, David; Lindler, Luther E; Yang, David; Henchal, Erik; Jett, Marti

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective prophylaxis and treatment for infections caused by biological threat agents (BTA) rely upon early diagnosis and rapid initiation of therapy. Most methods for identifying pathogens in body fluids and tissues require that the pathogen proliferate to detectable and dangerous levels, thereby delaying diagnosis and treatment, especially during the prelatent stages when symptoms for most BTA are indistinguishable flu-like signs. Methods To detect exposures to the various pathogens more rapidly, especially during these early stages, we evaluated a suite of host responses to biological threat agents using global gene expression profiling on complementary DNA arrays. Results We found that certain gene expression patterns were unique to each pathogen and that other gene changes occurred in response to multiple agents, perhaps relating to the eventual course of illness. Nonhuman primates were exposed to some pathogens and the in vitro and in vivo findings were compared. We found major gene expression changes at the earliest times tested post exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis spores and 30 min post exposure to a bacterial toxin. Conclusion Host gene expression patterns have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers or predict the course of impending illness and may lead to new stage-appropriate therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the devastating effects of exposure to biothreat agents. PMID:18667072

  6. Proteomics and bioinformatics strategies to design countermeasures against infectious threat agents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akbar S; Mujer, Cesar V; Alefantis, Timothy G; Connolly, Joseph P; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Walcher, Petra; Lubitz, Werner; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2006-01-01

    The potential devastation resulting from an intentional outbreak caused by biological warfare agents such as Brucella abortus and Bacillus anthracis underscores the need for next generation vaccines. Proteomics, genomics, and systems biology approaches coupled with the bacterial ghost (BG) vaccine delivery strategy offer an ideal approach for developing safer, cost-effective, and efficacious vaccines for human use in a relatively rapid time frame. Critical to any subunit vaccine development strategy is the identification of a pathogen's proteins with the greatest potential of eliciting a protective immune response. These proteins are collectively referred to as the pathogen's immunome. Proteomics provides high-resolution identification of these immunogenic proteins using standard proteomic technologies, Western blots probed with antisera from infected patients, and the pathogen's sequenced and annotated genome. Selected immunoreactive proteins can be then cloned and expressed in nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Subsequently, a temperature shift or chemical induction process is initiated to induce expression of the PhiX174 E-lysis gene, whose protein product forms an E tunnel between the inner and outer membrane of the bacteria, expelling all intracellular contents. The BG vaccine system is a proven strategy developed for many different pathogens and tested in a complete array of animal models. The BG vaccine system also has great potential for producing multiagent vaccines for protection to multiple species in a single formulation.

  7. Chemical Action of Halogenated Agents in Fire Extinguishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E.

    1955-01-01

    The action of halogenated agents in preventing flame propagation in fuel-air mixtures in laboratory tests is discussed in terms of a possible chemical mechanism. The mechanism chosen is that of chain-breaking reactions between agent and active particles (hydrogen and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicsls). Data from the literature on the flammability peaks of n-heptane agent-air mixtures are treated. Ratings of agent effectiveness in terms of the fuel equivalent of the agent, based on both fuel and agent concentrations at the peak, are proposed as preferable to ratings in terms of agent concentration alone. These fuel-equivalent ratings are roughly correlated by reactivities assigned to halogen and hydrogen atoms in the agent molecules. It is concluded that the presence of hydrogen in agent need not reduce its fire-fighting ability, provided there is enough halogen to make the agent nonflammable. A method is presented for estimating from quenching-distance data a rate constant for the reaction of agent with active particles. A quantitative result is obtained for methyl bromide. This rate constant predicts the observed peak concentration of methyl bromide quite well. However, more data are needed to prove the validity of the method. The assumption that hal.ogenatedagents act mainly by chain-bresking reactions with active particles is consistent with the experimental facts and should help guide the selection of agents for further tests.

  8. The chemical agent experience at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrman, G.

    1995-06-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was constructed and commissioned in 1942 for the production of sulfur mustard and other chemical munitions for possible use in World War II. RMA also became a production site for Lewisite and Sarin, including synthesis and munition filling. Other chemical agents such as Phosgene were routinely handled, filled into munitions and demilitarized. During the 1970`s and the early 1980`s, RMA served as a primary demilitarization facility for the destruction of chemical agents. Throughout its chemical weapons history, RMA generated waste materials from production, neutralization, decontamination and testing. These operations led to the possibility of chemical agent contamination in soils, process equipment and structures that have required special attention as part of the overall Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental cleanup operations being conducted by the Program Manager Rocky Mountain Arsenal (PMRMA). Adjusting normal sampling operations associated with CERCLA-type activities for the special Army regulations covering chemical agents has been a difficult task. This presentation will describe the evolution of chemical agent related efforts and operations as they pertain to RMA environmental cleanup activities, to include field sampling requirements, analytical methods, commercial laboratory use and the role of the on-site PMRMA laboratory.

  9. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  10. Development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Persistent Chemical Agent Simulation System was developed (PCASS) to simulate, for force-on-force training exercises, the field environment produced by the presence of persistent chemical agents. Such a simulant system must satisfy several requirements to be of value as a training aid. Specifically, it must provide for realistic training which will generate competency in at least the following areas: (1) detection of the persistent agent presence; (2) proper use of protective equipment and procedures; (3) determination of the extent of contamination; and (4) decontamination of equipment and personnel.

  11. A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1997-10-01

    Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

  12. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  13. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  14. Solid-water detoxifying reagents for chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Dennis M.; Chiu, Ing Lap

    2006-04-18

    Formation of solid-water detoxifying reagents for chemical and biological agents. Solutions of detoxifying reagent for chemical and biological agents are coated using small quantities of hydrophobic nanoparticles by vigorous agitation or by aerosolization of the solution in the presence of the hydrophobic nanoparticles to form a solid powder. For example, when hydrophobic fumed silica particles are shaken in the presence of IN oxone solution in approximately a 95:5-weight ratio, a dry powder results. The hydrophobic silica forms a porous coating of insoluble fine particles around the solution. Since the chemical or biological agent tends to be hydrophobic on contact with the weakly encapsulated detoxifying solution, the porous coating breaks down and the detoxifying reagent is delivered directly to the chemical or biological agent for maximum concentration at the point of need. The solid-water (coated) detoxifying solutions can be blown into contaminated ventilation ducting or other difficult to reach sites for detoxification of pools of chemical or biological agent. Once the agent has been detoxified, it can be removed by flushing the area with air or other techniques.

  15. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy. PMID:25774952

  16. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  17. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  18. Air monitoring and detection of chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Leonelli, J.; Althouse, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held November 2--3, 1998 in Boston, Massachusetts. Topics of discussion include the following: system simulations, atmospheric modeling, and performance prediction studies of chemical warfare remote sensing technologies; ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence and aerosol detection methods for remote sensing of biological warfare agents; passive detection methods for remote detection of chemical warfare agents; and lidar-based system performance assessments, demonstrations, and new concepts for chemical warfare/biological warfare detection.

  19. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  20. Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

    1998-12-13

    The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory.

  1. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    PubMed

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  2. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    PubMed

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  3. Survey of systems for comparative ranking of agents that pose a bioterroristic threat.

    PubMed

    Menrath, A; Tomuzia, K; Frentzel, H; Braeunig, J; Appel, B

    2014-05-01

    Strong efforts are made to improve preparedness for the prevention and counteraction of possible deliberate release of highly pathogenic biological agents at national and international level. An objective risk assessment for highly pathogenic biological agents is urgently needed for the purpose of prioritizing measures, evaluating the vulnerabilities and supporting rapid decisions on a scientific base in case of an emergency. Hitherto, several differing ranking schemes were developed. In general, the purpose of such ranking schemes is a comparative classification of agents under consideration of different transmission paths as well as agents threatening human and/or animal health. The analysed prioritization methods differ from qualitative to (semi-)quantitative with each its benefits and disadvantages in preciseness of the result, complexity and duration of the assessment but also in comprehensibility. Mainly, risk was defined as the product of probability and impact. In this survey, factors frequently used for the assessment of the probability and impact of a deliberate agent release were identified. Main criteria for the probability of an application were the history of use, the accessibility of the agent and possible paths of introduction and contamination as well as the feasibility of agent production. For the estimation of the impact, mainly the agent's effects on human and/or veterinary public health, depending on the target population, were examined. This includes the morbidity and mortality rates as well as the severity of induced illness, possible measures for diagnosis, and treatment and prevention. Furthermore, the economic and socioeconomic consequences were considered. In this review, the authors give an overview on open-source publications dealing with risk ranking of biological agents by outlining the criteria that were applied for risk ranking. PMID:23870629

  4. Molecular Rotors for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bouffard, Jean; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-09-20

    The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response.

  5. Molecular Rotors for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bouffard, Jean; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-09-20

    The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response. PMID:27536955

  6. Risk analysis of chemical, biological, or radionuclear threats: implications for food security.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Hamid; Murshid, Antu Panini

    2009-09-01

    If the food sector is attacked, the likely agents will be chemical, biological, or radionuclear (CBRN). We compiled a database of international terrorist/criminal activity involving such agents. Based on these data, we calculate the likelihood of a catastrophic event using extreme value methods. At the present, the probability of an event leading to 5,000 casualties (fatalities and injuries) is between 0.1 and 0.3. However, pronounced, nonstationary patterns within our data suggest that the "reoccurrence period" for such attacks is decreasing every year. Similarly, disturbing trends are evident in a broader data set, which is nonspecific as to the methods or means of attack. While at the present the likelihood of CBRN events is quite low, given an attack, the probability that it involves CBRN agents increases with the number of casualties. This is consistent with evidence of "heavy tails" in the distribution of casualties arising from CBRN events.

  7. Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Dennis M.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2002-01-01

    A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

  8. Application of UV-Raman spectroscopy to the detection of chemical and biological threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J., III; Christesen, Steven D.; Chyba, Tom; Ponsardin, Pat

    2004-03-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) and ITT Industries Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division (AES) have been collaborating on the transitioning and subsequent development of a short-range, non-contact Raman lidar system specifically designed to detect and identify chemical agents on the battlefield. [The instrument, referred to as LISA (Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents), will the subject of an accompanying paper.] As part of this collaboration, BNL has the responsibility for developing a spectral database (library) of surrogates and precursors for use with LISA"s pattern recognition algorithms. In this paper, the authors discuss the phenomenon of UV Raman and resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, the development of an instrument-independent Raman spectral library, and highlight the exploitable characteristics present in the acquired spectral signatures that suggest potential utility in our country"s efforts on Homeland Security.

  9. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  10. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory. PMID:18093062

  11. Detection of simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents by vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Pesante, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Ortiz, William; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M.; Nieves, Deborah E.; Ramirez, Michael L.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    This work was focused in the measurement of spectroscopic signatures of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants (CWAS) and degradation products of chemical agents using vibrational spectroscopy for the generation of spectroscopic libraries. The chemicals studied were: DMMP, DIMP, 2-CEES, 2-BAET, 1,4-thioxane, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, dihexylamine, cyclohexylamine, among others. Raman microscopy experiments were performed at different excitation wavelengths that spanned from NIR at 1064 and 785 nm to the VIS at 532, 514.5 and 488 nm and even the deep ultraviolet region at 244 nm. For the compounds studied the optimum excitation lines were 488 nm and 532 nm with a laser power of 25 mW. Among the most prominent bands were at these incident wavelengths were located ca. 652 and 1444 cm-1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in liquid and gas phase and Fiber Optics Coupled-Grazing Angle Probe-FTIR (FOCGAP- FTIR) were used to characterize the spectroscopic signature of target threat agents. The surface experiments were performed at detection levels of about 1 μg/cm2 suggest that limits of detection (LOD) achievable could be as low as nanograms/cm2. Remote sensing experiments were performed using a telescope coupled with a Raman spectrophotometer as a function of power and acquisition time. Characterization of compounds by vibrational spectroscopy and the early stages of the transition from the lab based experiments to remote detection experiments will be presented.

  12. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  13. Host-Range Dynamics of Cochliobolus lunatus: From a Biocontrol Agent to a Severe Environmental Threat

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Sharma, Chandradev K.; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-01-01

    We undertook an investigation to advance understanding of the host-range dynamics and biocontrol implications of Cochliobolus lunatus in the past decade. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) farms were routinely surveyed for brown-to-black leaf spot disease caused by C. lunatus. A biphasic gene data set was assembled and databases were mined for reported hosts of C. lunatus in the last decade. The placement of five virulent strains of C. lunatus causing foliar necrosis of potato was studied with microscopic and phylogenetic tools. Analysis of morphology showed intraspecific variations in stromatic tissues among the virulent strains causing foliar necrosis of potato. A maximum likelihood inference based on GPDH locus separated C. lunatus strains into subclusters and revealed the emergence of unclustered strains. The evolving nutritional requirement of C. lunatus in the last decade is exhibited by the invasion of vertebrates, invertebrates, dicots, and monocots. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the host-range dynamics of C. lunatus and provide useful implications on the threat posed to the environment when C. lunatus is used as a mycoherbicide. PMID:24987680

  14. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Devulapalli Narasimha; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kapalavai, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators. PMID:26392682

  15. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Devulapalli Narasimha; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kapalavai, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators. PMID:26392682

  16. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Ogliari, Aline de Oliveira; Jardim, Patrícia dos Santos; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  17. Phase I study of a topical skin protectant against chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Krivoy, Amir; Vidan, Aviv; Robenshtok, Eyal; Hourvitz, Ariel; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Markel, Gal

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants and some nerve agents penetrate exposed skin, mainly through the sensitive integration areas of the personal protective equipment. Therefore, improving dermal barrier with a topical agent should reduce the threat of exposure. A topical skin protectant lotion (IB1) was developed to improve protection against chemical warfare agents. Preclinical studies in several animal models have proven the protective efficacy of IB1. Here we present the results of a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind phase I clinical study, performed with 34 healthy volunteers. The study tested the safety of repeated applications, including ruling out transdermal permeation of magnesium, which may lead to a dangerous blood magnesium level, since the lotion contains magnesium sulfate. Other objectives included detection of dermatological adverse effects, assessment of application convenience, and effect on daily activities. Importantly, no serious adverse effects were recorded and the lotion did not interfere with daily tasks. There were no significant differences in magnesium levels between the placebo and the study groups in any of the applications. No toxic levels of magnesium were found in either group. We conclude that IB1 is probably safe, easily self-applied, and does not cause any significant inconvenience. Therefore, IB1 can be considered as an adjunctive chemical, biological, and radio-nuclear (CBRN) protective aid to field soldiers.

  18. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  19. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  20. Agent-Based Chemical Plume Tracing Using Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarzhitsky, Dimitri; Spears, Diana; Thayer, David; Spears, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous evaluation of a novel, distributed chemical plume tracing algorithm. The algorithm is a combination of the best aspects of the two most popular predecessors for this task. Furthermore, it is based on solid, formal principles from the field of fluid mechanics. The algorithm is applied by a network of mobile sensing agents (e.g., robots or micro-air vehicles) that sense the ambient fluid velocity and chemical concentration, and calculate derivatives. The algorithm drives the robotic network to the source of the toxic plume, where measures can be taken to disable the source emitter. This work is part of a much larger effort in research and development of a physics-based approach to developing networks of mobile sensing agents for monitoring, tracking, reporting and responding to hazardous conditions.

  1. Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; De Lucia, Frank C; Munson, Chase A; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising technique for real-time chemical and biological warfare agent detection in the field. We have demonstrated the detection and discrimination of the biological warfare agent surrogates Bacillus subtilis (BG) (2% false negatives, 0% false positives) and ovalbumin (0% false negatives, 1% false positives) at 20 meters using standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) and linear correlation. Unknown interferent samples (not included in the model), samples on different substrates, and mixtures of BG and Arizona road dust have been classified with reasonable success using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). A few of the samples tested such as the soot (not included in the model) and the 25% BG:75% dust mixture resulted in a significant number of false positives or false negatives, respectively. Our preliminary results indicate that while LIBS is able to discriminate biomaterials with similar elemental compositions at standoff distances based on differences in key intensity ratios, further work is needed to reduce the number of false positives/negatives by refining the PLS-DA model to include a sufficient range of material classes and carefully selecting a detection threshold. In addition, we have demonstrated that LIBS can distinguish five different organophosphate nerve agent simulants at 20 meters, despite their similar stoichiometric formulas. Finally, a combined PLS-DA model for chemical, biological, and explosives detection using a single ST-LIBS sensor has been developed in order to demonstrate the potential of standoff LIBS for universal hazardous materials detection.

  2. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Classification of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Pearman, William F; Fountain, Augustus W

    2006-04-01

    Initial results demonstrating the ability to classify surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of two endospores (B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus), two chemical agent simulants (dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP)), and two toxin simulants (ovalbumin and horseradish peroxidase) were studied on multiple substrates fabricated from colloidal gold adsorbed onto a silanized quartz surface. The use of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering were used to evaluate the efficacy of identifying potential threat agents from their spectra collected on a single substrate. The use of partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) on a compilation of data from separate substrates, fabricated under identical conditions, demonstrates both the feasibility and the limitations of this technique for the identification of known but previously unclassified spectra.

  4. Chemical agent detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.; Morrisey, Kevin; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-03-01

    In the past decade, the Unites States and its allies have been challenged by a different kind of warfare, exemplified by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although suicide bombings are the most often used form of terror, military personnel must consider a wide range of attack scenarios. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of several chemical agents measured in a generic tap water. Repeat measurements were performed to establish statistical error associated with SERS obtained using the sol-gel coated vials.

  5. The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan; Willett, Paul; Wyatt, Jacqueline R; Samant, Vivek; Massire, Christian; Hall, Thomas A; Hari, Kumar; McNeil, John A; Büchen-Osmond, Cornelia; Budowle, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Background Thousands of different microorganisms affect the health, safety, and economic stability of populations. Many different medical and governmental organizations have created lists of the pathogenic microorganisms relevant to their missions; however, the nomenclature for biological agents on these lists and pathogens described in the literature is inexact. This ambiguity can be a significant block to effective communication among the diverse communities that must deal with epidemics or bioterrorist attacks. Results We have developed a database known as the Microbial Rosetta Stone. The database relates microorganism names, taxonomic classifications, diseases, specific detection and treatment protocols, and relevant literature. The database structure facilitates linkage to public genomic databases. This paper focuses on the information in the database for pathogens that impact global public health, emerging infectious organisms, and bioterrorist threat agents. Conclusion The Microbial Rosetta Stone is available at . The database provides public access to up-to-date taxonomic classifications of organisms that cause human diseases, improves the consistency of nomenclature in disease reporting, and provides useful links between different public genomic and public health databases. PMID:15850481

  6. Discrimination of biological and chemical threat simulants in residue mixtures on multiple substrates.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    The potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to discriminate biological and chemical threat simulant residues prepared on multiple substrates and in the presence of interferents has been explored. The simulant samples tested include Bacillus atrophaeus spores, Escherichia coli, MS-2 bacteriophage, α-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, and dimethyl methylphosphonate. The residue samples were prepared on polycarbonate, stainless steel and aluminum foil substrates by Battelle Eastern Science and Technology Center. LIBS spectra were collected by Battelle on a portable LIBS instrument developed by A3 Technologies. This paper presents the chemometric analysis of the LIBS spectra using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The performance of PLS-DA models developed based on the full LIBS spectra, and selected emission intensities and ratios have been compared. The full-spectra models generally provided better classification results based on the inclusion of substrate emission features; however, the intensity/ratio models were able to correctly identify more types of simulant residues in the presence of interferents. The fusion of the two types of PLS-DA models resulted in a significant improvement in classification performance for models built using multiple substrates. In addition to identifying the major components of residue mixtures, minor components such as growth media and solvents can be identified with an appropriately designed PLS-DA model. PMID:21331489

  7. Discrimination of biological and chemical threat simulants in residue mixtures on multiple substrates.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    The potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to discriminate biological and chemical threat simulant residues prepared on multiple substrates and in the presence of interferents has been explored. The simulant samples tested include Bacillus atrophaeus spores, Escherichia coli, MS-2 bacteriophage, α-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, and dimethyl methylphosphonate. The residue samples were prepared on polycarbonate, stainless steel and aluminum foil substrates by Battelle Eastern Science and Technology Center. LIBS spectra were collected by Battelle on a portable LIBS instrument developed by A3 Technologies. This paper presents the chemometric analysis of the LIBS spectra using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The performance of PLS-DA models developed based on the full LIBS spectra, and selected emission intensities and ratios have been compared. The full-spectra models generally provided better classification results based on the inclusion of substrate emission features; however, the intensity/ratio models were able to correctly identify more types of simulant residues in the presence of interferents. The fusion of the two types of PLS-DA models resulted in a significant improvement in classification performance for models built using multiple substrates. In addition to identifying the major components of residue mixtures, minor components such as growth media and solvents can be identified with an appropriately designed PLS-DA model.

  8. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41 CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images.

  9. [Development of anti-HIV agents based on chemical biology].

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which involves a combinational use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors and HIV protease inhibitors, has brought us a great success in the clinical treatment of AIDS patients. However, HAART has several serious clinical problems. These drawbacks encouraged us to find novel drugs and increase repertoires of anti-HIV agents with various action mechanisms. The recent disclosing of the dynamic supramolecular mechanism in HIV-entry has provided potentials to find a new type of drugs. To date, we have synthesized HIV-entry inhibitors, especially coreceptor CXCR4 antagonists. In addition, CD4 mimics in consideration of synergic effects with other entry inhibitors or neutralizing antibodies have been developed. The development of the above anti-HIV agents is based on the concept of reverse chemical genomics, in which target molecules are fixed. On the other hand, based on the concept of forward chemical genomics, in which active compounds are searched according to the screening of random libraries, effective peptide leads such as integrase inhibitors derived from fragment peptides of HIV-1 Vpr have been discovered. As such, from a point of view on chemical biology, anti-HIV leads have been found utilizing reverse and forward chemical genomics. Furthermore, antibody-based therapy or AIDS vaccine is still thought to be a promising treatment. Thus, peptidic antigen molecules based on artificial remodeling of the dynamic structures of a surface protein gp41 in HIV fusion have been developed. The present chemical biology approaches would be essential for discovery of anti-HIV agents in consideration of cocktail therapy of AIDS.

  10. Bird repellents: interaction of chemical agents in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Clark, L

    1998-07-01

    Numerous studies characterize the concentration-behavioral response for odorants, tastants, and irritants. However, to achieve ecological validity, interaction of agents in mixtures must be considered. Equiresponse and equimolar molar models of interactions have been proposed, and methods for testing whether agents in mixture interact independently have been evaluated. Yet these averaging models cannot a priori predict whether agents will interact antagonistically, independently, or synergistically. I studied the bird repellent properties of several structurally similar and well-described trigeminally mediated avian irritants, singly and in mixture. Compounds within a chemical class, in which the electron withdrawing groups were similar, interacted independently to produce their repellent effects, e.g., 2-amino methyl benzoate v methyl-2-methoxy benzoate, and o-aminoacetophenone v 2-methoxy acetophenone. The response to mixtures drawn from compounds of dissimilar chemical class, e.g., 2-amino methyl benzoate v o-aminoacetophenone, interacted antagonistically at concentrations below 10 mM, suggesting meditation by a different mechanism within the trigeminally mediated sensory modality. At 10 mM and near saturation of the solutions, there was no evidence of interaction between agents, suggesting responses became saturated. These observations underscore our previous findings for the importance of the molecular properties of the carbonyl group for aromatic bird repellents and suggests the possible existence of multiple receptor mechanisms for avian trigeminal repellents. These data also underscore the importance of attending to interactions of agents in mixtures when designing repellents as tools for the management of wildlife and resolution of conflicts between humans and wildlife.

  11. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  12. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  13. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  14. New adaptive methods for sensing of chemical components and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy A.; Chiarini, Bruno H.; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2004-02-01

    It is known that leaf reflectance spectra can be used to estimate the contents of chemical components in vegetation. Recent novel applications include the detection of harmful biological agents that can originate from agricultural bioterrorism attacks. Such attacks have been identified as a major threat to the United States" agriculture. Nevertheless, the usefulness of such approach is currently limited by distorting factors, in particular soil reflectance. The quantitative analysis of the spectral curves from the reflection of plant leaves may be the basis for the development of new methods for interpreting the data obtained by the remote measurement of plants. We consider the problem of characterizing the chemical composition from noisy spectral data using an experimental optical method. Using our experience in signal processing and optimization of complex systems we propose a new mathematical model for sensing of chemical components in vegetation. Estimates are defined as minimizers of penalized cost functionals with sequential quadratic programming (SQR) methods. A deviation measure used in risk analysis is also considered. This framework is demonstrated for different agricultural plants using adaptive filtration, principal components analysis, and optimization techniques for classification of spectral curves of chemical components. Various estimation problems will be considered to illustrate the computational aspects of the proposed method.

  15. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Silva Martins, Alzira Maria

    2001-01-01

    Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute), Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606), were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs); 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs); 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens. PMID:11591223

  16. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    PubMed

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  17. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    PubMed

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin. PMID:23971819

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of chemical warfare agent simulants from soil.

    PubMed

    Griest, W H; Ramsey, R S; Ho, C H; Caldwell, W M

    1992-05-29

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are efficiently recovered from 2-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil using methanol-carbon dioxide (5:95) at 300 atm for 2 min at 60 degrees C. Recoveries (n = 3) were 79 +/- 23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93 +/- 14% for 2-chloroethylethyl sulfide, 92 +/- 13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate and 95 +/- 17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. Recoveries are higher than, but less precise than those achieved from a 5-min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol. Much less laboratory waste is generated than the current standard organic solvent extraction method (33 g of soil shaken with 100 ml of chloroform). PMID:1400849

  19. Detection of chemical agents using a novel energy cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shewchun, John

    2007-04-01

    The detection, classification and tracking of chemical agents (explosives) being surreptitiously smuggled into public areas, such as airports, for destructive purposes is difficult to solve by unobtrusive means. We propose the use of a novel energy cell with gas/vapor sniffing capability. Variants of such devices are routinely used by police to detect alcohol emanating from the breath of suspected impaired vehicle drivers. We have advanced this technology with the development of a Pethanol Alkaline Energy Cell which is capable of reading gaseous emissions ultimately in the parts per billion range. Our work is described in terms of detecting TATAP (acetone peroxide).

  20. Environmental monitoring for biological threat agents using the autonomous pathogen detection system with multiplexed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Regan, John F; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Hindson, Benjamin J; Metz, Thomas R; Gutierrez, Dora M; Corzett, Todd H; Hadley, Dean R; Mahnke, Ryan C; Henderer, Bruce D; Breneman, John W; Weisgraber, Todd H; Dzenitis, John M

    2008-10-01

    We have developed and field-tested a now operational civilian biodefense capability that continuously monitors the air in high-risk locations for biological threat agents. This stand-alone instrument, called the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), collects and selectively concentrates particles from the air into liquid samples and analyzes the samples using multiplexed PCR amplification coupled with microsphere array detection. During laboratory testing, we evaluated the APDS instrument's response to Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis by spiking the liquid sample stream with viable spores and cells, bead-beaten lysates, and purified DNA extracts. APDS results were also compared to a manual real-time PCR method. Field data acquired during 74 days of continuous operation at a mass-transit subway station are presented to demonstrate the specificity and reliability of the APDS. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security recently selected the APDS reported herein as the first autonomous detector component of their BioWatch antiterrorism program. This sophisticated field-deployed surveillance capability now generates actionable data in one-tenth the time of manual filter collection and analysis. PMID:18763806

  1. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  2. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  3. Management of Root Resorption Using Chemical Agents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; C. Cehreli, Zafer; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the premature loss of the affected tooth. Several hypotheses have been suggested as the mechanisms of root resorption such as absence of the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the absence of some intrinsic factors in cementum and predentin such as amelogenin or osteoprotegerin (OPG). It seems that a barrier is formed by the less-calcified intermediate cementum or the cementodentin junction that prevents external RR. There are several chemical strategies to manage root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to review several chemical agents to manage RR such as tetracycline, sodium hypochlorite, acids (citric acid, phosphoric acid, ascorbic acid and hydrochloric acid), acetazolamide, calcitonin, alendronate, fluoride, Ledermix and Emdogain. PMID:26843869

  4. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  5. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  6. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  7. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  8. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  9. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  10. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  11. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  12. Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

    2014-11-25

    Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications.

  13. Fusion of chemical, biological, and meteorological observations for agent source term estimation and hazard refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Sykes, Ian; Hurst, Jonathan; Vandenberghe, Francois; Weil, Jeffrey; Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Parker, Steve; Cabell, Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and biological (CB) agent detection and effective use of these observations in hazard assessment models are key elements of our nation's CB defense program that seeks to ensure that Department of Defense (DoD) operations are minimally affected by a CB attack. Accurate hazard assessments rely heavily on the source term parameters necessary to characterize the release in the transport and dispersion (T&D) simulation. Unfortunately, these source parameters are often not known and based on rudimentary assumptions. In this presentation we describe an algorithm that utilizes variational data assimilation techniques to fuse CB and meteorological observations to characterize agent release source parameters and provide a refined hazard assessment. The underlying algorithm consists of a combination of modeling systems, including the Second order Closure Integrated PUFF model (SCIPUFF), its corresponding Source Term Estimation (STE) model, a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Plume Model (LEPM), its formal adjoint, and the software infrastructure necessary to link them. SCIPUFF and its STE model are used to calculate a "first guess" source estimate. The LEPM and corresponding adjoint are then used to iteratively refine this release source estimate using variational data assimilation techniques. This algorithm has undergone preliminary testing using virtual "single realization" plume release data sets from the Virtual THreat Response Emulation and Analysis Testbed (VTHREAT) and data from the FUSION Field Trials 2007 (FFT07). The end-to-end prototype of this system that has been developed to illustrate its use within the United States (US) Joint Effects Model (JEM) will be demonstrated.

  14. Genomics and proteomics in chemical warfare agent research: recent studies and future applications.

    PubMed

    Everley, Patrick A; Dillman, James F

    2010-10-20

    Medical research on the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been ongoing for nearly 100 years, yet these agents continue to pose a serious threat to deployed military forces and civilian populations. CWAs are extremely toxic, relatively inexpensive, and easy to produce, making them a legitimate weapon of choice for terrorist organizations. While the mechanisms of action for many CWAs have been known for years, questions about their molecular effects following acute and chronic exposure remain largely unanswered. Global approaches that can pinpoint which cellular pathways are altered in response to CWAs and characterize long-term toxicity have not been widely used. Fortunately, innovations in genomics and proteomics technologies now allow for thousands of genes and proteins to be identified and subsequently quantified in a single experiment. Advanced bioinformatics software can also help decipher large-scale changes observed, leading to mapping of signaling pathways, functional characterization, and identification of potential therapeutic targets. Here we present an overview of how genomics and proteomics technologies have been applied to CWA research and also provide a series of questions focused on how these techniques could further our understanding of CWA toxicity.

  15. Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

    2014-11-25

    Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications. PMID:25289459

  16. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  17. Anti-ulcer agents: chemical aspect of solving the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogoza, L. N.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    The data on chemical structures and specific activities of compounds functioning as histamine H2-receptor antagonists, H+/K+-ATPase inhibitors at the exchange sites of hydrogen ions (proton pump inhibitors) and potassium ions (K+-competitive acid blockers) published from 1990 to 2013 are surveyed. The antisecretory agents with studied cytoprotective activity or with additional therapeutic properties compensating for disorders of internal defence mechanisms are presented. A separate section is devoted to the drugs that prevent or mitigate the NSAID-induced intestinal damage. All of the considered structures are classified according to the type of biological mechanism of action. Some aspects of the structure-activity relationships for such compounds are considered. The bibliography includes 83 references.

  18. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  19. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  20. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

  1. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals. PMID:16856738

  2. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  3. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings.

  4. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

  5. Non-cancer effects of chemical agents on children's health.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides an overview about the non-cancer health effects for children from relevant chemical agents in our environment. In addition, a meta-analysis was conducted on the association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and maternal smoking during pregnancy as well as postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In children, birth deformities, neurodevelopment, reproductive outcomes and respiratory system are mainly affected by chemical exposures. According to recent systematic reviews, evidence is sufficient for cognitive impairments caused by low lead exposure levels. Evidence for neurotoxicity from prenatal methylmercury exposure is sufficient for high exposure levels and limited for low levels. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and related toxicants results in cognitive and motor deficits. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth, foetal growth deficit and SIDS. The meta-analytic pooled risk estimate for SIDS based on 15 studies is 2.94 (95% confidence interval: 2.43-3.57). Postnatal exposure to ETS was found to increase the SIDS risk by a factor of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.28-2.30) based on six studies which took into account maternal smoking during pregnancy. Additionally, postnatal ETS exposure causes acute respiratory infections, ear problems, respiratory symptoms, more severe asthma, and it slows lung growth. These health effects are also of concern for postnatal exposure to ambient and indoor air pollution. Children differ from adults with respect to several aspects which are relevant for assessing their health risk. Thus, independent evaluation of toxicity in childhood populations is essential. PMID:21906619

  6. Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Magnuson, Erik E.; Lee, Young K.; Moeller, Charles R.; Czipott, Peter V.; Rayner, Timothy J.; Newman, David E.; Wroblewski, Dariusz

    2001-02-01

    An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, non-invasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed non-metallic containers or packages. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening System or `Bottle Scanner' to screen for liquid explosives and flammables, described at an earlier SPIE conference in 1996. Since then, the Bottle Scanner's performance has been significantly improved by the incorporation of neural network-based liquid classification. Recently we have shown that the incorporation of additional discrimination parameters can further enhance liquid classification. In addition to screening for explosives and flammables, the Bottle Scanner can be effective against chemical agents, many of which contain fluorine or phosphorous, both of which have MR signatures. Finally, we have evidence that the Bottle Scanner may also be able to detect narcotics dissolved in beverages, one of the methods used to smuggle narcotics across international borders. The development of the Bottle Scanner has been funded by the Federal Aviation Administration.

  7. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  8. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  9. TOXICITY-BASED CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTION SYSTEMS: CONTINUOUS MONITOR AND EXPOSURE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will develop and characterize chemical agent detection systems that will provide broad toxicological screening information to first responders and building decontamination personnel. The primary goal for this technology is to detect the presence of airborne chemic...

  10. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, Craig R.; Hart, Brad; Slezak, Thomas R.

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  11. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  12. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  13. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  14. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  15. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  16. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  17. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

  19. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, Sumner Daniel

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  20. Compensation for occupational diseases by chemical agents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Roh, Soo-Yong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Eun-A

    2014-06-01

    Investigation into the frequency of compensation for occupational diseases (ODs) caused by hazardous chemicals revealed an important opportunity for the improvement and further development of occupational health and safety systems in Korea. In response to concerns after outbreaks of disease due to chemical exposure, specific criteria for recognition of ODs were established and included in the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standard Act (LSA) and the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) on June 28, 2013. However, the original versions of the LSA and IACIA contain several limitations. First, the criteria was listed inconsistently according to the symptoms or signs of acute poisoning. Second, all newly recognized hazardous chemicals and chemicals recognized as hazardous by the International Labor Organization (ILO) were not included in the LSA and IACIA. Although recent amendments have addressed these shortcomings, future amendments should strive to include all chemicals listed by the ILO and continuously add newly discovered hazardous chemicals as they are introduced into the workplace. PMID:25006329

  1. Compensation for occupational diseases by chemical agents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Roh, Soo-Yong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Eun-A

    2014-06-01

    Investigation into the frequency of compensation for occupational diseases (ODs) caused by hazardous chemicals revealed an important opportunity for the improvement and further development of occupational health and safety systems in Korea. In response to concerns after outbreaks of disease due to chemical exposure, specific criteria for recognition of ODs were established and included in the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standard Act (LSA) and the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) on June 28, 2013. However, the original versions of the LSA and IACIA contain several limitations. First, the criteria was listed inconsistently according to the symptoms or signs of acute poisoning. Second, all newly recognized hazardous chemicals and chemicals recognized as hazardous by the International Labor Organization (ILO) were not included in the LSA and IACIA. Although recent amendments have addressed these shortcomings, future amendments should strive to include all chemicals listed by the ILO and continuously add newly discovered hazardous chemicals as they are introduced into the workplace.

  2. Response of Rabbiteye Blueberries to Chemical Thinning Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thinning potential of various chemicals sprayed on 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry was examined under field conditions for two years. Chemicals used were 7-benzylamino purine (BA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 2- naphaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl). BA at 75 mg/L and...

  3. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs. PMID:23107058

  4. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  5. Pyrazine-derived disulfide-reducing agent for chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Lukesh, John C; Wallin, Kelly K; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-08-28

    For fifty years, dithiothreitol (DTT) has been the preferred reagent for the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins and other biomolecules. Herein we report on the synthesis and characterization of 2,3-bis(mercaptomethyl)pyrazine (BMMP), a readily accessible disulfide-reducing agent with reactivity under biological conditions that is markedly superior to DTT and other known reagents.

  6. iCATSI: multi-pixel imaging differential spectroradiometer for standoff detection and quantification of chemical threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lavoie, Hugo; Bouffard, François; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Vallieres, Christian; Roy, Claude; Dubé, Denis

    2011-11-01

    Homeland security and first responders are often faced with safety situations involving the identification of unknown volatile chemicals. Examples include industrial fires, chemical warfare, industrial leak, etc. The Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) sensor has been developed to investigate the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other chemicals. iCATSI is a combination of the CATSI instrument, a standoff differential FTIR optimised for the characterization of chemicals and the MR-i, the hyperspectral imaging spectroradiometer of ABB Bomem based on the proven MR spectroradiometers. The instrument is equipped with a dual-input telescope to perform optical background subtraction. The resulting signal is the difference between the spectral radiance entering each input port. With that method, the signal from the background is automatically removed from the signal of the target of interest. The iCATSI sensor is able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify 5 meters plumes up to 5 km range. The instrument is capable of sensing in the VLWIR (cut-off near 14 μm) to support research related to standoff chemical detection. In one of its configurations, iCATSI produces three 24 × 16 spectral images per second from 5.5 to 14 μm at a spectral resolution of 16 cm-1. In another configuration, iCATSI produces from two to four spectral images per second of 256 × 256 pixels from 8 to 13 μm with the same spectral resolution. Overview of the capabilities of the instrument and results from tests and field trials will be presented.

  7. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed.

  8. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed. PMID:24565672

  9. A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Gautam, Anshoo; Gopalan, N; Singh, A K; Singh, Beer; Flora, S J S

    2012-05-01

    The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof. PMID:23029921

  10. Measuring indigenous photosynthetic organisms to detect chemical warefare agents in water

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2005-11-15

    A method of testing water to detect the presence of a chemical or biological warfare agent is disclosed. The method is carried out by establishing control data by providing control water containing indigenous organisms but substantially free of a chemical and a biological warfare agent. Then measuring photosynthetic activity of the control water with a fluorometer to obtain control data to compare with test data to detect the presence of the chemical or agent. The test data is gathered by providing test water comprising the same indigenous organisms as contained in the control water. Further, the test water is suspected of containing the chemical or agent to be tested for. Photosynthetic activity is also measured by fluorescence induction in the test water using a fluorometer.

  11. Long-term health effects of exposure to sarin and other anticholinesterase chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Page, William F

    2003-03-01

    In a telephone survey of 4,022 military volunteers for a 1955-1975 program of experimental exposures to chemical agents at Edgewood, Maryland, the current health of those exposed to anticholinesterase agents was compared with that of men exposed to no active chemicals (no chemical test) and to two or more other types of chemical agents (other chemical tests). The survey posed questions about general health and about neurological and psychological deficits. There were only two statistically significant differences: volunteers in anticholinesterase agent tests reported fewer attention problems than those in other chemical tests and greater sleep disturbance than those in no chemical tests. In contrast, volunteers who reported exposure to civilian or military chemical agents outside of their participation in the Edgewood program reported many statistically significant adverse neurological and psychological effects, regardless of their experimental exposure. In this study, the health effects of self-reported, nonexperimental exposure, which are subject to recall bias, were greater than the health effects of experimental exposure. PMID:12685692

  12. Assessing homeland chemical hazards outside the military gates: industrial hazard threat assessments for department of defense installations.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S; Howard, Jacqueline M; Reed, David A

    2002-04-01

    As part of comprehensive joint medical surveillance measures outlined by the Department of Defense, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) is beginning to assess environmental health threats to continental US military installations. A common theme in comprehensive joint medical surveillance, in support of Force Health Protection, is the identification and assessment of potential environmental health hazards, and the evaluation and documentation of actual exposures in both a continental US and outside a continental US setting. For the continental US assessments, the USACHPPM has utilized the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database for risk management plans in accordance with Public Law 106-40, and the toxic release inventory database, in a state-of the art geographic information systems based program, termed the Consequence Assessment and Management Tool Set, or CATS, for assessing homeland industrial chemical hazards outside the military gates. As an example, the US EPA toxic release inventory and risk management plans databases are queried to determine the types and locations of industries surrounding a continental US military installation. Contaminants of concern are then ranked with respect to known toxicological and physical hazards, where they are then subject to applicable downwind hazard simulations using applicable meteorological and climatological data sets. The composite downwind hazard areas are mapped in relation to emergency response planning guidelines (ERPG), which were developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association to assist emergency response personnel planning for catastrophic chemical releases. In addition, other geographic referenced data such as transportation routes, satellite imagery and population data are included in the operational, equipment, and morale risk assessment and management process. These techniques have been developed to assist military medical planners and operations

  13. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds. PMID:24597942

  14. Sensitivity of human dental pulp cells to eighteen chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Morio; Tsutsui, Takeo W; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ohno, Maki; Higo, Yukari; Inaba, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the adverse effects against human dental pulp tissue, the sensitivity of human dental pulp cells (D824 cells) to 18 chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry was examined. The cytotoxicity, as determined by a decrease in colony-forming ability of cells treated with the chemical agents, increased as the concentration increased. As a quantitative measure of the cytotoxic effect, LC(50), the concentration which induces a 50% lethality, was extrapolated from the concentration-response curves. The rank of the chemical agents according to their cytotoxic effect (LC(50)) was sodium arsenite > formaldehyde > hydrogen peroxide > zinc oxide > thymol ≈ iodoform ≈ eugenol > guaiacol > ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ≈ iodine > procaine > lidocaine ≈ chloramphenicol ≈ m-cresol > calcium hydroxide ≈ sodium hypochlorite ≈ phenol ≈ p-phenolsulfonic acid. To compare the cytotoxicity and the levels of apoptosis and mRNA expression of five genes related to the function of dental pulp tissue, D824 cells treated with the LC(50) concentrations of chemical agents were assayed by the TUNEL method and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The inducibility of apoptotic cells and the level of mRNA expression of the genes varied with the chemical agents, indicating that both effects occurred independent of the rank of cytotoxic effect of the chemical agents. The results not only provide information concerning cytotoxicity of various chemical agents to human dental pulp cells, but also show an insight into the diversity of the pharmacodynamic action of the chemical agents.

  15. Modeling Dispersion of Chemical-Biological Agents in Three Dimensional Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    William S. Winters

    2002-02-01

    This report documents a series of calculations designed to demonstrate Sandia's capability in modeling the dispersal of chemical and biological agents in complex three-dimensional spaces. The transport of particles representing biological agents is modeled in a single room and in several connected rooms. The influence of particle size, particle weight and injection method are studied.

  16. Molecular interactions of exogenous chemical agents with collagen—implications for tissue optical clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Alvin T.; Hirshburg, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Reduction of optical scattering in turbid biological tissues using nonreactive chemical agents has potential applications for light-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Optical clearing effects by exogenous chemical agents, in particular sugars and sugar alcohols, have been found to be temporary with tissue rehydration. Applications with dermatologic laser therapies are now being investigated, but suffer from the inability of studied agents to penetrate the superficial layers of human skin. Selection, design, and refinement of topically effective chemical agents are hindered by a lack of fundamental understanding of tissue clearing mechanisms. We present recent work, particularly from the biochemistry community, detailing molecular interactions between chemical agents and collagen. This body of work demonstrates the perturbative effects of sugars and sugar alcohols on collagen high-order structures at micro- and nanometer length scales by screening noncovalent bonding forces. In addition, these studies emphasize the nonreactive nature of agent-collagen interactions and the ability of noncovalent bonding forces to recover with agent removal and drive reassembly of destabilized collagen structures. A mechanism of tissue optical clearing is proposed based on agent destabilization of high-order collagen structures.

  17. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  18. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  19. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  20. Enhanced detection of biological threat agents by immobilizing capture antibody directly onto the membrane tape. Final report, April 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, G.J.; Foley, M.J.; Leon, N.J.

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the technical work performed on the referenced development program (Contract No. DAAA15-91-C-0074) over a period of 16 months. The research involved the immobilization of antibody directly onto various membranes. These antibody-immobilized membranes were used to enhance the sensitivity and/or dynamic range of assays developed for the detection of biological threat agents. The results of this research program are reviewed in an executive summary, followed by a statement of the purpose and objectives of the research. The report addresses each of these objectives and includes results and discussion, materials, methods, conclusions, and recommendations. MS2, AbCoatTM, LAPS system, SEB, Anti(SEB), StabilCoat, Threshold, Rabbit IgG.

  1. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  2. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  3. Differential detection of a surrogate biological threat agent (Bacillus globigii) with a portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Adducci, Benjamin A; Gruszewski, Hope A; Khatibi, Piyum A; Schmale, David G

    2016-04-15

    New methods and technology are needed to quickly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents, such as Bacillus anthracis, causal agent of anthrax in humans and animals. Here, we report the detection of a simulant of B. anthracis (B. globigii) alone and in a mixture with a different species of Bacillus to test non-specific interference using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor (SPIRIT 4.0, Seattle Sensor Systems). Both direct capture and antibody amplification were used to determine the limit of detection for spores of B. globigii, and to detect spores of B. globigii in a mixed sample containing another Bacillus spp. Spores of B. globigii were detected by anti-B. globigii (anti-Bg) coated sensors by direct capture at a concentration of 10(7)spores/mL, and with a secondary antibody amplification at a concentration of 10(5)spores/mL. Spores of B. globigii were differentially detected in a 1:1 mixture with B. pumilus spores from equal concentrations (10(7)spores/mL) with a secondary antibody amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the differential detection of B. globigii with SPR in a mixed sample containing at least one additional Bacillus spp., highlighting the potential for SPR to detect any target bacterium in a mixed sample of closely related species. With the availability of portable instrumentation to accurately detect biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis, emergency responders can implement protocols in a timely fashion, limiting the amount of exposed individuals. PMID:26606307

  4. Differential detection of a surrogate biological threat agent (Bacillus globigii) with a portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Adducci, Benjamin A; Gruszewski, Hope A; Khatibi, Piyum A; Schmale, David G

    2016-04-15

    New methods and technology are needed to quickly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents, such as Bacillus anthracis, causal agent of anthrax in humans and animals. Here, we report the detection of a simulant of B. anthracis (B. globigii) alone and in a mixture with a different species of Bacillus to test non-specific interference using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor (SPIRIT 4.0, Seattle Sensor Systems). Both direct capture and antibody amplification were used to determine the limit of detection for spores of B. globigii, and to detect spores of B. globigii in a mixed sample containing another Bacillus spp. Spores of B. globigii were detected by anti-B. globigii (anti-Bg) coated sensors by direct capture at a concentration of 10(7)spores/mL, and with a secondary antibody amplification at a concentration of 10(5)spores/mL. Spores of B. globigii were differentially detected in a 1:1 mixture with B. pumilus spores from equal concentrations (10(7)spores/mL) with a secondary antibody amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the differential detection of B. globigii with SPR in a mixed sample containing at least one additional Bacillus spp., highlighting the potential for SPR to detect any target bacterium in a mixed sample of closely related species. With the availability of portable instrumentation to accurately detect biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis, emergency responders can implement protocols in a timely fashion, limiting the amount of exposed individuals.

  5. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Chemical agent and munition disposal. Summary of the US Army's experience. Final report, July 1972-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, K.J.; Kwan, Q.; McNulty, W.B.

    1987-09-21

    This report was prepared in support of the U.S. Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and Discuss the Army's industrial-scale chemical agent and munitions disposal experience. Since 1969, when the National Academy of Science recommended that ocean dumping be discontinued as a method of chemical agent and munition disposal, the Army has destroyed nearly 15 million pounds of chemical agents by either chemical neutralization or incineration. This experience has been incorporated into the design of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System, which is being constructed on a small island in the Pacific Ocean, and the proposed CSDP disposal plants.

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  7. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  8. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  9. Use of hyperspectral remote sensing for detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Richard B.; Dasgupta, Swarvanu

    2004-12-01

    This paper surveys the potential use of hyperspectral imaging technology for standoff detection of chemical and biological agents in terrorism defense applications. In particular it focuses on the uses of hyperspectral imaging technology to detect and monitor chemical and biological attacks. In so doing it examines current technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, and investigates the possible role of hyperspectral imaging for homeland security applications. The study also addresses and provides applicable solutions for several of the potential challenges that currently create barriers to the full use of hyperspectral technology in the standoff detection of likely available chemical and biological agents.

  10. An overview of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Black, Robin M

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given of biological markers of exposure to chemical warfare agents. Metabolites, protein, and/or DNA adducts have been identified for most nerve agents and vesicants and validated in experimental animals or in a small number of human exposures. For several agents, metabolites derived from hydrolysis are unsatisfactory biomarkers of exposure because of background levels in the human population. These are assumed to result from environmental exposure to commercial products that contain these hydrolysis products or chemicals that are metabolized to them. In these cases, metabolites derived from glutathione pathways, or covalent adducts with proteins or DNA, provide more definitive biomarkers. Biomarkers for cyanide and phosgene are unsatisfactory as indicators of chemical warfare exposure because of other sources of these chemicals or their metabolites.

  11. Real-time trace detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants using recent advances in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Sulzer, Philipp; Mayhew, Chris A; Watts, Peter; Jordan, Alfons; Märk, Lukas; Märk, Tilmann D

    2009-12-01

    This work demonstrates for the first time the potential of using recent developments in proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry for the rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in real-time. A high-resolution (m/Deltam up to 8000) and high-sensitivity (approximately 50 cps/ppbv) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 8000 from Ionicon Analytik GmBH) has been successfully used to detect a number of CWA simulants at room temperature; namely dimethyl methylphosphonate, diethyl methylphosphonate, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. Importantly, we demonstrate in this paper the potential to identify CWAs with a high level of confidence in complex chemical environments, where multiple threat agents and interferents could also be present in trace amounts, thereby reducing the risk of false positives. Instantaneous detection and identification of trace quantities of chemical threats using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry could form the basis for a timely warning system capability with greater precision and accuracy than is currently provided by existing analytical technologies.

  12. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Albert T

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10(-21)), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  13. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. . E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  14. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values.

  15. Mortality among chemical workers exposed to benzene and other agents

    SciTech Connect

    Decoufle, P.; Blattner, W.A.; Blair, A.

    1983-02-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted of 259 male employees of a chemical plant where benzene has been used in large quantites. The study group included all persons who were employed by the Company any time between January 1, 1947 and December 31, 1960. The cohort was followed through December 31, 1977 at which time 58 known deaths were identified. The only unusual findings was four deaths from lymphoreticular cancers when 1.1 would have been expected on the basis of national mortality rates. Three of the deaths were due to leukemia and one was caused by multiple myeloma. In addition, one of the leukemia deaths had multiple myeloma listed on the death certificate. The findings are consistent with previous reports of leukemia following occupational exposure to benzene and raise the possibility that multiple myeloma could be linked to benzene, also.

  16. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  17. Evaluation of antiseptic antiviral activity of chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Geller, Chloé; Finance, Chantal; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    Antiviral antisepsis and disinfection are crucial for preventing the environmental spread of viral infections. Emerging viruses and associated diseases, as well as nosocomial viral infections, have become a real issue in medical fields, and there are very few efficient and specific treatments available to fight most of these infections. Another issue is the potential environmental resistance and spread of viral particles. Therefore, it is essential to properly evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics-disinfectants (ATS-D) on viruses. ATS-D antiviral activity is evaluated by (1) combining viruses and test product for an appropriately defined and precise contact time, (2) neutralizing product activity, and (3) estimating the loss of viral infectivity. A germicide can be considered to have an efficient ATS-D antiviral activity if it induces a >3 or >4 log(10) reduction (American and European regulatory agency requirements, respectively) in viral titers in a defined contact time. This unit describes a global methodology for evaluating chemical ATS-D antiviral activity.

  18. Activation of Aluminum as an Effective Reducing Agent by Pitting Corrosion for Wet-chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F−, Cl−, and Br− in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu2Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent. PMID:23390579

  19. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent.

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  1. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also presented. Nerve agents show few or delayed effects. At supralethal doses, GB can cause delayed neuropathy in antidote-protected chickens, but there is no evidence that it causes this syndrome in humans at any dose. Agent VX shows no potential for inducing delayed neuropathy in any species. In view of their lack of genotoxcity, the nerve agents are not likely to be carcinogens. The overreaching concern with regard to nerve agent exposure is the extraordinarily high acute toxicity of these substances. Furthermore, acute effects of moderate exposure such as nausea, diarrhea, inability to perform simple mental tasks, and respiratory effects may render the public unable to respond adequately to emergency instructions in the unlikely event of agent releaase, making early warning and exposure avoidance important. Likewise, exposure or self-contamination of first responders and medical personnel must be avoided. Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs. Images Figure 2. PMID:9719666

  2. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-01

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  3. Reduced VOC chemical agent resistant coating (CARC). Progress report, October 1993-September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    MIL-C-46168 is the basic camouflage topcoat required on all Army combat, combat support and essential ground support equipment, plus tactical wheeled vehicles and aircraft. Federal and local regulations resulting from the Clean Air Act and its amendments restrict the amount of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted during the application of surface coatings and there will be lower limits in the future. This report summarizes an effort to develop a lower-VOC CARC using recent technology advances in water-dispersable polyesters and polyisocyanates. While low-VOC, quality finishes have been developed, none has successfully passed live chemical agent resistance testing. Chemical Agent Resistant Coating, CARC, VOC.

  4. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  5. Method and apparatus for the gas phase decontamination of chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Hugh J.; Brubaker, Kenneth L.

    2003-10-07

    An apparatus and method for decontaminating chemical and biological agents using the reactive properties of both the single atomic oxygen and the hydroxyl radical for the decontamination of chemical and biological agents. The apparatus is self contained and portable and allows for the application of gas reactants directly at the required decontamination point. The system provides for the use of ultraviolet light of a specific spectral range to photolytically break down ozone into molecular oxygen and hydroxyl radicals where some of the molecular oxygen is in the first excited state. The excited molecular oxygen will combine with water vapor to produce two hydroxyl radicals.

  6. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented.

  7. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-11-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects.

  8. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-01-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

  9. Evaluation of neutralized chemical agent identification sets (CAIS) for skin injury with an overview of the vesicant potential of agent degradation products.

    PubMed

    Olajos, E J; Olson, C T; Salem, H; Singer, A W; Hayes, T L; Menton, R G; Miller, T L; Rosso, T; MacIver, B

    1998-01-01

    Vesication and skin irritation studies were conducted in hairless guinea-pigs to determine the vesicant and skin irritation potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS). The CAIS are training items that contain chemical warfare-related material--sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN) or lewisite (L)--and were declared obsolete in 1971. Animals were dosed topically with 'test article'--neat HD, 10% agent/chloroform solutions or product solutions (waste-streams) from neutralized CAIS--and evaluated for skin-damaging effects (gross and microscopic). Product solutions from the chemical neutralization of neat sulfur mustard resulted in microvesicle formation. All agent-dosed (HD or agent/chloroform solutions) sites manifested microblisters as well as other histopathological lesions of the skin. Waste-streams from the neutralization of agent (agent/chloroform or agent/charcoal) were devoid of vesicant activity. Cutaneous effects (erythema and edema) were consistent with the skin-injurious activity associated with the neutralizing reagent 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH). Chemical neutralization of CAIS was effective in eliminating/reducing the vesicant property of CAIS containing agent in chloroform or agent on charcoal but was inefficient in reducing the vesicant potential of CAIS containing neat sulfur mustard.

  10. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  11. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. PMID:19833524

  12. DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Paul A.

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

  13. Chemical Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... glycol Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen chloride Lewisite Melamine Mercury Methyl bromide Methyl isocyanate Nicotine Nitrogen mustard Opioids ... L-3) Long-acting anticoagulant (super warfarin) M Mercury Methyl bromide Methyl isocyanate Mustard gas (H) (sulfur ...

  14. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    PubMed

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination. PMID:11844038

  15. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    PubMed

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination.

  16. Environmental Threats at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Twhanna

    2005-01-01

    Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

  17. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable. PMID:26314115

  18. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable.

  19. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material.

  20. Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  1. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Dolislager, Fredrick G

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also

  2. [Exposure of ventilation system cleaning workers to harmful biological and chemical agents].

    PubMed

    Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Jezewska, Anna; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Górny, Rafał L

    2012-01-01

    Regular checking on the cleanliness of the ventilation systems, as well as their periodic cleaning and, if necessary, disinfection are for the proper maintenance of each system. During maintenance operations (repairs, cleaning, filter replacement), workers are at risks associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals and harmful biological agents. In ventilation systems there are usually favorable conditions for the development of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, due to surfaces contaminated with dust particles or increased humidity caused by ventilation ducts, air filters, thermal insulation, noise dampers, air coolers, etc. Workers who perform cleaning and disinfection operations on ventilation systems are exposed to chemical agents through contacts with contaminants released from sealing materials, adhesives, fireproof lining and insulating materials, volatile organic compounds present in air filters, noise dampers and insulating materials, as well as with cleaning agents and disinfectants. Exposure to harmful chemical and biological agents may induce adverse health effects ranging from allergic reactions and irritation through infections to toxic reactions and other non-specific symptoms. Due to lack of studies on the exposure of this group of workers, employers face great difficulties in identifying hazards, which prevent them from performing an occupational risk assessment.

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  4. Game Theoretic Evaluation of Threat Detection Problems-The Central Role of the Adversary

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of security problems hinge on the detection of threats and discrimination of threats from innocuous objects. The theory that frames these problems is common among medical diagnostics, radar and sonar imaging, and detection of radiological, chemical, and biological agents. In many of these problems, the nature of the threat is subject to control by a malicious adversary, and the choice of a reference (or "design basis") threat is a very diffcult, and often intractable, aspect of the problem. It is this class of problems that this report considers.

  5. [Analytical and on-site detection methods for chemical warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2006-12-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are fast acting and sometimes lethal, even at low levels, and can be classified into nerve gases, blister agents, choking agents, blood agents, vomit agents, tear gases, and incapacitating agents. As countermeasures against CWA terrorism, detection and identification are important. In crisis management, monitoring of CWAs in public places and security checks at territorial borders, big event venues, and executive facilities are performed for protection against terrorism. In consequence management, on-site detection by first responders and laboratory analysis after on-site sampling and transfer are performed for minimization of terrorism damage, leading to personal protection, initial investigation, and emergency lifesaving. In incident management, laboratory analysis is performed to provide evidence at court trials for the prevention of future crimes. Laboratory analysis consists of pretreatment of on-site and casualty samples and instrumental analysis using GC-MS. However, CWAs are easily degraded, and thus are difficult to detect. Instead, it is useful to detect their metabolites and degradation products using tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization GC-MS or direct LC-MS. Commercially available chemical detection equipment such as gas detection tubes and ion mobility spectrometers are used for on-site detection. We have evaluated the detection performance of such equipment and found that no equipment fulfills the required perfect performance of CWA detection sensitivity, accuracy, response time, return time, and operation. To overcome the drawbacks, we have adopted the monitoring tape method and counterflow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and recommend the combination of commercial detection equipment and these new technologies for simultaneous, rapid detection of all CWAs. PMID:17139154

  6. [Analytical and on-site detection methods for chemical warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2006-12-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are fast acting and sometimes lethal, even at low levels, and can be classified into nerve gases, blister agents, choking agents, blood agents, vomit agents, tear gases, and incapacitating agents. As countermeasures against CWA terrorism, detection and identification are important. In crisis management, monitoring of CWAs in public places and security checks at territorial borders, big event venues, and executive facilities are performed for protection against terrorism. In consequence management, on-site detection by first responders and laboratory analysis after on-site sampling and transfer are performed for minimization of terrorism damage, leading to personal protection, initial investigation, and emergency lifesaving. In incident management, laboratory analysis is performed to provide evidence at court trials for the prevention of future crimes. Laboratory analysis consists of pretreatment of on-site and casualty samples and instrumental analysis using GC-MS. However, CWAs are easily degraded, and thus are difficult to detect. Instead, it is useful to detect their metabolites and degradation products using tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization GC-MS or direct LC-MS. Commercially available chemical detection equipment such as gas detection tubes and ion mobility spectrometers are used for on-site detection. We have evaluated the detection performance of such equipment and found that no equipment fulfills the required perfect performance of CWA detection sensitivity, accuracy, response time, return time, and operation. To overcome the drawbacks, we have adopted the monitoring tape method and counterflow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and recommend the combination of commercial detection equipment and these new technologies for simultaneous, rapid detection of all CWAs.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction and organic solvent microextraction of chemical agent simulants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C.h.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1991-12-31

    Experiments with chemical warfare agent simulants suggest that supercritical fluid extraction can achieve good extraction recoveries of agents in soil and produce less laboratory waste than current organic solvent extraction methods. Two-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil were extracted using 5% methanol in carbon dioxide at 300 atm for 2 min at 60{degrees}C. Recoveries (n=3) were 79{plus_minus}23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93{plus_minus}14% for 2-chlorethylethylsulfide, 92{plus_minus}13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 95{plus_minus}17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. A 5 min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol is more reproducible but less efficient.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction and organic solvent microextraction of chemical agent simulants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C.h.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with chemical warfare agent simulants suggest that supercritical fluid extraction can achieve good extraction recoveries of agents in soil and produce less laboratory waste than current organic solvent extraction methods. Two-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil were extracted using 5% methanol in carbon dioxide at 300 atm for 2 min at 60{degrees}C. Recoveries (n=3) were 79{plus minus}23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93{plus minus}14% for 2-chlorethylethylsulfide, 92{plus minus}13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 95{plus minus}17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. A 5 min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol is more reproducible but less efficient.

  9. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  10. Development of land disposal restrictions for military chemical agent-associated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    In July 1988, the State of Utah, Department of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) listed certain military chemical agents as hazardous waste, as well as residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of these chemicals. These materials are listed as hazardous waste in Utah, but are not listed as hazardous wastes under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. Pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment standards for most categories of hazardous wastes. However, considering that EPA has not listed chemical agent-associated wastes as hazardous waste under RCRA, LDR treatment standards have not been established specifically for these wastes. In February 1995, the DSHW announced a regulatory initiative to develop LDRs for chemical agent-associated wastes and solicited data and information from the U.S. Army to support a rulemaking effort. The Army`s Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) was designated the lead agency for the Army to assist the DSHW in developing the rule. CBDCOM established the U.S. Army Land Disposal Restrictions Utah Group (LDRUG) and initiated a project with Argonne National Laboratory to support the LDRUG. The focus is on providing the state with accurate and up-to-date data and information to support the rulemaking and the establishment of LDRs. The purpose of this paper is to review the general direction of the proposed rule and to discuss overall progress. Potential impacts of the imposition of LDRs on the management of agent-associated wastes are also reviewed.

  11. Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

    1997-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology. PMID:9395116

  12. Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

    1997-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology.

  13. Development and Structural Modifications of Cholinesterase Reactivators against Chemical Warfare Agents in Last Decade: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Gupta, Bhanushree; Singh, Namrata; Acharya, J R; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Ghosh, Kallol Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents are responsible for suicidal and accidental poisonings. The acute toxicity of nerve agents leads to progressive inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of serine residue at the active site of gorge. The recent massive destruction of Syrian civilians by nerve gas sarin, has again renewed the research attention of global science fraternity towards nerve agents, their mode of action and most prominently their therapeutic treatment. This review is principally focused on nerve agent intoxication. The common approach to deal with OP-intoxication is, application of antimuscarinic drug (atropine), anticonvulsant drug (diazepam) and clinically used oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and asoxime). However, the existing therapeutic approach is arguable and has several failings to cure all kinds of nerve agent poisonings. Considering this issue, numerous oximes have been synthesized and screened through various in-vitro and in-vivo studies in last decade to overcome the downsides. At present, only a few oximes (bis pyridinum-oximes) exhibit sound efficacy against selective OPs. In spite of extensive efforts, till date no oxime is available as a universal antidote against all the classes of OPs. This review is centered on the recent developments and structural modification of AChE reactivators against nerve agent toxicity. In particular, a deeper look has been taken into chemical modifications of the reactivators by incorporation of different structural moieties targeted towards the increased reactivation affinity and improved blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration.

  14. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  15. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology. PMID:26186853

  16. Impurity Profiling to Match a Nerve Agent to Its Precursor Source for Chemical Forensics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Perez Acosta, Gabriel A.; Crenshaw, Michael D.; Wallace, Krys; Mong, Gary M.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2011-10-31

    Chemical forensics is an emerging field in homeland security that aims to attribute a weaponized toxic chemical or related material to its source. Herein, for the first time, trace impurities originating from a chemical precursor were used to match a synthesized nerve agent to its precursor source. Specifically, multiple batches of sarin and its intermediate were synthesized from two commercial stocks of methylphosphonic dichloride (DC) and were then matched by impurity profiling to their DC stocks from out of five possible stocks. This was possible because each DC stock had a unique impurity profile that, for the tested stocks, persisted through synthesis, decontamination, and sample preparation. This work may form a basis for using impurity profiling to help find and prosecute perpetrators of chemical attacks.

  17. Technology assessment for the determination of chemical agent vapors in demilitarization facilities: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Wise, M.B.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of analytical methods for the determination of chemical agents GB, VX, and HD was made. HD, or mustard, is bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, and is classified as a blishtering agent. GB, or Sarin, is isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate. VX is O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)methylphosphonothioate. Both GB and VX are nerve agents. Included were methods capable of providing for monitoring requirements at the time weighted average (TWA) and allowable stack concentration (ASC) levels in near real time. A review of the currently used automatic continuous air monitoring system (ACAMS) was made as well as a review of the recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (APIMS). This report recommends a strategy for research and development for near term and medium term improvement of the overall monitoring program. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  19. Simulated experiment for elimination of air contaminated with odorous chemical agents by microwave plasma burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Shin, Dong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-10-15

    An experimental study on elimination of odorous chemical agent was carried out by making use of a microwave plasma burner, which consists of a microwave plasma torch and a reaction chamber with a fuel injector. Injection of hydrocarbon fuels into a high-temperature microwave torch plasma generates a plasma flame. The plasma flame can eliminate the odorous chemical agent diluted in air or purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces. The specially designed reaction chamber eliminated H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} diluted in airflow rate of 5000 lpm (liters per minute), showing {beta} values of 46.52 and 39.69 J/l, respectively.

  20. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  1. Multivariate statistical classification of surface enhanced Raman spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus W., III; Pearman, William F.

    2005-11-01

    Initial results which demonstrate the ability to classify surface enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants are presented. The spectra of 2 endospores (B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus); 2 chemical agent simulants (Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP)); and 2 toxin simulants (Ovalbumin, Horseradish peroxidase) were collected on multiple substrates fabricated from colloidal gold adsorbed onto a silanized quartz surface. The use of principle component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering was used as a method of determining the reproducibility of the individual spectra collected from a single substrate. Additionally, the use of partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) on a compilation of data from separate substrates, fabricated under identical conditions, demonstrates the feasibility of this technique for the identification of known but previously unclassified spectra.

  2. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  3. Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.

  4. Characterization of chemical warfare G-agent hydrolysis products by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    The United States and its allies have been increasingly challenged by terrorism, and since the September 11, 2001 attacks and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, homeland security has become a national priority. The simplicity in manufacturing chemical warfare agents, the relatively low cost, and previous deployment raises public concern that they may also be used by terrorists or rogue nations. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g. part-per-billion) of chemical agents, as might be found in poisoned water. Since trace quantities of nerve agents can be hydrolyzed in the presence of water, we have expanded our studies to include such degradation products. Our SERS-active medium consists of silver or gold nanoparticles incorporated into a sol-gel matrix, which is immobilized in a glass capillary. The choice of sol-gel precursor allows controlling hydrophobicity, while the porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing the SERS-active metals. Here we present the use of these metal-doped sol-gels to selectively enhance the Raman signal of the hydrolyzed products of the G-series nerve agents.

  5. Survey: Destruction of chemical agent simulants in supercritical water oxidation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process exhibits distinct advantages for destruction of toxic wastes. Examples of these wastes are two chemical agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and thiodiglycol (2,2'-thiodiethanol). DMMP is similar to the nerve agent GB Sarin in structure, and thiodiglycol is a hydrolysis product of the blister agent HD Sulfur Mustard. Both simulants are miscible in water and relatively non-toxic in comparison to the actual chemical agents. Using a Laboratory-scale, batch three temperatures were investigated: 425 deg C, 450 deg C, and 500 deg C with an initial concentration of one percent by volume, 11,450 mg/L for DMMP and 12,220 mg/L for thiodiglycol. Residence times investigated were: 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 minutes. Reactor beat-up (H.U.) was determined to be one minute. Both pyrolysis and oxidation tests were conducted. Oxygen levels were uniformly set at 200% of stoichiometric requirements for the parent compounds.

  6. Decontamination of chemical agents in Freon-113. Final report, February 1984-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.C.; Collins, K.R.; Ward, J.R.; Richmond, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    Freon solubilizes hydrophobic chemical warfare agents, such as soman, without damaging sensitive electronic equipment, such as night-vision goggles or communication equipment. Freon is used in this manner in the Nonaqueous Equipment Decontamination System (NAEDS) under development at CRDEC. The contaminated Freon is returned to a still, after which it is distilled through an aqueous layer containing bleach to decontaminate the residual agent. This report describes the results of experiments to measure how effectively agent is destroyed in the NAEDS. These results show that residual agent is still left in the redistilled Freon, and there is little difference whether the active decontaminant is removed from the aqueous layer. A mixture was prepared consisting of a 1:1:1 mixture of ethanol, 8 m sodium hydroxide, and Freon. It was demonstrated that the use of this mixture in the NAEDS would destroy all agent and that the redistilled Freon was free of soman. Freon-113, Bleach, Decontamination, Distillation, Non-Aqueous equipment decontamination system, Ethanol blend.

  7. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; HHS Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise implementation plan for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats. Notice.

    PubMed

    2007-04-23

    The United States faces serious public health threats from the deliberate use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)--chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN)--by hostile States or terrorists, and from naturally emerging infectious diseases that have a potential to cause illness on a scale that could adversely impact national security. Effective strategies to prevent, mitigate, and treat the consequences of CBRN threats is an integral component of our national security strategy. To that end, the United States must be able to rapidly develop, stockpile, and deploy effective medical countermeasures to protect the American people. The HHS Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) has taken a holistic, end-to-end approach that considers multiple aspects of the medical countermeasures mission including research, development, acquisition, storage, maintenance, deployment, and guidance for utilization. Phase one of this approach established the HHS PHEMCE Strategy for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Threats (HHS PHEMCE Strategy). The HHS PHEMCE Strategy, published in the Federal Register on March 20, 2007, described a framework of strategic policy goals and objectives for identifying medical countermeasure requirements and establishing priorities for medical countermeasure evaluation, development and acquisition. These strategic policy goals and objectives were used to establish the Four Pillars upon which this HHS Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise Implementation Plan (HHS PHEMCE Implementation Plan) is based. The HHS PHEMCE Implementation Plan considers the full spectrum of medical countermeasures-related activities, including research, development, acquisition, storage/maintenance, deployment, and utilization. The HHS PHEMCE Implementation Plan is consistent with the President's Biodefense for the 21st Century and is aligned with the National Strategy for Medical Countermeasures against

  8. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  9. Evaluation of the vesicating properties of neutralized chemical agent identification sets. Final report, November 1995-August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Olajos, E.J.; Salem, H.; Gieseking, J.K.

    1997-08-01

    Vesication and skin irritation studies were conducted in hairless guinea-pigs to determine the vesicant and skin irritation potential of Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS). Guinea-pigs were topically dosed with `test article` NEAT HD, 10% agent/chloroform solutions, or product solutions (wastestreams) and evaluated for skin-damaging effects (gross and light microscopic). Product solutions from the chemical neutralization of neat sulfur mustard resulted in microvesicle formation (vesication). All agent-dosed (agent/chloroform solutions or HD) sites exhibited microblisters, as well as other histopathologic lesions of the skin. Wastestreams from the neutalization of agent (agent/chloroform; agent on charcoal) were devoid of microvesicant activity. Dermal irritant effects (erythema and edema) were consistent with the skin-injurious activity associated with the neutralizing reagent 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH).

  10. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  12. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  13. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-06-14

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas [2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study [3] has been

  14. Combined effect of microbial and chemical control agents on subterranean termites.

    PubMed

    Wright, Maureen S; Lax, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    Termite mortality was measured when fungi were combined with bacteria or a chemical termiticide to determine whether a synergistic effect occurred. The fungus Beauveria bassiana was combined with the non-repellant chemical termiticide imidacloprid. Of the three B. bassiana strains tested one, B. bassiana ATCC 90519, was sufficiently pathogenic on its own that the advantage of a supplementary chemical treatment was marginal. The mortality caused by another fungal strain, B. bassiana ATCC 26037, was improved in combination with imidacloprid at both of the tested chemical concentrations over the first 14 days. The remaining fungal strain, B. bassiana ATCC 90518, demonstrated an overall mortality rate in combination with imidacloprid of 82.5%, versus a rate of 65.0% for the fungus alone. The fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) was combined with the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). On day 5, Ifr, Bt, and the combined treatment at a 10(6) spores or cells/ml dosage caused 8.8%, 22.5%, and 15.0% mortality, respectively. The Bt and combined mortality rates are not significantly different. Control mortality on day 5 was 5.0%. On day 13 the combined 10(6) treatment mortality rate was 91.3%, which was significantly higher than all other treatments: control at 17.5%, Ifr at 36.3% and Bt at 35.0%. When Ifr and Bt were applied at a 10(9) spores or cells/ml dosage, Ifr alone caused a mortality rate of 97.5% as early as day 5. The combination with Bt could not significantly increase the effectiveness of this dosage. These data demonstrate the potential for synergistic effects of fungal and chemical treatment methods, thereby broadening the use of microbial control agents and reducing the quantity of chemical agents necessary to effect control. PMID:24037651

  15. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

  16. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  17. Cooperative biological effects between ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Manti, Lorenzo; D'Arco, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), at environmentally and therapeutically relevant doses or as a result of diagnostics or accidents, causes cyto- and genotoxic damage. However, exposure to IR alone is a rare event as it occurs in spatial and temporal combination with several physico-chemical agents. Some of these are of known noxiousness, as is the case with chemical compounds at high dose, hence additive/synergistic effects can be expected or have been demonstrated. Conversely, the cellular toxicity of other agents, such as non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), is only presumed and their short- and long-term cooperation on IR-induced damage remains undetermined. In this review, we shall examine evidence in support of the interplay between spatially and/or temporally related environmentally relevant stressors. In vitro or animal-based studies as well as epidemiological surveys have generally examined the combined action of no more than a couple of known or potentially DNA-damaging agents. Moreover, most existing research mainly focused on short-term effects of combined exposures. Hence, it is important that quantitative research addresses the issue of the possible cooperation between chronic exposure to environmental trace contaminants and exposure to EMFs, examining not only the modulation of damage acutely induced by IR but also long-term genome stability.

  18. Technical support for recovery phase decision-making in the event of a chemical warfare agent release

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Shugart, L.; Buchanan, M.; Jenkins, R.; Kistner, S.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    Persistent chemical warfare agents such as the nerve agent VX and sulfur mustard were originally designed as terrain denial materials on the chemical battlefield. As a consequence, they do not rapidly degrade. In the course of preparedness planning for disposal of the US unitary stockpile of chemical warfare agents, communities have raised the issue of determining environmental concentrations and the potential health consequences of persistent agents following any agent event. This issue is common to several chemical warfare munition and materiel disposal activities in the United States, as well as for developing verification and compliance monitoring programs integral to the international Chemical Weapons Convention. Experimental research supporting the development of environmental monitoring protocols are summarized. They include the development of blood cholinesterase activity as a biomonitor of nerve agent exposure in domestic beef and dairy cattle, horses and sheep; measuring the permeation rates of construction materials such as unpainted wood and gypsum wall board to agent simulants; and developing an experimental monitoring protocol for agents in meat and grain.

  19. Ability of fourteen chemical agents used in dental practice to induce chromosome aberrations in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Hikiba, Hirohito; Watanabe, Eiko; Barrett, J Carl; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2005-01-01

    To assess the genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used in dental practice, the ability of these agents to induce chromosome aberrations was examined using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Statistically significant increases in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were induced in SHE cells treated with 7 of 10 chemical agents used as endodontic medicaments, that is, carbol camphor, m-cresol, eugenol, guaiacol, zinc oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and formaldehyde. The other 3 chemical agents, that is, thymol, glutaraldehyde, and iodoform, did not increase the levels of chromosome aberrations. Of the 4 chemical agents that are used as an antiseptic on the oral mucosa, chromosome aberrations were induced by iodine, but not by the other 3 antiseptics, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, and chlorhexidine. Among the 6 chemical agents exhibiting a negative response in the assay, only thymol induced chromosome aberrations in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. Our results indicate that chemical agents having a positive response in the present study are potentially genotoxic to mammalian cells and need to be studied further in detail. PMID:15665446

  20. Impact of chemical warfare with agent orange on women's reproductive lives in Vietnam: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Le, T N; Johansson, A

    2001-11-01

    During the American war in Vietnam, huge quantities of the highly toxic herbicide dioxin ('Agent Orange'), were sprayed over large areas of central and south Vietnam. In addition to polluting the environment and causing cancers and other diseases in those directly exposed to it, dioxin has caused high rates of pregnancy loss, congenital birth defects and other health problems in their children. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study in the year 2000 among 30 Vietnamese women whose husbands and/or who themselves were exposed to Agent Orange. The aim was to develop research in order to explore the impact of chemical warfare on people's lives. Using the reproductive lifeline and semi-structured interviews, information was gathered on both partners' periods of exposure to Agent Orange, pregnancy outcomes, perceived health problems of children and experiences of living with handicapped children. The women had had a high number of miscarriages and premature births. About two-thirds of their children had congenital malformations or developed disabilities within the first years of life. Most of the families were poor, aggravated by impaired health in the men, the burden of caring for disabled children, and feelings of guilt and inferiority. The plight of 'Agent Orange families' is special and should be placed in its historical and political context.

  1. Bioluminescent bioreporter assays for targeted detection of chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Pat; Johnson, Courtney; Moser, Scott; Islam, Syed; Sayler, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Bioluminescent bioreporters carrying the bacterial lux gene cassette have been well established for the sensing and monitoring of select chemical agents. Their ability to generate target specific visible light signals with no requirement for extraneous additions of substrate or other hands-on manipulations affords a real-time, repetitive assaying technique that is remarkable in its simplicity and accuracy. Although the predominant application of lux-based bioluminescent bioreporters has been towards chemical compound detection, novel genetic engineering schemes are yielding a variety of new bioreporter systems that extend the lux sensing mechanism beyond mere analyte discrimination. For example, the unique specificity of bacteriophage (bacterial viruses) has been exploited in lux bioluminescent assays for specific identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. With the concurrent ability to interface bioluminescent bioreporter assays onto integrated circuit microluminometers (BBICs; bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits), the potential exists for the development of sentinel microchips that can function as environmental monitors for multiplexed recognition of chemical and biological agents in air, food, and water. The size and portability of BBIC biosensors may ultimately provide a deployable, interactive network sensing technology adaptable towards chem/bio defense.

  2. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons.

  3. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  4. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs. PMID:17630721

  5. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Mohammad, M. Malek; Jaafari, E.; Mobashery, A.

    2015-03-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2-10.8 μm tunable CO2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl-methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution.

  6. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs.

  7. DNA-damaging agents in cancer chemotherapy: serendipity and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Cheung-Ong, Kahlin; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-05-23

    DNA-damaging agents have a long history of use in cancer chemotherapy. The full extent of their cellular mechanisms, which is essential to balance efficacy and toxicity, is often unclear. In addition, the use of many anticancer drugs is limited by dose-limiting toxicities as well as the development of drug resistance. Novel anticancer compounds are continually being developed in the hopes of addressing these limitations; however, it is essential to be able to evaluate these compounds for their mechanisms of action. This review covers the current DNA-damaging agents used in the clinic, discusses their limitations, and describes the use of chemical genomics to uncover new information about the DNA damage response network and to evaluate novel DNA-damaging compounds. PMID:23706631

  8. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  9. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  10. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators. PMID:25133545

  11. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  12. Chemical and biological metal nanoparticles as antimycobacterial agents: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman U; Arkile, Manisha; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-08-01

    Resistance among mycobacteria leading to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. However, nanotechnology has provided new insights in drug delivery and medicine development. This is the first comparative report to determine the activity of chemically and biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mycobacteria. Screening data revealed the high mycobactericidal efficiency of AgNPs, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of <3μg/mL, whereas no such activity was exhibited by AuNPs at concentrations up to 100μg/mL. Moreover, in vitro and ex vivo THP-1 infection model assays showed greater efficacy of chemical AgNPs compared with biogenic AgNPs to inhibit active and dormant stage mycobacterial growth. Up to 40% cytotoxicity against human cell lines was observed at a AgNP concentration of 10× MIC (30μg/mL) after 48h. AgNPs were shown to have more specificity towards mycobacteria than towards other Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The selectivity index was found to be in the range of 11-23, indicating the potential of these nanoparticles for use in developing new therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  13. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  14. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder.

  15. Surface-immobilization of molecules for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Indrani; Neelam

    2014-09-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale molecular assemblies with advanced functionalities is an emerging field. These systems provide new perspectives for the detection and degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The main concern in this context is the design and fabrication of "smart surfaces" able to immobilize functional molecules which can perform a certain function or under the input of external stimuli. This review addresses the above points dealing with immobilization of various molecules on different substrates and describes their adequacy as sensors for the detection of CWAs.

  16. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications.

  17. Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report provides an overview of the types of mechanisms underlying the lymphohematopoietic cancers induced by chemical agents and radiation in humans, with a primary emphasis on leukemia and leukemia-inducing agents. It focuses on how mechanistic information on human l...

  18. A Survey of Commercially Available Chemical Agent Instrumentation for Use in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J S; Alcaraz, A; Andresen, B D; Pruneda, C O

    2002-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Forensic Science Center (FSC) has extensive experience and capabilities in the analysis of chemical agents (CA) and related compounds as well as experience in identifying these materials in the field (i.e. samples such as those found in soils, liquids, gases). An open source survey was performed to determine viable, commercially available technology that can detect, in situ, CA and also meet field-use performance criteria as specified by the Program Management Consultant (PMC). The performance requirements of the technology include accuracy, reliability, integration onto robotics, and chemical detection sensitivities that meet required specifications. Not included in this survey are technologies and methodologies to detect CA decomposition products and related waste streams.

  19. Chemical stress by different agents affects the melatonin content of barley roots.

    PubMed

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2009-04-01

    The presence of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in plants has been clearly demonstrated. However, while this indoleamine has been intensively studied in animals, especially in mammals, the same is not true in the case of plants, where one of the most interesting aspects is its possible role as antioxidative molecule in physiological processes. Some data reflect the possible protective role that melatonin may exert in some stress situations such as ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, induced senescence and copper stress. The present work was designed to establish how the melatonin content changes in plants as a result of chemically induced stress. For this, barley plants were exposed in different treatments to the chemical-stress agents: sodium chloride, zinc sulphate or hydrogen peroxide. After different times, the content of melatonin in treated roots and control roots were determined using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight/mass spectrometry and LC with fluorescence detection for identification and quantification, respectively. The data show that the melatonin content in roots increased due to stress, reaching up to six times the melatonin content of control roots. Induction was time dependent, while hydrogen peroxide (10 mm) and zinc sulphate (1 mm) were the most effective inducers. The capacity of roots to absorb melatonin from soil was also studied. The data establish, for first time, that the chemical-stress agents assayed can induce the biosynthesis of melatonin in barley roots and produce a significant increase in their melatonin content. Such an increase in melatonin probably plays an important antioxidative role in the defense against chemically induced stress and other abiotic/biotic stresses. PMID:19196434

  20. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs.

  1. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

  2. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gabi; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill D; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    We report the synthesis of new polymers based on a dimethylacrylamide-methacrylate (DMAA-MA) co-polymer backbone that support both chemical and biological agent decontamination. Polyurethanes containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. New materials combining those biopolymers with a family of N-alkyl 4-pyridinium aldoxime (4-PAM) halide-acrylate co-polymers offer both nucleophilic activity for the detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents and internal sources of halide ions for generation of biocidal activity. Generation of free bromine and iodine was observed in the combined material resulting in bactericidal activity of the enzymatically formed free halogens that caused complete kill of E. coli (>6 log units reduction) within 1 h at 37 degrees C. Detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) by the polyDMAA MA-4-PAM iodide component was dose-dependent reaching 85% within 30 min. A subset of 4-PAM-halide co-polymers was designed to serve as a controlled release reservoir for N-hydroxyethyl 4-PAM (HE 4-PAM) molecules that reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Release rates for HE 4-PAM were consistent with hydrolysis of the HE 4-PAM from the polymer backbone. The HE 4-PAM that was released from the polymer reactivated DFP-inhibited AChE at a similar rate to the oxime antidote 4-PAM.

  3. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: Implications for health care providers and community emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Watson, A.P.; Ambrose, K.R.; Griffin, G.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the US, atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers.

  4. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: implications for health care providers and community emergency planning.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N B; Watson, A P; Ambrose, K R; Griffin, G D

    1990-01-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the U.S. atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanolol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers. PMID:2088748

  5. [A hygienic study of new raw materials for cosmetic agents and household chemical preparations].

    PubMed

    Iordanov, I; Baĭnova, A; Chipilska, L

    1990-01-01

    Studies are performed on the new Bulgarian raw materials "Aminookis" (AO) and "Dezodorirashch agent" (DA) the plants "Alen Mak"--Plovdiv and "Hyaluron"--Sofia. Chemical, toxicological and microbiological studies are carried out. Thin-layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for determination of AO, hyaluronic acid and DA are developed and chemical studies on cosmetics, prepared with them, are carried out. During the repetition of a 21-day experiment on guinea pigs the threshold irritative concentrations--10% for AO and DA (as trade products) are determined. This shows that they are moderate contact irritants. The hyaluron has no irritative effect. By maximizing test with guinea pigs is established the absence of contact allergy for DA and AO. At index of sensibilization 10% the hyaluron falls in the group of weak allergens. The spectra of action are studied and the minimum suppressing concentrations of AO and DA are defined. It is established that the most resistant to effect with these cosmetics are the representatives of the families: Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Salmonella. Recommendations are made to use "Aminookis" (AO) in shampoos to 8%, deodorizing agent in deodorants to 2% and "Hyaluron" in creams to 20% (as trade products).

  6. Remote chemical biological and explosive agent detection using a robot-based Raman detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Charles W.; Wentworth, Rachel; Treado, Patrick J.; Batavia, Parag; Gilbert, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Current practice for the detection of chemical, biological and explosive (CBE) agent contamination on environmental surfaces requires a human to don protective gear, manually take a sample and then package it for subsequent laboratory analysis. Ground robotics now provides an operator-safe way to make these critical measurements. We describe the development of a robot-deployed surface detection system for CBE agents that does not require the use of antibodies or DNA primers. The detector is based on Raman spectroscopy, a reagentless technique that has the ability to simultaneously identify multiple chemical and biological hazards. Preliminary testing showed the ability to identify CBE simulants in 10 minutes or less. In an operator-blind study, this detector was able to correctly identify the presence of trace explosive on weathered automobile body panels. This detector was successfully integrated on a highly agile robot platform capable of both high speed and rough terrain operation. The detector is mounted to the end of five-axis arm that allows precise interrogation of the environmental surfaces. The robot, arm and Raman detector are JAUS compliant, and are controlled via a radio link from a single operator control unit. Results from the integration testing and from limited field trials are presented.

  7. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  8. Stress, chemical defense agents, and cholinergic receptors. Midterm report, 1 November 1987-31 July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.D.

    1989-11-30

    This project is assessing the affects of exposure to a chemical defense agent on anxiety and stress, by using rat models of anxiety (conditioned emotional response (CER); conditioned suppression) and unconditioned non-specific stres (exposure to footshock). The specific experiments determined the plasticity of muscarinic cholinergic binding sites in the central nervous system. The neuroanatomical locus and neuropharmacological profile of changes in binding sites were assessed in brain areas enriched in cholinergic markers. Acetylcholine turnover was measured to determine if the receptor response is compensatory or independent. The effects of acute exposure to doses of a chemical defense agent (soman--XGD) on lethality and behaviors were examined. The experiments involved training and conditioning adult rats to CER using standard operant/respondent techniques. The binding of radiolabelled ligand was studied in vitro using brain membranes and tissue sections (autoradiography). The major findings are that CER produces increases in acetylcholine turnover in brain areas involved in anxiety, and that primarily post-synaptic M1 receptors compensatorly decrease in response. These neurochemical phenomena are directly correlated with several behaviors, including onset and extinction of CER and non-specific stress. Followup experiments have been designed to test the interaction of CER, XGD and neurochemistry.

  9. Water security: continuous monitoring of water distribution systems for chemical agents by SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Farquharson, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Ensuring safe water supplies requires continuous monitoring for potential poisons and portable analyzers to map distribution in the event of an attack. In the case of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) analyzers are needed that have sufficient sensitivity (part-per-billion), selectivity (differentiate the CWA from its hydrolysis products), and speed (less than 10 minutes) to be of value. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to meet these requirements by detecting CWAs and their hydrolysis products in water. The expected success of SERS is based on reported detection of single molecules, the one-to-one relationship between a chemical and its Raman spectrum, and the minimal sample preparation requirements. Recently, we have developed a simple sampling device designed to optimize the interaction of the target molecules with the SERS-active material with the goal of increasing sensitivity and decreasing sampling times. This sampling device employs a syringe to draw the water sample containing the analyte into a capillary filled with the SERS-active material. Recently we used such SERS-active capillaries to measure 1 ppb cyanide in water. Here we extend these measurements to nerve agent hydrolysis products using a portable Raman analyzer.

  10. Common and distinct mechanisms of induced pulmonary fibrosis by particulate and soluble chemical fibrogenic agents

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Yu, Xiaoqing; Porter, Dale W.; Battelli, Lori A.; Kashon, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis results from the excessive deposition of collagen fibers and scarring in the lungs with or without an identifiable cause. The mechanism(s) underlying lung fibrosis development is poorly understood, and effective treatment is lacking. Here we compared mouse lung fibrosis induced by pulmonary exposure to prototypical particulate (crystalline silica) or soluble chemical (bleomycin or paraquat) fibrogenic agents to identify the underlying mechanisms. Young male C57BL/6J mice were given silica (2 mg), bleomycin (0.07 mg), or paraquat (0.02 mg) by pharyngeal aspiration. All treatments induced significant inflammatory infiltration and collagen deposition, manifesting fibrotic foci in silica-exposed lungs or diffuse fibrosis in bleomycin or paraquat-exposed lungs on day 7 post-exposure, at which time the lesions reached their peaks and represented a junction of transition from an acute response to chronic fibrosis. Lung genomewide gene expression was analyzed, and differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting for representative genes to demonstrate their induced expression and localization in fibrotic lungs. Canonical signaling pathways, gene ontology, and upstream transcription networks modified by each agent were identified. In particular, these inducers elicited marked proliferative responses; at the same time, silica preferentially activated innate immune functions and the defense against foreign bodies, whereas bleomycin and paraquat boosted responses related to cell adhesion, platelet activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and wound healing. This study identified, for the first time, the shared and unique genes, signaling pathways, and biological functions regulated by particulate and soluble chemical fibrogenic agents during lung fibrosis, providing insights into the mechanisms underlying human lung fibrotic diseases. PMID:26345256

  11. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  12. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Test for desorption of Agents HD and gd from chemical-agent-resistant coating (CARC). Final report, March 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sturdivan, L.M.; Thomas, J.; Bodt, B.A.

    1990-08-01

    A method of measuring the desorbed residual agent from chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) paint, after exposure and rinsing, is thoroughly examined in a round-robin test. The test showed that some CARC formulations met the agent-resistance specifications desorbed excess agent, but other formulations met the agent-resistance specification. There is evidence showing that those paints that do not meet specification for agent resistance do so because of excess porosity (in the mesopore range) due to the paint, as applied, being above the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC). That is, the ratio of pigment-to-liquid component is greater than that proportion at which the liquid component, after complete polymerization and evaporation of all residual solvent, is not sufficient to fill all the voids between the pigment particles. CARC must be formulated near the CPVC to have the necessary surface roughness to meet the specification for low sheen and spectral reflectance required in the camouflage colors. Limitations of the round-robin test are presented with suggestions for an improved test. A statistical determination of acceptability, using thetest in a two-stage experimental determination of the amount of agent desorbed to accept or reject prospective lots of CARC, is presented.

  15. Development of potent chemical antituberculosis agents targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Pil; Ha, Na-Reum; Lee, Sang-Choon; Ryoo, Sung-Weon; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2016-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetohydroxyacid synthase (MTB-AHAS) has been suggested as a crucial target for antibacterial agents. High-throughput screening of a chemical library was performed to identify potent new inhibitors of MTB-AHAS. Among the 6800 tested compounds, 15 were identified as potent inhibitors, exhibiting >80-90% inhibition of in vitro MTB-AHAS activity at a fixed concentration of 20 µM. Five compounds belonging to the triazolopyrimidine structural class showed greater inhibition potency, with a half-maximum inhibition concentration (IC50 value) in the low micromolar range (0.4-1.24 µM). Furthermore, potent inhibitors demonstrated non-competitive, uncompetitive or mixed-competitive inhibition. Molecular docking experiments with these potent chemicals using a homology model of MTB-AHAS indicated hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with some key herbicide binding site residues with binding energies (ΔG) of -8.04 to -10.68 Kcal/mol, respectively. The binding modes were consistent with inhibition mechanisms, as the chemicals were oriented outside the active site. Importantly, these potent inhibitors demonstrated significant growth inhibition of various clinically isolated multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, with 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 values) ranging from 0.2 µg/mL to 0.8 µg/mL, which resemble the MICs of conventional drugs for tuberculosis (isoniazid, 0.1 µg/mL; rifampicin, 0.4 µg/mL). Thus, the identified potent inhibitors show potential as scaffolds for further in vivo studies and might provide an impetus for the development of strong antituberculosis agents targeting MTB-AHAS. PMID:27451857

  16. Long-term pulmonary complications of chemical warfare agent exposure in Iraqi Kurdish civilians.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Naderi, Mostafa; Kosar, Ali Morad; Harandi, Ali Amini; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Poursaleh, Zohreh

    2010-08-01

    The Iraqi government used a range of chemical weapons, including blistering and nerve agents, against Iraqi Kurdish civilians in the 1980s. Few data exist about the long-term respiratory consequences of this exposure. In this study, Kurdish subjects with a history of exposure to chemical weapons were invited to attend a clinical assessment, including a review of their history, physical examination, and a high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the thorax. Blistering at the time of exposure was used to define significant exposure to mustard gas. Results were compared between two groups of blistering and nonblistering. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects were studied; 45.7% male and 54.3% female. The mean age and standard deviation (mean +/- SD) of the cases was 43.1 +/- 13.7. Spirometry was abnormal in 15.2% of subjects and air trapping was present on CT scan in 46.6% and did not differ between patients with (n = 278) or without a history of blistering. Respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, and sputum production, were more common in subjects with a history of blistering (all p < .005) and blistering was also associated with a lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) (p < .0001). Severe complications were most common in subjects from Halabja who also made up the majority of participants. These results show that objective abnormalities are common in people with symptoms attributed to prior exposure to chemical agent. Blistering at the time of exposure was associated with more respiratory symptoms and worse lung function, but not with CT appearances. The high proportion of severe cases in comparison to reports from Iran may reflect the historical absence of effective early treatment, including strategies to reduce prolonged early exposure in this population. PMID:20560732

  17. Development of a risk-ranking framework to evaluate potential high-threat microorganisms, toxins, and chemicals in food.

    PubMed

    Newsome, R; Tran, N; Paoli, G M; Jaykus, L A; Tompkin, B; Miliotis, M; Ruthman, T; Hartnett, E; Busta, F F; Petersen, B; Shank, F; McEntire, J; Hotchkiss, J; Wagner, M; Schaffner, D W

    2009-03-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Institute of Food Technologists developed a risk-ranking framework prototype to enable comparison of microbiological and chemical hazards in foods and to assist policy makers, risk managers, risk analysts, and others in determining the relative public health impact of specific hazard-food combinations. The prototype is a bottom-up system based on assumptions that incorporate expert opinion/insight with a number of exposure and hazard-related risk criteria variables, which are propagated forward with food intake data to produce risk-ranking determinations. The prototype produces a semi-quantitative comparative assessment of food safety hazards and the impacts of hazard control measures. For a specific hazard-food combination the prototype can produce a single metric: a final risk value expressed as annual pseudo-disability adjusted life years (pDALY). The pDALY is a harmonization of the very different dose-response relationships observed for chemicals and microbes. The prototype was developed on 2 platforms, a web-based user interface and an Analytica(R) model (Lumina Decision Systems, Los Gatos, Calif., U.S.A.). Comprising visual basic language, the web-based platform facilitates data input and allows use concurrently from multiple locations. The Analytica model facilitates visualization of the logic flow, interrelationship of input and output variables, and calculations/algorithms comprising the prototype. A variety of sortable risk-ranking reports and summary information can be generated for hazard-food pairs, showing hazard and dose-response assumptions and data, per capita consumption by population group, and annual p-DALY. PMID:19323766

  18. Analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Gareil, Pierre; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2011-10-21

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), their precursors and degradation products (DPs) is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. Considering a growing number of papers presented in the last years in the field of capillary electrophoresis (CE) of DPs, this review article gives an overview on CE techniques which are feasible for the determination of DPs with the advantages of using relatively simple and inexpensive research instrumentation, reduced consumption of potentially toxic samples, shorter sample preparation times, etc. A brief introduction is provided into the chemical background of CWAs followed by a documented appraisal that the CE method is well suited to deal with polar, acidic DPs mostly occurring in aqueous samples or extracts. Applications of CE to the separation of DPs are described, complemented by a critical discussion of the detection techniques, including mostly conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence, UV absorption and mass spectrometry. This review also includes actual development regarding the challenges of CE in analyses of different DPs from real samples, often avoided by in- and off-line pre-concentration techniques or the coupling of CE to selective detection methods. Special emphasis is placed on the miniaturised CE systems that have the potential of being before long developed into a field deployable and potentially disposable platform for routine DP monitoring in environmental samples. PMID:21858300

  19. Analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Gareil, Pierre; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2011-10-21

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), their precursors and degradation products (DPs) is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. Considering a growing number of papers presented in the last years in the field of capillary electrophoresis (CE) of DPs, this review article gives an overview on CE techniques which are feasible for the determination of DPs with the advantages of using relatively simple and inexpensive research instrumentation, reduced consumption of potentially toxic samples, shorter sample preparation times, etc. A brief introduction is provided into the chemical background of CWAs followed by a documented appraisal that the CE method is well suited to deal with polar, acidic DPs mostly occurring in aqueous samples or extracts. Applications of CE to the separation of DPs are described, complemented by a critical discussion of the detection techniques, including mostly conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence, UV absorption and mass spectrometry. This review also includes actual development regarding the challenges of CE in analyses of different DPs from real samples, often avoided by in- and off-line pre-concentration techniques or the coupling of CE to selective detection methods. Special emphasis is placed on the miniaturised CE systems that have the potential of being before long developed into a field deployable and potentially disposable platform for routine DP monitoring in environmental samples.

  20. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, F; Taysse, L; Boudry, I; Foquin, A; Hérodin, F; Mathieu, J; Daulon, S; Cruz, C; Lallement, G

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)).

  1. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna C.; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury. PMID:21829319

  2. Trapping of organophosphorus chemical nerve agents in water with amino acid functionalized baskets.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yian; Dalkiliç, Erdin; Peterson, Paul W; Pandit, Aroh; Dastan, Arif; Brown, Jason D; Polen, Shane M; Hadad, Christopher M; Badjić, Jovica D

    2014-04-01

    We prepared eleven amino-acid functionalized baskets and used (1) H NMR spectroscopy to quantify their affinity for entrapping dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, 118 Å(3) ) in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH=7.0±0.1; note that DMMP guest is akin in size to chemical nerve agent sarin (132 Å(3) ). The binding interaction (Ka ) was found to vary with the size of substituent groups at the basket's rim. In particular, the degree of branching at the first carbon of each substituent had the greatest effect on the host-guest interaction, as described with the Verloop's B1 steric parameter. The branching at the remote carbons, however, did not perturb the encapsulation, which is important for guiding the design of more effective hosts and catalysts in future. PMID:24616086

  3. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Aruna C; Kumar, S

    2010-07-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury.

  4. Neoplastic cell transformation by energetic heavy ions and its modification with chemical agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the major deleterious late effects of ionizing radiation is related to the induction of neoplasms. In the present report recent experimental results on neoplastic cell transformation by heavy ions are presented, and possible means to circumvent the carcinogenic effect of space radiation are discussed. Biological effects observed in experiments involving the use of energetic heavy ions accelerated at the Bevalac suggest that many of the biological effects observed in earlier space flight experiments may be due to space radiation, particularly cosmic rays. It is found that the effect of radiation on cell transformation is dose-rate dependent. The frequency of neoplastic transformation for a given dose decreases with a decrease of dose rate of Co-60 gamma rays. It is found that various chemical agents give radiation protection, including DMSO.

  5. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

  6. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX.

  7. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2000-01-01

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  8. Further studies on the detection of chemical agents using an alkaline energy cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shewchun, John

    2008-04-01

    The detection, classification and tracking of chemical agents (explosives) being surreptitiously smuggled into public areas, such as airports, for destructive purposes is difficult to solve by unobtrusive means. We propose the use of a novel Alkaline Energy Cell (AEC) with gas/vapor sniffing capability as a potential solution. Variants of such devices are routinely used by police to detect alcohol emanating from the breath of suspected impaired vehicle drivers. We reported previously at the SPIE Symposium in 2007 the details of our technology and results. We have continued to advanced this capability with the development of an AEC which is capable of detecting gaseous emissions ultimately in the parts per billion range. Our work is described in terms of detecting TATP (acetone peroxide). Other explosive materials have also been investigated and will be reported on.

  9. Method for Producing Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics and for Stabilizing Contaminants Encapsulated therein Utilizing Reducing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    1999-05-05

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions is stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  10. Design and evaluation of hyperspectral algorithms for chemical warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolakis, Dimitris; D'Amico, Francis M.

    2005-11-01

    Remote sensing of chemical warfare agents (CWA) with stand-off hyperspectral imaging sensors has a wide range of civilian and military applications. These sensors exploit the spectral changes in the ambient photon flux produced by either sunlight or the thermal emission of the earth after passage through a region containing the CWA cloud. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to discuss a simple phenomenological model for the radiance measured by the sensor in the case of optically thin clouds. This model provides the mathematical framework for the development of optimum algorithms and their analytical evaluation. Second, we identify the fundamental aspects of the data exploitation problem and we develop detection algorithms that can be used by different sensors as long as they can provide the required measurements. Finally, we discuss performance metrics for detection, identification, and quantification and we investigate their dependance on CWA spectral signatures, sensor noise, and background spectral variability.

  11. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. PMID:26621540

  12. Using Mode of Action to Assess Health Risks from Mixtures of Chemical/Physical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Richard J.; Lei, Xingye C.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-01-20

    a low, but effective, dose of one agent was superimposed on a high dose of another. When given at high doses, the effects were generally no greater than observed with either agent alone. A low dose of TCA was clearly antagonistic to a high dose of DCA. This antagonism carried throughout the dose response curve for TCA. Apparently, these interactions involve some subtle modification of effects by one chemical in cells responsive to the other chemical. Consequently, our findings do not argue that interactions will extend below the effective doses of either chemical.

  13. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling.

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity and the predicted environmental concentrations based on the conditions of use are lower than the NOAEC for soils but higher than the NOAEC for water, posing a potential risk to the waters due to the levels of foaming agents in the muck.

  14. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  15. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  16. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining. PMID:26545284

  17. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG, (HOC(2)H(4))2S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  18. Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-12-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents.

  19. Separation of thiol and cyanide hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2004-03-01

    The fluorescence derivatizing agent, o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), has been applied to the separation and detection of cyanide and several structurally similar thiols by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Of particular interest to this investigation was the separation of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, and cyanide, each of which are hydrolysis products or hydrolysis product simulants of the chemical warfare (CW) agents O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (R-VX), and tabun (GA). Other structurally similar thiols simultaneously resolved by this method include 1-pentanethiol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Instrumental parameters were probed and optimum values for capillary length (50 cm) and inner diameter (75 microm), injection time (30 s) and field strength (15 kV) were determined. Sample stacking methods enabled detection limits of 9.3 microg/L for cyanide, 1.8 microg/L for 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, 35 microg/L for 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 15 microg/L for 2-mercaptoethanol, and 89 microg/L for 1-pentanethiol. The linearity of the method was verified over an order of magnitude and the reproducibility was found to be 3.0%.

  20. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  1. Separation of thiol and cyanide hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2004-03-01

    The fluorescence derivatizing agent, o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), has been applied to the separation and detection of cyanide and several structurally similar thiols by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Of particular interest to this investigation was the separation of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, and cyanide, each of which are hydrolysis products or hydrolysis product simulants of the chemical warfare (CW) agents O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (R-VX), and tabun (GA). Other structurally similar thiols simultaneously resolved by this method include 1-pentanethiol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Instrumental parameters were probed and optimum values for capillary length (50 cm) and inner diameter (75 microm), injection time (30 s) and field strength (15 kV) were determined. Sample stacking methods enabled detection limits of 9.3 microg/L for cyanide, 1.8 microg/L for 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, 35 microg/L for 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 15 microg/L for 2-mercaptoethanol, and 89 microg/L for 1-pentanethiol. The linearity of the method was verified over an order of magnitude and the reproducibility was found to be 3.0%. PMID:15004852

  2. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    PubMed

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  3. EVALUATION OF WETTING AGENTS TO MITIGATE DUSTING WHEN TRANSFERRING DRY GLASS FORMER CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    TIMOTHY, JONES

    2005-02-07

    Plant design support for the US Department of Energy (DOE) River Protection Project (RPP) - Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) required pilot scale testing of the High Level Waste (HLW) glass former chemical (GFC) delivery system. A pilot facility was assembled at the Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) under the direction of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Tests were performed using a representative HLW GFC blend to determine the behavior of the dry chemicals when transported through a chute and discharged into the enclosed head space of an agitated tank. The use of chute purge air, injected upstream of the point where the GFCs were added to the chute, was investigated. The pilot scale testing showed purge air was effective in reducing GFC holdup in the chute and that when the GFCs were discharged into the tank head space, dusting was evident during all transport conditions. This dusting lead to additional bench scale and laboratory scale tests that showed the addition of wetting agents to HLW and Low Activity Waste (LAW) GFC blends effectively mitigated dusting at the bench and pilot scales.

  4. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  5. Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, memory enhancer, hypotensive and anticancer. According to the literatures, saffron has remarkable therapeutic effects. The protective effects of saffron and its main constituents in different tissues including brain, heart, liver, kidney and lung have been reported against some toxic materials either natural or chemical toxins in animal studies.In this review article, we have summarized different in vitro and animal studies in scientific databases which investigate the antidotal and protective effects of saffron and its major components against natural toxins and chemical-induced toxicities. Due to the lake of human studies, further investigations are required to ascertain the efficacy of saffron as an antidote or a protective agent in human intoxication.

  6. [Hygienic standards of the occupational air quality established by the Experts on Chemical Agents, 2002].

    PubMed

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, it was necessary to harmonize Polish law on admissible limits of occupational exposure with EU requirements. To this end, the Expert Group on Chemical Agents proposed maximum admissible concentration values for 29 chemicals: acrylaldehyde (107-02-8); cresols, mix of isomers (95-48-7), 108-39-4, 106-44-5, 1319-77-3); tetraphosphorus decaoxide (1314-56-3); ethylamine (75-04-7); naphtalene (91-20-3); nitrobenzene (98-95-3); nitrogen oxide (110-54-5); nitrogen dioxide (10102-44-0); pyridine (110-86-1); butan-2-one (78-93-3); carbon oxide (630-08-0); 1,4-dichlorobenzene (106-46-7); 1,2-dichlorobenzene (95-50-1); hexane (110-54-5); aluminum hydroxide (21645-51-2); aluminum (fumes and dusts) (7429-90-5); amitrole (61-82-5); 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A) (80-05-7); 3a,4,7,7a-terahydro-4,7-metanoindene (dicyclopentadiene) (77-73-6); trimethoxyphosphane (121-45-9); methyl chloroacetate (96-34-4); 4-methoxyphenol (150-76-5); methyl formate (107-31-3); 2-phenoxyethanol (122-99-6); divinylbenzene (1321-74-0); Diesel exhausts (-); hexane-6-lactam (dusts and fumes) (105-60-2); 2-isopropoxyethanol (109-59-1); and methyl 2-cyanoacrylate (137-05-3).

  7. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  8. Project swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Suffield special publication No. 170

    SciTech Connect

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Swiftsure was a project to destroy old chemical warfare agent waste at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield Experimental Proving Ground. This report begins with an overview of the project and the consultation process, and describes the project planning and development process, the methods used to destroy the nerve agents, the contracting of a waste incinerator, the environmental protection plan, incinerator installation and testing, waste preparation and incineration operations, final waste product disposal and the environmental monitoring program. Appendices include details on the properties of the agents destroyed, sampling and analysis methods, and air quality monitoring specifications.

  9. Modeling the effects of oxidizer, complexing agent and inhibitor on material removal for copper chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yongwu

    2007-12-01

    The paper presents a novel mathematical model that systematically describes the role of oxidizer, complexing agent and inhibitor on the material removal in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper. The physical basis of the model is the steady-state oxidation reaction and etched removal in additional to mechanical removal. It is shown that the complexing agent concentration-removal relation follows a trend similar to that observed from the effects of oxidizer on Cu removal in CMP. In addition, the removal rate and the coupled effects of the chemical additives are determined from a close-form equation, making use of the concepts of chemical-mechanical equilibrium and chemical kinetics. The model prediction trends show qualitatively good agreement with the published experimental data. The governing equation of copper removal reveals some insights into the polishing process in addition to its underlying theoretical foundation.

  10. Space collision threat mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Stipanović, Dušan; Mehra, Raman K.; Pham, Khanh

    2014-06-01

    Mitigation of possible collision threats to current and future operations in space environments is an important an challenging task considering high nonlinearity of orbital dynamics and discrete measurement updates. Such discrete observations are relatively scarce with respect to space dynamics including possible unintentional or intentional rocket propulsion based maneuvers even in scenarios when measurement collections are focused to a one single target of interest. In our paper, this problem is addressed in terms of multihypothesis and multimodel estimation in conjunction with multi-agent multigoal game theoretic guaranteed evasion strategies. Collision threat estimation is formulated using conditional probabilities of time dependent hypotheses and spacecraft controls which are computed using Liapunov-like approach. Based on this formulation, time dependent functional forms of multi-objective utility functions are derived given threat collision risk levels. For demonstrating developed concepts, numerical methods are developed using nonlinear filtering methodology for updating hypothesis sets and corresponding conditional probabilities. Space platform associated sensor resources are managed using previously developed and demonstrated information-theoretic objective functions and optimization methods. Consequently, estimation and numerical methods are evaluated and demonstrated on a realistic Low Earth Orbit collision encounter.

  11. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During the height of the Cold War, the Russian physicist Andre Sakharov said, `Reducing the risk of annihilating humanity in a nuclear war carries an absolute priority over all other considerations.` The end of the Cold War has reduced the threat of global nuclear war, but today a new threat is rising from the global spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Hostile groups and nations have tried - or have been able - to obtain these weapons, the technology, and homegrown ability to make them or ballistic missiles that can deliver the massive annihilation, poison, and death of these weapons hundreds of miles away. For rogue nations, these weapons are a ticket to power, stature, and confidence in regional war.

  12. In vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Takafumi; Suzuki, Toshihide; Isono, Hideo; Kaise, Toshikazu

    2004-10-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid [DPAs(V)], a degradation product of diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, both of which were developed as chemical warfare agents, was investigated in terms of its capacity to induce cytotoxic effects, numerical and structural changes of chromosomes, and abnormalities of centrosome integrity and spindle organizations in conjunction with the effects of glutathione (GSH) depletion. DPAs(V) had toxic effects on cultured human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells at concentrations more than 0.5 mM. Depletion of GSH reduced the toxic effects of DPAs(V) as well as dimethylarsinic acid [DMAs(V)] toxicity, while toxicity by arsenite [iAs(III)] was enhanced. Exogenously added sulfhydryl (SH) compounds, such as dimercapropropane sulfonate (DMPS), GSH, and dithiothreitol (DTT), enhanced the toxic effects of DPAs(V) while they suppressed iAs(III) toxicity. DPAs(V) caused an increase in the mitotic index, and also structural and numerical changes in chromosomes in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Abnormality of centrosome integrity in mitotic V79 cells and multipolar spindles was also induced by DPAs(V) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that highly toxic chemicals were generated by the interaction of DPAs(V) with SH compounds. Moreover, enhancements of toxicity by a combination of DPAs(V) and SH compounds suggested a risk in the use of SH compounds as a remedy for intoxication by diphenylarsenic compounds. Investigations on the effects of SH compounds on animals intoxicated with DPAs(V) are warranted.

  13. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  14. REPORT ON THE HOMELAND SECURITY WORKSHOP ON TRANSPORT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes discussions from the "Homeland Security Workshop on Transport and Disposal of Wastes From Facilities Contaminated With Chemical or Biological Agents." The workshop was held on May 28-30, 2003, in Cincinnati, Ohio, and its objectives were to:

    .Documen...

  15. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. I. Common molecular mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of molecular mechanisms common to radiation and chemical carcinogenesis are discussed, particularly the DNA damage done by these agents. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological considerations and on dose-response models used in risk assessment to extrapolate from experimental data obtained at high doses to the effects from long-term, low-level exposures. 3 references, 6 figures. (ACR)

  16. Used tire recycling to produce granulates: evaluation of occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Savary, Barbara; Vincent, Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Exposure was assessed in four facilities where used tires are turned into rubber granulates. Particulate exposure levels were measured using filter samples and gravimetric analysis. In parallel, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) screening was carried out using samples taken on activated carbon supports, followed by an analysis using a gas chromatograph coupled to a spectrometric detector. The exposure level medians are between 0.58 and 3.95 mg m(-3). Clogging of the textile fiber separation systems can lead to worker exposure; in this case, the measured concentrations can reach 41 mg m(-3). However, in contrast to the data in the literature, VOC levels >1 p.p.m. were not detected. The particulate mixtures deposited on the installation surfaces are complex; some of the chemical agents are toxic to humans. The results of this study indicate significant exposure to complex mixtures of rubber dust. Optimizing exhaust ventilation systems inside the shredders, with a cyclone for example, is essential for reducing the exposure of workers in this rapidly developing sector.

  17. Abnormal Development of Tapetum and Microspores Induced by Chemical Hybridization Agent SQ-1 in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723

  18. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  19. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1999-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Sch{umlt u}tze {ital et al.}, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold 26}, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O{sub 2}{sup {asterisk}}, He{sup {asterisk}}) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.

    2014-05-01

    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 μl were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  1. Structural, energetic and electrical properties of boron nitride nanotubes interacting with DMMP chemical agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, M. Darvish; Gholian, M.; Mohammadzadeh, S.

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption of DMMP as an intoxicating chemical warfare agent onto the boron nitride nanotube has been investigated by using density functional theory calculations. Several active sites were considered for both interacting systems and full structural optimization was performed to accurately find the energetically favorable state. It is found that DMMP molecule prefers to be adsorbed strongly on the top site above the B atom of a (5, 0) BNNT with a binding energy of about -103.24 kJ mol-1 and an O-B binding distance of 1.641 Å. We have performed a comparative investigation of BNNTs with different diameters and the results indicate that the DMMP adsorption ability for the side wall of the tubes significantly decreases for higher diameters BNNTs. Furthermore, the adsorption properties of DMMP molecule onto the BNNT have been investigated using the ab initio MD simulation at room temperature. Our result showed that BNNTs facilitates the DMMP detection at ambient conditions for practical applications.

  2. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples.

  3. Screening level fish community risk assessment of chemical warfare agents in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Peter B

    2008-06-15

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts (approximately 11,000 tonnes) have been dumped in the Baltic Sea east of the island Bornholm following the disarmament of Germany after World War II, causing concerns over potential environmental risks. Absence of risk based on assumptions of extremely low solubility of CWAs cannot alone dismiss these concerns. Existing and modelled fate and effects data were used in the analysis to assess the fish community risk level. The most realistic and also conservative assessment result is the scenario describing 70 m water depth for the most realistic dump-site area with a focus on chronic toxicity, at 0-20 cm above the sediment, yielding a total mixture toxic unit (TU) of 0.62. Triphenylarsine is the CWA with the highest realistic risk profile at 0.2 TU for the fish community followed by Adamsite (0.17), Clark I (0.086) and Yperite (0.083) TU. Adamsite is more persistent and constitutes a potential risk for a longer period than triphenylarsine. The seawater volume potentially at risk is <4 m above sediment and <58 km down current of dump sites. Further risk assessment of dumped CWAs in the Baltic Sea is warranted.

  4. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  5. Review of the U.S. Army's health risk assessments for oral exposure to six chemical-warfare agents. Introduction.

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. Army is under a congressional mandate and the Chemical Weapons Convention of January 1993 to destroy its entire stockpile of chemical munitions. In addition to stockpiled munitions, nonstockpile chemical materiel (NSCM) has been identified for destruction. NSCM includes a host of lethal wastes from past disposal efforts, unserviceable munitions, chemically contaminated containers, chemical-production facilities, newly located chemical munitions, known sites containing substantial quantities of buried chemical weapons and wastes, and binary weapons and components. There are eight stockpile sites located in the continental United States and one on an island in the Pacific Ocean, and 82 NSCM locations have been identified. There are concerns, based on storage and past disposal practices, about soil and groundwater contamination at those sites. Six of the most commonly found chemical-warfare agents at stockpile and NSCM sites are the nerve agents GA, GB, GD, and VX and the vesicating (blistering) agents sulfur mustard and lewisite. To ensure that chemical contamination is reduced to safe concentrations at stockpile and NSCM sites before they are used for residential, occupational, or wildlife purposes, the U.S. Army requested that health-based exposure limits for GA, GB, GD, VX, sulfur mustard, and lewisite be developed to protect the public and the environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to conduct the health risk assessments and propose chronic oral reference doses (RfDs) and, where appropriate, oral slope factors (SFs) for the six agents. RfDs are toxicological values developed for noncancer effects and used as reference points to limit human oral exposure to potentially hazardous concentrations of chemicals thought to have thresholds for their effects. RfDs are estimates (with uncertainty spanning an order of magnitude or greater) of daily oral chemical exposures that are unlikely to have deleterious effects during a human lifetime. For

  6. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  7. Technical support for recovery phase decision-making in the event of a chemical warfare agent release

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Kistner, S.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    In late 1985, Congress mandated that the U.S. stockpile of lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions be destroyed by the Department of the Army in a manner that provides maximum protection to the environment, the general public and personnel involved in the disposal program (Public Law 99-1, Section 1412, Title 14, Part b). These unitary munitions were last manufactured in the late 1960`s. The stockpiled inventory is estimated to approximate 25,000-30,000 tons, an includes organophosphate ({open_quotes}nerves{close_quotes}) agents such as VX [O-ethylester of S-(diisopropyl aminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate, C{sub 11}H{sub 26}NO{sub 2}PS] and vesicant ({open_quotes}blister{close_quotes}) agents such as Hd [sulfur mustard; bis (2-chloroethyl sulfide), C{sub 4}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}S]. The method of agent destruction selected by the Department of the Army is combined high-temperature and high-residence time incineration at secured military installations where munitions are currently stockpiled. This program supports the research program to address: the biomonitoring of nerve agent exposure; agent detection limits in foods and milk; and permeation of agents through porous construction materials.

  8. Guidelines for chemical warfare agents in military field drinking water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    CW agents are generally designed to be used on opposing military forces to produce death or incapacitation. When they are used in military attacks, they are potential contaminants of field drinking-water supplies. CW agents that could appear in military field water and that are of particular concern to the Army are 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ), organophosphorus nerve agents (GA, GB, GD, and VX), sulfur mustard agents (HD, THD, and HT), T-2 toxin (a fungal metabolite), lewisite (an arsenical vesicant), and cyanide. The Army requested that the National Research Council (NRC) review the toxicity of selected CW agents and assess the adequacy of its proposed field drinking-water standards. The report presents the subcommittee`s evaluations of the Army`s proposed standards. The report also presents the subcommittee`s recommendations for preventing adverse health effects in military personnel exposed to CW agents in field drinking water and for improving the toxicity data base for these CW agents.

  9. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  10. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  11. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. PMID

  12. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  13. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Davis, Erin Durke

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  14. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  15. [Measurement of mutagenesis to study the effects of chemical agents]. Final report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Puck, T.T.

    1994-12-31

    This is the final report of a study conducted at the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Inc. This study looked at mutagenesis as a measurement of the effects of chemical agents. Topics discussed in this report include: development of a new theory for the role of lipids and lipoproteins in the interactions of macromolecules; the action of caffeine in synergizing mutagenesis of agents like ionizing radiation by inhibition of cellular repair processes which was incorporated into a rapid procedure for detection of mutagenicity with high sensitivity; quantitative theoretical analysis of the mutagenesis process in cells exposed to physical and chemical mutagenic agents; theoretical analysis was developed leading to the conclusion that the visible chromosomal lesions described will also include a significant proportion of point mutations; application of this methodology for meaningful measurement of mutagenesis to study the effects of chemical agents was begun; and investigation of the cell cytoskeleton`s effect of genome exposure operating in the course of the differentiation process.

  16. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Morris, John R.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  18. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  19. A Chemically Modified Tetracycline (CMT-3) Is a New Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Simon, Sanford; Tortora, George; Lauzon, Carol; Leung, Michael K.; Golub, Lorne M.

    2002-01-01

    Several chemically modified tetracycline analogs (CMTs), which were chemically modified to eliminate their antibacterial efficacy, were unexpectedly found to have antifungal properties. Of 10 CMTs screened in vitro, all exhibited antifungal activities, although their efficacies varied. Among these compounds, CMT-315, -3, and -308 were found to be the most potent as antifungal agents. The MICs of CMT-3 against 47 strains of fungi in vitro were determined by using amphotericin B (AMB) and doxycycline as positive and negative controls, respectively. The MICs of CMT-3 were generally found to be between 0.25 and 8.00 μg/ml, a range that approximates the blood levels of this drug when administrated orally to humans. Of all the yeast species tested to date, Candida albicans showed the greatest sensitivity to CMT-3. The filamentous species most susceptible to CMT-3 were found to be Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Pseudallescheria boydii, a Penicillium sp., Scedosporium apiospermum, a Tricothecium sp., and Trichophyton rubrum. Growth inhibition of C. albicans by CMT-3, determined by a turbidity assay, indicated a 50% inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/ml. Thirty-nine strains, including 20 yeasts and 19 molds, were used to measure viability (the ability to grow after treatment with a drug) inhibition by CMT-3 and AMB. CMT-3 exhibited fungicidal activity against most of these fungi, especially the filamentous fungi. Eighty-four percent (16 of 19) of the filamentous fungi tested showed more than 90% inhibition of viability by CMT-3. In contrast, AMB showed fungicidal activity against all yeasts tested. However, most of the filamentous fungi (16 of 19) showed less than 50% inhibition of viability by AMB, indicating that AMB is fungistatic against most of these filamentous fungi. To begin to identify the sites in fungal cells affected by CMT-3, C. albicans and a Penicillium sp. were incubated with the compound at 35°C, and then the fluorescence of CMT-3 was

  20. Static SIMS and MS2 Characterization of the Chemical Warfare Agent HD on Soil Particle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Garold Linn; Groenewold, Gary Steven; Appelhans, Anthony David; Olson, John Eric; Benson, Michael Timothy; Jeffery, M. T.; Rowland, B.; Weibe, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Detection of the blister agent HD [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide] or distilled mustard directly on the surface of soil particles using ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometry in the static mode is demonstrated. HD by its very nature is adsorptive; this attribute makes detection of surface adsorbed HD by gas-phase approaches difficult, but renders the compound amenable to surface detection. Two different ion trap (IT) mass spectrometers, modified to perform secondary ionization mass spectrometry using a ReO4- primary ion beam, were employed in the present study. Sputtered ions were trapped in the gas phase in the IT, where they could be scanned out (MS1), or isolated and fragmented (MS2). The intact HD molecular ion was not observed, however an abundant ion corresponding to [HD - Cl]+ was formed, as were lower mass fragment ions, and ions derived from the chemical background. Ab initio calculations were used to propose structures of the fragment ions. At 0.5 monolayers surface coverage, [HD - Cl]+ and lower mass HD fragment ions were significantly more abundant than the background. At lower concentrations, however, the HD secondary ion signal became masked by the background. Sensitivity and selectivity were significantly improved in the MS2 mode of operation. MS2 of [HD - Cl]+ resulted in production of analytically diagnostic C2H4SH+ and other S- and Cl-bearing fragment ions. HD was detected at 0.07 monolayers using the MS2 approach, which corresponds to 108 ppm on a mass/mass basis.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of imidazenil against chemical warfare nerve agent soman toxicity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Oguntayo, Samuel; Wei, Yanling; Wood, Elisa; Brown, Ammon; Jensen, Neil; Auta, James; Guiodotti, Alessandro; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-03-01

    The chemical warfare nerve agent, soman irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to hypercholinergy and seizures which trigger glutamate toxicity and status epilepticus ultimately resulting in neuropathology and neurobehavioral deficits. The standard emergency treatment comprising of anticholinergic, AChE reactivator and anticonvulsant does not completely protect against soman toxicity. We have evaluated imidazenil, a new anticonvulsant imidazo benzodiazepine with high affinity and intrinsic efficacy at α5-, α2-, and α3- but low intrinsic efficacy at α1-containing GABA(A) receptors and is devoid of cardiorespiratory depression, sedative/hypnoitc and amnestic actions and does not elicit tolerance and dependence liabilities unlike diazepam, for protection against soman toxicity. Guinea pigs implanted with bipotential radiotelemetry probes for recording EEG and ECG were administered with 26 μg/kg pyridostigmine bromide 30 min prior to 2× LD(50) soman exposure and 1 min later treated with a combination of 2mg/kg atropine sulfate and 25mg/kg 2-pralidoxime and various doses of imidazenil. Intramuscular administration of imidazenil, dose-dependently protected against 2× LD(50) of soman toxicity up to 1mg/kg. Further increase in the dose of imidazenil to 2.5mg/kg was less effective than 1mg/kg probably due to non-specific actions at sites other than GABA(A) receptors. Compared to vehicle group, 1mg/kg imidazenil treatment showed optimal increase in survival rate, reduction in behavioral manifestations and high power of EEG spectrum as well as neuronal necrosis. These data suggest that imidazenil is an effective anticonvulsant for medical countermeasure against soman-induced toxicity.

  2. Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) follow-on operational test and evaluation simulant test strategy. Final report, May 1988-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzinger, A.T.; Grasso, P.S.; Guelta, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    This report was intended to provide technical guidance to the U.S. Army Armor and Engineering (A E) Board in the area of simulant use for the Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation (FOT E). The Operational Science Branch (Op Sci Br) was requested to support the A E Board in their effort to design an FOT E for the CAM using methyl salicylate (MS) as the H mode (mustard agent) simulant. Personnel from Op Sci Br were asked to design contamination technology and monitoring methods to test the machine/man interface and use doctrine, and analyze how well data is collected and evaluated.

  3. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  4. Complementary methods to plan pedestrian evacuation of the French Riviera's beaches in case of tsunami threat: graph- and multi-agent-based modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal, A.; Leone, F.; Péroche, M.

    2013-07-01

    Small amplitude tsunamis have impacted the French Mediterranean shore (French Riviera) in the past centuries. Some caused casualties; others only generated economic losses. While the North Atlantic and Mediterranean tsunami warning system is being tested and is almost operational, no awareness and preparedness measure is being implemented at a local scale. Evacuation is to be considered along the French Riviera, but no plan exists within communities. We show that various approaches can provide local stakeholders with evacuation capacities assessments to develop adapted evacuation plans through the case study of the Cannes-Antibes region. The complementarity between large- and small-scale approaches is demonstrated with the use of macro-simulators (graph-based) and micro-simulators (multi-agent-based) to select shelter points and choose evacuation routes for pedestrians located on the beach. The first one allows automatically selecting shelter points and measuring and mapping their accessibility. The second one shows potential congestion issues during pedestrian evacuations, and provides leads for the improvement of urban environment. Temporal accessibility to shelters is compared to potential local and distal tsunami travel times, showing a 40 min deficit for an adequate crisis management in the first scenario, and a 30 min surplus for the second one.

  5. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an

  6. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  7. Nucleophilic Polymers and Gels in Hydrolytic Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Creasy, William R; McGarvey, David J; Wilusz, Eugene; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-10-01

    Water- and solvent-soluble polymeric materials based on polyalkylamines modified with nucleophilic groups are introduced as catalysts of chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis. A comparative study conducted at constant pH and based on the criteria of the synthetic route simplicity, aqueous solubility, and rate of hydrolysis of CWA mimic, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), indicated that 4-aminopyridine-substituted polyallylamine (PAAm-APy) and polyvinylamine substituted with 4-aminopyridine (PVAm-APy) were advantageous over 4-pyridinealdoxime-modified PVAm and PAAm, poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine), and PAAm modified with bipyridine and its complex with Cu(II). The synthesis of PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy involved generation of a betaine derivative of acrylamide and its covalent attachment onto the polyalkylamine chain followed by basic hydrolysis. Hydrogel particles of PAAm-APy and PVAm-APy cross-linked by epichlorohydrin exhibited pH-dependent swelling and ionization patterns that affected the rate constants of DFP nucleophilic hydrolysis. Deprotonation of the aminopyridine and amine groups increased the rates of the nucleophilic hydrolysis. The second-order rate of nucleophilic hydrolysis was 5.5- to 10-fold higher with the nucleophile-modified gels compared to those obtained by cross-linking of unmodified PAAm, throughout the pH range. Testing of VX and soman (GD) was conducted in 2.5-3.7 wt % PVAm-APy suspensions or gels swollen in water or DMSO/water mixtures. The half-lives of GD in aqueous PVAm-APy were 12 and 770 min at pH 8.5 and 5, respectively. Addition of VX into 3.5-3.7 wt % suspensions of PVAm-APy in DMSO-d6 and D2O at initial VX concentration of 0.2 vol % resulted in 100% VX degradation in less than 20 min. The unmodified PVAm and PAAm were 2 orders of magnitude less active than PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy, with VX half-lives in the range of 24 h. Furthermore, the PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy gels facilitated the dehydrochlorination reaction of sulfur mustard

  8. Nucleophilic Polymers and Gels in Hydrolytic Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Creasy, William R; McGarvey, David J; Wilusz, Eugene; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-10-01

    Water- and solvent-soluble polymeric materials based on polyalkylamines modified with nucleophilic groups are introduced as catalysts of chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis. A comparative study conducted at constant pH and based on the criteria of the synthetic route simplicity, aqueous solubility, and rate of hydrolysis of CWA mimic, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), indicated that 4-aminopyridine-substituted polyallylamine (PAAm-APy) and polyvinylamine substituted with 4-aminopyridine (PVAm-APy) were advantageous over 4-pyridinealdoxime-modified PVAm and PAAm, poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine), and PAAm modified with bipyridine and its complex with Cu(II). The synthesis of PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy involved generation of a betaine derivative of acrylamide and its covalent attachment onto the polyalkylamine chain followed by basic hydrolysis. Hydrogel particles of PAAm-APy and PVAm-APy cross-linked by epichlorohydrin exhibited pH-dependent swelling and ionization patterns that affected the rate constants of DFP nucleophilic hydrolysis. Deprotonation of the aminopyridine and amine groups increased the rates of the nucleophilic hydrolysis. The second-order rate of nucleophilic hydrolysis was 5.5- to 10-fold higher with the nucleophile-modified gels compared to those obtained by cross-linking of unmodified PAAm, throughout the pH range. Testing of VX and soman (GD) was conducted in 2.5-3.7 wt % PVAm-APy suspensions or gels swollen in water or DMSO/water mixtures. The half-lives of GD in aqueous PVAm-APy were 12 and 770 min at pH 8.5 and 5, respectively. Addition of VX into 3.5-3.7 wt % suspensions of PVAm-APy in DMSO-d6 and D2O at initial VX concentration of 0.2 vol % resulted in 100% VX degradation in less than 20 min. The unmodified PVAm and PAAm were 2 orders of magnitude less active than PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy, with VX half-lives in the range of 24 h. Furthermore, the PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy gels facilitated the dehydrochlorination reaction of sulfur mustard

  9. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  10. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling all members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  11. A QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC DILUTION EFFECTS IN PARAMAGNETIC CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SATURATION TRANSFER AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Whelton A.; Moore, Preston B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational study of the effect of chemical modifications of the meta and para substituents in the coordinating pendant arm of a modified 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N’, N″, N‴-tetraamide (DOTAM) ligand on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) signal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used techniques available. MRI has led to a new class of pharmaceuticals termed “imagining” or “contrast” agents. These agents usually work by incorporating lanthanide metals such as Gadolinium (Gd) and Europium (Eu). This allows the contrast agents to take advantage of the paramagnetic properties of the metals, which in turn enhances the signal detectable by MRI. The effect of simple electron-withdrawing (e.g., nitro) and electron-donating (e.g., methyl) substituents chemically attached to a modified chelate arm (pendant arm) is quantified by charge transfer interactions in the coordinated water-chelate system computed from quantum mechanics. This study attempts to reveal the origin of the substituent effect on the CEST signal and the electronic structure of the complex. We find that the extent of Charge Transfer (CT) depends on orbital orientations and overlaps. However, CT interactions occur simultaneously from all arms, which causes a dilution effect with respect to the pendant arm. PMID:25485283

  12. A QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC DILUTION EFFECTS IN PARAMAGNETIC CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SATURATION TRANSFER AGENTS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Whelton A; Moore, Preston B

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational study of the effect of chemical modifications of the meta and para substituents in the coordinating pendant arm of a modified 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N″, N‴-tetraamide (DOTAM) ligand on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) signal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used techniques available. MRI has led to a new class of pharmaceuticals termed "imagining" or "contrast" agents. These agents usually work by incorporating lanthanide metals such as Gadolinium (Gd) and Europium (Eu). This allows the contrast agents to take advantage of the paramagnetic properties of the metals, which in turn enhances the signal detectable by MRI. The effect of simple electron-withdrawing (e.g., nitro) and electron-donating (e.g., methyl) substituents chemically attached to a modified chelate arm (pendant arm) is quantified by charge transfer interactions in the coordinated water-chelate system computed from quantum mechanics. This study attempts to reveal the origin of the substituent effect on the CEST signal and the electronic structure of the complex. We find that the extent of Charge Transfer (CT) depends on orbital orientations and overlaps. However, CT interactions occur simultaneously from all arms, which causes a dilution effect with respect to the pendant arm. PMID:25485283

  13. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Krishna Shivraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated) were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer. PMID:27041896

  14. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  15. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  16. Crystal Structures of Human Carboxylesterase 1 in Covalent Complexes with the Chemical Warfare Agents Soman and Tabun†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christopher D.; Edwards, Carol C.; Kirby, Stephen D.; Maxwell, Donald M.; Potter, Philip M.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX exert their toxic effects by inhibiting the action of human acetylcholinesterase, a member of the serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes. The current treatments for nerve agent exposure must be administered quickly to be effective and they often do not eliminate long-term toxic side effects associated with organophosphate poisoning. Thus, there is significant need for effective prophylactic methods to protect at-risk personnel from nerve agent exposure, and protein-based approaches have emerged as promising candidates. We present the 2.7 Å resolution crystal structures of the serine hydrolase human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), a broad-spectrum drug metabolism enzyme, in covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate complexes with the chemical weapons soman and tabun. The structures reveal that hCE1 binds stereoselectively to these nerve agents; for example, hCE1 appears to react preferentially with the 104-fold more lethal PS stereoisomer of soman relative to the PR form. In addition, structural features of the hCE1 active site indicate that the enzyme may be resistant to dead-end organophosphate aging reactions that permanently inactivate other serine hydrolases. Taken together, these data provide important structural details toward the goal of engineering hCE1 into an organophosphate hydrolase and protein-based therapeutic for nerve agent exposure. PMID:17407327

  17. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  18. Method for warning of radiological and chemical agents using detection paints on a vehicle surface

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2012-03-27

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  19. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, L.

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods are disclosed for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid. 2 figs.

  20. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, Leon

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid.

  1. Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Adsorption: Hydrogen Bonding of Sarin and Soman to Amorphous Silica.

    PubMed

    Davis, Erin Durke; Gordon, Wesley O; Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Troya, Diego; Morris, John R

    2014-04-17

    Sarin and soman are warfare nerve agents that represent some of the most toxic compounds ever synthesized. The extreme risk in handling such molecules has, until now, precluded detailed research into the surface chemistry of agents. We have developed a surface science approach to explore the fundamental nature of hydrogen bonding forces between these agents and a hydroxylated surface. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that both agents adsorb to amorphous silica through the formation of surprisingly strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with primarily isolated silanol groups (SiOH). Comparisons with previous theoretical results reveal that this bonding occurs almost exclusively through the phosphoryl oxygen (P═O) of the agent. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments determined that the activation energy for hydrogen bond rupture and desorption of sarin and soman was 50 ± 2 and 52 ± 2 kJ/mol, respectively. Together with results from previous studies involving other phosphoryl-containing molecules, we have constructed a detailed understanding of the structure-function relationship for nerve agent hydrogen bonding at the gas-surface interface.

  2. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... technology security, combating weapons of mass destruction (WMD), chemical and biological defense, the future... level briefings on WMD threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the status of the...

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  4. Report on NCI symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. II. Cellular and animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The point at which the common final pathway for induction of cancer by chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation has not been identified. Although common molecular targets are suggested by recent findings about the role of oncogenes, the mechanism by which the deposition of radiation energy and the formation of adducts or other DNA lesions induced by chemicals affects the changes in the relevant targets may be quite different. The damage to DNA that plays no part in the transformation events, but that influences the stability of the genome, and therefore, the probability of subsequent changes that influence tumorigenesis may be more readily induced by some agents than others. Similarly, the degree of cytotoxic effects that disrupt tissue integrity and increase the probability of expression of initiated cells may be dependent on the type of carcinogen. Also, evidence was presented that repair of the initial lesions could be demonstrated after exposure to low-LET radiation but not after exposure to chemical carcinogens.

  5. Research on the interaction of hydrogen-bond acidic polymer sensitive sensor materials with chemical warfare agents simulants by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  6. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26043177

  7. Sulfur mustard as a carcinogen: application of relative potency analysis to the chemical warfare agents H, HD, and HT.

    PubMed

    Watson, A P; Jones, T D; Griffin, G D

    1989-08-01

    A relative potency method for assessing potential human health effects from exposures to relatively untested chemicals is presented and documented. The need for such a method in evaluating the carcinogenic potential of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (agent HD) from a limited data base is specifically addressed. The best-estimate potency factor for sulfur mustard relative to benzo[a]pyrene is 1.3, with an interquartile range of 0.6 to 2.9. The method is applied to (1) the estimated fence-boundary air concentrations of mustard during operation of a proposed agent incinerator at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, and (2) the current approved general population exposure level of 1 X 10(-4) mg HD/m3 and the occupational exposure level of 3 X 10(-3) mg HD/m3. Maximum estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk for individuals at sites along the APG boundary range between 3 X 10(-8) and 1 X 10(-7). Lifetime cancer risk estimates less than or equal to 10(-6) are not now regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the Food and Drug Administration. Maximum estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk assuming daily exposure to the approved standards during the proposed 5 years of incinerator operation are on the order of 10(-5) for the general public and 10(-4) for the worker population. These values are considered upper limit estimates.

  8. Technological Innovations to Counter CBRNE Threat Vectors and Ecotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    The ubiquitous presence of sensors for enhanced situational awareness necessitates an innovative, articulate, and focused review of their design, architecture, functionality, and interoperability. A comprehensive overview of the latest and state-of-the art technological innovations in point and stand-off sensing/detection platforms with the objective of countering threats arising from chemical-biological-nuclear-high yield explosives (CBRNE) is the focus of this investigation. Ongoing research efforts and future research directions based on advanced approaches, including nanomaterials to develop materials, devices, and systems for potential use in sensing and detection of such threat vectors are articulated. The concept of advanced sciences convergences is introduced to examine the feasibility of potentially new and innovative research directions for persistent surveillance of CBRNE agents and infectious diseases. The intentional release of such agents in the environment constitutes ecological sabotage. Advanced sensing/detection platforms for CBRNE are used to detect threats to the environment. Issues associated with the use of nanomaterials regarding societal implications and dual-use concerns are addressed by studying fate and transport and the development of guidelines for a risk-assessment model. A roadmap of the future of nanomaterials, in terms of complexity, a nexus of disciplines, and its emerging potential to provide advanced, futuristic, and a paradigm-shifting platform is presented.

  9. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  10. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  11. Standoff detection of explosives and chemical agents using broadly tuned external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Rayner, Timothy; Weida, Miles; Crivello, Salvatore; Day, Timothy

    2007-10-01

    Civilian soft targets such as transportation systems are being targeted by terrorists using IEDs and suicide bombers. Having the capability to remotely detect explosives, precursors and other chemicals would enable these assets to be protected with minimal interruption of the flow of commerce. Mid-IR laser technology offers the potential to detect explosives and other chemicals in real-time and from a safe standoff distance. While many of these agents possess "fingerprint" signatures in the mid-IR (i.e. in the 3-20 micron regime), their effective interrogation by a practical, field-deployable system has been limited by size, complexity, reliability and cost constraints of the base laser technology. Daylight Solutions has addressed these shortcomings by developing compact, portable, broadly tunable mid-IR laser sources based upon external-cavity quantum cascade technology. This technology is now being applied by Daylight in system level architectures for standoff and remote detection of explosives, precursors and chemical agents. Several of these architectures and predicted levels of performance will be presented.

  12. Expedient Respiratory and Physical Protection: Does a Wet Towel Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration?

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of expedient protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare agents. This includes an examination of the physical and the psychological effectiveness of measures such as using a wet towel to seal a door jam against the infiltration of chemicals while sheltering in place or to provide expedient respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for civilians has never been considered a viable option for population protection in the CSEPP. Problems of storage, ability to effectively don respirators, and questionable fit have been primary factors in rejecting this option. Expedient respiratory protection seems to offer little benefits for population protection for chemical agent vapors. Furthermore, using wet towels as a vapor barrier at the bottom of a door should be discouraged. The wetted towel provides no vapor filtration and its effectiveness in infiltration reduction is unknown. Taping the bottom of the door will still likely provide greater infiltration reduction and is recommended as the current method for use in sheltering.

  13. Iron oxide functionalized graphene nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of chemical warfare agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Goud, D Raghavender; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-05-15

    Present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of graphene based magnetic nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) relevant chemicals from aqueous samples. Nano-composite, Fe3O4@SiO2-G was synthesized by covalently bonding silica coated Fe3O4 onto the graphene sheets. Nerve agents (NA), Sulfur mustard (SM) and their non-toxic environmental markers were the target analytes. Extraction parameters like amount of sorbent, extraction time and desorption conditions were optimized. Dispersion of 20 milligram of sorbent in 200mL of water sample for 20min. followed by methanol/chloroform extraction produced average to good recoveries (27-94%) of targeted analytes. Recoveries of real agents exhibited great dependency upon sample pH and ionic strength. Sarin produced maximum recovery under mild acidic conditions (56% at pH 5) while VX demanded alkaline media (83% at pH 9). Salts presence in the aqueous samples was found to be advantageous, raising the recoveries to as high as 94% for SM. Excellent limits of detection (LOD) for sulphur mustard and VX (0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19ngmL(-1) respectively) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  14. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates.

    PubMed

    Jung, H; Lee, H W

    2014-05-30

    We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event.

  15. Iron oxide functionalized graphene nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of chemical warfare agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Goud, D Raghavender; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-05-15

    Present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of graphene based magnetic nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) relevant chemicals from aqueous samples. Nano-composite, Fe3O4@SiO2-G was synthesized by covalently bonding silica coated Fe3O4 onto the graphene sheets. Nerve agents (NA), Sulfur mustard (SM) and their non-toxic environmental markers were the target analytes. Extraction parameters like amount of sorbent, extraction time and desorption conditions were optimized. Dispersion of 20 milligram of sorbent in 200mL of water sample for 20min. followed by methanol/chloroform extraction produced average to good recoveries (27-94%) of targeted analytes. Recoveries of real agents exhibited great dependency upon sample pH and ionic strength. Sarin produced maximum recovery under mild acidic conditions (56% at pH 5) while VX demanded alkaline media (83% at pH 9). Salts presence in the aqueous samples was found to be advantageous, raising the recoveries to as high as 94% for SM. Excellent limits of detection (LOD) for sulphur mustard and VX (0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19ngmL(-1) respectively) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:25828545

  16. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-12-22

    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis.

  17. Comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological and chemical routes with pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Alves Dos; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ingle, Avinash P; Rai, Mahendra

    2016-08-01

    The authors report the comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological (using Fusarium oxysporum) and chemical routes in the presence and absence of pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent. The production of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by UV-visible spectra, with absorbance at about 420 nm in the case of both biological and chemical synthesis. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of face-centred cubic structure (FCC plane). The nanoparticles characterised by transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed spherical silver nanoparticles with size range of 5-40 and 10-70 nm in the case of biologically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles, respectively. Addition of pluronic F68 showed the stabilisation of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles demonstrated different inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles showed higher activity as compared with chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesised in the presence of pluronic F68 by the chemical route exhibited synergism in antibacterial activity as compared with those synthesised without pluronic F68. On the contrary, biogenic silver nanoparticles without pluronic F68 showed higher antibacterial potential. PMID:27463790

  18. Effect of some chemical agents on the viability of Cysticercus bovis.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Lily H; El Alfy, Nadia M

    2003-08-01

    The effect of eight chemicals; vinegar, Allium sativum (crude garlic), Acacia auriculiformis, lemon juice, praziquantel, pumpkin, perosan and yomesan on the viability of cysticerci of Taenia saginata in vitro was investigated. The minimum exposure time required for cysticerci to be non-evaginable for the eight chemicals were 5, 10, 25, 40, 55, 75, 90 and 105 minutes respectively. The best one was vinegar and the least effective was yomesan. PMID:14964654

  19. Binding of chemical warfare agent simulants as guests in a coordination cage: contributions to binding and a fluorescence-based response.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher G P; Piper, Jerico R; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Cubic coordination cages act as competent hosts for several alkyl phosphonates used as chemical warfare agent simulants; a range of cage/guest structures have been determined, contributions to guest binding analysed, and a fluorescent response to guest binding demonstrated.

  20. Mortality follow-up of veterans who participated in military chemical and biological warfare agent testing between 1962 and 1972.

    PubMed

    Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Between 1962 and 1972, several thousand U.S. Navy personnel participated in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). These tests potentially exposed participants to either active chemical or biological warfare agents or their simulants. This study examined mortality risk associated with participating in SHAD tests by comparing the cause-specific mortality of 4927 SHAD veterans to that of 10,927 other Navy veterans. Compared to other Navy veterans, SHAD veterans had an increased risk of overall mortality, which was due primarily to heart disease deaths.

  1. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Amantea, Diana; Caruso, Anna; Saturnino, Carmela

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals.

  2. Chemical Surface Washing Agents for Oil Spills: Update State-of-the-Art on Mechanisms of Action and Evaluation of Two Laboratory Effectiveness Tests.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical surface washing agents are formulations designed to help release stranded oil from shoreline substrates.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in response to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Initiated study of these cleaning agents. The project summarized here had...

  3. Effect of therapeutic chemical agents in vitro and on experimental meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yang-Jin; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kwon, Daeho; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous, pathogenic free-living amoeba; it is the most virulent Naegleria species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in laboratory animals and humans. Although amphotericin B is currently the only agent available for the treatment of PAME, it is a very toxic antibiotic and may cause many adverse effects on other organs. In order to find other potentially therapeutic agents for N. fowleri infection, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of miltefosine and chlorpromazine against pathogenic N. fowleri. The result showed that the growth of the amoeba was effectively inhibited by treatment with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine, the MICs of the drug were 0.78, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively, on day 2. In experimental meningoencephalitis of mice that is caused by N. fowleri, the survival rates of mice treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine were 40, 55, and 75%, respectively, during 1 month. The average mean time to death for the amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine treatments was 17.9 days. In this study, the effect of drugs was found to be optimal when 20 mg/kg was administered three times on days 3, 7, and 11. Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B. PMID:18765686

  4. Effect of therapeutic chemical agents in vitro and on experimental meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yang-Jin; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kwon, Daeho; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous, pathogenic free-living amoeba; it is the most virulent Naegleria species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in laboratory animals and humans. Although amphotericin B is currently the only agent available for the treatment of PAME, it is a very toxic antibiotic and may cause many adverse effects on other organs. In order to find other potentially therapeutic agents for N. fowleri infection, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of miltefosine and chlorpromazine against pathogenic N. fowleri. The result showed that the growth of the amoeba was effectively inhibited by treatment with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine, the MICs of the drug were 0.78, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively, on day 2. In experimental meningoencephalitis of mice that is caused by N. fowleri, the survival rates of mice treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine were 40, 55, and 75%, respectively, during 1 month. The average mean time to death for the amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine treatments was 17.9 days. In this study, the effect of drugs was found to be optimal when 20 mg/kg was administered three times on days 3, 7, and 11. Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B.

  5. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  6. Implications and mitigation of model mismatch and covariance contamination for hyperspectral chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Sidi; Golowich, Steven E.; Ingle, Vinay K.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.

    2013-02-01

    Most chemical gas detection algorithms for long-wave infrared hyperspectral images assume a gas with a perfectly known spectral signature. In practice, the chemical signature is either imperfectly measured and/or exhibits spectral variability due to temperature variations and Beers law. The performance of these detection algorithms degrades further as a result of unavoidable contamination of the background covariance by the plume signal. The objective of this work is to explore robust matched filters that take the uncertainty and/or variability of the target signatures into account and mitigate performance loss resulting from different factors. We introduce various techniques that control the selectivity of the matched filter and we evaluate their performance in standoff LWIR hyperspectral chemical gas detection applications.

  7. Handheld dual-wavelength Raman instrument for the detection of chemical agents and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christesen, Steven D.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Curtiss, Justin M.; Fountain, Augustus W.

    2016-07-01

    Handheld Raman systems have become powerful analytical tools for the detection and identification of hazardous chemical materials that are now commonly used by both the civilian and military communities. Due to the availability of compact lasers and sensitive detectors, systems typically operate at 785 nm. However, the Raman return at this wavelength can still be obscured by fluorescent impurities in the targeted materials or their matrices. To potentially mitigate this shortcoming, a prototype dual-wavelength Raman incorporating both 785- and 1064-nm excitations was developed and assessed at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. The results of that evaluation are discussed here.

  8. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  9. The effect of different chemical agents on human enamel: an atomic force and scanning electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominu, Roxana O.; Rominu, Mihai; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Pop, Daniela; Petrescu, Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of our study was to investigate the changes in enamel surface roughess induced by the application of different chemical substances by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. METHOD: Five sound human first upper premolar teeth were chosen for the study. The buccal surface of each tooth was treated with a different chemical agent as follows: Sample 1 - 38% phosphoric acid etching (30s) , sample 2 - no surface treatment (control sample), 3 - bleaching with 37.5 % hydrogen peroxide (according to the manufacturer's instructions), 4 - conditioning with a self-etching primer (15 s), 5 - 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching (30s). All samples were investigated by atomic force microscopy in a non-contact mode and by scanning electron microscopy. Several images were obtained for each sample, showing evident differences regarding enamel surface morphology. The mean surface roughness and the mean square roughness were calculated and compared. RESULTS: All chemical substances led to an increased surface roughness. Phosphoric acid led to the highest roughness while the control sample showed the lowest. Hydrofluoric acid also led to an increase in surface roughness but its effects have yet to be investigated due to its potential toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: By treating the human enamel with the above mentioned chemical compounds a negative microretentive surface is obtained, with a morphology depending on the applied substance.

  10. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  11. Effect of Therapeutic Chemical Agents In Vitro and on Experimental Meningoencephalitis Due to Naegleria fowleri▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yang-Jin; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kwon, Daeho; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous, pathogenic free-living amoeba; it is the most virulent Naegleria species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in laboratory animals and humans. Although amphotericin B is currently the only agent available for the treatment of PAME, it is a very toxic antibiotic and may cause many adverse effects on other organs. In order to find other potentially therapeutic agents for N. fowleri infection, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of miltefosine and chlorpromazine against pathogenic N. fowleri. The result showed that the growth of the amoeba was effectively inhibited by treatment with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine, the MICs of the drug were 0.78, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, on day 2. In experimental meningoencephalitis of mice that is caused by N. fowleri, the survival rates of mice treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine were 40, 55, and 75%, respectively, during 1 month. The average mean time to death for the amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine treatments was 17.9 days. In this study, the effect of drugs was found to be optimal when 20 mg/kg was administered three times on days 3, 7, and 11. Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B. PMID:18765686

  12. A pharmacological, crystallographic, and quantum chemical study of new inotropic agents.

    PubMed

    Dorigo, P; Gaion, R M; Belluco, P; Fraccarollo, D; Maragno, I; Bombieri, G; Benetollo, F; Mosti, L; Orsini, F

    1993-08-20

    The cardiac activity of a series of milrinone analogues, 2-substituted 3-acyl-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-5-pyridinecarbonitriles, 1,6,3,2,11,12-hexahydro-6,3-dioxo-5-quinolinecarbonitriles, the correlated carboxylic acids, 2-substituted 3-acyl-6(1H)-pyridones, and 7,8-dihydro-2,5(1H,6H)-quinolinediones, was evaluated in spontaneously beating and in electrically driven atria from reserpine-treated guinea pigs. Their effects were compared with those induced by amrinone and milrinone in both the atria preparations. Compounds SF28 (3-acetyl-1,6-dihydro-2-methyl-6-oxo-5-pyridinecarbonitrile) and SF40 (7,8-dihydro-7-methyl-2,5(1H,6H)-quinolinedione) were the most effective positive inotropic agents. An inhibition of the negative influence exerted by endogenous adenosine on heart preparations seems to be involved in their contractile activity. SF38 (3-benzoyl-2-phenyl-6(1H)-pyridinone), on the contrary, reduced the contractile force and the frequency rate of guinea pig atria with a mechanism not related to an activation of cholinergic or purinergic inhibitory receptors on the heart. X-ray analysis carried out on the three model compounds, SF28, SF40 (positive inotropic agents), and SF38 (negative inotropic agent), and molecular modeling evidenced that the change from phenyl (SF38) to methyl (SF28) or the introduction of a side cyclic aliphatic chain (SF40) results in a variation of conformational preference and topography which may address the different molecules toward distinct receptor pockets according to the resulting inotropic effect.

  13. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread. PMID:18482015

  14. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  15. Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  16. Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1.

    PubMed

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-12-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ∼25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ∼30-60 times and ∼200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure.

  17. DRDE-07 and its analogues as promising cytoprotectants to nitrogen mustard (HN-2)--an alkylating anticancer and chemical warfare agent.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Vijayaraghavan, R; Gautam, Anshoo

    2009-08-10

    Nitrogen mustard (HN-2), also known as mechlorethamine, is an alkylating anticancer agent as well as blister inducing chemical warfare agent. We evaluated the cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07 and their analogues, and other antidotes of mustard agents against HN-2. Administration of 1 LD(50) of HN-2 (20mg/kg) percutaneously, decreased WBC count from 24h onwards. Liver glutathione (GSH) level decreased prominently and the maximum depletion was observed on 7th day post-HN-2 administration. Oxidised glutathione (GSSG) level increased significantly at 24h post-administration and subsequently showed a progressive decrease. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and percent DNA damage increased progressively following HN-2 administration. The spleen weight decreased progressively and reached a minimum on 3-4 days with subsequent increase. The antidotes were administered repeatedly for 4 and 8 days after percutaneous administration of single sublethal dose (0.5 and 0.25 LD(50)) of HN-2. Treatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 significantly protected the changes in spleen weight, WBC count, GSH, GSSG, MDA and DNA damage following HN-2 administration (0.5 and 0.25 LD(50)). There was no alteration in the transaminases (AST and ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, neither with HN-2 nor with antidotes. The present study shows that HN-2 is highly toxic by percutaneous route and DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 can partially protect it.

  18. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  19. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  20. Effects of chemical agent injections on genotoxicity of wastewater in a microfiltration-reverse osmosis membrane process for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Tang, Xin; Sun, Ying-Xue; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Jing-Jing

    2013-09-15

    With combined microfiltration (MF)/ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) process being widely used in municipal wastewater reclamation, RO concentrate with high level genotoxicity is becoming a potential risk to water environment. In this study, wastewater genotoxicity in a MF-RO process for municipal wastewater reclamation and also the effects of chemical agent injections were evaluated by SOS/umu genotoxicity test. The genotoxicity of RO concentrate ranged 500-559 μg 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide)/L and 12-22 μg 4-NQO/mg DOC, was much higher than that of RO influent. Further research suggested that Kathon biocide was a key chemical agent associated with the genotoxicity increase. Kathon biocide used in RO system was highly genotoxic in vitro and Kathon biocide retained in RO system could contribute to a higher genotoxicity of RO concentrate. Hence, treatments for biocides before discharging are necessary. Chlorination of secondary effluent could significantly decrease the genotoxicity and increasing chlorine dosage could be an efficacious method to decrease the genotoxicity of RO concentrate. According to the result of the experiment, the dosage of chlorine in dual-membrane process could be set to about 2.5 mg Cl₂/L. The effect of antiscalant (2-phosphomobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid) was also investigated; it turned out to have no effect on genotoxicity.

  1. Domestic swine model for the assessment of chemical warfare agent-anesthetic interactions: some effects of sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Conley, J; Hunter, K; Lundy, P; Hamilton, M; Sawyer, T W

    2000-08-01

    A domestic swine model was developed to examine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with anesthetics and other drugs used during general anesthesia. Animals were fully instrumented, and clinically relevant physiological parameters were monitored throughout the experimental procedures. Exposure of animals under halothane anesthesia to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD; 1 mg/kg intravenous) produced mild signs of systemic intoxication during the subsequent 5 hours. Induction doses of ketamine 1 hour after HD exposure resulted in periods of profound apnea, with continued respiratory distress for the next 2 hours. When animals were treated with HD 1 hour after the initiation of ketamine anesthesia, severe and persistent convulsion-like muscular activity was observed within 45 minutes of HD administration. This nonpurposeful activity was not ameliorated by diazepam but was dramatically reduced or eliminated by resumption of halothane anesthesia. Treatment of HD-intoxicated pigs with succinylcholine produced a prolonged apnea resulting in death. In these apparently mildly HD-intoxicated animals, the introduction of ketamine or succinylcholine can rapidly induce potentially life-threatening situations.

  2. [Validation of measurement methods and estimation of uncertainty of measurement of chemical agents in the air at workstations].

    PubMed

    Dobecki, Marek

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the requirements for measurement methods of chemical agents in the air at workstations. European standards, which have a status of Polish standards, comprise some requirements and information on sampling strategy, measuring techniques, type of samplers, sampling pumps and methods of occupational exposure evaluation at a given technological process. Measurement methods, including air sampling and analytical procedure in a laboratory, should be appropriately validated before intended use. In the validation process, selected methods are tested and budget of uncertainty is set up. The validation procedure that should be implemented in the laboratory together with suitable statistical tools and major components of uncertainity to be taken into consideration, were presented in this paper. Methods of quality control, including sampling and laboratory analyses were discussed. Relative expanded uncertainty for each measurement expressed as a percentage, should not exceed the limit of values set depending on the type of occupational exposure (short-term or long-term) and the magnitude of exposure to chemical agents in the work environment.

  3. Thiolates Chemically Induce Redox Activation of BTZ043 and Related Potent Nitro Aromatic Anti-Tuberculosis Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rohit; Moraski, Garrett C.; Krchňák, Viktor; Miller, Patricia A.; Colon-Martinez, Mariangelli; Herrero, Eliza; Oliver, Allen G.; Miller, Marvin J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) forms of tuberculosis (TB) has stimulated research efforts globally to expand the new drug pipeline. Nitro aromatic compounds, including 1, 3-Benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs) and related agents, are a promising new class for the treatment of TB. Research has shown that the nitroso intermediates of BTZs that are generated in vivo cause suicide inhibition of decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2′ oxidase (DprE1), which is responsible for cell wall arabinogalactan biosynthesis. We have designed and synthesized novel anti-TB agents inspired from BTZs and other nitroaromatic compounds. Computational studies indicated that the unsubstituted aromatic carbons of BTZ043 and related nitroaromatic compounds are the most electron deficient and might be prone to nucleophilic attack. Our chemical studies on BTZ043 and the additional nitro aromatic compounds synthesized by us and the others confirmed the postulated reactivity. The results indicate that nucleophiles such as thiolates, cyanide and hydride induce non-enzymatic reduction of the nitro groups present in these compounds to the corresponding nitroso intermediates by addition at the unsubstituted electron deficient aromatic carbon present in these compounds. Furthermore we demonstrate here that these compounds are good candidates for the classical von Richter reaction. These chemical studies offer an alternate hypotheses for the mechanism of action of nitro aromatic anti-TB agents in that the cysteine thiol(ate) or a hydride source at the active site of DprE1 may trigger the reduction of the nitro groups in a manner similar to the von Richter reaction to the nitroso intermediates, to initiate the inhibition of DprE1. PMID:23402278

  4. The role of the sand in chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans: Al Eskan disease and "dirty dust".

    PubMed

    Korényi-Both, A L; Svéd, L; Korényi-Both, G E; Juncer, D J; Korényi-Both, A L; Székely, A

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between Al Eskan disease and the probable exposure to chemical warfare agents by Persian Gulf War veterans. Al Eskan disease, first reported in 1991, compromises the body's immunological defense and is a result of the pathogenic properties of the extremely fine, dusty sand located in the central and eastern region of the Arabian peninsula. The disease manifests with localized expression of multisystem disorder. Signs and symptoms of Al Eskan disease have been termed by the news media "Persian Gulf syndrome." The dust becomes a warfare agent when toxic chemicals are microimpregnated into inert particles. The "dirty dust" concept, that the toxicity of an agent could be enhanced by absorption into inactive particles, dates from World War I. A growing body of evidence shows that coalition forces have encountered Iraqi chemical warfare in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War to a much greater extent than early U.S. Department of Defense information had indicated. Veterans of that war were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the form of direct (deliberate) attacks by chemical weapons, such as missiles and mines, and indirect (accidental) contamination from demolished munition production plants and storage areas, or otherwise. We conclude that the microimpregnated sand particles in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War depleted the immune system and simultaneously acted as vehicles for low-intensity exposure to chemical warfare agents and had a modifying-intensifying effect on the toxicity of exposed individuals. We recommend recognition of a new term, "dirty sand," as a subcategory of dirty dust/dusty chemical warfare agents. Our ongoing research efforts to investigate the health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans suggest that Al Eskan disease is a plausible and preeminent explanation for the preponderance of Persian Gulf War illnesses.

  5. DNA damage, severe organ lesions and high muscle levels of As and Hg in two benthic fish species from a chemical warfare agent dumping site in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Petochi, Tommaso; Corsi, Ilaria; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Baroni, Davide; Alcaro, Luigi; Focardi, Silvano; Tursi, Angelo; Marino, Giovanna; Frigeri, Antonio; Amato, Ezio

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the environmental threat to benthic species from chemical weapons dumped in the southern Adriatic Sea. An ecotoxicological approach using chemical analysis and biological responses was applied, in two sentinel species: the Blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus and European conger Conger conger. Specimen were collected in a stretch of sea, where had been dumped war materials and from a reference site free of ordnance. Residues of yperite, Hg and As were measured in fish fillets. Skin, liver, kidney and spleen were examined for histopathological and macroscopical lesions. Liver detoxifying capacities (EROD and UDPGT) and genotoxicity (comet assay) were also investigated. As and Hg levels were three-four times higher than those from the reference site in both species (p<0.001). Both species captured in dumping site showed clear signs of chronic illness according to the health assessment index (HAI). Deep ulcers and nodules were observed on skin and external organs. Histological lesions such as periportal and bile duct fibrosis, pericholangitis, steatosis, granuloma and elevated splenic MMCs were detected in liver and spleen. Significantly higher EROD activities were also found in both species from dumping site (p<0.01). Comet assay revealed genotoxicty in gills of C. conger from dumping site, indicating uptake of chemical warfare agents through fish gills. European conger was found to be a more sensitive bioindicator of this type of contamination than the Blackbelly rosefish.

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Staub, W.P.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1990-09-01

    This is the 1990 Addendum (Volume 2) for the Phase I report on the disposal of chemicals and munitions at Anniston Army Depot. Included in the Addendum are responses to reviewers' comments on population density estimates, seismicity information, fault locations, and references. Reviewing agencies errata, and conclusions are also listed. Information presented does not change the principal conclusion reached by the Phase I report, that on-site disposal remains valid for Anniston Army Depot. (SM)

  7. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology.

  8. Application and appreciation of chemical sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) and its composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2007-12-01

    The sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) (PASP) and its composites were applied in the field by two forms (spraying around by PASP solution and PASP powder directly). It was found that the sand fixing effect in powder form was not as good as in solution form, but it was more practical in dry region. It needed 9, 6 and 7 days for PASP, xanthan gum-PASP (X2) and ethyl cellulose-PASP (E3) to attain the maximal mechanical strength after they were applied, respectively. The sand fixing effect decreased when the material was subjected to repeated hydration-dehydration cycles and the material had no negative influence on plant growth. The PASP and its composites had water-retaining ability and could reduce the water evaporation. PMID:17628237

  9. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  10. Variants of Phosphotriesterase for the Enhanced Detoxification of the Chemical Warfare Agent VR.

    PubMed

    Bigley, Andrew N; Mabanglo, Mark F; Harvey, Steven P; Raushel, Frank M

    2015-09-01

    The V-type organophosphorus nerve agents are among the most hazardous compounds known. Previous efforts to evolve the bacterial enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) for the hydrolytic decontamination of VX resulted in the identification of the variant L7ep-3a, which has a kcat value more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of wild-type PTE for the hydrolysis of VX. Because of the relatively small size of the O-ethyl, methylphosphonate center in VX, stereoselectivity is not a major concern. However, the Russian V-agent, VR, contains a larger O-isobutyl, methylphosphonate center, making stereoselectivity a significant issue since the SP-enantiomer is expected to be significantly more toxic than the RP-enantiomer. The three-dimensional structure of the L7ep-3a variant was determined to a resolution of 2.01 Å (PDB id: 4ZST ). The active site of the L7ep-3a mutant has revealed a network of hydrogen bonding interactions between Asp-301, Tyr-257, Gln-254, and the hydroxide that bridges the two metal ions. A series of new analogues that mimic VX and VR has helped to identify critical structural features for the development of new enzyme variants that are further enhanced for the catalytic detoxification of VR and VX. The best of these mutants has been shown to have a reversed stereochemical preference for the hydrolysis of VR-chiral center analogues. This mutant hydrolyzes the two enantiomers of VR 160- and 600-fold faster than wild-type PTE hydrolyzes the SP-enantiomer of VR.

  11. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Design

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Ma, Qing; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-09-16

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties, are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes because of their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO{sub 2}) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high-temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50-75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in the longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from {approx}48 to {approx}65 emu/g of the core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles remained stable with no change in the structure and negligible changes in the magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  12. Sensitive monitoring of volatile chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counter-flow introduction.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Tsuge, Koichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Iura, Kazumitsu; Itoi, Teruo; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Koji; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Nagano, Hisashi; Waki, Izumi; Ezawa, Naoya; Tanimoto, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Shigeru; Fukano, Masumi; Okada, Hidehiro

    2013-03-01

    A new method for sensitively and selectively detecting chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air was developed using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Four volatile and highly toxic CWAs were examined, including the nerve gases sarin and tabun, and the blister agents mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1). Soft ionization was performed using corona discharge to form reactant ions, and the ions were sent in the direction opposite to the airflow by an electric field to eliminate the interfering neutral molecules such as ozone and nitrogen oxide. This resulted in efficient ionization of the target CWAs, especially in the negative ionization mode. Quadrupole MS (QMS) and ion trap tandem MS (ITMS) instruments were developed and investigated, which were movable on the building floor. For sarin, tabun, and HD, the protonated molecular ions and their fragment ions were observed in the positive ion mode. For L1, the chloride adduct ions of L1 hydrolysis products were observed in negative ion mode. The limit of detection (LOD) values in real-time or for a 1 s measurement monitoring the characteristic ions were between 1 and 8 μg/m(3) in QMS instrument. Collision-induced fragmentation patterns for the CWAs were observed in an ITMS instrument, and optimized combinations of the parent and daughter ion pairs were selected to achieve real-time detection with LOD values of around 1 μg/m(3). This is a first demonstration of sensitive and specific real-time detection of both positively and negatively ionizable CWAs by MS instruments used for field monitoring. PMID:23339735

  13. Secondary ionization of chemical warfare agent simulants: atmospheric pressure ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wes E; Clowers, Brian H; Haigh, Paul E; Hill, Herbert H

    2003-11-15

    For the first time, the use of a traditional ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (radioactive nickel ((63)Ni) beta emission ionization) and three alternative ionization sources (electrospray ionization (ESI), secondary electrospray ionization (SESI), and electrical discharge (corona) ionization (CI)) were employed with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS) to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants from both aqueous- and gas-phase samples. For liquid-phase samples, ESI was used as the sample introduction and ionization method. For the secondary ionization (SESI, CI, and traditional (63)Ni ionization) of vapor-phase samples, two modes of sample volatilization (heated capillary and thermal desorption chamber) were investigated. Simulant reference materials, which closely mimic the characteristic chemical structures of CWA as defined and described by Schedule 1, 2, or 3 of the Chemical Warfare Convention treaty verification, were used in this study. A mixture of four G/V-type nerve simulants (dimethyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and 2-(butylamino)ethanethiol) and one S-type vesicant simulant (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide) were found in each case (sample ionization and introduction methods) to be clearly resolved using the IM(tof)MS method. In many cases, reduced mobility constants (K(o)) were determined for the first time. Ion mobility drift times, flight times, relative signal intensities, and fragmentation product signatures for each of the CWA simulants are reported for each of the methods investigated. PMID:14615983

  14. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  15. Determination of decimal reduction time (D value) of chemical agents used in hospitals for disinfection purposes

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; da S Martins, Alzira M

    2003-01-01

    Background Prior to the selection of disinfectants for low, intermediate and high (sterilizing) levels, the decimal reduction time, D-value, for the most common and persistent bacteria identified at a health care facility should be determined. Methods The D-value was determined by inoculating 100 mL of disinfecting solution with 1 mL of a bacterial suspension (104 – 105 CFU/mL for vegetative and spore forms). At regular intervals, 1 mL aliquots of this mixture were transferred to 8 mL of growth media containing a neutralizing agent, and incubated at optimal conditions for the microorganism. Results The highest D-values for various bacteria were determined for the following solutions: (i) 0.1% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (pH 7.0) – E. coli and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.9 min); (ii) sodium hypochlorite (pH 7.0) at 0.025% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 24 min), E. coli and E. cloacae (D = 7.5 min); at 0.05% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.4 min) and E. coli (D = 6.1 min) and 0.1% for B. stearothermophilus (D = 3.5 min) and B. subtilis (D = 3.2 min); (iii) 2.0% glutaraldehyde (pH 7.4) – B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis (D = 25 min) and E. coli (D = 7.1 min); (iv) 0.5% formaldehyde (pH 6.5) – B. subtilis (D = 11.8 min), B. stearothermophilus (D = 10.9 min) and A. calcoaceticus (D = 5.2 min); (v) 2.0% chlorhexidine (pH 6.2) – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min), and at 0.4% for E. cloacae (D = 8.3 min); (vi) 1.0% Minncare® (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, pH 2.3) – B. stearothermophilus (D = 9.1 min) and E. coli (D = 6.7 min). Conclusions The suspension studies were an indication of the disinfectant efficacy on a surface. The data in this study reflect the formulations used and may vary from product to product. The expected effectiveness from the studied formulations showed that the tested agents can be recommended for surface disinfection as stated in present guidelines and emphasizes the importance and need to develop routine and novel programs to

  16. Neoplastic cell transformation by energetic heavy ions and its modification with chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    For many years we have been interested in understanding the potential carcinogenic effects of cosmic rays. We have studied the oncogenic effects of cosmic rays with accelerator-produced heavy particle radiation and with a cultured mammalian cell system--C3H10T1/2 cells. Our quantitative data obtained with carbon, neon, silicon, and iron particles showed that RBE is both dose and LET dependent for neoplastic cell transformation. RBE is higher at lower dose, and RBE increases with LET up to about 200 keV/μm. In nonproliferation confluent cells, heavy-ion induced transformation damage may not be repairable, although a dose modifying factor of about 1.7 was observed for X-ray radiation. Our recent studies with super-heavy high-energy particles, e.g., 960 MeV/u U235 ions (LET = 1900 keV/μm), indicate that these ions with a high inactivation cross-section can cause neoplastic cell transformation. The induction of cell transformation by radiation can be modified with various chemicals. We have found that the presence of DMSO (either during or many days after irradiation) decreased the transformation frequency significantly. It is, therefore, potentially possible to reduce the oncogenic effect of cosmic rays in space through some chemical protection.

  17. Sensitizers on inorganic carriers for decomposition of the chemical warfare agent yperite.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Preda, Elena; Iepure, Gabriel; Somoghi, Vasile; Carbonell, Esther; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds, such as mercaptans, alkali sulfides, alkali sulfites, and alkali thiosulfates, are byproducts of industrial processes and pollutants of waste and natural waters. Other sulfur-containing compounds such as yperite are dangerous chemical weapons. Efficient photocatalytic decomposition of these molecules is a process that can find applications in emergency situations or for the controlled destruction of chemical warfare stockpiles. A series of heterogeneous photocatalysts consisting of a metal phthalocyanine or 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium as photoactive components encapsulated inside the cavities of zeolite Y or the mesoporous channels of MCM-41 or supported on silica or titania-silica was tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of yperite. Two types of photoreactors, either an open reactor naturally aerated or a closed quartz tube with a constant airflow using UV or visible ambient light were used. These tests demonstrated that iron and manganese phthalocyanine and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium embedded in NaY or titania-silica can be suitable solid photocatalysts for the degradation of yperite using UV and visible irradiation. PMID:18678025

  18. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  19. Department of Defense FY 1990/FY 1991 biennial budget estimates submitted to Congress January 1989. Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Chemical Demilitarization Program was established in response to Section 1412 of the 1986 Defense Authorization Act (Public Law 99-145) that directs the DOD to destroy the complete unitary chemical stockpile by 1994 in conjunction with the production of binary chemical weapons. The Fiscal Year 1989 Defense Authorization Act (Public Law 100-456) extended program completion to 1997. Estimates contained in this budget reflect the 1997 completion date. The Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Defense appropriation includes operations and maintenance, procurement, and research and development budget activities. Construction funds in support of chemical demilitarization are contained in the Military Construction, Army Budget request. The Chemical Demilitarization Program provides resources to develop and test monitoring and disposal technology; equip, operate, and maintain disposal facilities; provide safe and secure transportation of chemical agents and munitions for disposal; dispose of all waste products; and decontaminate and dismantle all disposal equipment at the conclusion of toxic operations. Chemical agents and munitions are stored within the continental United States, Johnston Atoll, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Funds within this appropriation will by used to destroy the entire unitary lethal chemical stockpile. Also included are funds for Emergency Response and Program Oversight.

  20. Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants.

  1. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes.

    PubMed

    Janoš, Pavel; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, Ondřej; Pilařová, Věra; Vrtoch, Luboš; Kormunda, Martin; Mazanec, Karel; Štengl, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Four different synthetic routes were used to prepare active forms of cerium oxide that are capable of destroying toxic organophosphates: a sol-gel process (via a citrate precursor), homogeneous hydrolysis and a precipitation/calcination procedure (via carbonate and oxalate precursors). The samples prepared via homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and the samples prepared via precipitation with ammonium bicarbonate (with subsequent calcination at 500°C in both cases) exhibited the highest degradation efficiencies towards the extremely dangerous nerve agents soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) and the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl. These samples were able to destroy more than 90% of the toxic compounds in less than 10 min. The high degradation efficiency of cerium oxide is related to its complex surface chemistry (presence of surface OH groups and surface non-stoichiometry) and to its nanocrystalline nature, which promotes the formation of crystal defects on which the decomposition of organophosphates proceeds through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism that is not dissimilar to the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphates by phosphotriesterase. PMID:26561750

  2. Folates as adjuvants to anticancer agents: Chemical rationale and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Danenberg, Peter V; Gustavsson, Bengt; Johnston, Patrick; Lindberg, Per; Moser, Rudolf; Odin, Elisabeth; Peters, Godefridus J; Petrelli, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Folates have been used with cytotoxic agents for decades and today they are used in hundreds of thousands of patients annually. Folate metabolism is complex. In the treatment of cancer with 5-fluorouracil, the administration of folates mechanistically leads to the formation of [6R]-5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and the increased concentration of this molecule leads to stabilization of the ternary complex comprising thymidylate synthase, 2'-deoxy-uridine-5'-monophosphate, and [6R]-5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. The latter is the only natural folate that can bind directly in the ternary complex, with other folates requiring metabolic activation. Modulation of thymidylate synthase activity became central in the study of folate/cytotoxic combinations and, despite wide use, research into the folate component was neglected, leaving important questions unanswered. This article revisits the mechanisms of action of folates and evaluates commercially available folate derivatives in the light of current research. Better genomic insight and availability of new analytical techniques and stable folate compounds may open new avenues of research and therapy, ultimately bringing increased clinical benefit to patients. PMID:27637357

  3. [Physico-chemical and toxicological profile of gadolinium chelates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Idée, J-M; Fretellier, N; Thurnher, M M; Bonnemain, B; Corot, C

    2015-07-01

    Gadolinium chelates (GC) are contrast agents widely used to facilitate or to enable diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). From a regulatory viewpoint, GC are drugs. GC have largely contributed to the success of MRI, which has become a major component of clinician's diagnostic armamentarium. GC are not metabolised and are excreted by the kidneys. They distribute into the extracellular compartment. Because of its high intrinsic toxicity, gadolinium must be administered as a chelate. GC can be classified according to two key molecular features: (a) nature of the chelating moiety: either macrocyclic molecules in which gadolinium is caged in the pre-organized cavity of the ligand, or linear, open-chain molecules, (b) ionicity: Gd chelates can be ionic (meglumine or sodium salts) or non-ionic. The thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of the various GCs differ according to these structural characteristics. The kinetic stability of macrocyclic GCs is much higher than that of linear GCs and the thermodynamic stability of ionic GCs is generally higher than that of non-ionic GC, thus leading to a lower risk of gadolinium dissociation. This class of drugs has enjoyed an excellent reputation in terms of safety for a long time, until a causal link with a recently-described serious disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), was evidenced. It is acknowledged that the vast majority of NSF cases are related to the administration of some linear CG in renally-impaired patients. Health authorities, worldwide, released recommendations which drastically reduced the occurrence of new cases. PMID:25731664

  4. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes.

    PubMed

    Janoš, Pavel; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, Ondřej; Pilařová, Věra; Vrtoch, Luboš; Kormunda, Martin; Mazanec, Karel; Štengl, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Four different synthetic routes were used to prepare active forms of cerium oxide that are capable of destroying toxic organophosphates: a sol-gel process (via a citrate precursor), homogeneous hydrolysis and a precipitation/calcination procedure (via carbonate and oxalate precursors). The samples prepared via homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and the samples prepared via precipitation with ammonium bicarbonate (with subsequent calcination at 500°C in both cases) exhibited the highest degradation efficiencies towards the extremely dangerous nerve agents soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) and the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl. These samples were able to destroy more than 90% of the toxic compounds in less than 10 min. The high degradation efficiency of cerium oxide is related to its complex surface chemistry (presence of surface OH groups and surface non-stoichiometry) and to its nanocrystalline nature, which promotes the formation of crystal defects on which the decomposition of organophosphates proceeds through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism that is not dissimilar to the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphates by phosphotriesterase.

  5. Chemical defense collective protection technology. Volume 12. A procedure for recharging self-contained breathing apparatus air bottles in the presence of simulated chemical warfare agents. Final report, 6-11 September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, J.P.; Tucker, D.M.; Moore, G.

    1993-05-01

    A procedure was developed and tested for recharging Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) cylinders in an atmosphere contaminated with chemical agent simulant at concentrations which would produce casualties if actual agent were used. With the exception of a rack for storing the cylinders before and after recharging, all items used are currently available commercially or through off-the-shelf DOD supply sources. Cylinders were successfully recharged without contamination in the presence of chemical agent simulant in the compressor area as well as in the cylinder filling area. Inexperienced personnel easily learned and successfully followed the recharging procedures even though they were burdened by protective clothing and equipment. Chemical agents, SCBA, Firefighting, Self-contained breathing apparatus.

  6. Physical and chemical methods for enhancing rapid detection of viruses and other agents.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J H

    1993-01-01

    Viral replication events can be enhanced by physical, chemical, or heat treatment of cells. The centrifugation of cells can stimulate them to proliferate, reduce their generation times, and activate gene expression. Human endothelial cells can be activated to release cyclo-oxygenase metabolites after rocking for 5 min, and mechanical stress can stimulate endothelial cells to proliferate. Centrifugation of virus-infected cultures can increase cytopathic effects (CPE), enhance the number of infected cells, increase viral yields, and reduce viral detection times and may increase viral isolation rates. The rolling of virus-infected cells also has an effect similar to that of centrifugation. The continuous rolling of virus-infected cultures at < or = 2.0 rpm can enhance enterovirus, rhinovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, paramyxovirus, herpesvirus, and vaccinia virus CPE or yields or both. For some viruses, the continuous rolling of infected cell cultures at 96 rpm (1.9 x g) is superior to rolling at 2.0 rpm for viral replication or CPE production. In addition to centrifugation and rolling, the treatment of cells with chemicals or heat can also enhance viral yields or CPE. For example, the treatment of virus-infected cells with dimethyl sulfoxide can enhance viral transformation, increase plaque numbers and plaque size, increase the number of cells producing antigens, and increase viral yields. The infectivity of fowl plague virus is increased by 80-fold when 4% dimethyl sulfoxide is added to culture medium immediately after infection. The heat shocking of virus-infected cells also has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on the replication events of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The effects of motion, chemicals, or heat treatments on viral replication are not well understood. These treatments apparently activate cells to make them more permissive to viral infection and viral replication. Perhaps heat shock proteins or stress

  7. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  8. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-01

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  9. Crucial steps to life: From chemical reactions to code using agents.

    PubMed

    Witzany, Guenther

    2016-02-01

    The concepts of the origin of the genetic code and the definitions of life changed dramatically after the RNA world hypothesis. Main narratives in molecular biology and genetics such as the "central dogma," "one gene one protein" and "non-coding DNA is junk" were falsified meanwhile. RNA moved from the transition intermediate molecule into centre stage. Additionally the abundance of empirical data concerning non-random genetic change operators such as the variety of mobile genetic elements, persistent viruses and defectives do not fit with the dominant narrative of error replication events (mutations) as being the main driving forces creating genetic novelty and diversity. The reductionistic and mechanistic views on physico-chemical properties of the genetic code are no longer convincing as appropriate descriptions of the abundance of non-random genetic content operators which are active in natural genetic engineering and natural genome editing.

  10. Crucial steps to life: From chemical reactions to code using agents.

    PubMed

    Witzany, Guenther

    2016-02-01

    The concepts of the origin of the genetic code and the definitions of life changed dramatically after the RNA world hypothesis. Main narratives in molecular biology and genetics such as the "central dogma," "one gene one protein" and "non-coding DNA is junk" were falsified meanwhile. RNA moved from the transition intermediate molecule into centre stage. Additionally the abundance of empirical data concerning non-random genetic change operators such as the variety of mobile genetic elements, persistent viruses and defectives do not fit with the dominant narrative of error replication events (mutations) as being the main driving forces creating genetic novelty and diversity. The reductionistic and mechanistic views on physico-chemical properties of the genetic code are no longer convincing as appropriate descriptions of the abundance of non-random genetic content operators which are active in natural genetic engineering and natural genome editing. PMID:26723230

  11. Improved actuation strain of PDMS-based DEA materials chemically modified with softening agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Miriam; Blümke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that gained much in interest particularly in recent years. One active field of research is the improvement of their properties by modification of their structural framework. The object of this work is to improve the actuation properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based DEAs by covalent incorporation of mono-vinyl-terminated low-molecular PDMS chains into the PDMS network. These low-molecular units act as a kind of softener within the PDMS network. The loose chain ends interfere with the network formation and lower the network's density. PDMS films with up to 50wt% of low-molecular PDMS additives were manufactured and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.

  12. Toxicology of organophosphorus compounds in view of an increasing terrorist threat.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment.

  13. Toxicology of organophosphorus compounds in view of an increasing terrorist threat.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment. PMID:27349770

  14. Gallic Acid as a Complexing Agent for Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing Slurries at Neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yung Jun; Kang, Min Cheol; Kwon, Oh Joong; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Gallic acid was investigated as a new complexing agent for copper (Cu) chemical mechanical polishing slurries at neutral pH. Addition of 0.03 M gallic acid and 1.12 M H2O2 at pH 7 resulted in a Cu removal rate of 560.73±17.49 nm/min, and the ratio of the Cu removal rate to the Cu dissolution rate was 14.8. Addition of gallic acid improved the slurry performance compared to glycine addition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and contact angle measurements showed that addition of gallic acid enhanced the Cu polishing behavior by suppressing the formation of surface Cu oxide.

  15. Evaluation of sperm tests as indicators of germ-cell damage in men exposed to chemical or physical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Watchmaker, G.; Gordon, L.

    1983-06-15

    As reviewed here, at least 89 chemical exposures have been studied for their effects on human spermatogenesis using sperm tests, with the majority showing some effect on sperm count, motility, or morphology. Approximately 85% of these exposures were to experimental or therapeutic drugs, 10% to occupational or environmental agents, and 5% to recreational drugs. This paper briefly describes the more common sperm-based methods and reviews some of their applications. It also includes guidelines for undertaking a human sperm study, as well as a discussion of the predictive value of induced sperm changes, an evaluation of the role of animal sperm tests, and a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the sperm tests.

  16. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  17. Polysulfide as a novel chemical agent to solidify/stabilize lead in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifei; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Qiao, Wei; Gao, Xingbao; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2010-09-01

    Polysulfide was produced and tested for use as an inexpensive chemical agent for the solidification/stabilization of lead in fly ash, generating little hydrogen sulfide gas. According to the equations S(n)(2-)-->S+S(n-1)(2-) and S(n)(2-)+H(+)-->HS(-)+S(n-1), this agent was expected to achieve long-term stability of disposed Pb. The leachate concentration of Pb in fly ash after sulfide treatment showed a decrease-increase-decrease trend. We also compared Pb leaching behavior from an aging/weathering experiment to thermodynamic modeling using the database from the Geochemist's Workbench software. Thermodynamic modeling indicated the tendency that when the precipitate was formed in the order of PbO, PbCO(3).PbO, and PbCO(3), the total concentration of soluble Pb will be lowered. The leaching curve of Pb in fly ash without a lime slurry injection system was close to PbO, whose activity was initially near 1, but when leaching time increased, it shifted to that of PbCO(3).PbO, before finally ending at that of PbCO(3). However, Ca(OH)(2) sprayed on fly ash interfered with the carbonation process of Pb. PMID:20688350

  18. High-throughput identification of chemical inhibitors of E. coli Group 2 capsule biogenesis as anti-virulence agents.

    PubMed

    Goller, Carlos C; Seed, Patrick C

    2010-07-19

    Rising antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli, the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), has placed a new focus on molecular pathogenesis studies, aiming to identify new therapeutic targets. Anti-virulence agents are attractive as chemotherapeutics to attenuate an organism during disease but not necessarily during benign commensalism, thus decreasing the stress on beneficial microbial communities and lessening the emergence of resistance. We and others have demonstrated that the K antigen capsule of E. coli is a preeminent virulence determinant during UTI and more invasive diseases. Components of assembly and export are highly conserved among the major K antigen capsular types associated with UTI-causing E. coli and are distinct from the capsule biogenesis machinery of many commensal E. coli, making these attractive therapeutic targets. We conducted a screen for anti-capsular small molecules and identified an agent designated "C7" that blocks the production of K1 and K5 capsules, unrelated polysaccharide types among the Group 2-3 capsules. Herein lies proof-of-concept that this screen may be implemented with larger chemical libraries to identify second-generation small-molecule inhibitors of capsule biogenesis. These inhibitors will lead to a better understanding of capsule biogenesis and may represent a new class of therapeutics.

  19. A two-pulse, pump-probe method for short-range, remote standoff detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Scott E.; Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2011-05-01

    We describe a photofragment laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) method that can be applied to the short-range-standoff detection of low-volatility organophosphonate chemical warfare agents (OP-CWAs) on surfaces. It operates by photofragmenting a surface-bound analyte and then actively interrogating a released phosphorous monoxide (PO) fragment using LIF. We demonstrate a single-pulse-pair (pump = 500 μJ @ 266 nm; probe = 20 μJ @ 248 nm) surface detection sensitivity of 30 μg/cm2 for the organophosphonate diisopropyl isothiocyanate phosphonate (DIPP) on aluminum and 210 μg/cm2 for the same analyte on a more porous concrete surface. By detecting the PO photofragment, the method indicates the presence of organophosphonates; however, we show that it also responds to other phosphorouscontaining compounds. Because of its limited specificity, we believe that the method may have most immediate use as a mapping tool to rapidly identify "hotspots" of OP-CWAs. These would then be confirmed using a more specific tool. As one method of confirming the presence of OP-CWAs (and identifying the agent), we demonstrate that the probe beam can be used to acquire Raman-scattering spectra of the target area.

  20. A Cu(II)2 Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Contrast Agent Enabled by Magnetic Exchange Coupling.

    PubMed

    Du, Kang; Harris, T David

    2016-06-29

    The ability of magnetic exchange coupling to enable observation of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) in transition metal ions with long electronic relaxation times (τs) is demonstrated. Metalation of the dinucleating, tetra(carboxamide) ligand HL with Cu(2+) in the presence of pyrophosphate (P2O7)(4-) affords the complex [LCu(II)2(P2O7)](-). Solution-phase variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data reveal weak ferromagnetic superexchange coupling between the two S = 1/2 Cu(II) centers, with a coupling constant of J = +2.69(5) cm(-1), to give an S = 1 ground state. This coupling results in a sharpened NMR line width relative to a GaCu analogue, indicative of a shortening of τs. Presaturation of the amide protons in the Cu2 complex at 37 °C leads to a 14% intensity decrease in the bulk water (1)H NMR signal through the CEST effect. Conversely, no CEST effect is observed in the GaCu complex. These results provide the first example of a Cu-based PARACEST magnetic resonance contrast agent and demonstrate the potential to expand the metal ion toolbox for PARACEST agents through introduction of magnetic exchange coupling. PMID:27276533

  1. Continuum Model for Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent from a Rubbery Polymer using the Maxwell-Stefan Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent

    Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.

  2. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment.

  3. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment. PMID:27061963

  4. Oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and chemical agents used in a textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Lim, B R; Hu, H Y; Ahn, K H; Fujie, K

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and typical chemicals such as desizing, scouring, dispersing and swelling agents used in the textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process were experimentally studied. The refractory organic matters remained in the effluent of biological treatment process without degradation may be suitable for the improvement of biodegradability and mineralized to CO2 by combined ozonation with and without hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, the refractory chemicals contained in the scouring agent A and swelling agent may not be mineralized and their biodegradability may not be improved by ozonation. However, the BOD/DOC ratio of scouring agent B increased from 0.3 to 0.45 after ozonation. Based on the results described above, advanced treatment process involving the ozonation without and with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, followed by biological treatment was proposed for the treatment of refractory wastewater discharged from the textile-dyeing process.

  5. Threats and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  6. Concise and Efficient Fluorescent Probe via an Intromolecular Charge Transfer for the Chemical Warfare Agent Mimic Diethylchlorophosphate Vapor Detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjun; Fu, Yanyan; Xu, Wei; Fan, Tianchi; Gao, Yixun; He, Qingguo; Zhu, Defeng; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2016-02-16

    Sarin, used as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) for terrorist attacks, can induce a number of virulent effects. Therefore, countermeasures which could realize robust and convenient detection of sarin are in exigent need. A concise charge-transfer colorimetric and fluorescent probe (4-(6-(tert-butyl)pyridine-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline, TBPY-TPA) that could be capable of real-time and on-site monitoring of DCP vapor was reported in this contribution. Upon contact with DCP, the emission band red-shifted from 410 to 522 nm upon exposure to DCP vapor. And the quenching rate of TBPY-TPA reached up to 98% within 25 s. Chemical substances such as acetic acid (HAc), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PAMP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) do not interfere with the detection. A detection limit for DCP down to 2.6 ppb level is remarkably achieved which is below the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration. NMR data suggested that a transformation of the pyridine group into pyridinium salt via a cascade reaction is responsible for the sensing process which induced the dramatic fluorescent red shift. All of these data suggest TBPY-TPA is a promising fluorescent sensor for a rapid, simple, and low-cost method for DCP detection, which could be easy to prepare as a portable chemosensor kit for its practical application in real-time and on-site monitoring. PMID:26776457

  7. Mechanistic insights into the luminescent sensing of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and simulants using trivalent lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Genevieve H; Johnston, Martin R

    2015-04-20

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OP CWAs) are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can cause incapacitation and death within minutes of exposure, and furthermore are largely undetectable by the human senses. Fast, efficient, sensitive and selective detection of these compounds is therefore critical to minimise exposure. Traditional molecular-based sensing approaches have exploited the chemical reactivity of the OP CWAs, whereas more recently supramolecular-based approaches using non-covalent interactions have gained momentum. This is due, in part, to the potential development of sensors with second-generation properties, such as reversibility and multifunction capabilities. Supramolecular sensors also offer opportunities for incorporation of metal ions allowing for the exploitation of their unique properties. In particular, trivalent lanthanide ions are being increasingly used in the OP CWA sensing event and their use in supramolecular sensors is discussed in this Minireview. We focus on the fundamental interactions of simple lanthanide systems with OP CWAs and simulants, along with the development of more elaborate and complex systems including those containing nanotubes, polymers and gold nanoparticles. Whilst literature investigations into lanthanide-based OP CWA detection systems are relatively scarce, their unique and versatile properties provide a promising platform for the development of more efficient and complex sensing systems into the future.

  8. Concise and Efficient Fluorescent Probe via an Intromolecular Charge Transfer for the Chemical Warfare Agent Mimic Diethylchlorophosphate Vapor Detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjun; Fu, Yanyan; Xu, Wei; Fan, Tianchi; Gao, Yixun; He, Qingguo; Zhu, Defeng; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2016-02-16

    Sarin, used as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) for terrorist attacks, can induce a number of virulent effects. Therefore, countermeasures which could realize robust and convenient detection of sarin are in exigent need. A concise charge-transfer colorimetric and fluorescent probe (4-(6-(tert-butyl)pyridine-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline, TBPY-TPA) that could be capable of real-time and on-site monitoring of DCP vapor was reported in this contribution. Upon contact with DCP, the emission band red-shifted from 410 to 522 nm upon exposure to DCP vapor. And the quenching rate of TBPY-TPA reached up to 98% within 25 s. Chemical substances such as acetic acid (HAc), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PAMP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) do not interfere with the detection. A detection limit for DCP down to 2.6 ppb level is remarkably achieved which is below the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration. NMR data suggested that a transformation of the pyridine group into pyridinium salt via a cascade reaction is responsible for the sensing process which induced the dramatic fluorescent red shift. All of these data suggest TBPY-TPA is a promising fluorescent sensor for a rapid, simple, and low-cost method for DCP detection, which could be easy to prepare as a portable chemosensor kit for its practical application in real-time and on-site monitoring.

  9. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  10. On modeling of chemical stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system using a high pH solution with chelating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Rose, P.; Fayer, S.; Pruess, K.

    2009-05-01

    Dissolution of silica and calcite in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments using a high-temperature flow reactor. (Note that the term 'silica' used here includes amorphous silica, quartz, and silicate glass bead). The mineral dissolution and associated porosity enhancement in the experiments were reproduced by reactive transport modeling using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method was applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters applicable to the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase, while avoiding precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well. Injection at a lower temperature of 120 C (over 160 C in the base-case) results in a porosity increase that is smaller close to the injection point, but extends to a larger radial distance. A slower kinetic rate results in less aggressive mineral dissolution close to the injection point and larger extent along the flow path, which is favorable for chemical stimulation.

  11. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  12. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on atypical agents targeting the dopamine transporterɸ

    PubMed Central

    Reith, Maarten E.A.; Blough, Bruce E.; Hong, Weimin C.; Jones, Kymry T.; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Rothman, Richard B.; Katz, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of Stimulant-Use Disorders remains a formidable challenge, and the dopamine transporter (DAT) remains a potential target for antagonist or agonist-like substitution therapies. Methods This review focuses on DAT ligands, such as benztropine, GBR 12909, modafinil, and DAT substrates derived from phenethylamine or cathinone that have atypical DAT-inhibitor effects, either in vitro or in vivo. The compounds are described from a molecular mechanistic, behavioral, and medicinal-chemical perspective. Results Possible mechanisms for atypicality at the molecular level can be deduced from the conformational cycle for substrate translocation. For each conformation, a crystal structure of a bacterial homolog is available, with a possible role of cholesterol, which is also present in the crystal of drosophila DAT. Although there is a direct relationship between behavioral potencies of most DAT inhibitors and their DAT affinities, a number of compounds bind to the DAT and inhibit dopamine uptake but do not share cocaine-like effects. Such atypical behavior, depending on the compound, may be related to slow DAT association, combined sigma-receptor actions, or bias for cytosol-facing DAT. Some structures are sterically small enough to serve as DAT substrates but large enough to also inhibit transport. Such compounds may display partial DA releasing effects, and may be combined with release or uptake inhibition at other monoamine transporters. Conclusions Mechanisms of atypical DAT inhibitors may serve as targets for the development of treatments for stimulant abuse. These mechanisms are novel and their further exploration may produce compounds with unique therapeutic potential as treatments for stimulant abuse. PMID:25548026

  13. Computational Investigations of Potential Energy Function Development for Metal--Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, and Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioce, Christian R.

    sigma donates, and subsequent back-bonding occurs into a pi* antibonding orbital. This is a different type of interaction not seen in the three existing classes of metal-carbene complexes, namely Fischer, Schrock, and Grubbs. Finally, the virtual engineering of enhanced chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection systems is discussed. As part of a U.S. Department of Defense supported research project, in silico chemical modifications to a previously synthesized zinc-porphyrin, ZnCS1, were made to attempt to achieve preferential binding of the nerve agent sarin versus its simulant, DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Upon modification, a combination of steric effects and induced hydrogen bonding allowed for the selective binding of sarin. The success of this work demonstrates the role that high performance computing can play in national security research, without the associated costs and high security required for experimentation.

  14. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. U.S. military role in countering the biological and chemical warfare threat: Attacking the enemy`s will. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, J.E.

    1998-02-13

    One of the greatest challenges facing the US military today in the post-Cold War Era is countering the proliferation of biological and chemical weapons (BCW). Known adversaries of the United States currently possess such weapons and will most likely employ them in future conflicts based on the perceived attractiveness associated with BCW. The US military can and must play an active role in deterring the proliferation and potential employment of these horrific weapons. Attacking the adversary`s will to possess or employ them is the singular, long lasting solution to a growing global crisis. The US military`s principal means of attacking this will is to negate the attractiveness of obtaining or already possessing a biological and chemical warfare capability.

  16. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world’s most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1–induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  17. Resveratrol induces catalytic bioscavenger paraoxonase 1 expression and protects against chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Bryan F; Seetharam, Karthik I; Dhoieam, Pilin; Gordon, Richard K; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2008-04-01

    Current advances in enzyme bioscavenger prophylactic therapy against chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure are moving towards the identification of catalytic bioscavengers that can degrade large doses of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents without self destruction. This is a preferred method compared to therapy with the purified stoichiometric bioscavenger, butyrylcholinesterase, which binds OPs 1:1 and would thus require larger doses for treatment. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is one such catalytic bioscavenger that has been shown to hydrolyze OP insecticides and contribute to detoxification in animals and humans. Here we investigated the effects of a common red wine ingredient, Resveratrol (RSV), to induce the expression of PON-1 in the human hepatic cell line HC04 and evaluated the protection against CWNA simulants. Dose-response curves showed that a concentration of 20 microM RSV was optimal in inducing PON-1 expression in HC04 cells. RSV at 20 microM increased the extracellular PON-1 activity approximately 150% without significantly affecting the cells. Higher doses of RSV were cytotoxic to the cells. Resveratrol also induced PON-1 in the human lung cell line A549. RSV pre-treatment significantly (P = 0.05) protected the hepatic cells against exposure to 2x LD(50) of soman and sarin simulants. However, lung cells were protected against soman simulant exposure but not against sarin simulant exposure following RSV treatment. In conclusion, these studies indicate that dietary inducers, such as RSV, can up-regulate PON-1, a catalytic bioscavenger, which can then hydrolyze and protect against CWNA-induced toxicity, providing a prospective new method to protect against CWNA exposure.

  18. Development of a rat pilocarpine model of seizure/status epilepticus that mimics chemical warfare nerve agent exposure.

    PubMed

    Tetz, Lauren M; Rezk, Peter E; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Gordon, Richard K; Steele, Keith E; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2006-07-01

    We developed a rat pilocarpine seizure/status epilepticus (SE) model, which closely resembles 1.6-2.0 x LD50 soman exposure, to analyse the molecular mechanism of neuronal damage and to screen effective neuroprotectants against cholinergic agonist and chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure. Rats implanted with radiotelemetry probes capable of recording electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), temperature, and physical activity were treated with lithium chloride (5 mEq/kg, im), followed 24 h later by (ip) doses of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Based on radiotelemetry analysis, a dose of 240 mg/kg (ip) pilocarpine generated seizure/SE analogous to 1.6-2.0 x LD50 of soman. The model was refined by reducing the peripheral convulsions without affecting the central nervous system (CNS) by administering methylscopolamine bromide (1 mg/kg, ip), an anti-cholinergic that does not cross the blood-brain barrier. However, when methylscopolamine bromide was administered, a higher dose of pilocarpine (320 mg/kg, ip) was required to generate the equivalent seizure/SE. Histopathology data indicated that pilocarpine induces significant damage to the hippocampal region of the brain, with similar neuropathology to that of 1.6-2.0 x LD50 soman exposure. There was a reduction in body temperature after the administration of pilocarpine, as observed in organophosphate (OP) nerve agents exposure. The heart-rate of pilocarpine-treated animals increased compared to the normal range. The pilocarpine seizure/SE model was also reproducible in the absence of lithium chloride. These results support that pilocarpine seizure/SE model is useful in studying the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology and screening neuroprotectants following cholinergic agonist and CWNA exposure.

  19. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  20. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:27113675