Science.gov

Sample records for chemical weapons informal

  1. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...@bis.doc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 and Commerce Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR) specify the...

  2. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...) 482-4895, Lawrence.Hall@bis.doc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons... weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits the use, development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention,...

  3. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  4. National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-07-01

    This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

  5. Chemical Demilitarization Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-243 Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA) As...Date Assigned: December 19, 2010 Program Information Program Name Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil...2012 Chem Demil-ACWA December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:29:37 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical

  6. Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

  7. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    PubMed Central

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

  8. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  9. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  10. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  11. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  12. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  13. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR). 710.1 Section 710.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.1 Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  14. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR). 710.1 Section 710.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.1 Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  15. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR). 710.1 Section 710.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.1 Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  16. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR). 710.1 Section 710.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.1 Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  17. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR). 710.1 Section 710.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.1 Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...

  18. Biologic and chemical weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, William P; Dilbero, Deanna; Schauben, Jay L

    2002-11-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) are capable of producing massive casualties and are typically grouped into nuclear, biologic, and chemical weapons. In the wake of the September 11th disasters, attention to terrorist groups and the potential for use of WMDs has increased. Biologic and chemical weapons are relatively accessible and inexpensive to develop, and are thought to be the most available to foreign states and subnational terrorist groups. This article reviews various biologic and chemical weapons, including emergency diagnosis and management of selected agents.

  19. Countering the Proliferation of Chemical Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Preparedfor the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Accesloni For NTIS CRA&i ADTIC TAB Unannounced 0 Justification. - _ BY Natil Defense Researh Institute...chemical-weapon capability served it well. The threat of chemical-weapon use by Iraq had severe psychological implications for its intended victims. But

  20. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    2001 Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel Chemical Surety *Army Regulation 50–6 Effective 26 July 2001 H i s t o r y . T h i s p u b l i s h e s... effective and uniform implementation of the personnel reliability program (PRP). c. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (DCSLOG) will— (1...assistance visits to enhance the effectiveness of the surety program. (3) Provide surety related information through USANCA publications. (4) Prepare

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  2. Chemical Weapons Proliferation in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    reservations.1 4 These reservations essentially oermit retaliatory use of chemical weapons if first used against them by enemies or nonparties.1 5 Kuwait, Libya...of laboratory equipment. The chemical trade is a hiqhly cnmpetitive business which outs a ’,•re.,m2 .on confiden.ialitv.34 More recently, the

  3. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  4. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  5. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  6. 76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on... implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA), and the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR), has had on commercial...

  7. 75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...-0543-02] Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving... Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA) and the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR), has had on commercial activities...

  8. 78 FR 75910 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Legitimate Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons... Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA) and the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR), has had on commercial activities...

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced Concepts Program. The tests examined the effectiveness of CEO in destroying sarin (GB), a chemical nerve agent. The tests used 0.5 mL, 0.95 mL, and 1.0 mL of GB, corresponding to 544 mg, 816 mg, and 1,090 mg, respectively, of GB. Analysis of the off gas showed that, under continuous processing of the GB agent, destruction efficiencies of better than six 9s (99.9999% destroyed) could be achieved.

  10. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and... to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation...

  11. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  12. Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, Umatilla Chemical Depot in Oregon, and Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah. The chemical weapons in these facilities account...program office has allocated additional costs for closure based on data from the closure process at the Umatilla and Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal...contractor, PCAPP is approximately five times as complex than the Anniston incineration facility and BGCAPP is roughly ten times as complex.7 As an

  13. Database for chemical weapons detection: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

    2008-10-01

    The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

  14. Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Schumeyer, G.

    1990-04-01

    Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

  15. Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-04-07

    Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

  16. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Guy R

    2008-05-01

    Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts.

  17. Chemical Weapons: The legacy of Operation Desert Storm. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henscheid, M.R.

    1991-06-21

    United States and allied forces deploying in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf region faced a formidable Iraqi offensive chemical weapons capability. This threat immediately challenged U.S. policy and resolve as outlined in the 1990 bilateral chemical weapons treaty with the Soviet Union. The necessity to assess retaliatory options, in the event of Iraqi chemical use, was apparent, and are evaluated in this analysis. The proliferation of chemical weapons worldwide, disarmament efforts, and chemical defense readiness are also reviewed in the context of the 1991 Gulf War. The conclusion that retaliation by conventional means alone as the only acceptable alternative supporting the presidential goal of increased stability in the Middle East is reached. Prospects for revitalized post-war multilateral chemical disarmament efforts, and a reduction in chemical warfare proliferation are also assessed. Recommendations for a post-war national chemical defense policy are made.

  18. Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1997-12-31

    It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

  19. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-05-04

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at ANAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

  20. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  1. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  2. 77 FR 75145 - Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Impact of the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on... implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA) and the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR), has had on commercial...

  3. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  4. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  5. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  6. Disposal of chemical weapons: Alternative technologies. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The United States has pledged to destroy its entire stockpile of chemical weapons by the end of this decade. The U.S. Army has begun this process by building and testing a demonstration facility to disassemble and incinerate these weapons on Johnston Island, a small island in the mid-Pacific Ocean. After tests prove the concept, the Army plans to build similar facilities for the other chemical weapons now stored at each of eight sites in the continental United States. Local community groups are opposed to the Army's current program at a number of these sites. The incineration of hazardous materials of all kinds has engendered concerns about public health impacts. Several organizations have suggested that technologies other than incineration may be safer and ore appropriate for this program. Because of these factors, Senator Wendell H. Ford asked the Office of Technology Assessment to evaluate the status and availability of alternative technologies for destruction of chemical weapons in the U.S. stockpile as an adjunct to OTA's larger assessment of weapons dismantlement. The background paper briefly describes the Army's chemical weapons destruction program, discusses the factors that could affect a decision to develop alternatives, discusses the alternatives, and illustrates the difficulty of gaining public acceptance of complex technical systems.

  7. Future Foreign Perceptions of Chemical Weapons Utility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Iraq’s and Syria’s nuclear weapons programs, and the specter of such action may have precipitated Libya to abandon its program. North Korea and Iran ...declared as such. Today, only seven states have not acceded to the CWC: Angola, Egypt, Israel, Myanmar , North Korea , Somalia, and Syria.1 Of those...seven, Syria and North Korea most evidently maintain active offensive CW programs. Of CWC state par- ties, the United States has expressed compliance

  8. Medical experimentation concerning chemical and biological weapons for mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Erwin

    2003-04-01

    This article is the text of a speech originally presented at the Second World Conference on Medical Ethics at Gijon, Spain, on 2 October 2002 under the title "Medical Experimentation Concerning Chemical and Biological Weapons for Mass Destruction: Clinical Design for New Smallpox Vaccines: Ethical and Legal Aspects." Experimentation on vaccines such as smallpox is subject to the usual ethical rules such as the need for informed consent. However, the participants will not often be at risk of catching the disease but expose themselves by taking part in the experimentation. Professor Deutsch explores the implications of this, including the position of vulnerable groups such as children, those with mental handicaps, and those acting under orders such as the miliary, the policy and fire officers.

  9. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    PubMed

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons.

  10. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons and Missiles: Status and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-20

    produced enough plutonium for at least six nuclear weapons and tested a nuclear weapon with a yield of under 1 kiloton in October 2006. Pyongyang shut...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 20 FEB 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  11. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, E

    1999-01-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a PMID:10585899

  12. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  13. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  14. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  15. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  16. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  17. Terrorism: Background on Chemical, Biological, and Toxin Weapons and Options for Lessening Their Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-30

    CRS-4 13(...continued) National Center for Environmental Health , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emergency Room Procedures in Chemical...Chemical, biological, and toxin weapons pose additional concerns beyond mass casualties. Chemical, biological, and toxin weapons may contaminate the area...biological, and toxin weapons. One approach has been through funding significant increases in the public health system’s preparedness and response

  18. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  19. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  2. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  5. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  6. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  8. Domestic Implementation of a Chemical Weapons Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    for workplace exposure to various substances, and requires that data sheets for toxic substances be available. The OSHA inspection statute has... exposure levels. Many chemicals have a variety of uses. Some are used as pesticides and for other applications as well. The producers of such chemicals...produced as a primary prduct by some producers and as a byproduct in the production of acrylonitrile by other producers. The crude hydrocyanic acid

  9. Environmental Effects of Weapons Technology, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Michael; And Others

    This collection of articles includes a general account of the environmental effects of modern weapons technology, a selection of news reports demonstrating the peacetime hazards of chemical and biological weapons, data on the physiological effects of the most common chemical weapons, a discussion of the hazards of biological weapons, a report of…

  10. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  11. Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Senator Richard Lugar has proposed that the United States and Russia cooperate to ensure chemical weapons security in Syria and eventually dismantle them...military intervention. At the same time, the United States has been urging Russia , historically a patron of Syria, to encourage Asad to maintain control...2 Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated during a June 15, 2013, press conference that Russia has asked for and received assurances from the

  12. Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    be military intervention. At the same time, the United States has been urging Russia , historically a patron of Syria, to encourage Asad to maintain...stated during a June 15, 2013, press conference that Russia has asked for and received assurances from the Asad regime that Damascus would maintain such...Syria. Nevertheless, a Russian official involved in chemical weapons destruction stated in August 2012 that neither Russia nor the Soviet Union had

  13. Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Richard Lugar has proposed that the United States and Russia cooperate to ensure chemical weapons security in Syria and eventually dismantle them...intervention. At the same time, the United States has been urging Russia , historically a patron of Syria, to encourage Asad to maintain control over...Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated during a June 15, 2013, press conference that Russia has asked for and received assurances from the Asad

  14. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential

  15. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  16. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  17. 15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... biological weapons. 742.2 Section 742.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.2 Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a... opposing the proliferation and illegal use of chemical and biological weapons. (See also § 742.18 of...

  18. 15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biological weapons. 742.2 Section 742.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.2 Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a... opposing the proliferation and illegal use of chemical and biological weapons. (See also § 742.18 of...

  19. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  20. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  1. 15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biological weapons. 742.2 Section 742.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.2 Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a... opposing the proliferation and illegal use of chemical and biological weapons. (See also § 742.18 of...

  2. 15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biological weapons. 742.2 Section 742.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.2 Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a... opposing the proliferation and illegal use of chemical and biological weapons. (See also § 742.18 of...

  3. Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Zeuli, A.R.; Kellman, B.

    1994-11-28

    The author discusses some legal aspects of measures at the national level to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. The author discusses progress among several States in actually developing national CWC implementing measures. Implementing measures from Australia, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available to him in English through the PTS. He compares them in order to illustrate different approaches to national implementation that are emerging. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing ``background`` of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

  4. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W.

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  5. Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E.A.

    1997-12-31

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

  6. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a)...

  7. A comparison of national compliance legislation under the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-03

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is unique among multilateral arms control agreements in requiring national compliance legislation. This paper discusses the compliance legislation enacted by Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden in anticipation of this agreement entering into force. It compares how these five nations addressed the requirement for legislation to penalize violations of the Convention, as well as how they have developed legal mechanisms to acquire the information about dual-use chemicals that must be declared to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. This analysis shows that although different options exist to meet these treaty requirements, areas of consistency between nations are emerging that will encourage universal compliance as the regime matures.

  8. Detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Mariella Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-09-07

    A system for detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens uses a detector system, an electrostatic precipitator or scrubber, a circulation system, and a control. The precipitator or scrubber is activated in response to a signal from the detector upon the detection of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens.

  9. Terrorism: Background on Chemical, Biological, and Toxin Weapons and Options for Lessening Their Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Environmental Health , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emergency Room Procedures in Chemical Hazard Emergencies. A Job Aid, found online at...production; developing countermeasures through directed public health funding’ reducing public concern by enhancing public preparedness through...nor protection. Chemical, biological, and toxin weapons pose additional concerns beyond mass casualties. These weapons may contaminate the area in

  10. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  11. Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kadner, S.P.; Reisman, A.; Turpen, E.

    1996-10-01

    The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

  12. Do social parasitic bumblebees use chemical weapons? (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zimma, B O; Ayasse, M; Tengö, J; Ibarra, F; Schulz, C; Francke, W

    2003-10-01

    The bumblebee Bombus (Psithyrus) norvegicus Sp.-Schn. is an obligate social parasite of B. (Pyrobombus) hypnorum L. Behavioural observations indicated that nest-invading B. norvegicus females may use allomones to defend themselves against attacking host workers. However, so far no defensive chemicals used by social parasitic bumblebee females have been identified. We analysed volatile constituents of the cuticular lipid profile of B. norvegicus females. Furthermore, we performed electrophysiological studies and behavioural experiments in order to identify possible chemical weapons. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography showed 15 compounds to trigger responses in antennae of the host workers. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the main compound among the cuticular volatiles of B. norvegicus females was found to be dodecyl acetate. A corresponding mixture of synthetic volatiles as well as pure dodecyl acetate showed a strong repellent effect on starved host workers. B. norvegicus females use dodecyl acetate to repel attacking B. hypnorum workers during nest usurpation and subsequently during colony development. Dodecyl acetate is the first repellent allomone identified in bumblebees.

  13. [Chemical weapons: antidotes. View about the real means, perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, I; Meunier, J

    2000-01-01

    Chemical methods remain a credible threat in 1999. The doctrine for their use not only includes the battlefield but also domestic terrorism as was disclosed during the Tokyo metro attempt in 1995. International Treaties have not yet proven their efficacy. The arsenal of chemical weapons has changed little since the second World War but is now dispersed into many high-risk zones throughout the world. There has also been little change in antidotes: therapeutic prevention with pyridostigmine against organo-phosphorus compounds, protective treatment for seizure-induced brain lesions using anticonvulsants in association with oxime for acetylcholinesterase reactivation, and atropine are combined in a three-compartment syringe. Preventive measures against vesicants and other suffocating or toxic intracellular substances (CN, AsH(3), fluorocarbons.) can only be achieved with protective skin covering or protective breathing devices. There is no specific treatment and we often have to use symptomatic medications. Future perspectives include: phosphotriesterases as organo-phosphorus scavengers, huperzine as pretreatment and gacyclidine (GCK 11) which would effectively complete emergency multiple drug therapy against nerve agents. A new two-compartment syringe is now prepared with atropine, avisafone and HI6 or pralidoxine. A gel made of cyclodextrines for external and eventually internal use is under study.

  14. Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2007-04-27

    The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

  15. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  16. 2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

  17. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  18. The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. PMID:10083714

  19. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Janeen Denise

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  20. U.S. Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    safeguard trade secrets. Leading corpora- tions such as DuPont, Dow, and Monsanto also supported CWC ratification to improve the public image of the...represented large chemical companies such as Dow, DuPont, and Monsanto , was highly effective at contacting senators, putting out useful information, and

  1. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    PubMed

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  2. Emergency preparedness among people living near US army chemical weapons sites after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan L; Magsumbol, Melina S

    2007-09-01

    We examined trust in the army and perceptions of emergency preparedness among residents living near the Anniston, Ala, and Richmond, Ky, US Army chemical weapons stockpile sites shortly after September 11, 2001. Residents (n = 655) living near the 2 sites who participated in a cross-sectional population were relatively unprepared in the event of a chemical emergency. The events of September 11 gave rise to concerns regarding the security of stored chemical weapons and the sites' vulnerability to terrorist attacks. Although residents expressed trust in the army to manage chemical weapons safely, only a few expressed a desire to actively participate in site decisions. Compliance with procedures during emergencies could be seriously limited, putting residents in these sites at higher levels of risk of exposure to chemical hazards than nonresidents.

  3. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  4. 75 FR 27854 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of... Major Weapons in Support of Section 25(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act. OMB Control Number: 1405... annual report to Congress on projected sales of major weapons and weapons-related defense equipment...

  5. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-02-20

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

  6. [In-hospital management of victims of chemical weapons of mass destruction].

    PubMed

    Barelli, Alessandro; Gargano, Flavio; Proietti, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    Emergency situations caused by chemical weapons of mass destruction add a new dimension of risk to those handling and treating casualties. The fundamental difference between a hazardous materials incident and conventional emergencies is the potential for risk from contamination to health care professionals, patients, equipment and facilities of the Emergency Department. Accurate and specific guidance is needed to describe the procedures to be followed by emergency medical personnel to safely care for a patient, as well as to protect equipment and people. This review is designed to familiarize readers with the concepts, terminology and key operational considerations that affect the in-hospital management of incidents by chemical weapons.

  7. U.S. Army Training in the Tactical Employment of Chemical Weapons: A flaw in Our Chemical Deterrence?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-09

    Ibid., p. 236. 9 Haig, p. 6. 10 Ibid., p. 15. 11 Ibid., pp. 22-23. 12 Jill Smolove , "Return Of The Silent Killer", Tjj=, 22 August 1988, p. 46. 13...11-17. 5. Smolove , 11M ’p. 47. 6. William H. Webster, "Libya Building Chemical weapons Plant", The Kansas City Times, 26 October, 1988, p. A-3. 7...December 1986, pp. 41-42. Siebert, Major. ’"Chemical Weapons-Dull Swords In US Armory". Military Review March 1985. pp. 23-29. Smolove , Jill. "Return

  8. Proliferation of chemical weapons: putting the genie back in the bottle. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Weekly, T.M.

    1989-02-24

    Following the introduction of gas warfare in World War I, there developed a set of restraints which were effective in preventing the use of toxic chemical agents in World War II. The prolonged Korean and Vietnam conflicts were fought, again without resort to toxic chemical weapons. Recently, however, there has been a breakdown of the traditional restraints which were effective for fifty years in preventing chemical warfare. This study examines the traditional restraint system that evolved after World War I and extrapolates that framework into the modern era to determine what has changed to render the traditional restraints ineffective today. From this analysis, a model is derived for an effective chemical weapons protocol, and a strategy is proposed for worldwide chemical disarmament.

  9. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

  10. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A determination has been made, pursuant to Section 81(e) of...

  11. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Paris Chemical Weapons Conference 7-11 January 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Pact states and NATO, submitted by Milos Jakes, CPCZ Central Committee general secre- tary, organically falls within the category of these peace...reminds us of the Bastilles that have yet to be taken. Chemical weapons are one of them. Allow me to express confidence in 1989, following our

  12. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  13. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    DOE PAGES

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; ...

    2016-05-18

    We report that nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. Wemore » find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. Lastly, the resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.« less

  14. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  15. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-18

    We report that nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. Lastly, the resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  16. Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P.F.; Schenk, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

  17. Methods for the rapid detection of biological and chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.; Hemberger, P.H.; Swanson, B.I.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work undertook the development of technology for the detection of chemical and biological agents. The project consisted of three tasks: (1) modifying a transportable mass spectrometer for the detection of chemical gents; (2) demonstrating the detection of a specific bacterial DNA sequence using a fluorescence-based single- copy gene detector; and (3) upgrading a surface acoustic wave measurement station.

  18. Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  20. INTEGRATED CHEMICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A central regulatory mandate of the Environmental Protection Agency, spanning many Program Offices and issues, is to assess the potential health and environmental risks of large numbers of chemicals released into the environment, often in the absence of relevant test data. Models for predicting potential adverse effects of chemicals based primarily on chemical structure play a central role in prioritization and screening strategies yet are highly dependent and conditional upon the data used for developing such models. Hence, limits on data quantity, quality, and availability are considered by many to be the largest hurdles to improving prediction models in diverse areas of toxicology. Generation of new toxicity data for additional chemicals and endpoints, development of new high-throughput, mechanistically relevant bioassays, and increased generation of genomics and proteomics data that can clarify relevant mechanisms will all play important roles in improving future SAR prediction models. The potential for much greater immediate gains, across large domains of chemical and toxicity space, comes from maximizing the ability to mine and model useful information from existing toxicity data, data that represent huge past investment in research and testing expenditures. In addition, the ability to place newer “omics” data, data that potentially span many possible domains of toxicological effects, in the broader context of historical data is the means for opti

  1. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  2. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  3. The decay of chemical weapons agents under environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.

    1993-04-09

    The rate and mechanism of decay of chemical agents in the environment was studied via live agent field trials at the chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down, UK. The plan was to deposit the agents GD (Soman), VX, and H (sulfur mustard) on separate l-m{sup 2} plots on three successive days; i.e., Tuesday through Thursday. The depositions were to be made so as to give an areal concentration of 10 g/m{sup 2}. Four felt pads of approximately 25 cm{sup 2} each were placed at the corners of each of the test plots. These were subsequently extracted and analyzed by CBDE to determine the actual agent concentration. Samples for LLNL (two different types of soil, disks of silicone rubber gasket material, and short cylinders of concrete were to be contaminated and analyzed. Results are described.

  4. Portable sequential injection analyzer for onsite screening for chemical weapons degradation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Bacon, Christina P.; Mensch, David

    2002-02-01

    In many circumstances, the ability to perform on-site, point-of-collection analysis can play a pivotal role in the goals or requirements of the inquiry. Toward this end, the use of commercial or customized kits, which require the analyst to manually perform the metering and mixing of reagents with the sample and the subsequent visual, spectrophotometric or other interpretation of the results, has become widespread. Often, these methods can suffer from poor reproducibility and sensitivity in addition to being tedious and time consuming. Flow analysis methods, such as traditional flow injection analysis (FIA) and the more recent sequential injection analysis (SIA), have found widespread use in the automation of sample and reagent handling and subsequent analysis for many important analytes. These methods can be completely automated and offer excellent reproducibility, minimized analysis time, and in certain configurations, very high sensitivity. We have developed a miniaturized, fully portable SIA-based instrument for on-site screening for chemical weapons degradation products during challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as for the sensitive analysis of other important environmental analytes. In this paper, we will discuss our portable SIA design, the analytical approaches utilized, and results obtained for the analysis of representative chemical weapons degradation compounds.

  5. Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ronald A; Brown, Brent R; Hutchins, James B; Iandolo, John J; Jackson, Rhett; Slater, Leonard N; Bronze, Michael S

    2002-06-01

    Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary edema. Ricin intoxication can manifest as gastrointestinal hemorrhage after ingestion, severe muscle necrosis after intramuscular injection, and acute pulmonary disease after inhalation. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thus produce symptoms of increased cholinergic activity. Ammonia, chlorine, vinyl chloride, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, tear gas, and zinc chloride primarily injure the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. Sulfur mustard (and nitrogen mustard) are vesicant and alkylating agents. Cyanide poisoning ranges from sudden-onset headache and drowsiness to severe hypoxemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Health care providers should be familiar with the medical consequences of toxin exposure, and understand the pathophysiology and management of resulting illness.

  6. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    chloride and hydroxyl (strong nucleophile) dominated experimental solutions. Because of its overwhelming abundance in solution relative to hydroxyl ion, bicarbonate likely effectively competes in nucleophilic attack on phosphorus. The addition of natural dissolved organic matter at 100 mg/L in pH 7 bicarbonate buffered solution slowed VX hydrolysis rates {approx}2 times relative to controls, suggesting hydrophobic interaction. Adsorption experiments derived isotherms from batch aqueous experiments on montmorillonite clay, iron-oxyhydroxide goethite, and on amorphous silica. VX had moderate affinity for montmorillonite and amorphous silica, and very low affinity toward goethite. The addition of dissolved organic matter into solution enhanced VX adsorption to goethite, consistent with its high affinity for hydrophobic organic matter (log K{sub oc} = 2.52). Diisopropylaminoethylthiol (DESH), a hydrolysis product of VX showed equivalent adsorption to montmorillonite, and poor affinity to goethite and silica. However, hydrolysis products O-Ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) strongly adsorbed on goethite, but not on montmorillonite or silica, suggesting a ligand-exchange mechanism. VX degraded rapidly when completely dried onto goethite followed by rehydration, consistent with an irreversible chemical adsorption mechanism.

  7. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW

  8. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    PubMed

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  9. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  10. Implementing the chemical weapons convention: The nuts and bolts of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper is a presentation prepared for the American Bar Association in which the author discusses the issue of rights to privacy in the United States in the face of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention inspections. The author points out that there are no clear precedents in law which deal with all the issues which will result from international inspections for verification which are required by the treaty. In particular as inspections tread on the issue of personal rights or private property there is a fairly ill defined legal area which needs to be developed to allow such inspections in the face of constitutional guarantees.

  11. Operation Castle Cascade: managing multiple casualties from a simulated chemical weapons attack.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Younggren, Bradley N; Ness, Brian; Kvool, Valerie

    2003-05-01

    In the wake of the recent terrorist attack on the United States, there is an ever-increasing need for the defense against weapons of mass destruction. The use of explosive devices in combination with chemical agents could result in a community disaster with multiple traumatic and medical injuries. Military medical personnel may be the first called upon due to their unique training and equipment. Operation Castle Cascade was a large-scale exercise on a military instillation involving the apprehension of hostages and detonation of an explosive device containing dimethyl sulfate. We will provide details on the medical management of 50 patients with simulated chemical and traumatic injuries. Issues relating to on-site chemical identification, triage, decontamination, treatment, casualty collection, and transportation of casualties are addressed in this article.

  12. Application of a microcoil probe head in NMR analysis of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Vanninen, Paula

    2008-07-15

    A 1.7-mm microcoil probe head was tested in the analysis of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a high mass sensitivity in the detection of traces of organophosphorus compounds in samples. Methylphosphonic acid, the common secondary degradation product of sarin, soman, and VX, was detected at level 50 ng (0.52 nmol) from a 30-microL water sample using proton-observed experiments. Direct phosphorus observation of methylphosphonic acid with (31)P{(1)H} NMR experiment was feasible at the 400-ng (4.17 nmol) level. Application of the microcoil probe head in the spiked sample analysis was studied with a test water sample containing 2-10 microg/mL of three organophosphorus compounds. High-quality (1)H NMR, (31)P{(1)H} NMR, 2D (1)H-(31)P fast-HMQC, and 2D TOCSY spectra were obtained in 3 h from the concentrated 1.7-mm NMR sample prepared from 1 mL of the water solution. Furthermore, a 2D (1)H-(13)C fast-HMQC spectrum with sufficient quality was possible to measure in 5 h. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a considerable sensitivity improvement and reduction of measurement times for the NMR spectroscopy in identification of chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention.

  13. An exotic chemical weapon explains low herbivore damage in an invasive alga.

    PubMed

    Enge, Swantje; Nylund, Göran Mikael; Harder, Tilmann; Pavia, Henrik

    2012-12-01

    Invasion success of introduced species is often attributed to a lack of natural enemies as stated by the enemy release hypothesis (ERH). The ERH intuitively makes sense for specialized enemies, but it is less evident why invaders in their new area escape attacks by generalist enemies. A recent hypothesis explains low herbivore damage on invasive plants with plant defense chemicals that are evolutionarily novel to native herbivores. Support for this novel weapon hypothesis (NWH) is so far based on circumstantial evidence. To corroborate the NWH, there is a need for direct evidence through explicit characterizations of the novel chemicals and their effects on native consumers. This study evaluated the NWH using the highly invasive red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera. In pairwise feeding experiments, preferences between B. hamifera and native competitors were assessed for four common generalist herbivores in the invaded area. Through a bioassay-guided fractionation, we identified the deterrent compound and verified its effect in an experiment with the synthesized compound at natural concentrations. The results showed that native herbivores strongly preferred native algae to B. hamifera. The resistance against herbivores could be tracked down to the algal metabolite 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone, a compound not known from native algae in the invaded area. The importance of the chemical defense was further underlined by the feeding preference of herbivores for individuals with a depleted content of 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone. This study thus provides the first conclusive example of a highly successful invader where low consumption in the new range can be directly attributed to a specific chemical defense against evolutionarily naive native generalists. In conclusion, our results support the notion that novel chemical weapons against naive herbivores can provide a mechanistic explanation for plant invasion success.

  14. Sample preparation of organic liquid for off-site analysis of chemical weapons convention related compounds.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Palit, Meehir; Gupta, A K; Shakya, Purushottam; Sekhar, K; Dubey, D K

    2005-02-15

    Off-site analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and related compounds plays a key role in the verification program of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The analysis results, aiming toward unambiguous identication of compounds, depend on the type of sample preparation method. Development of milder sample preparation methods, which offer good recoveries and do not alter the structure of analytes, is highly desirable. Organic liquid with high hydrocarbon background is a frequently encountered challenge in off-site analysis and in official proficiency tests conducted by OPCW. Sample cleanup procedures, namely, solvent exchange followed by cooling and liquid-liquid extraction were studied to eliminate the hydrocarbons from organic liquid. Acetonitrile, a polar aprotic solvent, was effectively used to remove the background in both methods, and recoveries of spiked CWAs by the two techniques were between 69 and 99%.

  15. On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2013-10-11

    Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode.

  16. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  17. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  18. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  19. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  20. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  1. Strategic weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes the Defense Department's process for formulating its strategic weapons targeting policy and translating that policy into a nuclear war plan-the Single Integrated Operational Plan. GAO provides information on the relationship between the strategic nuclear targeting process and the determination of requirements for nuclear weapons and related delivery systems, level of civilian oversight, and categories and types of targets. These strategic nuclear weapons systems, commonly known as the triad, include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers armed with nuclear bombs and missiles.

  2. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  3. Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.

    PubMed

    Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

    2013-03-01

    Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits.

  4. Public health, law, and local control: destruction of the US chemical weapons stockpile.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decision making process that was once fully controlled by the US Army.

  5. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  6. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  7. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  8. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION... Schedule 2 chemicals may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in... may be useful in the production of chemical weapons, they also have legitimate uses in areas such...

  9. Chemical Information: Print. Directed Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Catherine C.

    This report provides a survey and evaluation of chemical information literature. Contained in this survey are an overview of the chemical literature field, comments on obtaining access to this literature and annotated bibliographies of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources as well as special topics. Primary sources include journals, patents,…

  10. Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Sorrells, Richard

    2002-06-01

    The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.

  11. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A.; Lewis, L.M.; Hemphill, R.C.; Adams, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  12. An Integrated Chemical Information Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Arleen N.; Cardinal, Susan K.

    2003-05-01

    Chemical educators have long recognized the importance of teaching their students how to locate and use chemical information. Many articles have been written about stand-alone courses and about efforts that focus on teaching specific topics within a course or two. At the University of Rochester, however, chemical information instruction is integrated into courses throughout the undergraduate and graduate curriculum in a sequential manner. Students utilize their information-seeking skills in completing course work and then this information serves as the base on which to continuously build new skills. This article describes the program as implemented over four years, notes how the faculty and librarian work together in conjunction with student input, and depicts how the instruction contributes to the educational value of the courses.

  13. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  14. CDC recommendations for civilian communities near chemical weapons depots: guidelines for medical preparedness--CDC. Publication of final recommendations.

    PubMed

    1995-06-27

    On July 27, 1994, CDC published in the Federal Register, 59 FR 38191, "CDC Recommendations for Civilian Communities Near Chemical Weapons Depots: Guidelines for Medical Preparedness" and requested public comment. Seven people sent comments; many were responding on behalf of governments or other institutions in affected communities. These comments are available upon request. These recommendations incorporate changes made in response to the comments received and constitutes CDC's final recommendations for minimum standards for prehospital and hospital emergency medical services' readiness in communities near the eight locations where the U.S. stockpile of lethal chemical weapons is stored. The eight locations are: Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Oregon; Tooele Army Depot, Utah; Pueblo Army Depot Activity, Colorado; Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas; Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Indiana; Anniston Army Depot, Alabama; Lexington Bluegrass Depot Activity, Kentucky; and Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These recommendations were prepared to assist emergency planners in determining emergency medical services' readiness in communities near the 8 locations where the U.S. stockpile of lethal chemical weapons is stored. These guidelines should not be used for any purpose other than planning for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program.

  15. Evaluation of warning and protective action implementation times for chemical weapons accidents. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1988-04-01

    This is a preliminary evaluation of warning systems and protective action options for off-site emergency planning for chemical weapons accidents. The analysis concentrates on the timing of warning and protective action implementation which is defined as the length of time it will take to protect off-site populations given different warning systems and protective action configurations. The evaluation concludes: (1) A specialized warning system using tone alert radios, automatic telephone dialing systems, sirens, or some combination thereof is desirable within 10 km of the fixed sites. (2) A rapid means of respiratory protection and expedient protective sheltering are the protective actions that could be most rapidly implemented within 10 km of a fixed-site release point. (3) Populations at distances greater than 10 km should have time to evacuate without the installation of specialized warning systems except in institutional facilities such as schools and nursing homes. (4) The detection and warning decision times are critical elements in determining the feasibility of population protection. A 5-to-15-minute organizational response is needed to provide warning to potentially threatened populations. Even an expedient organizational response, however, will not provide 100% assurance that everyone will have time to learn of the accident and take action. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyacinthe, Berg P.

    2006-05-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

  17. Strengthening the link between project planning and environmental impact assessment : the assembled chemical weapons assessment dialogue process.

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M. S.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-01-01

    An approach to stakeholder involvement known as the Dialogue process has been an integral part of the US Department of Defense Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Program from its inception. It has provided a means of soliciting stakeholder input before key decisions are made. The projects developed under the ACWA Program are characterized as major federal actions and therefore also must meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). One of these is the requirement for public participation in the environmental impact assessment process. This case study describes the ACWA Dialogue and NEPA processes, and examines their relationship in the implementation of the ACWA Program. The examination suggests that involving the public at the beginning of a program through a Dialogue-like process can introduce environmental considerations early in the project development process and contribute to the development of a more informed public. These factors improve the overall efficacy of public participation, strengthening the link between project development and environmental assessment in a manner consistent with the original intent of NEPA.

  18. Packaging and Delivery of Chemical Weapons: A Defensive Trojan Horse Stratagem in Chromodorid Nudibranchs

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Marianna; Gavagnin, Margherita; Haber, Markus; Guo, Yue-Wei; Fontana, Angelo; Manzo, Emiliano; Genta-Jouve, Gregory; Tsoukatou, Maria; Rudman, William B.; Cimino, Guido; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Mollo, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Background Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs) that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explanation could be that they are adapted so as to be preferentially attacked by predators. The nudibranchs might offer packages containing highly repugnant chemicals along with parts of their bodies to the predators, as a defensive variant of the strategic theme of the Trojan horse. Methodology and Principal Findings We detected, by quantitative 1H-NMR, extremely high local concentrations of secondary metabolites in the MDFs of six species belonging to five chromodorid genera. The compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and subsequently evaluated for their feeding deterrent properties, obtaining dose-response curves. We found that only distasteful compounds are accumulated in the reservoirs at concentrations that far exceed the values corresponding to maximum deterrent activity in the feeding assays. Other basic evidence, both field and experimental, has been acquired to elucidate the kind of damage that the predators can produce on both the nudibranchs' mantles and the MDFs. Significance As a result of a long evolutionary process that has progressively led to the accumulation of defensive chemical weapons in localized anatomical structures, the extant chromodorid nudibranchs remain in place when molested, retracting respiratory and chemosensory organs, but offering readily accessible parts of their body to predators. When these parts are masticated or wounded by predators, breakage of the MDFs results in the release of distasteful compounds at extremely high

  19. Biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction: updated clinical therapeutic countermeasures since 2003.

    PubMed

    Pettineo, Christopher; Aitchison, Robert; Leikin, Scott M; Vogel, Stephen N; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide updated treatment options for bioterrorism agents. This updated synopsis includes recent clinical cases and treatment recommendations that have arisen in the last 5 years. The decontamination, treatment, and disposition of these biologic and chemical agents are presented alphabetically by agent type: biologic, chemical, and radiologic/nuclear. The information provided outlines only new treatment options since 2003.

  20. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  1. Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on the will of the people forcing governments to yield to the terrorists` position. Yet there is a different public response in warfare compared with a peacetime terrorist attack. This paper examines the psychological response of people in wartime and applies this description to chemical weapons use in war and in peace. The public`s response can be predicted if one uses reality theory, a concept leaders can use to mitigate responses that would prevent the execution of national strategy.

  2. Physical and Computational Modeling for Chemical and Biological Weapons Airflow Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, Donald Marinus; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; Pink, Robert John; Barringer, C.; Knight, K. J.

    2002-11-01

    There is a need for information on dispersion and infiltration of chemical and biological agents in complex building environments. A recent collaborative study conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Bechtel Corporation Research and Development had the objective of assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for simulation of flow around complicated buildings through a comparison of experimental and numerical results. The test facility used in the experiments was INEEL’s unique large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow system. The CFD code used for modeling was Fluent, a widely available commercial flow simulation package. For the experiment, a building plan was selected to approximately represent an existing facility. It was found that predicted velocity profiles from above the building and in front of the building were in good agreement with the measurements.

  3. EXPANDING CHEMICAL-TOXICITY INFORMATION ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We find that the connection between structure and biological response is not symmetric, with biological response better at predicting chemical structure than vice versa. *ToxCast Toxicity Reference Database. We find that the connection between structure and biological response is not symmetric, with biological response better at predicting chemical structure than vice versa. *ToxCast Toxicity Reference Database.

  4. Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Lakamp, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis presents evidence that suggests nuclear weapons could play a positive role in the US counterproliferation strategy, at least in some circumstances. It also explains how such a role could conflict with the US nonproliferation strategy. Such a role would also violate the nuclear taboo and be seen by a majority of countries as illegal and immoral. The United States has chosen a policy of calculated ambiguity in an attempt to retain the deterrent value of nuclear weapons without paying the political, legal, and moral costs of explicit reliance on nuclear weapons to deter the use of CBW. This may have short-term benefits, but ultimately may damage the national interest.

  5. A survey of chemical information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Shaikh, Aneesa Bashir

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the features, functions, and characteristics of a fairly wide variety of chemical information storage and retrieval systems currently in operation is given. The types of systems (together with an identification of the specific systems) addressed within this survey are as follows: patents and bibliographies (Derwent's Patent System; IFI Comprehensive Database; PULSAR); pharmacology and toxicology (Chemfile; PAGODE; CBF; HEEDA; NAPRALERT; MAACS); the chemical information system (CAS Chemical Registry System; SANSS; MSSS; CSEARCH; GINA; NMRLIT; CRYST; XTAL; PDSM; CAISF; RTECS Search System; AQUATOX; WDROP; OHMTADS; MLAB; Chemlab); spectra (OCETH; ASTM); crystals (CRYSRC); and physical properties (DETHERM). Summary characteristics and current trends in chemical information systems development are also examined.

  6. PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite

  7. Identification of Chemical Toxicity Using Ontology Information of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhanpeng; Xu, Rui; Dong, Changchun

    2015-01-01

    With the advance of the combinatorial chemistry, a large number of synthetic compounds have surged. However, we have limited knowledge about them. On the other hand, the speed of designing new drugs is very slow. One of the key causes is the unacceptable toxicities of chemicals. If one can correctly identify the toxicity of chemicals, the unsuitable chemicals can be discarded in early stage, thereby accelerating the study of new drugs and reducing the R&D costs. In this study, a new prediction method was built for identification of chemical toxicities, which was based on ontology information of chemicals. By comparing to a previous method, our method is quite effective. We hope that the proposed method may give new insights to study chemical toxicity and other attributes of chemicals.

  8. Equipping Network Warfare: Industrial-Era Bureaucracies for Information-Era Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    precision and standoff, intercepting any hostile platform early in its flight is increasingly important. — General Ronald R. Fogleman, 16th Chief of...reach; however, the above situations could all be worthwhile operational requirements of a network warfare platform . This suggests that the breadth...hardware and software requirements of cyberspace weapons platforms will be unique, driven by the defining characteristics of their domain and most

  9. WSTIAC: Weapon Systems Technology Information Analysis Center. Volume 6, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience Program 2004. Associate Editor; Journal of Counter Ordinance Technology. Joel L EDavis, Program Manager, Cognitive and Neural...tests were against unitary (nonseparating) targets representative of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A, involves of SCUD-type ballistic...Agent ( CSEA ) and prime contractor for the Aegis Weapon System agencies. A single query searches across 30 databases and and Vertical Launch System

  10. Analysis of chemical weapons decontamination waste from old ton containers from Johnston Atoll using multiple analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Creasy, W.R.; Brickhouse, M.D.; Morrisse, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    Decontamination waste from chemical weapons (CW) agents has been stored in ton containers on Johnston Atoll since 1971. The waste was recently sampled and analyzed to determine its chemical composition in preparation for future cleanups. Due to the range of products and analytical requirements, multiple chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were necessary, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatography/atomic emission detection (GC/AED), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The samples were screened for residual agents. No residual sarin (GB) or VX was found to detection limits of 20 ng/mL, but 3% of the samples contained residual sulfur mustard (HD) at < 140 ng/mL. Decontamination products of agents were identified. The majority (74%) of the ton containers were documented correctly, in that the observed decontamination products were in agreement with the labeled agent type, but for a number of the containers, the contents were not in agreement with the labels. In addition, arsenic compounds that are decontamination products of the agent lewisite (L) were observed in a few ton containers, suggesting that lewisite was originally present but not documented. This study was a prototype to demonstrate the level of effort required to characterize old bulk CW-related waste.

  11. Tautomerism in chemical information management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, Wendy A.

    2010-06-01

    Tautomerism has an impact on many of the processes in chemical information management systems including novelty checking during registration into chemical structure databases; storage of structures; exact and substructure searching in chemical structure databases; and depiction of structures retrieved by a search. The approaches taken by 27 different software vendors and database producers are compared. It is hoped that this comparison will act as a discussion document that could ultimately improve databases and software for researchers in the future.

  12. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer.

    PubMed

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-09-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A.; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-09-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process.

  14. The NIH-EPA Chemical Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Herbert J.; Andrews, Lawrence C.

    1979-01-01

    The NIH-EPA Chemical Information System (CIS) provides facilities useful for the characterization and identification of chemical substances in industrial, academic, regulatory, and emergency response environments. It is comprised of a variety of data bases, retrieval programs, and related processing and display programs with on-line interactive…

  15. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  16. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  17. 15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 1C352, 1C353, and 1C354; and (ii) Technology (ECCNs 1E001 and 1E351) for the production and/or disposal..., analytical, diagnostic, and food testing kits that consist of pre-packaged materials of defined composition...) Technology (ECCN 1E001) for the development or production of chemical detection systems and...

  18. The Disposal of Chemical Weapons and Material for Fiscal Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    1 ISO 14001 is the International Organization for Standardization standard for Environmental Management Systems. 3 The chemical depots and...through coordinated efforts with U.S. Army leadership , CMA management, employees, and contractors • Ensure that CMA communicates effectively about...facilities and working toward ISO 14001 -like conformance certification at CDFs. CMA will remain focused on involvement of communities, Congress, and other

  19. [Chemical incidents and gathering information on toxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-12-01

    Major cases of chemical incidents and information on chemical agents and chemical terrorist attacks are outlined. Since the late 1990s, major incidents occurred consecutively, such as two cases of sarin attack in 1994 and 1995, an oil spill from a Russian oil tanker in the Japan Sea in 1997, arsenic poisoning in Wakayama in 1998, the criticality incident at Tokai-Mura in 1999 in Japan, and terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York. The importance of crisis management and cooperation among relevant organizations has been emphasized. To provide information for an appropriate and quick response in emergencies, we prepared a Web portal site for information on chemicals including chemical agents, a chemical incident database, and links to relevant Web sites. In intentional cases of poisoning caused by toxic chemicals in Japan, 111 cases were collected mainly from a newspaper database (1984-1999). Many copy-cat poisonings occurred, especially in 1984-1985 and in 1998 just after an arsenic poisoning incident in Wakayama. Many cases occurred in the laboratories of institutes, universities, and hospitals where various types of chemicals are used.

  20. Compliance monitoring for the chemical weapons convention preliminary operational concepts--an adversarial analysis. Technical report, 5 September-12 November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Rudney, B.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this report is to assess preliminary operational concepts developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC). The 'Adversarial Analysis Methodology for the Chemical Weapons Convention,' developed by the JAYCOR Team, provides a conceptual framework and criteria for this assessment. Adversarial analysis (AA) complements the CRDEC methodology by accounting for noncompliance activities and includes risk and vulnerability analyses as well as a politico-strategic assessment of potentially noncompliant nations. CRDEC highlights many difficulties, flaws, and discrepancies in the formal CWC verification regime. AA helps overcome these shortcomings. First, it identifies how an adversary might accomplish cheating, spoofing, and circumvention (CSC), including underlying motivations and objectives. Second, it highlights potential verification system vulnerabilities that would permit CSC. Finally, it assesses the impact of such activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The end product of this approach is a vulnerability assessment report describing the potential effectiveness of various deceptive practices and recommendations for improving the verification regime's resistance to deception.... On-Site Inspections, CRDEC, Adversarial Analysis, Verification, Deception, Chemical Weapons, Convention, Chemical Weapons, Noncompliance.

  1. Characterization of Chemical Weapons Convention Schedule 3 Compounds by Quantitative 13C NMR Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Stokes-Einstein equation for a rigid isotropic rotor: r = 3 7 3 kT In the equation, q is viscosity (0.224 mPa s at 5 ’C), extrapolated from the reported... viscosities for hydrogen cyanide at 0 and 25 oC,31 r is the radius of the hydrogen cyanide molecule, calculated from its 1.064 x 10-8 cm C-H distance...Lammers, G.; Janssen, L.P.B.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. Quantitative Analysis of Chemically Modified Starches by ’H-NMR Spectroscopy. Starch /Staerke 1995; 47

  2. Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

  3. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons.

  4. Novel Weapons Testing: Are Invasive Plants More Chemically Defended than Native Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Eric M.; Parker, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average) to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species. PMID:20454658

  5. Iron and its complexation by phenolic cellular metabolites: from oxidative stress to chemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a transition metal that forms chelates and complexes with various organic compounds, also with phenolic plant secondary metabolites. The ligands of iron affect the redox potential of iron. Electrons may be transferred either to hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide or molecular oxygen. In the first case, oxidative stress is decreased, in the latter two cases, oxidative stress is increased. This milieu-dependent mode of action may explain the non-linear mode of action of juglone and other secondary metabolites. Attention to this phenomenon may help to explain idiosyncratic and often nonlinear effects that result in biological assays. Current chemical assays are discussed that help to explore these aspects of redox chemistry.

  6. Neurosciences and research on chemical weapons of mass destruction in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmaltz, Florian

    2006-09-01

    As a side-product of industrial research, new chemical nerve agents (Tabun, Sarin, Soman) superior to those available to the Allied Forces were discovered in Nazi Germany. These agents were never used by Germany, even though they were produced at a large scale. This article explores the toxicological and physiological research into the mechanisms of action of these novel nerve agents, and the emergence of military research objectives in neurophysiological and neurotoxicological research. Recently declassified Allied military intelligence files document secret nerve agent research, leading to intensified research on anticholinesterase agents in the peripheral and the central nervous system. The article discusses the involvement of IG Farben scientists, educational, medical and military institutions, and of Nobel Prize laureate Richard Kuhn, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research.

  7. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  8. Lepidopteran defence droplets - a composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators

    PubMed Central

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Clausen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Borch, Jonas; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Insects often release noxious substances for their defence. Larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) secrete viscous and cyanogenic glucoside-containing droplets, whose effectiveness was associated with their physical and chemical properties. The droplets glued mandibles and legs of potential predators together and immobilised them. Droplets were characterised by a matrix of an aqueous solution of glycine-rich peptides (H-WG11-NH2) with significant amounts of proteins and glucose. Among the proteins, defensive proteins such as protease inhibitors, proteases and oxidases were abundant. The neurotoxin β-cyanoalanine was also found in the droplets. Despite the presence of cyanogenic glucosides, which release toxic hydrogen cyanide after hydrolysis by a specific β-glucosidase, the only β-glucosidase identified in the droplets (ZfBGD1) was inactive against cyanogenic glucosides. Accordingly, droplets did not release hydrogen cyanide, unless they were mixed with specific β-glucosidases present in the Zygaena haemolymph. Droplets secreted onto the cuticle hardened and formed sharp crystalline-like precipitates that may act as mandible abrasives to chewing predators. Hardening followed water evaporation and formation of antiparallel β-sheets of the peptide oligomers. Consequently, after mild irritation, Zygaena larvae deter predators by viscous and hardening droplets that contain defence proteins and β-cyanoalanine. After severe injury, droplets may mix with exuding haemolymph to release hydrogen cyanide. PMID:26940001

  9. Lepidopteran defence droplets - a composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators.

    PubMed

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Clausen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Borch, Jonas; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2016-03-04

    Insects often release noxious substances for their defence. Larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) secrete viscous and cyanogenic glucoside-containing droplets, whose effectiveness was associated with their physical and chemical properties. The droplets glued mandibles and legs of potential predators together and immobilised them. Droplets were characterised by a matrix of an aqueous solution of glycine-rich peptides (H-WG11-NH2) with significant amounts of proteins and glucose. Among the proteins, defensive proteins such as protease inhibitors, proteases and oxidases were abundant. The neurotoxin β-cyanoalanine was also found in the droplets. Despite the presence of cyanogenic glucosides, which release toxic hydrogen cyanide after hydrolysis by a specific β-glucosidase, the only β-glucosidase identified in the droplets (ZfBGD1) was inactive against cyanogenic glucosides. Accordingly, droplets did not release hydrogen cyanide, unless they were mixed with specific β-glucosidases present in the Zygaena haemolymph. Droplets secreted onto the cuticle hardened and formed sharp crystalline-like precipitates that may act as mandible abrasives to chewing predators. Hardening followed water evaporation and formation of antiparallel β-sheets of the peptide oligomers. Consequently, after mild irritation, Zygaena larvae deter predators by viscous and hardening droplets that contain defence proteins and β-cyanoalanine. After severe injury, droplets may mix with exuding haemolymph to release hydrogen cyanide.

  10. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.

    PubMed

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) < or = 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t(1/2) < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t(1/2) < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  11. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... chemical facilities. On April 9, 2007, the Department issued an Interim Final Rule (IFR), implementing...

  12. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 μmol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be

  13. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  14. The nuclear weapons world

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents insight into the technical world of weapons production. It discusses accountability in nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Nuclear decisions and the weapons and strategy they concern are too mammoth, too complex and too intimidating a subject for most of us to grapple with. The more so because informed debate is rare, and because information is difficult to obtain. In Britain, Parliamentary questions receive evasive answers or no answers at all, and the rationale of official secrecy is used as a reason to reveal less and less about decisions on national defense: between 1981 and 1987, for example, the number of open government documents published on defence fell from fifty-seven to two. In the case of NATO, decisions on nuclear strategy into the next century are taken in secret by defence ministers meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group.

  15. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  16. Information Content of Turbulent Chemical Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Roberts, P. J. W.; Rahman, S.; Dasi, L. P.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid decrease in concentration contaminants released into the natural environment due to turbulent diffusion has traditionally been modeled based on time-averaged quantities. In contrast to the time-averaged concentration characteristics, the instantaneous characteristics and information content are poorly understood. Instantaneous peak levels are important in many contexts, including the impact of contaminants on organisms and the local ecosystem. The current work is motivated by the need to understand how aquatic organisms, such as blue crabs, search for and locate turbulent chemical odor plume sources. A fundamental question is what information is available to an animal or observer indicating its relative position to the plume source. In this study, the chemical plume is released iso-kinetically into a fully-developed, uniform open channel flow at 50 mm/s. Instantaneous concentration and velocity fields are simultaneously measured using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and digital particle tracking velocimetry (DPTV), respectively. In addition to the mean and variance, quantities of interest include intermittency, the temporal rise slope of chemical concentration and spatial correlations.

  17. Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures (NARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-22

    Fast, reliable, and accurate communications are essential for nuclear weapon accident response operations. Moreover, securing adequate internal ...activities near the scene of a nuclear weapon accident to speed the flow of information to the public and the internal audience. Although it is 183...Departments and Agencies in a nuclear weapon accident. Inherent in this event are the relationships between international , national, State, and

  18. Trends in information theory-based chemical structure codification.

    PubMed

    Barigye, Stephen J; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Bonchev, Danail

    2014-08-01

    This report offers a chronological review of the most relevant applications of information theory in the codification of chemical structure information, through the so-called information indices. Basically, these are derived from the analysis of the statistical patterns of molecular structure representations, which include primitive global chemical formulae, chemical graphs, or matrix representations. Finally, new approaches that attempt to go "back to the roots" of information theory, in order to integrate other information-theoretic measures in chemical structure coding are discussed.

  19. The Indiana University Chemical Information Center Program of Chemical Literature Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Gary

    1982-01-01

    Describes three chemical information science courses offered by Indiana University (IU) Department of Chemistry. Also describes goals and operation of IU's Chemical Information Center, created to implement online searching of chemical databases and to assume operation of the IU dissemination of information services based on Chemical Abstracts…

  20. 75 FR 60444 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... technical information contact: Bernice Mudd, Information Management Division 7407M, Office of Chemical Safety Pollution Prevention, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington,...

  1. Musculoskeletal colloquialisms based on weapons.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anuj

    2017-01-01

    Eponyms and colloquialisms are commonly used in orthopaedic literature and convey a great deal of information in a concise fashion. Several orthopaedic conditions have characteristic clinical or radiologic appearances, mimicking the appearance of certain arms or weapons. Most of these are easy to memorise and recognise, provided the orthopaedic surgeon is aware of the colloquialism and familiar with the appearance of the weapon on which it is based. Unfortunately, many such colloquialisms are based on traditional weapons no longer in current use, and their appearances are not familiar to most orthopaedists, creating confusion and difficulty in understanding them. In this paper, we have reviewed the musculoskeletal colloquialisms based on weapons, including a brief description of the weapon with illustrations, highlighting the importance of the colloquialism in diagnosis or treatment of musculoskeletal conditions.

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President... chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28,...

  3. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, Arvinda K; Palit, Meehir; Shakya, Purushottam; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Sekhar, K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometric (GC/EI-MS) analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids (DAESAs). These sulfonic acids are important environmental signatures of nerve agent VX and its toxic analogues, hence GC/EI-MS analysis of their methyl esters is of paramount importance for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. DAESAs were prepared by condensation of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid with dialkylamines, and by condensation of dialkylaminoethyl chloride with sodium bisulfite. GC/EI-MS analysis of methyl esters of DAESAs yielded mass spectra; based on these spectra, generalized fragmentation routes are proposed that rationalize most of the characteristic ions.

  4. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section 27.400 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information....

  5. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section 27.400 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information....

  6. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section 27.400 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information....

  7. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section 27.400 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information....

  8. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27.400 Section 27.400 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information....

  9. Antisatellite Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.; White, Andrew D.

    1984-08-01

    Satellites are vulnerable to the existing Soviet ASAT weapon, to the U.S. ASAT under development, to the large numbers of ICBMs in existence, and to many future threats, including space mines. An ban on ASAT use and test is adequately verifiable to increase U.S. security and to reduce the likelihood of at least one cause of war. The U.S. should move with urgency to negotiate such a ban with the Soviet Union and then with other nations, because the ability efficiently to destroy the satellites of others is less valuable to the U.S. than the reduced threat to our own satellites under a treaty regime.

  10. Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrui

    1993-07-01

    This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

  11. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the radiation shielding information center. Volume 6. Reactor and weapons radiation shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An indexed bibliography is presented of literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1978 in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors, x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout), and low energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). The bibliography was typeset from data processed by computer from magnetic tape files. In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 4951-6200), an author index is given.

  12. Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals Basic Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The SACC will provide independent scientific advice and recommendations to the EPA on the scientific basis for risk assessments, methodologies, and pollution prevention measures and approaches for chemicals regulated under the TSCA.

  13. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

    2009-07-03

    This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient.

  14. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  15. Chemical Information Literacy at a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry majors at Goucher College are now required to take a 1-credit course in their sophomore year entitled Chemical Information Literacy. Students in the course learn the structure and organization of the chemical literature, and how to carry out searches of various databases for topic, author, chemical compound, or structure. They learn…

  16. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingirǒglu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPATIAL ACCURACY FOR CHEMICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information about chemicals can be critical to making timely decisions. The results of these decisions may not be realized for many years. In order to increase the value of chemical information and to create and utilize meaningful environmental models, the Environmental Prote...

  18. Chemical Information Instruction in Academe: Who Is Leading the Charge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.; Culp, F. Bartow; Twiss-Brooks, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Chemical information instruction (CII) has been recommended by the ACS Committee on Professional Training as a necessary component of the chemistry curriculum for both undergraduate and graduate students. Surveys conducted by the ACS Chemical Information Division (CINF) Education Committee in 1984 and 1993 showed the extent that CII had become…

  19. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  20. Why relevant chemical information cannot be exchanged without disclosing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Dmitry; Poroikov, Vladimir

    2005-09-01

    Both society and industry are interested in increasing the safety of pharmaceuticals. Potentially dangerous compounds could be filtered out at early stages of R&D by computer prediction of biological activity and ADMET characteristics. Accuracy of such predictions strongly depends on the quality & quantity of information contained in a training set. Suggestion that some relevant chemical information can be added to such training sets without disclosing chemical structures was generated at the recent ACS Symposium. We presented arguments that such safety exchange of relevant chemical information is impossible. Any relevant information about chemical structures can be used for search of either a particular compound itself or its close analogues. Risk of identifying such structures is enough to prevent pharma industry from relevant chemical information exchange.

  1. ASTM Data Banks and Chemical Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batik, Albert; Hale, Eleanor

    1972-01-01

    Among the data described are infrared indexes, mass spectral data, chromatographic data, X-ray emmission data, odor and taste threshold data, and thermodynamics data. This paper provides the chemical documentarian a complete reference source to a wide variety of analytical data. (Author/NH)

  2. Factors Affecting Dissemination of Chemical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushee, David E.

    1971-01-01

    That the value of information and, hence, the design of information systems, whether for a company, a university, a learned society, or an individual, is in the early stages of a significant change in structure is demonstrated in this paper. (5 references) (Author/NH)

  3. Introducing Graduate Students to the Chemical Information Landscape: The Ongoing Evolution of a Graduate-Level Chemical Information Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currano, Judith N.

    2016-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania's doctoral chemistry curriculum has included a required course in chemical information since 1995. Twenty years later, the course has evolved from a loosely associated series of workshops on information resources to a holistic examination of the chemical literature and its place in the general research process. The…

  4. Chemical hazard information profile of triphenyl phosphite

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, R.A.; Wiedow, M.A.; Daugherty, M.W.; Ross, R.H.; Leitzke, J.S.

    1986-12-01

    The only human study located showed that triphenyl phosphite applied to the skin in a 1:3 dilution with cold cream for 48 h caused slight irritation, and challenge with the compound 14 days later produced a moderate sensitization reaction. The most significant health effects described in experimental animals are those affecting the nervous system. In adult rats, subacute exposure to the chemical produced gross ataxia and spinal cord neuropathy which predominantly affected the lateral and ventral columns of the lumber and sacral regions. Other symptoms included hyperexcitability and agitation after several days, muscle wasting, asymmetric gait, and hind-limb paralysis. All animals developed tail rigidity with a kinky appearance, and some animals displayed a circling behavior. The compound appeared to only weakly inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. Single oral doses of triphenyl phosphite Gallus domesticus produced ataxia, and spinal cord and peripheral nerve histopathology. Neurotoxicity in rats, cats, and chickens indicated that triphenyl phosphite caused two distinct stages of action. Rats given s.c. injections of the chemical exhibit rapidly-developing stage or fine or coarse tremors which disappeared after a few hours. The later stage, occurring several days after treatment, caused hyperexcitability, spasticity and incoordination, followed by partial flaccid paralysis of the extremities. 135 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Mining chemical structural information from the drug literature.

    PubMed

    Banville, Debra L

    2006-01-01

    It is easier to find too many documents on a life science topic than to find the right information inside these documents. With the application of text data mining to biological documents, it is no surprise that researchers are starting to look at applications that mine out chemical information. The mining of chemical entities--names and structures--brings with it some unique challenges, which commercial and academic efforts are beginning to address. Ultimately, life science text data mining applications need to focus on the marriage of biological and chemical information.

  6. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  7. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 9, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On... United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of...

  9. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons... economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On... United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of...

  13. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  14. Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

  15. Testing weapons in space

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, A.B.

    1989-07-01

    The Antiballistic-Missile Treaty seems to forbid the testing of ABM weapons in space, but the US has pushed for a broad interpretation of the language. Would a more permissive regime really serve US interests This paper reviews the rationale of the treaty's provisions to help answer this question. Four modes of testing a space weapon are treated differently by the ABM treaty: (1) an orbiting weapon intercepts a ballistic weapon is flight; (2) intercepting weapon is launched on a suborbital flight; (3) both weapon and target are placed in space; and (4) orbiting weapon is aimed at an aircraft in flight or a target on the ground. Three approaches to negotiating an agreement to limit testing weapons in space are discussed. They differ in the strictness of the limits.

  16. Construction of a Linux based chemical and biological information system.

    PubMed

    Molnár, László; Vágó, István; Fehér, András

    2003-01-01

    A chemical and biological information system with a Web-based easy-to-use interface and corresponding databases has been developed. The constructed system incorporates all chemical, numerical and textual data related to the chemical compounds, including numerical biological screen results. Users can search the database by traditional textual/numerical and/or substructure or similarity queries through the web interface. To build our chemical database management system, we utilized existing IT components such as ORACLE or Tripos SYBYL for database management and Zope application server for the web interface. We chose Linux as the main platform, however, almost every component can be used under various operating systems.

  17. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  18. [Biological and toxin terrorism weapons].

    PubMed

    Bokan, Slavko

    2003-03-01

    The use of biological agents and toxins in warfare and terrorism has a long history. Human, animal and plant pathogens and toxins can cause disease and can be used as a threat to humans, animals and staple crops. The same is true for biological agents. Although the use of biological agents and toxins in military conflicts has been a concern of military communities for many years, several recent events have increased the awareness of terrorist use of these weapons against civilian population. A Mass Casualty Biological (Toxin) Weapon (MCBTW) is any biological and toxin weapon capable of causing death or disease on a large scale, such that the military or civilian infrastructure of the state or organization being attacked is overwhelmed. A militarily significant (or terrorist) weapon is any weapon capable of affecting, directly or indirectly, that is physically or psychologically, the outcome of a military operation. Although many biological agents such as toxins and bioregulators can be used to cause diseases, there are only a few that can truly threaten civilian populations on a large scale. Bioregulators or modulators are biochemical compounds, such as peptides, that occur naturally in organisms. They are new class of weapons that can damage nervous system, alter moods, trigger psychological changes and kill. The potential military or terrorist use of bioregulators is similar to that of toxins. Some of these compounds are several hundred times more potent than traditional chemical warfare agents. Important features and military advantages of new bioregulators are novel sites of toxic action; rapid and specific effects; penetration of protective filters and equipment, and militarily effective physical incapacitation. This overview of biological agents and toxins is largely intended to help healthcare providers on all levels to make decisions in protecting general population from these agents.

  19. 77 FR 21769 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... application for a test marketing exemption (TME), and to publish in the Federal Register periodic status... Federal Register periodic status reports on the new chemicals under review and the receipt of NOCs to... Table I. of this unit, EPA provides the following information (to the extent that such information...

  20. Assessment of a Library Science Program Specializing in Chemical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Gary; Monnier, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey of Indiana University Master in Library Science (M.L.S.)-Chemical Information Specialist program graduates. Information includes graduates' educational background; the nature of first jobs and current positions held; and databases most frequently used. Graduates generally favored more training in computer skills, patent…

  1. Ice Cream Seminars for Graduate Students: Imparting Chemical Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information on a chemical information literacy program designed primarily for new graduate students. The full implementation of this program is discussed, including defining its purpose, topics covered, content presented, methods of marketing, and evaluation. The result is a series of voluntary seminars given biweekly…

  2. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  3. On-flow pulsed field gradient heteronuclear correlation spectrometry in off-line LC-SPE-NMR analysis of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Ervasti, Mia; Björk, Heikki; Vanninen, Paula

    2009-02-01

    Hyphenation of liquid chromatography with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LC-NMR) is a useful technique in the analysis of complex samples. However, application of on-flow 1H NMR spectrometry during the LC-NMR analysis usually suffers from high intensity of eluent resonances. The poor dynamic range can be improved either with use of deuterated eluents or with various signal suppression schemes. Deuterated eluents are expensive, and peak-selective signal suppression schemes are often unsatisfactory when detection of chemicals at low concentration is needed. If the analytes have a common heteronucleus, on-flow pulsed field gradient heteronuclear correlation spectrometry can offer several benefits. The analytes can be monitored selectively, while the intense nondeuterated eluent and impurity background can be effectively eliminated. In our study, on-flow one-dimensional (1D) 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry was utilized in the analysis of characteristic organophosphorus degradation products of nerve agents sarin and soman during chromatographic separation. These chemicals were not detectable by UV, so their retention times were monitored using on-flow 1D 1H-31P HSQC. This enabled application of LC-NMR combined with solid-phase extraction (LC-SPE-NMR) in analysis of these organophosphorus chemicals in an alkaline decontamination solution. The analytes were extracted from the SPE cartridges with deuterated eluent, and the off-line NMR analysis was performed using a mass-sensitive microcoil probe head. The used on-flow 1D 1H-31P HSQC approach offered a high dynamic range and good detection limit (ca. 10 microg/55 nmol) with a high sampling frequency (1 point per 2 s) in the acquired pseudo-two-dimensional spectrum. No significant impurity background was present in the off-line NMR samples, and identification of the extracted analytes was straightforward.

  4. The origin and dynamic evolution of chemical information transfer

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Sandra; Schmitt, Thomas; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Although chemical communication is the most widespread form of communication, its evolution and diversity are not well understood. By integrating studies of a wide range of terrestrial plants and animals, we show that many chemicals are emitted, which can unintentionally provide information (cues) and, therefore, act as direct precursors for the evolution of intentional communication (signals). Depending on the content, design and the original function of the cue, there are predictable ways that selection can enhance the communicative function of chemicals. We review recent progress on how efficacy-based selection by receivers leads to distinct evolutionary trajectories of chemical communication. Because the original function of a cue may channel but also constrain the evolution of functional communication, we show that a broad perspective on multiple selective pressures acting upon chemicals provides important insights into the origin and dynamic evolution of chemical information transfer. Finally, we argue that integrating chemical ecology into communication theory may significantly enhance our understanding of the evolution, the design and the content of signals in general. PMID:21177681

  5. ChemEx: information extraction system for chemical data curation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manual chemical data curation from publications is error-prone, time consuming, and hard to maintain up-to-date data sets. Automatic information extraction can be used as a tool to reduce these problems. Since chemical structures usually described in images, information extraction needs to combine structure image recognition and text mining together. Results We have developed ChemEx, a chemical information extraction system. ChemEx processes both text and images in publications. Text annotator is able to extract compound, organism, and assay entities from text content while structure image recognition enables translation of chemical raster images to machine readable format. A user can view annotated text along with summarized information of compounds, organism that produces those compounds, and assay tests. Conclusions ChemEx facilitates and speeds up chemical data curation by extracting compounds, organisms, and assays from a large collection of publications. The software and corpus can be downloaded from http://www.biotec.or.th/isl/ChemEx. PMID:23282330

  6. Future Treaties: Chemical Weapons Convention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    development of biotechnology industries in their countries would not be hampered by the treatv. 2 1 Some nations would be likely to sign only if their...decisions holds that such "pervasively regulated industrics " can be searched without a warrant, essentially because they are Parties to a soni of imputed

  7. Application Specific Chemical Information Microprocessor (ASCI mu P)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Application Specific Chemical Information Microprocessor (ASCI µP) David Fries U. South Florida, Marine Science Dept, 140 7TH Ave So. St. Petersburg...00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application Specific Chemical Information Microprocessor (ASCI μP) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  8. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  9. Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoggard, Jamin C.; Wahl, Jon H.; Synovec, Robert E.; Mong, Gary M.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2010-01-15

    In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-TOFMS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC-TOFMS data were analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlap GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization proved that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into 5 distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported that the other five DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. In addition, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were found in

  10. Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

    2010-01-15

    In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were

  11. [International Chemical Safety Cards: information source on hazards caused by chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) in collaboration with the European Commission and various IPCS-participating institutions in different countries. ICSCs disseminate essential information on chemicals to promote their safe production, transport and use. Application of standard terminology along with relevant criteria facilitates the comparison of risk related to different chemicals, which makes the cards a successful hazard-communication tool. Translation of the cards into various languages all over the world reflects the range of their growing use. A multi-stage compilation of information contained in ICSCs, based on the most up-to-date world literature and professional databases, assures its reliability. Their concise form makes them easy in everyday use as a source of information on chemical safety. The range of information contained in ICSCs corresponds to that provided by Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), however, the former are more concise and simpler. Although ICSCs have no legal status they may complement a 16-point MSDSs and help in the implementation of labeling and classification of chemicals according to the Globally Harmonized System.

  12. Issues With Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: Doing Data Right in Weapon System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    PDF files, e-mail messages, blogs, Web pages and social sites” (“Structured Data,” n.d.-b). 3 According to the PC Magazine Online Encyclopedia, a...have found that balancing security and access needs is difficult. Background and Findings on Deep Dives of Acquisition Information Systems As part...of this effort to understand acquisition data opportunities,4 we conducted “ deep dives” on a set of information systems. In this section, we summarize

  13. Communication and re-use of chemical information in bioscience

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Mitchell, John BO; Rzepa, Henry S

    2005-01-01

    The current methods of publishing chemical information in bioscience articles are analysed. Using 3 papers as use-cases, it is shown that conventional methods using human procedures, including cut-and-paste are time-consuming and introduce errors. The meaning of chemical terms and the identity of compounds is often ambiguous. valuable experimental data such as spectra and computational results are almost always omitted. We describe an Open XML architecture at proof-of-concept which addresses these concerns. Compounds are identified through explicit connection tables or links to persistent Open resources such as PubChem. It is argued that if publishers adopt these tools and protocols, then the quality and quantity of chemical information available to bioscientists will increase and the authors, publishers and readers will find the process cost-effective. PMID:16026614

  14. Communication and re-use of chemical information in bioscience.

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Mitchell, John B O; Rzepa, Henry S

    2005-07-18

    The current methods of publishing chemical information in bioscience articles are analysed. Using 3 papers as use-cases, it is shown that conventional methods using human procedures, including cut-and-paste are time-consuming and introduce errors. The meaning of chemical terms and the identity of compounds is often ambiguous. valuable experimental data such as spectra and computational results are almost always omitted. We describe an Open XML architecture at proof-of-concept which addresses these concerns. Compounds are identified through explicit connection tables or links to persistent Open resources such as PubChem. It is argued that if publishers adopt these tools and protocols, then the quality and quantity of chemical information available to bioscientists will increase and the authors, publishers and readers will find the process cost-effective.

  15. Identification of nuclear weapons

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

    1987-04-10

    A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

  16. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  17. Informing Workers of Chemical Hazards: The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Practical information on how to implement a chemical-related safety program is outlined in this publication. Highlights of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard are presented and explained. These include: (1) hazard communication requirements (consisting of warning labels, material safety…

  18. Support from Afar: Using Chemical Safety Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Ralph

    One of the major challenges facing people committed to Teaching Safety in High Schools, Colleges, and Universities is keeping up with both the wide range of relevant technical information about potential hazards (ranging from fire protection to chemical hazards to biological issues) and the ever-changing world of safety regulations and standards.…

  19. Introducing Chemistry Undergraduate Students to Online Chemical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolman, Yecheskel

    1985-01-01

    The results of manual and online searching are compared during a unit on online chemical information retrieval taught at Hebrew University. Strategies and results obtained are provided for student searches on the synthesis of vitamin K(3) from 2-methylnaphthalene and polywater. (JN)

  20. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  1. The Electronic Delivery of Automated Technical Information for Logistics Support of Navy Weapon Systems: Potential, System Description and Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Charles S. Sawyer. Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results. DTRC-88-035, September 1988...L. LeBeau; Anne S. Mavor; Theodore J. Post; and Charles S. Sawyer. Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentpl ier System (NTIPS...Karpovich 1 EER Systems 1 NPFC-100 H. Bukowski LCDR F. Harmer 2 EG&G 1 NOSC WASC L. Snodgrass R. Smillie WASCI R. Beckham 1 NOS Indianhead 4 Essex Corp. G

  2. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 1 : overview of the ACWA program and appendixes A-E.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-04-27

    This TRD is organized as a five-volume set (Figure 1.1). The five volumes include this overview and one volume for each of the four installations that stockpile ACW. Volume 1 provides programmatic information on the technologies associated with ACW remediation. The four remaining volumes provide details regarding the application of ACWA technology systems to ACW at the four stockpile locations: Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), and Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD). To adequately assess the ACWA situation at any given U.S. Army facility, Volume 1 and the volume specifically dedicated to the facility of interest should be reviewed. Section 1.2 of this volume provides an overview of the ACW unitary stockpile. The section identifies all stockpile locations, the types of munitions contained in the stockpile at each location, and the chemical agents and energetic materials in the various ACW; it also provides chemical and physical property information for these chemicals. Section 1.3 provides an overview of the DOD's process for selecting the ACWA technologies. As this section indicates, demonstration testing for the Demo I and Demo II technologies has been completed. Section 1.4 identifies and summarizes each of the primary technologies that make up the technology systems. With little or no modification, many of the technologies are interchangeable among systems. Others are stand-alone or unique technologies applicable to only one system. Finally, Section 1.5 provides a list of references that were used in preparing this volume of the TRD. Included are the PMACWA's periodic reports to Congress providing information on the progress of the ACWA program (PMACWA 1997, 1998, 1999b, 2000b, 2001c).

  3. Orchestration of Molecular Information through Higher Order Chemical Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, Brian M.

    Broadly defined, higher order chemical recognition is the process whereby discrete chemical building blocks capable of specifically binding to cognate moieties are covalently linked into oligomeric chains. These chains, or sequences, are then able to recognize and bind to their cognate sequences with a high degree of cooperativity. Principally speaking, DNA and RNA are the most readily obtained examples of this chemical phenomenon, and function via Watson-Crick cognate pairing: guanine pairs with cytosine and adenine with thymine (DNA) or uracil (RNA), in an anti-parallel manner. While the theoretical principles, techniques, and equations derived herein apply generally to any higher-order chemical recognition system, in practice we utilize DNA oligomers as a model-building material to experimentally investigate and validate our hypotheses. Historically, general purpose information processing has been a task limited to semiconductor electronics. Molecular computing on the other hand has been limited to ad hoc approaches designed to solve highly specific and unique computation problems, often involving components or techniques that cannot be applied generally in a manner suitable for precise and predictable engineering. Herein, we provide a fundamental framework for harnessing high-order recognition in a modular and programmable fashion to synthesize molecular information process networks of arbitrary construction and complexity. This document provides a solid foundation for routinely embedding computational capability into chemical and biological systems where semiconductor electronics are unsuitable for practical application.

  4. On Contending with Unruly Neighbors in the Global Village: Viewing Information Systems as Both Weapon and Target

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    such things as B2C or B2B commerce, or even indirectly, military systems [cf. Verton, 2003], so such systems are targets. Accordingly, al Qaeda is...by the Internet [Barabasi, 2002; cf. Zanini and Edwards, 2001]. Open standards and protocols such as TCP/IP, HTML, XML and various file format...infrastructure provided by the Internet augments their capabilities and reach. We see innovative uses of information and communication technology often

  5. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by... proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President issued Executive Order 13094 amending...

  6. Teaching Chemical Information in a Liberal Arts Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, Alison Scott; Thompson, Robert Q.

    1999-11-01

    We first offered Chemical Information as a one-credit, semester-long course in 1993 and have continued to team-teach it each fall. We offer this summary of our course as a model that might be adapted in other settings, acknowledging that no single course can adequately prepare chemists for the many challenges involved in finding, evaluating, and utilizing chemical information. The focus on information retrieval, evaluation, and presentation in a separate course has worked well for us, successfully integrating concepts of information literacy in a chemical context. We cover a wide array of topics, beginning with print and electronic resources on our campus and moving quickly to databases and other sources on the Internet. Searching CA Online via STN Express and STN Easy is emphasized more than any other single source. We have described the course in some detail elsewhere and give here a synopsis of our current approach and significant changes in the course over the last two years.

  7. Recapitalizing Nuclear Weapons (Walker Paper, Number 8)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Information Warfare and later executive officer for the Direc- tor of Operations at Headquarters Air Mobility Command (AMC), Scott AFB, Illinois... Allison Mc- farlane posits that all WMD are not equal and urges caution in establishing US nuclear weapons policy against the generic term WMD.13...11 August 2004, 2–3. 13. Allison Mcfarlane, “All Weapons of Mass Destruction are not Equal,” MIT Center for International Studies, Audit of

  8. Automated Physico-Chemical Cell Model Development through Information Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Ortoleva

    2005-11-29

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive models of the chemical responses of microbial cells to variations in their surroundings. The application of these models is optimization of environmental remediation and energy-producing biotechnical processes.The principles on which our project is based are as follows: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; automation of calibration through information theory; integration of multiplex data (e.g. cDNA microarrays, NMR, proteomics), cell modeling, and bifurcation theory to overcome cellular complexity; and the use of multiplex data and information theory to calibrate and run an incomplete model. In this report we review four papers summarizing key findings and a web-enabled, multiple module workflow we have implemented that consists of a set of interoperable systems biology computational modules.

  9. Progressively Fostering Students' Chemical Information Skills in a Three-Year Chemical Engineering Program in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Christel; Arnoux, Marie-Jose´; Breuzard, Jere´my; Marchal, Claire; Nikitine, Clémence; Renaudat, Alice; Toulgoat, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Literature searches are essential for scientists. Thus, courses on how to do a good literature search have been integrated in studies at CPE Lyon for many years. Recently, we modified our pedagogical approach in order to initiate students progressively in the search for chemical information. In addition, this new teaching organization is now based…

  10. Discovering More Chemical Concepts from 3D Chemical Information Searches of Crystal Structure Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    2016-01-01

    Three new examples are presented illustrating three-dimensional chemical information searches of the Cambridge structure database (CSD) from which basic core concepts in organic and inorganic chemistry emerge. These include connecting the regiochemistry of aromatic electrophilic substitution with the geometrical properties of hydrogen bonding…

  11. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  12. 15 CFR 718.3 - Disclosure of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS... notifications. Information contained in advance notifications of exports and imports of Schedule 1 chemicals is... follows: (1) Exports of Schedule 1 chemicals. Confidentiality of all information contained in...

  13. 15 CFR 718.3 - Disclosure of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS... notifications. Information contained in advance notifications of exports and imports of Schedule 1 chemicals is... follows: (1) Exports of Schedule 1 chemicals. Confidentiality of all information contained in...

  14. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA).

  15. Information-Theoretical Complexity Analysis of Selected Elementary Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Espíritu, M.; Esquivel, R. O.; Dehesa, J. S.

    We investigate the complexity of selected elementary chemical reactions (namely, the hydrogenic-abstraction reaction and the identity SN2 exchange reaction) by means of the following single and composite information-theoretic measures: disequilibrium (D), exponential entropy(L), Fisher information (I), power entropy (J), I-D, D-L and I-J planes and Fisher-Shannon (FS) and Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) shape complexities. These quantities, which are functionals of the one-particle density, are computed in both position (r) and momentum (p) spaces. The analysis revealed that the chemically significant regions of these reactions can be identified through most of the single information-theoretic measures and the two-component planes, not only the ones which are commonly revealed by the energy, such as the reactant/product (R/P) and the transition state (TS), but also those that are not present in the energy profile such as the bond cleavage energy region (BCER), the bond breaking/forming regions (B-B/F) and the charge transfer process (CT). The analysis of the complexities shows that the energy profile of the abstraction reaction bears the same information-theoretical features of the LMC and FS measures, however for the identity SN2 exchange reaction does not hold a simple behavior with respect to the LMC and FS measures. Most of the chemical features of interest (BCER, B-B/F and CT) are only revealed when particular information-theoretic aspects of localizability (L or J), uniformity (D) and disorder (I) are considered.

  16. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  17. Public involvement case study -- The public, the media, and chemical weapons in the front yard: Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. (1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, K.

    1994-12-31

    On January 5, 1993, a worker digging a utility trench in an upscale Washington neighborhood uncovered some World War I chemical munitions. Once emergency officials heard the words ``poison gas`` and ``munitions,`` District of Columbia emergency equipment and workers streamed into the neighborhood. Reporters descended on the site. Soldiers in chemical suits arrived. Residents were evacuated. With the onslaught of flashing police lights, uniformed soldiers, and omnipresent news cameras, local homeowners began to panic. This one site had all the attributes of a great news story: disaster, panic, conflict, danger, and big government. But you didn`t see this story played out nightly on CNN. In fact, it wasn`t picked up as a major, controversial story. That`s because of the excellent work by those removing the munitions and a strong public involvement program. These turned a potential public relations disaster and media nightmare into a success story. Public involvement changed angry, frightened citizens into firm believers in the project. It turned cynical media into informed news outlets. And it made the munitions removal effort easier. The focus of this paper, however, is on the public relations battle.

  18. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign... government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability:...

  19. Entering new publication territory in chemoinformatics and chemical information science.

    PubMed

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The F1000Research publishing platform offers the opportunity to launch themed article collections as a part of its dynamic publication environment. The idea of article collections is further expanded through the generation of publication channels that focus on specific scientific areas or disciplines. This editorial introduces the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research designed to collate high-quality publications and foster a culture of open peer review. Articles will be selected by guest editor(s) and a group of experts, the channel Editorial Board, and subjected to open peer review.

  20. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-19

    officials, including Foreign Minister Lavrov and Deputy Prime Minister Ryabkov, have indicated that it is too soon to move forward on negotiations...Sergei Lavrov , have stated that a future arms control agreement should also include limits on missile defenses, strategic-range weapons that carry...conventional warheads, and possibly weapons in space. Minister Lavrov stated, specifically, that it is impossible to discuss only one aspect of the

  1. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-14

    several Russian officials, including Foreign Minister Lavrov and Deputy Prime Minister Ryabkov, have indicated that it is too soon to move forward on... Lavrov , have stated that a future arms control agreement should also include limits on missile defenses, strategic-range weapons that carry conventional...warheads, and possibly weapons in space. Minister Lavrov stated, specifically, that it is impossible to discuss only one aspect of the problem at

  2. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  3. Fan organs of crayfish enhance chemical information flow.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, T

    2001-04-01

    Animals as well as autonomous robots need to acquire environmental signals in order to adjust their activity in time and space. Some information is accessible to the sensors only as a result of specific behaviors for stimulus acquisition. Due to the slow rate of molecular diffusion, dispersal of chemical stimuli depends on fluid flow. Aquatic crustaceans can generate directed water currents by specialized appendages. Here I describe the crayfish fan organs, which are feathered flagella of the mouthparts, and their activity in sending and receiving chemical signals in environments with stagnant flow conditions. During the power-stroke, the fan opens and displaces water; during the return stroke, it collapses and thereby minimizes drag. These organs can create a variety of flow fields including water jets, and in many different directions. Bilateral upward fanning draws water horizontally from all directions toward the anterior chemoreceptors. Unilateral upward fanning draws water from only one side towards the body. The versatility of the crayfish fan organ makes it a candidate for biomimetic reconstruction and use in autonomous robots that can search chemical sources.

  4. Chemicals of military deployments: revisiting Gulf War Syndrome in light of new information.

    PubMed

    Brimfield, A A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the amount of hard work that has gone into elucidating a toxicological basis for Gulf War Illness, we do not appear to have reached a mechanistic understanding. Investigation of long-term low-level exposure as a basis does not seem to have provided an answer. Nor does the deployment-related toxic soup idea, where exposure to a mixture of toxic chemicals not usually encountered in the same physical vicinity, seems to have explained the symptoms developed by Gulf War Veterans. The idea that an overabundance of CNS acetylcholine leftover from excessive cholinesterase inhibition is at the basis of this syndrome is intellectually appealing and offers a level of neurochemical complexity that may be just beyond the reach of our technical understanding. But no one has yet assembled a coherent mechanism from it either. It seems reasonable that chemical warfare agents were involved. They were not included in early work because it was felt that the toxicant plumes produced during the destruction of stockpiled Iraqi chemical weapons had not been large enough to cause an exposure of US forces and those of our allies. That misconception was disproven, and it is now accepted that people could very well have been exposed to low levels of massive quantities of sarin, cyclosarin, and sulfur mustard. It also seems reasonable that excess acetylcholine or neurological consequences of its presence that we do not fully understand were involved. The combination of nerve agents and the insecticidal anticholinesterases plus the pyridostigmine bromide given prophylactically were probably sufficient to cause the problem. However, the most notable thing is the result of recent work on the toxic mechanism of sulfur mustard showing that it can inhibit the microsomal electron transport chain as a result of sulfonium ion reduction to carbon free radicals by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. This information was not available during the work on Gulf War Illness. So this provides an

  5. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-05

    plutonium for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).29 The 5MWe reactor was again shut...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 05 MAY 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00...00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. FY96 Advanced Weapons Technology Area Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    based laser antisatelhte (GBL ASAT ) and airborne theater missile defense (TMD) roles. Lightweight, compact, and efficient lasers at moderate power...missile countermeasures, Rome Labs on Information Warfare (IW), Armstrong Labs on Active Denial Technology, AEDC on RF test facilities for satellites...capability - Antisatellite ( ASAT ). • Command & Control/Force Application: no current weapon systems - high energy lasers. • Command & Control

  7. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-05-09

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

  8. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  9. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  10. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  11. Names and Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  12. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  13. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    the basis of their structural attributes. Similarly, we have shown3-5 that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. These findings validate that AFM can identify species/formulation-specific signatures that could used to reconstruct production conditions. In addition, we showed that internal structures of pathogens could be revealed by chemical and enzymatic dissection, thus providing additional AFM threat agent signatures. We have developed AFM-based immunochemical labeling procedures for threat-specific epitope visualization, which extend the specificity of structural information that AFM can provide. AFM enables sensitive detection/identification/detection of threat agents (e.g Sterne. B. anthracis spore sample having a concentration of {approx}10{sup 6} spores/ml) and allows their identification in environmental cluttered samples. AFM analysis has the capacity for accessing forensically important data and rapid BW identification and weaponization characterization.

  14. Current Research into Chemical and Textual Information Retrieval at the Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael F.; Willett, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Discusses research into chemical information and document retrieval systems at the University of Sheffield. Highlights include the use of cluster analysis methods for document retrieval and drug design, representation and searching of files of generic chemical structures, and the application of parallel computer hardware to information retrieval.…

  15. Students' Chemical Information Project, October 1967 - September 1968. Final Report: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, A.; And Others

    Since 1966 the Chemical Society Research Unit in Information Dissemination and Retrieval at the University of Nottingham has been evaluating the use of "Chemical Titles" (CT) and "Chemical-Biological Activities" (CBAC) as current awareness services. Early results of this evaluation led to the Students' Chemical Information…

  16. Solid Phase Microextraction for the Analysis of Nuclear Weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M

    2001-06-01

    This document is a compendium of answers to commonly asked questions about solid phase microextraction as it relates to the analysis of nuclear weapons. We have also included a glossary of terms associated with this analytical method as well as pertinent weapons engineering terminology. Microextraction is a new collection technique being developed to nonintrusively sample chemicals from weapon headspace gases for subsequent analysis. The chemicals that are being targeted outgas from the high explosives and other organic materials used in the weapon assembly. This technique is therefore a valuable tool to: (1) remotely detect and assess the aging of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and, in some cases, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) organic materials; and (2) identify potential compatibility issues (i.e., materials interactions) that should be more carefully monitored during surveillance tear-downs. Microextraction is particularly attractive because of the practical constraints inherent to the weapon surveillance procedure. To remain transparent to other core surveillance activities and fall within nuclear safety guidelines, headspace analysis of the weapons requires a procedure that: (1) maintains ambient temperature conditions; (2) allows practical collection times of less than 20 min; (3) maintains the integrity of the weapon gas volume; (4) provides reproducible and quantitative results; and (5) can identify all possible targets.

  17. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G.; Barke, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  18. 6 CFR 27.200 - Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.200 Information... to complete and submit a Top-Screen process, which may be completed through a secure Department...

  19. 6 CFR 27.200 - Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.200 Information... to complete and submit a Top-Screen process, which may be completed through a secure Department...

  20. 76 FR 76963 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    .... feedstock. P-12-0022 10/24/2011 1/21/2012 CBI (G) The new (G) Complex chemical will strontium be used as a... needed. ] P-12-0023 10/24/2011 1/21/2012 CBI (G) The new (G) Complex chemical will strontium be used as a... needed. P-12-0024 10/24/2011 1/21/2012 CBI (G) The new (G) Complex chemical will strontium be used as...

  1. Chemical Information Literacy: pK[subscript a] Values--Where Do Students Go Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Alison B.; Amellal, Delphine G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical information literacy is an essential skillset for navigating, evaluating, and using the wealth of print and online information. Accordingly, efforts are underway to improve students' acquisition and mastery of this skillset. However, less is known about students' abilities related to finding and using chemical information to solve…

  2. An Analysis of Weapon System Cost Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    this time period. Of interest is that this result is somewhat better than the cost performance in many large civilian projects, such as energy and...to and interpretation of historical SAR files. At RAND, Donna Hoffman coordinated cullection and maintanance of our in-house SAR database. Errors of...projects, including weapon systems, energy and chemical processing plants, and large construction projects.’ The explanation for this difficulty lies

  3. 75 FR 71688 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... terminated urethane adhesive. The polymer. predicted volume for every application is same for all 6 chemical... polymer. predicted volume for every application is same for all 6 chemical substances. The production is... polyurethane terminated urethane adhesive. The polymer. predicted volume for every application is same for...

  4. A Chemical Information Literacy Program for First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawalt, Ellen S.; Adams, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The ability to navigate and understand the chemical literature is integral to the scientific research process. Learning these skills is therefore an important, though often overwhelming, part of an undergraduate chemical education. We describe an inquiry-based program designed to help chemistry students begin to learn to search and read the…

  5. Potential Biological Weapons Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    Iraq’s admission in 1995 to having quantities of anthrax, botulinum toxin, and aflatoxin ready to use as weapons have clearly shown that research in...could cause large loss of life, in addition to disruption, panic, and overwhelming of the civilian health- care resources (12). To be used for a...Biological agents involved in bioterrorism or biocrimes3 Pathogens Toxins Anti- crop agents Traditional biological warfare agents Bacillus

  6. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    2004 revelations about a procurement network run by former Pakistani nuclear official A. Q. Khan, Islamabad has taken a number of steps to improve ...strengthened export control laws, improved personnel security, and international nuclear security cooperation programs, have improved Pakistan’s...context where these broader tensions and conflicts are present. 1 Pakistani efforts to improve the security of its nuclear weapons have been ongoing

  7. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  8. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  9. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    an occurrence. In his book, Atomic Tragedy, Sean Malloy writes that Henry Stimson, the United States Secretary of War, warned in April, 1945 that...Ibid., 380. 41 Ibid. 42 Sean L. Malloy , Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to use the Bomb Against Japan (Ithaca, New York...Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East, 96-97. 45 Robert M. Gates, National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  10. The Forbidden Weapon - The Employment of Army Tactical Nuclear Weapons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    needs to retain a tactical nuclear weapons capability because TNW, if needed on the battlefield, can be delivered by Air Force or Navy systems . 14...delivery sys- tem. Secondly, remaining Army tactical nuclear weapons systems may be negotiated to reduced levels or relinquished in the not too distant...tactical nuclear weapons system by 1954 to provide the Army with a real- istic TNW capability. The Corporal surface-to-surfacE missile, with a seventy-five

  11. Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N,N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Garg, Prabhat; Purohit, Ajay; Tak, Vijay K; Dubey, D K

    2009-11-06

    N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC-FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC-MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC-FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting the analytes to their fluorinated derivatives. Owing to high absorptivity in IR region, these derivatives facilitated their detection by GC-FTIR analysis. Derivatizing reagents having trimethylsilyl, trifluoroacyl and heptafluorobutyryl groups on imidazole moiety were screened. Derivatives formed there were analyzed by GC-FTIR quantitatively. Of these reagents studied, heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) produced the greatest increase in sensitivity by GC-FTIR detection. 60-125 folds of sensitivity enhancement were observed for the analytes by HFBI derivatization. Absorbance due to various functional groups responsible for enhanced sensitivity were compared by determining their corresponding relative molar extinction coefficients ( [Formula: see text] ) considering uniform optical path length. The RSDs for intraday repeatability and interday reproducibility for various derivatives were 0.2-1.1% and 0.3-1.8%. Limit of detection (LOD) was achieved up to 10-15ng and applicability of the method was tested with unknown samples obtained in international proficiency tests.

  12. Remote concealed weapon detection in millimeter-wave region: active and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Stephan; Klöppel, Frank; Huck, Johann; Nötel, Denis; Hägelen, Manfred; Briese, Gunnar; Gregor, Alexander; Erukulla, Sreenivas; Fuchs, Hans-Hellmuth; Essen, Helmut; Pagels, Anke

    2006-09-01

    Sensors used for Security purposes have to cover the non-invasive inspection of persons, baggage and letters with the aim to detect weapons, explosives and chemical or biological threat material. Currently, emphasis is placed on system concepts and technologies for this type of applications, employing millimeterwave-, submillimeterwave- and terahertz sensors. This is based on the capability of these frequency bands to look through textiles and the possibility to achieve a geometric resolution which is sufficient to resolve critical items within the necessary range. Using multiple frequencies promises to give more detailed information about the structure of the observed objects. Furthermore, to overcome the limitations of passive millimeter- and submillimeterwave sensors which depend on indirect illumination, systems using miniaturized mmw-radar modules are applied as well. This paper describes two approaches for the detection of concealed weapons, the first using a millimeterwave radiometer on a scanner and the second employing a miniaturized radar module based on a synthetic aperture method.

  13. Exposure Levels for Chemical Threat Compounds; Information to Facilitate Chemical Incident Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2013-01-01

    Exposure Standards, Limits and Guidelines for Chemical Threat Compunds ABSTRACT Exposure criteria for chemical warfare (CW) agents and certain toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) used as CW agents (such as chlorine fill in an improvised explosive device) have been developed for protection of the civilian general public, civilian employees in chemical agent processing facilities and deployed military populations. In addition, compound-specific concentrations have been developed to serve as how clean is clean enough clearance criteria guiding facility recovery following chemical terrorist or other hazardous release events. Such criteria are also useful to verify compound absence, identify containment boundaries and expedite facility recovery following chemical threat release. There is no single right value or concentration appropriate for all chemical hazard control applications. It is acknowledged that locating and comparing the many sources of CW agent and TIC exposure criteria has not been previously well-defined. This paper summarizes many of these estimates and assembles critical documentation regarding their derivation and use.

  14. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Occupational Activities Industries Job Tasks Processes Symptoms/Findings Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services ... Health Disclaimer Notice Privacy Last Updated: July 2016 Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services ...

  15. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  16. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  17. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  18. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  19. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  20. Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

  1. 6 CFR 27.200 - Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility. 27.200 Section 27.200 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.200...

  2. 78 FR 20101 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Chemical Abstract Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Chemical Abstract Services AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA expects to authorize its contractor, Chemical Abstract... chemicals. Since other entities may also be interested, the Agency has not attempted to describe all...

  3. On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Niven, W.A.; Jaroska, M.F.

    1981-03-16

    The Naval Weapons Center has several hard target penetration weapons development programs in progress. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests due to the hostile nature of the environment. The information is of vital importance in order to produce survivability design criteria for components expected to function in such severe environments. The development of a small, rugged, solid state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for hard target penetration weapon testing is described.

  4. On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Niven, W.A.; Jaroska, M.F.

    1981-03-16

    The Naval Weapons Center is conducting several hard target penetration weapons development programs. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty, due to the hostile nature of the environment, of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests. The information is of vital importance in determining design criteria for survivability of components expected to function in such severe environments. This report describes the development of a small, rugged, solid-state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for testing hard target penetration weapons.

  5. Field programmable chemistry: integrated chemical and electronic processing of informational molecules towards electronic chemical cells.

    PubMed

    Wagler, Patrick F; Tangen, Uwe; Maeke, Thomas; McCaskill, John S

    2012-07-01

    The topic addressed is that of combining self-constructing chemical systems with electronic computation to form unconventional embedded computation systems performing complex nano-scale chemical tasks autonomously. The hybrid route to complex programmable chemistry, and ultimately to artificial cells based on novel chemistry, requires a solution of the two-way massively parallel coupling problem between digital electronics and chemical systems. We present a chemical microprocessor technology and show how it can provide a generic programmable platform for complex molecular processing tasks in Field Programmable Chemistry, including steps towards the grand challenge of constructing the first electronic chemical cells. Field programmable chemistry employs a massively parallel field of electrodes, under the control of latched voltages, which are used to modulate chemical activity. We implement such a field programmable chemistry which links to chemistry in rather generic, two-phase microfluidic channel networks that are separated into weakly coupled domains. Electric fields, produced by the high-density array of electrodes embedded in the channel floors, are used to control the transport of chemicals across the hydrodynamic barriers separating domains. In the absence of electric fields, separate microfluidic domains are essentially independent with only slow diffusional interchange of chemicals. Electronic chemical cells, based on chemical microprocessors, exploit a spatially resolved sandwich structure in which the electronic and chemical systems are locally coupled through homogeneous fine-grained actuation and sensor networks and play symmetric and complementary roles. We describe how these systems are fabricated, experimentally test their basic functionality, simulate their potential (e.g. for feed forward digital electrophoretic (FFDE) separation) and outline the application to building electronic chemical cells.

  6. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  7. The Impact of Computers on the Retrieval and Utilization of Chemical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara

    The use of computers in retrieving bibliographic chemical information is traced through the SDI, batch, and online modes, and related changes are noted in such areas as data base availability, cost, software, and amount of user control. The impact of these changes on both the quality and quantity of chemical information use is discussed, as well…

  8. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels.

  9. Optical disk toxic information online system at Sumitomo Chemical Co. through telecommunication network in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Fumio; Omodaka, Hisakata; Ishihara, Koichiro; Yamada, Yoshinori; Kato, Hiromi

    Toxicity data about several hundred chemicals, handled and commercialized by Sumitomo Chemical Co., have been collected and estimated. These data are stored in an optical disk filing system "sanfile 8500D". Because the system is mounted with a keyword input panel "Word selecter", information retrieval system is simplified but precised. Online system through telecommunication network is extended between Sumitomo Chemical's works, laboratories, and others. Image informations are mailed from installed facsimili in sanfile 8500D directly.

  10. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    SciTech Connect

    Juzaitis, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  11. 75 FR 39520 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... receipt of a premanufacture notice (PMN) or an application for a test marketing exemption (TME), and to... to publish a notice of receipt of a PMN or an application for a TME and to publish periodic status... Manufacturer/Importer Use Chemical P-10-0406 05/28/10 08/25/10 CBI (G) Polymer used to (G) Alkene...

  12. 75 FR 32760 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... application and in a destructive use as a reactant P-10-0361 04/30/10 07/28/10 CBI (G) Organic (G) Substituted... receipt of a premanufacture notice (PMN) or an application for a test marketing exemption (TME), and to... receipt of a PMN or an application for a TME and to publish periodic status reports on the chemicals...

  13. 75 FR 32751 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... receipt of a premanufacture notice (PMN) or an application for a test marketing exemption (TME), and to... receipt of a PMN or an application for a TME and to publish periodic status reports on the chemicals under... (S) Dodecanedioic make foam insulation acid, polymer with 1,6-hexanediol ] P-10-0237 02/18/10...

  14. 76 FR 35886 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    .... P-11-0345 4/25/2011 7/23/2011 CBI (G) An organic chemical (G) Heterocyclic organic intermediate for...-dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, ester with methyl--hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2...-benzenedicarboxylic fabric washes. acid, 1,4-dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,2-propanediol, ester with...

  15. 77 FR 56639 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... notice end Manufacturer/ Use Chemical date date importer P-12-0488 08/01/2012 10/29/2012 CBI (G) Additive... 10/29/2012 CBI (G) Additive to (G) Hydroxy polyurethane containing oil, foam. polymer with alkylene.../2012 CBI (G) Additive to (G) Alkanol, polyurethane oxybis-, foam. polymer with aromatic...

  16. Awareness and Responsibility in Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuta, Nehal; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Computational Awareness is Important in Autonomous Weapons * Flying Drones and Other Autonomous Weapons * The Impact of Autonomous Weapons Systems * From Autonomy to Awareness: A Perspective from Science Fiction * Summary and Conclusions

  17. Chemical arms treaty's effect on industry noted

    SciTech Connect

    Lois Ember

    1993-08-16

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is unique among arms control regimes in terms of its intrusive reach on private industry, especially chemical manufacturers. It requires, among other things, extensive reporting and, in some cases, on-site inspections of commercial facilities. Yet a surprising majority of affected companies are unaware of their obligations under the treaty that could become effective January 1995. A newly released background paper from the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) intends to correct this situation by fully documenting the effects of the treaty on the U.S. chemical industry. This paper summarizes some of the findings and outlines the legislation required to comply with the Chemical Weapons Convention while still protecting confidential business information and not creating a bureaucratic nightmare for the US chemical industry.

  18. The Stepping Stone Approach to Teaching Chemical Information Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Andrew A.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.; Topham, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Information literacy is of paramount importance to any successful research program. Information techniques and skills should be infused throughout a student's undergraduate curriculum rather than being the focus of a single course. To this end, we have created several courses, beginning in the first year, where students review current scientific…

  19. Digital Guided Weapons Technology. Volume 1. Digital Processor System Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    controlled during midcourse flight by navigation based on a combination of inertial sensor information (illustrated as an IMU module) and LORAN receiver... design weapon was described. In the latter situation, the integration subsystem is a combination of a digital processor and a harness with dedicated...subsystem for a fixed- design weapon, as noted previously, is the combination of the digital processor and a harness with dedicated links to the

  20. Afghan National Security Forces: Actions Needed to Improve Weapons Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Afghan National Army ( ANA ) tracks weapons using an automated inventory management system called Core Inventory Management System (CoreIMS). However...CoreIMS is incomplete and cannot be relied upon for accurate information. CSTC-A SAO officials concluded that this is due, in part, to the ANA not... ANA Central Supply Depot, SIGAR found that 551 weapons documented on the Afghan inventory record, called a “property book,” SIGAR Special Inspector

  1. The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

  2. Imprecise Probability Methods for Weapons UQ

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, Richard Roy; Vander Wiel, Scott Alan

    2016-05-13

    Building on recent work in uncertainty quanti cation, we examine the use of imprecise probability methods to better characterize expert knowledge and to improve on misleading aspects of Bayesian analysis with informative prior distributions. Quantitative approaches to incorporate uncertainties in weapons certi cation are subject to rigorous external peer review, and in this regard, certain imprecise probability methods are well established in the literature and attractive. These methods are illustrated using experimental data from LANL detonator impact testing.

  3. 77 FR 69824 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... CBI (G) Part of adhesive (G) Castor oil, system. polymer with glycol and phthalic anhydride. P-13-0004... adduct. P-13-0007 10/3/2012 12/31/2012 DIC International (S) Polymer resin for (G) Acrylic acids, (USA... Chemical (G) Open-non dispersive (G) Polyurethane Company. use. polymer. P-13-0014 10/8/2012 1/5/2013...

  4. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  5. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  6. Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

    1995-04-01

    Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

  7. Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Alex; Delistraty, Damon

    2010-11-15

    Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was

  8. Equity and Information: Information Regulation, Environmental Justice, and Risks from Toxic Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Marc D.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases over time in pounds of industrial chemical emissions have led to concerns that nonminority, higher-income communities have benefited disproportionately in reductions in risk. Toxic chemical release data, modeled for toxicity and dispersion in square kilometer units across 45 states, are used to test six sets of hypotheses of potential…

  9. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Deflection Compute Adjusted REP/DEP and CEP Obtain Ballistic Partials from Zero- Drag Trajectory Program σx- Harp Anglet, σx-Slant Range, σVx-aircraft...The last method is to take the harp angle of the weapon as the impact angle to cater for the scenario where the weapon flies directly to the...target upon weapon release as laser guidance is available throughout its flight. The harp angle is the line-of-sight (LOS) angle between the aircraft and

  10. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  11. 40 CFR 710.25 - Chemical substances for which information must be reported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances for which information must be reported. 710.25 Section 710.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS 2002 Inventory Update...

  12. 40 CFR 710.45 - Chemical substances for which information must be reported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances for which information must be reported. 710.45 Section 710.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS Inventory Update Reporting...

  13. 75 FR 68370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security Awareness Training Program AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... currently approved information collection request (ICR) for the Chemical Security Awareness Training Program. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal Register on August 27, 2010 at 75 FR 52768, for a...

  14. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner-Crisp, P.

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  15. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  16. Fusing Sensor Paradigms to Acquire Chemical Information: An Integrative Role for Smart Biopolymeric Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Liu, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Winkler, Thomas E; Yan, Kun; Shi, Xiaowen; Shen, Jana; Kelly, Deanna L; Ghodssi, Reza; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2016-10-01

    The Information Age transformed our lives but it has had surprisingly little impact on the way chemical information (e.g., from our biological world) is acquired, analyzed and communicated. Sensor systems are poised to change this situation by providing rapid access to chemical information. This access will be enabled by technological advances from various fields: biology enables the synthesis, design and discovery of molecular recognition elements as well as the generation of cell-based signal processors; physics and chemistry are providing nano-components that facilitate the transmission and transduction of signals rich with chemical information; microfabrication is yielding sensors capable of receiving these signals through various modalities; and signal processing analysis enhances the extraction of chemical information. The authors contend that integral to the development of functional sensor systems will be materials that (i) enable the integrative and hierarchical assembly of various sensing components (for chemical recognition and signal transduction) and (ii) facilitate meaningful communication across modalities. It is suggested that stimuli-responsive self-assembling biopolymers can perform such integrative functions, and redox provides modality-spanning communication capabilities. Recent progress toward the development of electrochemical sensors to manage schizophrenia is used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges for enlisting sensors for chemical information processing.

  17. Proceedings of the DoD Information Analysis Center Conference (3rd) Held at Naval Surface Weapons Center, White Oak, Silver Spring, Maryland, 8-9 December 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-09

    engineering decisions and development lead time and to provide a means of increasiig the productivity of Defense Scientists and Engineers through...THESE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS ARE DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF DR. YERAM S. TOULOUKIAN • . o Dr. Yeram S. Touloukian, (1920-1981) FFtF 4 S.-- 5-" . The...information that Henry Pusey of the Naval Research Laboratory helped me assemble as to how well those individuals are utilizing the Information Analysis center

  18. A bibliometric study on chemical information and computer sciences focusing on literature of JCICS.

    PubMed

    Onodera, N

    2001-01-01

    A bibliometric approach was used to survey the state-of-the-art of research in the field of chemical information and computer sciences (CICS). By examining the CA database for the articles abstracted under the subsection "Chemical information, documentation, and data processing", Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences (JCICS) was identified to have been the top journal in this subsection for the last 30 years. Based on this result, CA subsections and controlled index terms given to JCICS articles were analyzed to see trends in subjects and topics in the CICS field during the last two decades. These analyses revealed that the subjects of research in CICS have diversified from traditional information science and computer applications to chemistry to "molecular information sciences". The SCISEARCH database was used to grasp interdependency between JCICS and other key journals and also the international nature of JCICS in its publications and citedness.

  19. Infochemistry and infofuses for the chemical storage and transmission of coded information.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Samuel W; Chiechi, Ryan C; LaFratta, Christopher N; Webb, Michael R; Lee, Andrew; Wiley, Benjamin J; Zakin, Mitchell R; Walt, David R; Whitesides, George M

    2009-06-09

    This article describes a self-powered system that uses chemical reactions--the thermal excitation of alkali metals--to transmit coded alphanumeric information. The transmitter (an "infofuse") is a strip of the flammable polymer nitrocellulose patterned with alkali metal ions; this pattern encodes the information. The wavelengths of 2 consecutive pulses of light represent each alphanumeric character. While burning, infofuses transmit a sequence of pulses (at 5-20 Hz) of atomic emission that correspond to the sequence of metallic salts (and therefore to the encoded information). This system combines information technology and chemical reactions into a new area--"infochemistry"--that is the first step toward systems that combine sensing and transduction of chemical signals with multicolor transmission of alphanumeric information.

  20. Risk in the Weapons Stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-14

    When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

  1. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  2. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  3. Detection and classification of concealed weapons using a magnetometer-based portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Polk, Robert E.

    2002-08-01

    A concealed weapons detection technology was developed through the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide a non intrusive means for rapid detection, location, and archiving of data (including visual) of potential suspects and weapon threats. This technology, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), has been applied in a portal style weapons detection system using passive magnetic sensors as its basis. This paper will report on enhancements to the weapon detection system to enable weapon classification and to discriminate threats from non-threats. Advanced signal processing algorithms were used to analyze the magnetic spectrum generated when a person passes through a portal. These algorithms analyzed multiple variables including variance in the magnetic signature from random weapon placement and/or orientation. They perform pattern recognition and calculate the probability that the collected magnetic signature correlates to a known database of weapon versus non-weapon responses. Neural networks were used to further discriminate weapon type and identify controlled electronic items such as cell phones and pagers. False alarms were further reduced by analyzing the magnetic detector response by using a Joint Time Frequency Analysis digital signal processing technique. The frequency components and power spectrum for a given sensor response were derived. This unique fingerprint provided additional information to aid in signal analysis. This technology has the potential to produce major improvements in weapon detection and classification.

  4. Meteor Beliefs Project: meteoritic weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristine Larsen, K.; McBeath, A.

    2012-01-01

    A discussion of meteoritic iron weapons and weapon-like tools is given, drawing on fictional, mythological, and real-world examples. The evidence suggests that no great significance was attached to such metal purely because of its "heavenly" provenance prior to the early 19th century AD, despite later assumptions, including during the period of increased interest in meteorites, cratering events and the early usage of meteoritic iron, beginning in the early 20th century.

  5. Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    complimentary. For- mer NATO Secretary General Lord Robertson and for- mer senior Pentagon official Franklin Miller accused Germany of lifting the lid of...President Barack Obama, speech on nuclear weapons, Prague, Czech Republic, April 5, 2009. 3. Franklin Miller, George Robertson , and Kori Schake, Ger...US Nuclear Weapons 1945-2009. 40. During the Cold War, two U.S. air bases in the United States—Cannon, NM, and Seymour Johnson, NC—had respon

  6. 12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. ChemDataExtractor: A Toolkit for Automated Extraction of Chemical Information from the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Swain, Matthew C; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-24

    The emergence of "big data" initiatives has led to the need for tools that can automatically extract valuable chemical information from large volumes of unstructured data, such as the scientific literature. Since chemical information can be present in figures, tables, and textual paragraphs, successful information extraction often depends on the ability to interpret all of these domains simultaneously. We present a complete toolkit for the automated extraction of chemical entities and their associated properties, measurements, and relationships from scientific documents that can be used to populate structured chemical databases. Our system provides an extensible, chemistry-aware, natural language processing pipeline for tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition, and phrase parsing. Within this scope, we report improved performance for chemical named entity recognition through the use of unsupervised word clustering based on a massive corpus of chemistry articles. For phrase parsing and information extraction, we present the novel use of multiple rule-based grammars that are tailored for interpreting specific document domains such as textual paragraphs, captions, and tables. We also describe document-level processing to resolve data interdependencies and show that this is particularly necessary for the autogeneration of chemical databases since captions and tables commonly contain chemical identifiers and references that are defined elsewhere in the text. The performance of the toolkit to correctly extract various types of data was evaluated, affording an F-score of 93.4%, 86.8%, and 91.5% for extracting chemical identifiers, spectroscopic attributes, and chemical property attributes, respectively; set against the CHEMDNER chemical name extraction challenge, ChemDataExtractor yields a competitive F-score of 87.8%. All tools have been released under the MIT license and are available to download from http://www.chemdataextractor.org .

  8. How electroshock weapons kill!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  9. Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    LeHardy, F.A.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

  10. Predictors of Weapon Carrying in Youth Attending Drop-in Centers

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Liles, Sandy; Kelley, Norma J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Bousman, Chad A.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Ji, Ming; Clapp, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test and compare 2 predictive models of weapon carrying in youth (n=308) recruited from 4 drop-in centers in San Diego and Imperial counties. Methods Both models were based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Results The first and second models significantly explained 39% and 53% of the variance in weapon carrying, respectively, and both full models shared the significant predictors of being black(−), being Hispanic (−), peer modeling of weapon carrying/jail time(+), and school suspensions(+). Conclusions Results suggest that the BEM offers a generalizable conceptual model that may inform prevention strategies for youth at greatest risk of weapon carrying. PMID:19320622

  11. Using Fisher Information Criteria for Chemical Sensor Selection via Convex Optimization Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-16

    best sensors after an optimization procedure. Due to the positive definite nature of the Fisher information matrix, convex optimization may be used to...parametrized to select the best sensors after an optimization procedure. Due to the positive definite nature of the Fisher information matrix, convex op...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9711 Using Fisher Information Criteria for Chemical Sensor Selection via Convex

  12. New approach for detecting and classifying concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roybal, Lyle G.; Rice, Philip M.; Manhardt, Joseph M.

    1997-02-01

    The possession of a weapon in the courtroom of our American justice system is a Federal offense. A weapon in the courtroom is a particularly serious problem for judges, plaintiffs, defendants, and bystanders because of the emotional nature and environment of the courtroom. Potential violators include organized criminals and gangsters, individuals with personal vendettas, and otherwise sane and reasonable people who, because of the emotion of the moment, lose sight of right and wrong in our justice system. Most Federal courthouses incorporate some sort of metal detection apparatus used to screen and prevent individuals from carrying personal weapons into courtrooms. These devices are considered conventional in the sense that they employ an active electromagnetic induction technique that is sensitive to the presence of metal. This technique provides no information concerning the massiveness and location of the offending metal object and is prone to false alarms. This work introduces an alternative method for weapons discrimination that is based on passive magnetics technology in concert with simple comparative algorithms such that massiveness and location of suspected weapons may be determined. Since this system provides information not available from conventional metal detectors, false alarms will be greatly reduced, allowing remote monitoring of all entrances into a courtroom from a single vantage point, thereby saving considerable resources used on personnel costs.

  13. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  14. Review of the Literature on Determinants of Chemical Hazard Information Recall among Workers and Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Farzana; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many low and middle income countries (LMIC), workers’ and consumers’ only access to risk and hazard information in relation to the chemicals they use or work with is on the chemical label and safety data sheet. Recall of chemical hazard information is vital in order for label warnings and precautionary information to promote effective safety behaviors. A literature review, therefore, was conducted on determinants of chemical hazard information recall among workers and consumers globally. Since comprehension and recall are closely linked, the determinants of both were reviewed. Literature was reviewed from both online and print peer reviewed journals for all study designs and countries. This review indicated that the level of education, previous training and the inclusion of pictograms on the hazard communication material are all factors that contribute to the recall of hazard information. The influence of gender and age on recall is incongruent and remains to be explored. More research is required on the demographic predictors of the recall of hazard information, the effect of design and non-design factors on recall, the effect of training on the recall among low literate populations and the examining of different regions or contexts. PMID:27258291

  15. 76 FR 41365 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... Commercial Schedule 2A Chemical Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Security (BIS) is seeking public comments on the impact of amending the Chemical Weapons...

  16. Defense against toxin weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide basic information on biological toxins to military leaders and health-care providers at all levels to help them make informed decisions on protecting their troops from toxins. Much of the information contained herein will also be of interest to individuals charged with countering domestic and international terrorism. We typically fear what we do not understand.

  17. Lessons learned in building a global information network on chemicals (GINC).

    PubMed

    Kaminuma, Tsuguchika

    2005-09-01

    The Global Information Network on Chemicals (GINC) was a project to construct a worldwide information network linking international, national, and other organizations working for the safe management of chemicals. Proposed in 1993, the project started the next year and lasted almost 10 years. It was begun as a joint project of World Health Organization (WHO), International Labor Organization (ILO), and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and later endorsed by the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Asia, particularly East Asia and the Pacific islands, was chosen as the feasibility study region. The author's group then at the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) of Japan led this initiative and hosted numerous meetings. At these meetings, tutorial sessions for communicating chemical safety expertise and emerging new information technologies relevant to the safe management of chemicals were offered. Our experience with this project, particularly the Web-based system and the tutorial sessions, may be of use to others involved with Web-based instruction and the training of chemical safety specialists from both developed and developing countries.

  18. Lessons learned in building a global information network on chemicals (GINC)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminuma, Tsuguchika . E-mail: kaminuma@cbi.or.jp

    2005-09-01

    The Global Information Network on Chemicals (GINC) was a project to construct a worldwide information network linking international, national, and other organizations working for the safe management of chemicals. Proposed in 1993, the project started the next year and lasted almost 10 years. It was begun as a joint project of World Health Organization (WHO), International Labor Organization (ILO), and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and later endorsed by the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Asia, particularly East Asia and the Pacific islands, was chosen as the feasibility study region. The author's group then at the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) of Japan led this initiative and hosted numerous meetings. At these meetings, tutorial sessions for communicating chemical safety expertise and emerging new information technologies relevant to the safe management of chemicals were offered. Our experience with this project, particularly the Web-based system and the tutorial sessions, may be of use to others involved with Web-based instruction and the training of chemical safety specialists from both developed and developing countries.

  19. Automated extraction of information on chemical-P-glycoprotein interactions from the literature.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shuya; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Ose, Atsushi; Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2013-10-28

    Knowledge of the interactions between drugs and transporters is important for drug discovery and development as well as for the evaluation of their clinical safety. We recently developed a text-mining system for the automatic extraction of information on chemical-CYP3A4 interactions from the literature. This system is based on natural language processing and can extract chemical names and their interaction patterns according to sentence context. The present study aimed to extend this system to the extraction of information regarding chemical-transporter interactions. For this purpose, the key verb list designed for cytochrome P450 enzymes was replaced with that for known drug transporters. The performance of the system was then tested by examining the accuracy of information on chemical-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interactions extracted from randomly selected PubMed abstracts. The system achieved 89.8% recall and 84.2% precision for the identification of chemical names and 71.7% recall and 78.6% precision for the extraction of chemical-P-gp interactions.

  20. Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

  1. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

    2002-08-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

  2. What Are Nuclear Weapons For?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, Sidney

    2007-03-01

    Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

  3. Uncrackable code for nuclear weapons

    ScienceCinema

    Hart, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Mark Hart, a scientist and engineer in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Defense Technologies Division, has developed a new approach for ensuring nuclear weapons and their components can't fall prey to unauthorized use. The beauty of his approach: Let the weapon protect itself. "Using the random process of nuclear radioactive decay is the gold standard of random number generators," said Mark Hart. "You’d have a better chance of winning both Mega Millions and Powerball on the same day than getting control of IUC-protected components."

  4. Uncrackable code for nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Mark

    2014-11-20

    Mark Hart, a scientist and engineer in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Defense Technologies Division, has developed a new approach for ensuring nuclear weapons and their components can't fall prey to unauthorized use. The beauty of his approach: Let the weapon protect itself. "Using the random process of nuclear radioactive decay is the gold standard of random number generators," said Mark Hart. "You’d have a better chance of winning both Mega Millions and Powerball on the same day than getting control of IUC-protected components."

  5. Plasmonic photoluminescence for recovering native chemical information from surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kai-Qiang; Yi, Jun; Zhong, Jin-Hui; Hu, Shu; Liu, Bi-Ju; Liu, Jun-Yang; Zong, Cheng; Lei, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Xiang; Aizpurua, Javier; Esteban, Rubén; Ren, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has attracted tremendous interests as a highly sensitive label-free tool. The local field produced by the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) dominates the overall enhancement of SERS. Such an electromagnetic enhancement is unfortunately accompanied by a strong modification in the relative intensity of the original Raman spectra, which highly distorts spectral features providing chemical information. Here we propose a robust method to retrieve the fingerprint of intrinsic chemical information from the SERS spectra. The method is established based on the finding that the SERS background originates from the LSPR-modulated photoluminescence, which contains the local field information shared also by SERS. We validate this concept of retrieval of intrinsic fingerprint information in well controlled single metallic nanoantennas of varying aspect ratios. We further demonstrate its unambiguity and generality in more complicated systems of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and SERS of silver nanoaggregates. PMID:28348368

  6. Toxicological information on chemicals published in the Russian language: Contribution to REACH and 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kahru, Anne

    2009-07-28

    This review is reporting on the current situation of publicly available toxicological and ecotoxicological information on chemicals published in Russian language in various libraries, databases as well as in the Internet. This information can be beneficial for the new EU chemical policy REACH and for the development of intelligent testing strategies (involving also QSAR and QAAR) that enable a significant increase in the use of non-testing information for regulatory decision making, thus minimizing the need for animal testing according to the 3R's strategy. Currently, the access to this information is limited due to the language barrier and low level of digitalization of respective journals and books. Fortunately, on-line translation services are overcoming language barriers already now.

  7. Chemical and Materials Information Management to Achieve Sustainable Engineering and Design for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited Chemical and Materials Information Management to Achieve Sustainable Engineering and Design for...Data Sources Solution – Distributed Information System Logistics Sustainability Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited • Single point...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  8. Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, G.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation.

  9. How much information do extinction and backscattering measurements contain about the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Andersson, Emma

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the problem of assimilating multiwavelength lidar observations of extinction and backscattering coefficients of aerosols into a chemical transport model. More specifically, we consider the inverse problem of determining the chemical composition of aerosols from these observations. The main questions are how much information the observations contain to determine the particles' chemical composition, and how one can optimize a chemical data assimilation system to make maximum use of the available information. We first quantify the information content of the measurements by computing the singular values of the scaled observation operator. From the singular values we can compute the number of signal degrees of freedom, Ns, and the reduction in Shannon entropy, H. As expected, the information content as expressed by either Ns or H grows as one increases the number of observational parameters and/or wavelengths. However, the information content is strongly sensitive to the observation error. The larger the observation error variance, the lower the growth rate of Ns or H with increasing number of observations. The right singular vectors of the scaled observation operator can be employed to transform the model variables into a new basis in which the components of the state vector can be partitioned into signal-related and noise-related components. We incorporate these results in a chemical data assimilation algorithm by introducing weak constraints that restrict the assimilation algorithm to acting on the signal-related model variables only. This ensures that the information contained in the measurements is fully exploited, but not overused. Numerical tests show that the constrained data assimilation algorithm provides a solution to the inverse problem that is considerably less noisy than the corresponding unconstrained algorithm. This suggests that the restriction of the algorithm to the signal-related model variables suppresses

  10. Fungi and fungal toxins as weapons.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R Russell M

    2006-09-01

    Recent aggressive attacks on innocent citizens have resulted in governments increasing security. However, there is a good case for prevention rather than reaction. Bioweapons, mycotoxins, fungal biocontrol agents (FBCA), and even pharmaceuticals contain, or are, toxins and need to be considered in the context of the new paradigm. Is it desirable to discuss such issues? None of the fungi are (a) as toxic as botulinum toxin from Clostridium botulinum, and (b) as dangerous as nuclear weapons. One toxin may be defined as a pharmaceutical and vice versa simply by a small change in concentration or a moiety. Mycotoxins are defined as naturally occurring toxic compounds obtained from fungi. They are the biggest chronic health risk when incorporated into the diet. The current list of fungal toxins as biochemical weapons is small, although awareness is growing of the threats they may pose. T-2 toxin is perhaps the biggest concern. A clear distinction is required between the biological (fungus) and chemical (toxin) aspects of the issue. There is an obvious requirement to be able to trace these fungi and compounds in the environment and to know when concentrations are abnormal. Many FBCA, produce toxins. This paper indicates how to treat mycotoxicosis and decontaminate mycotoxins. There is considerable confusion and inconsistency surrounding this topic which requires assessment in an impartial and scientific manner.

  11. Detection and identification of concealed weapons using matrix pencil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adve, Raviraj S.; Thayaparan, Thayananthan

    2011-06-01

    The detection and identification of concealed weapons is an extremely hard problem due to the weak signature of the target buried within the much stronger signal from the human body. This paper furthers the automatic detection and identification of concealed weapons by proposing the use of an effective approach to obtain the resonant frequencies in a measurement. The technique, based on Matrix Pencil, a scheme for model based parameter estimation also provides amplitude information, hence providing a level of confidence in the results. Of specific interest is the fact that Matrix Pencil is based on a singular value decomposition, making the scheme robust against noise.

  12. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    reprocessed enough separated plutonium for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).27...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea?s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  13. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).27 The 5MWe reactor was again shut...with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 16 DEC 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea?s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Incorporating Chemical Information Instruction and Environmental Science into the First-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, R. G.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical information instruction and environmental science which is incorporated into a first-year organic chemistry laboratory is presented. The students are charged with devised search strategies, conducting online searches and limiting the project scope to ocean systems. The laboratory serves to provide for search strategy development…

  15. Study of the Chemical Space of Selected Bacteriostatic Sulfonamides from an Information Theory Point of View.

    PubMed

    López-Rosa, Sheila; Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani; Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Dehesa, Jésus S

    2016-12-05

    The relative structural location of a selected group of 27 sulfonamide-like molecules in a chemical space defined by three information theory quantities (Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and disequilibrium) is discussed. This group is composed of 15 active bacteriostatic molecules, 11 theoretically designed ones, and para-aminobenzoic acid. This endeavor allows molecules that share common chemical properties through the molecular backbone, but with significant differences in the identity of the chemical substituents, which might result in bacteriostatic activity, to be structurally classified and characterized. This is performed by quantifying the structural changes on the electron density distribution due to different functional groups and number of electrons. The macroscopic molecular features are described by means of the entropy-like notions of spatial electronic delocalization, order, and uniformity. Hence, an information theory three-dimensional space (IT-3D) emerges that allows molecules with common properties to be gathered. This space witnesses the biological activity of the sulfonamides. Some structural aspects and information theory properties can be associated, as a result of the IT-3D chemical space, with the bacteriostatic activity of these molecules. Most interesting is that the active bacteriostatic molecules are more similar to para-aminobenzoic acid than to the theoretically designed analogues.

  16. Toward a Modern Secondary Information System for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the information processing system employed by Chemical Abstracts Service which utilizes computers to organize material from the data base, convert it to the appropriate type face and format, and photocompose it in a form suitable for conversion to offset printing plates. (GS)

  17. On the evolving open peer review culture for chemical information science.

    PubMed

    Walters, W Patrick; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the traditional anonymous peer review process, open post-publication peer review provides additional opportunities -and challenges- for reviewers to judge scientific studies. In this editorial, we comment on the open peer review culture and provide some guidance for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research.

  18. Compilation of Physicochemical and Toxicological Information About Hydraulic Fracturing-Related Chemicals (Draft Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is to make accessible the information about the 1,173 hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals that were listed in the external review draft of the Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment that was released recently. The product consists of a serie...

  19. Educational and Commercial Utilization of a Chemical Information Center, Four Year Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.; And Others

    The major objective of the IITRI Computer Search Center is to educate and link industry, academia, and government institutions to chemical and other scientific information systems and sources. The Center was developed to meet this objective and is in full operation providing services to users from a variety of machine-readable data bases with…

  20. Four-Year Summary, Educational and Commercial Utilization of a Chemical Information Center, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schipma, Peter B., Ed.

    The major objective of the Illinois Institute of Technology Retrieval Institute (IITRI) Computer Search Center (CSC) is to educate and link industry, academia, and government institutions to chemical and other scientific information systems and sources. The CSC is in full operation providing services to users from a variety of machine-readable…

  1. The Effect of Peer Review on Information Literacy Outcomes in a Chemical Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicky, David A.; Hands, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of peer review in a writing project involving upper-level chemistry students in a chemical literature course, with the goal of improving student performance in meeting information literacy outcomes. Students were asked to find articles on a topic of their choice over the course of a semester and assemble the results…

  2. Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, John; Acton, James M.

    2014-06-01

    A means of verifying that nuclear warheads to be dismantled are genuine items has been proposed that potentially reveals no information to an inspector about the design of the weapons. Two experts explain the ins and outs of the method and its implications for arms-control policy. See Article p.497

  3. Weapons in Schools. NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, George E., Ed.; Turner, Brenda, Ed.

    More than ever, our public school system must confront weapons in schools and become aware of steadily rising statistics on youth homicide and suicide. This report delineates the problem, discusses why children carry weapons to school, and outlines strategies for keeping weapons out of schools and for improving school safety. Although some…

  4. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  5. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  6. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  7. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  8. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  9. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  10. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  11. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  12. Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

  13. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  14. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  15. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  16. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  17. Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Enforcement, Edward M. Carapezza, Donald Spector, Eds., Proc. SPIE 2938, 110 - 119 (1997). 3. Franklin Felber, Norbert Wild, Scott Nunan , Dennis Breuner... Nunan , D. Breuner, and F. Doft, "Handheld Ultrasound Concealed-Weapons Detector," in Enforcement and Security Technologies, A. Trent DePersia, J. J

  18. Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-06

    effectively execute the National Strategy for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. Ensure all capabilities are integrated and coordinated within the... BACTERIA VIRUSES RICKETTSIAE GENETIC ENGINEERED MICRO-ORGANISMS BWCW CLEARLY CHEMICAL CLEARLY BIOLOGICAL Traditional Nuclear Nuclear Bombs Nuclear Missiles...systems integration, and information flow in a timely and cost effective manner Goal 5 Leverage DOD CBRN defense expertise to support vital national

  19. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  20. Information as a Weapon: Reality Versus Promises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Program to the Matthew B. Ridgway Center for International Security Studies), 16. 99.John R. Levine and Carol Baroudi, The Internet for Dummies , 2nd ed...New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1993. 58 Levine, John R., and Carol Baroudi. The Internet for Dummies . 2nd ed. San Mateo, Calif.: IDG Books

  1. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, S.

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  2. Proposal for a new tomographic device providing information on the chemical properties of a body section

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E.; Rehak, P.; Kemmer, J.

    1986-02-27

    A system to analyze the chemical properties of a region of tissue located deep inside the human body without having to access it is proposed. The method is based on a high precision detection of x-rays or ..gamma..-rays (photons) from an external source Compton scattered from the tissue under inspection. The method provides chemical information of plane regions lying not too deep inside the body (<6 cm). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body is about the same as needed for a standard x-ray tomography. The exposure time is estimated to be shorter than 10 minutes. 37 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design.

  4. 76 FR 41371 - Impact of Reducing the Mixture Concentration Threshold for Commercial Schedule 3 Chemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 134... Activities Under the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... comments on the impact of amending the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR) to reduce...

  5. Measurement techniques for the verification of excess weapons materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Yates, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The end of the superpower arms race has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in stockpiles of deployed nuclear weapons. Numerous proposals have been put forward and actions have been taken to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, including unilateral initiatives such as those made by President Clinton in September 1993 to place fissile materials no longer needed for a deterrent under international inspection, and bilateral and multilateral measures currently being negotiated. For the technologist, there is a unique opportunity to develop the technical means to monitor nuclear materials that have been declared excess to nuclear weapons programs, to provide confidence that reductions are taking place and that the released materials are not being used again for nuclear explosive programs. However, because of the sensitive nature of these materials, a fundamental conflict exists between the desire to know that the bulk materials or weapon components in fact represent evidence of warhead reductions, and treaty commitments and national laws that require the protection of weapons design information. This conflict presents a unique challenge to technologists. The flow of excess weapons materials, from deployed warheads through storage, disassembly, component storage, conversion to bulk forms, and disposition, will be described in general terms. Measurement approaches based on the detection of passive or induced radiation will be discussed along with the requirement to protect sensitive information from release to unauthorized parties. Possible uses of measurement methods to assist in the verification of arms reductions will be described. The concept of measuring attributes of items rather than quantitative mass-based inventory verification will be discussed along with associated information-barrier concepts required to protect sensitive information.

  6. Counter Weapon Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    problem, whereby linear quadratic differential game theory is applied. In our work, pursuit-evasion differen- tial game theory is applied to the...information, a computational efficient method of strategy synthesis can be derived applying a differential game theory approach. We demonstrate that when non...the solution of the pursuit-evasion differential game . vii AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-056 viii Dedication I would like to acknowledge Dr. Pachter as my advisor

  7. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Chemical Weapons Movement History Compilation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-12

    lewisite has an odor similar to geraniums. During the same period, the Army had a detector crayon for localizing mustard or lewisite leaks. This crayon ...developed, an impregnatedpaper was also developed to replace the detector crayon . This detector paper, referred to as M8 paper, is still in use today

  8. The smell of change: warming affects species interactions mediated by chemical information.

    PubMed

    Sentis, Arnaud; Ramon-Portugal, Felipe; Brodeur, Jacques; Hemptinne, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of how temperature influences an organism's physiology and behaviour is of paramount importance for understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on species' interactions. While the behaviour of many organisms is driven by chemical information on which they rely on to detect resources, conspecifics, natural enemies and competitors, the effects of temperature on infochemical-mediated interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally show that temperature strongly influences the emission of infochemicals by ladybeetle larvae, which, in turn, modifies the oviposition behaviour of conspecific females. Temperature also directly affects female perception of infochemicals and their oviposition behaviour. Our results suggest that temperature-mediated effects on chemical communication can influence flows across system boundaries (e.g. immigration and emigration) and thus alter the dynamics and stability of ecological networks. We therefore argue that investigating the effects of temperature on chemical communication is a crucial step towards a better understanding of the functioning of ecological communities facing rapid environmental changes.

  9. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  10. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  11. Exploiting syntactic and semantics information for chemical-disease relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huiwei; Deng, Huijie; Chen, Long; Yang, Yunlong; Jia, Chen; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    Identifying chemical-disease relations (CDR) from biomedical literature could improve chemical safety and toxicity studies. This article proposes a novel syntactic and semantic information exploitation method for CDR extraction. The proposed method consists of a feature-based model, a tree kernel-based model and a neural network model. The feature-based model exploits lexical features, the tree kernel-based model captures syntactic structure features, and the neural network model generates semantic representations. The motivation of our method is to fully utilize the nice properties of the three models to explore diverse information for CDR extraction. Experiments on the BioCreative V CDR dataset show that the three models are all effective for CDR extraction, and their combination could further improve extraction performance.Database URL:http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/biocreative-v-cdr-corpus/.

  12. Neural network recognition of chemical class information in mobility spectra obtained at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, S.; Nazarov, E.; Wang, Y. F.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    A minimal neural network was applied to a large library of high-temperature mobility spectra drawn from 16 chemical classes including 154 substances with 2000 spectra at various concentrations. A genetic algorithm was used to create a representative subset of points from the mobility spectrum as input to a cascade-type back-propagation network. This network demonstrated that significant information specific to chemical class was located in the spectral region near the reactant ions. This network failed to generalize the solution to unfamiliar compounds necessitating the use of complete spectra in network processing. An extended back-propagation network classified unfamiliar chemicals by functional group with a mean for average values of 0.83 without sulfides and 0.79 with sulfides. Further experiments confirmed that chemical class information was resident in the spectral region near the reactant ions. Deconvolution of spectra demonstrated the presence of ions, merged with the reactant ion peaks that originated from introduced samples. The ability of the neural network to generalize the solution to unfamiliar compounds suggests that these ions are distinct and class specific.

  13. Biological Weapons and Modern Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Continuing Proliferation 40 C. Third World Nations 41 D. Non-Human Targets of Attack 41 Vi. NEW TECHNOLOGY 42 A. Gene Sequencing 44 B. Molecular Vectors...as ’the poor nan’s atomic bomb," because of its ready availability and devastating potential [2]. An individual who is ill with a highly communicable...ever been used as modern military weapons, discussions of their characteristics and potential threat have to draw heavily upon experimental field and

  14. Combining Chemical Information Literacy, Communication Skills, Career Preparation, Ethics, and Peer Review in a Team-Taught Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Lou Baker; Seybold, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The widely acknowledged need to include chemical information competencies and communication skills in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum can be accommodated in a variety of ways. We describe a team-taught, semester-length course at Wright State University which combines chemical information literacy, written and oral communication skills,…

  15. Erratum to "Impact of uncertainty in soil, climatic, and chemical information in a pesticide leaching assessment".

    PubMed

    Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Liang, Tony C; Yost, Russell S

    2016-11-01

    A simple mobility index, when combined with a geographic information system, can be used to generate rating maps which indicate qualitatively the potential for various organic chemicals to leach to groundwater. In this paper we investigate the magnitude of uncertainty associated with pesticide mobility estimates as a result of data uncertainties. Our example is for the Pearl Harbor Basin, Oahu, Hawaii. The two pesticides included in our analysis are atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylarea]. The mobility index used here is known as the Attenuation Factor (AF); it requires soil, hydrogeologic, climatic, and chemical information as input data. We employ first-order uncertainty analysis to characterize the uncertainty in estimates of AF resulting from uncertainties in the various input data. Soils in the Pearl Harbor Basin are delineated at the order taxonomic category for this study. Our results show that there can be a significant amount of uncertainty in estimates of pesticide mobility for the Pearl Harbor Basin. This information needs to be considered if future decisions concerning chemical regulation are to be based on estimates of pesticide mobility determined from simple indices.

  16. Impact of uncertainty in soil, climatic, and chemical information in a pesticide leaching assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Liang, Tony C.; Yost, Russell S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple mobility index, when combined with a geographic information system, can be used to generate rating maps which indicate qualitatively the potential for various organic chemicals to leach to groundwater. In this paper we investigate the magnitude of uncertainty associated with pesticide mobility estimates as a result of data uncertainties. Our example is for the Pearl Harbor Basin, Oahu, Hawaii. The two pesticides included in our analysis are atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyul)-1,1-dimethylarea]. The mobility index used here is known as the Attenuation Factor ( AF); it requires soil, hydrogeologic, climatic and chemical information as input data. We employ first-order uncertainty analysis to characterize the uncertainty in estimates of AF resulting from uncertainties in the various input data. Soils in the Pearl Harbor Basin are delineated at the order taxonomic category for this study. Our results show that there can be a significant amount of uncertainty in estimates of pesticide mobility for the Pearl Harbor Basin. This information needs to be considered if future decisions concerning chemical regulation are to be based on estimates of pesticide mobility determined from simple indices.

  17. Efficiency of 22 online databases in the search for physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information on chemicals.

    PubMed

    Guerbet, Michel; Guyodo, Gaetan

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of 22 free online databases that could be used for an exhaustive search of physicochemical, toxicological and/or ecotoxicological information about various chemicals. Twenty-two databases with free access on the Internet were referenced. We then selected 27 major physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological criteria and 14 compounds belonging to seven different chemical classes which were used to interrogate all the databases. Two indices were successively calculated to evaluate the efficiency with taking or not taking account of their specialization. More than 50% of the 22 databases 'knew' all of the 14 chemicals, but the quantity of information provided is very different from one to the other and most are poorly documented. Two categories clearly appear with specialized and non-specialized databases. The HSDB database is the most efficient general database to be searched first, because it is well documented for most of the 27 criteria. However, some specialized databases (i.e. EXTOXNET, SOLVEDB, etc.) must be searched secondarily to find additional information.

  18. Erratum to "Impact of uncertainty in soil, climatic, and chemical information in a pesticide leaching assessment"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Liang, Tony C.; Yost, Russell S.

    2016-11-01

    A simple mobility index, when combined with a geographic information system, can be used to generate rating maps which indicate qualitatively the potential for various organic chemicals to leach to groundwater. In this paper we investigate the magnitude of uncertainty associated with pesticide mobility estimates as a result of data uncertainties. Our example is for the Pearl Harbor Basin, Oahu, Hawaii. The two pesticides included in our analysis are atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylarea]. The mobility index used here is known as the Attenuation Factor (AF); it requires soil, hydrogeologic, climatic, and chemical information as input data. We employ first-order uncertainty analysis to characterize the uncertainty in estimates of AF resulting from uncertainties in the various input data. Soils in the Pearl Harbor Basin are delineated at the order taxonomic category for this study. Our results show that there can be a significant amount of uncertainty in estimates of pesticide mobility for the Pearl Harbor Basin. This information needs to be considered if future decisions concerning chemical regulation are to be based on estimates of pesticide mobility determined from simple indices.

  19. Nuclear weapons and regional conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

  20. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  1. Youths carrying a weapon or using a weapon in a fight: what makes the difference?

    PubMed

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-André; Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were divided into those who had used it in a fight and those who had not. Individual, family, school and social factors were analyzed using bivariate and stepwise multivariate analysis. For both genders, delinquent behavior and being victim of physical violence were associated with weapon carrying. For males, quarreling while intoxicated, being an apprentice, being sensation seekers, having a tattoo, having a poor relationship with parents and practicing unsafe sex were also related to weapon carrying. Compared with weapon carriers, female weapon users were more likely to be regular smokers. Male weapon users were foreign born, urban and apprentices; had poor school connectedness; practiced unsafe sex and quarreled while intoxicated. Carrying a weapon is a relatively frequent behavior among youths in Switzerland and a sizeable proportion of weapon carriers have used it in a fight. Weapon carrying should be part of the clinical assessment and preventive counseling of adolescents. Preventive programs specific for at-risk youth groups need to be developed.

  2. Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Molly M.; Malloy, Timothy F.; Tickner, Joel A.; Edwards, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background Given increasing pressures for hazardous chemical replacement, there is growing interest in alternatives assessment to avoid substituting a toxic chemical with another of equal or greater concern. Alternatives assessment is a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those used in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. Objectives The purposes of this substantive review of alternatives assessment frameworks are to identify consistencies and differences in methods and to outline needs for research and collaboration to advance science policy practice. Methods This review compares methods used in six core components of these frameworks: hazard assessment, exposure characterization, life-cycle impacts, technical feasibility evaluation, economic feasibility assessment, and decision making. Alternatives assessment frameworks published from 1990 to 2014 were included. Results Twenty frameworks were reviewed. The frameworks were consistent in terms of general process steps, but some differences were identified in the end points addressed. Methodological gaps were identified in the exposure characterization, life-cycle assessment, and decision–analysis components. Methods for addressing data gaps remain an issue. Discussion Greater consistency in methods and evaluation metrics is needed but with sufficient flexibility to allow the process to be adapted to different decision contexts. Conclusion Although alternatives assessment is becoming an important science policy field, there is a need for increased cross-disciplinary collaboration to refine methodologies in support of the informed substitution and design of safer chemicals, materials, and products. Case studies can provide concrete lessons to improve alternatives assessment. Citation Jacobs MM, Malloy TF, Tickner JA, Edwards S. 2016. Alternatives assessment frameworks: research

  3. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

    SciTech Connect

    Willem, Henry; Singer, Brett

    2010-09-15

    This report is prepared in the context of a larger program whose mission is to advance understanding of ventilation and indoor air quality in U.S. homes. A specific objective of this program is to develop the scientific basis ? through controlled experiments, monitoring and analysis ? for health risk-based ventilation standards. Appropriate and adequate ventilation is a basic element of a healthy home. Ventilation provides outdoor air and in the process removes indoor odors and contaminants including potentially unhealthful chemicals emitted by indoor materials, products and activities. Ventilation traditionally was assured to occur via infiltration of outdoor air through cracks and other leakage pathways in the residential building envelope. As building air tightness is improved for energy efficiency, infiltration can be reduced to inadequate levels. This has lead to the development of standards requiring mechanical ventilation. Though nominally intended to ensure acceptable indoor air quality, the standards are not explicitly tied to health risk or pollutant exposure targets. LBNL is currently designing analyses to assess the impact of varying ventilation standards on pollutant concentrations, health risks and energy use. These analyses require information on sources of chemical pollutant emissions, ideally including emission rates and the impact of ventilation on emissions. Some information can be obtained from recent studies that report measurements of various air contaminants and their concentrations in U.S. residences. Another way to obtain this information is the bottom-up approach of collecting and evaluating emissions data from construction and interior materials and common household products. This review contributes to the latter approach by summarizing available information on chemical emissions from new residential products and materials. We review information from the scientific literature and public sources to identify and discuss the databases that

  4. Rapid chemical agent identification by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuan-Hsiang; Farquharson, Stuart

    2001-08-01

    Although the Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), the use of these agents persists due to their low cost, simplicity in manufacturing and ease of deployment. These attributes make these weapons especially attractive to low technology countries and terrorists. The military and the public at large require portable, fast, sensitive, and accurate analyzers to provide early warning of the use of chemical weapons. Traditional laboratory analyzers such as the combination of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, although sensitive and accurate, are large and require up to an hour per analysis. New, chemical specific analyzers, such as immunoassays and molecular recognition sensors, are portable, fast, and sensitive, but are plagued by false-positives (response to interferents). To overcome these limitations, we have been investigating the potential of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and quantify chemical warfare agents in either the gas or liquid phase. The approach is based on the extreme sensitivity of SERS demonstrated by single molecule detection, a new SERS material that we have developed to allow reproducible and reversible measurements, and the molecular specific information provided by Raman spectroscopy. Here we present SER spectra of chemical agent simulants in both the liquid and gas phase, as well as CWA hydrolysis phase.

  5. Survey of Army Weapons Training and Weapons Training Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    tiveness of tank gunnery training. Also related to Armor weapons training, Mierswa (1972) indicated that the Conduct-Of-Fire Trainer (\\ x %4l-XM42) for the...UU o ’I .0 Type of Ad -dz Practical U % a J C4 Exercise I X I W - T Live Fire 50 1032 5 667 106 24 2 3 2 1 Blank Fire 164 Dry Fire Subcaliber Fire 91...Practical U, Exercise X > I Q Live Fire 32 620 2* 1* Simulated Fire 156 16 Dry Fire 6 *Rounds per class Table 16 Proficiency Measurement For Air Defense

  6. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  7. Tactical Nuclear Weapons: Their Purpose and Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    nuclear detonation is a strategic event, politically and militarily, regardless of the yield or delivery means. - Richard Weitz, “The Historical ...on nuclear weapons. Focusing on tactical nuclear weapons (TNWs) facilitates a discussion free from many of these historical arguments. The value...an overview of previous definitions for TNW before creating his own. In “Tactical Nuclear Weapons in NATO and Beyond: A Historical and Thematic

  8. Integrated Microfluidic Membrane Transistor Utilizing Chemical Information for On-Chip Flow Control

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Philipp; Schreiter, Joerg; Haefner, Sebastian; Paschew, Georgi; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics is a great enabling technology for biology, biotechnology, chemistry and general life sciences. Despite many promising predictions of its progress, microfluidics has not reached its full potential yet. To unleash this potential, we propose the use of intrinsically active hydrogels, which work as sensors and actuators at the same time, in microfluidic channel networks. These materials transfer a chemical input signal such as a substance concentration into a mechanical output. This way chemical information is processed and analyzed on the spot without the need for an external control unit. Inspired by the development electronics, our approach focuses on the development of single transistor-like components, which have the potential to be used in an integrated circuit technology. Here, we present membrane isolated chemical volume phase transition transistor (MIS-CVPT). The device is characterized in terms of the flow rate from source to drain, depending on the chemical concentration in the control channel, the source-drain pressure drop and the operating temperature. PMID:27571209

  9. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  10. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  11. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  12. New perspectives in toxicological information management, and the role of ISSTOX databases in assessing chemical mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Crettaz, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Currently, the public has access to a variety of databases containing mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data. These resources are crucial for the toxicologists and regulators involved in the risk assessment of chemicals, which necessitates access to all the relevant literature, and the capability to search across toxicity databases using both biological and chemical criteria. Towards the larger goal of screening chemicals for a wide range of toxicity end points of potential interest, publicly available resources across a large spectrum of biological and chemical data space must be effectively harnessed with current and evolving information technologies (i.e. systematised, integrated and mined), if long-term screening and prediction objectives are to be achieved. A key to rapid progress in the field of chemical toxicity databases is that of combining information technology with the chemical structure as identifier of the molecules. This permits an enormous range of operations (e.g. retrieving chemicals or chemical classes, describing the content of databases, finding similar chemicals, crossing biological and chemical interrogations, etc.) that other more classical databases cannot allow. This article describes the progress in the technology of toxicity databases, including the concepts of Chemical Relational Database and Toxicological Standardized Controlled Vocabularies (Ontology). Then it describes the ISSTOX cluster of toxicological databases at the Istituto Superiore di Sanitá. It consists of freely available databases characterised by the use of modern information technologies and by curation of the quality of the biological data. Finally, this article provides examples of analyses and results made possible by ISSTOX.

  13. Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act: Public Distribution of Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Based on assessments of increased risk of terrorist/criminal activity, EPA and DOJ have issued a rule that allows public access to OCA information in ways that are designed to minimize likelihood of chemical accidents and public harm.

  14. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 2. Nuclear Weapons Effects and Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Basic information about nuclear weapons is presented so that their effects can be meaningfully related to the defensive countermeasures which will be most effective against them. Major topics include: (1) Explosive power of nuclear weapons, (2) Major effects of nuclear explosions, (3) Two basic types of nuclear explosions, (4) Contrast between air…

  15. Modeling proteins using a super-secondary structure library and NMR chemical shift information.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vilas; Vallat, Brinda K; Dybas, Joseph M; Fiser, Andras

    2013-06-04

    A remaining challenge in protein modeling is to predict structures for sequences with no sequence similarity to any experimentally solved structure. Based on earlier observations, the library of protein backbone supersecondary structure motifs (Smotifs) saturated about a decade ago. Therefore, it should be possible to build any structure from a combination of existing Smotifs with the help of limited experimental data that are sufficient to relate the backbone conformations of Smotifs between target proteins and known structures. Here, we present a hybrid modeling algorithm that relies on an exhaustive Smotif library and on nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift patterns without any input of primary sequence information. In a test of 102 proteins, the algorithm delivered 90 homology-model-quality models, among them 24 high-quality ones, and a topologically correct solution for almost all cases. The current approach opens a venue to address the modeling of larger protein structures for which chemical shifts are available.

  16. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  17. 75 FR 62916 - Re-Delegation by the Under Secretary of State to the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...-Delegation by the Under Secretary of State to the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological Weapons Affairs... Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998, Division I of Pub. L. 105-277, codified at 22 U.S.C..., 2007, I hereby re-delegate to the Director, Office of Chemical and Biological Weapons Affairs,...

  18. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  19. Universal Infantry Weapons Trainer (UIWT). Volume 1. M-16 Rifle Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    a l6mii movie. A receiver on the wea- pon is used to detect kill, near miss or miss information. The following weapon3effects and feedback are... feedback using a computer generated voice, reaction time measurement, movement of weapon and a hard copy score. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 3 3 SECURITY...analyzed in real- time and immediate feedback is given to both the trainees and instruc- tor. Combat scenarios can be changed to fit any potential

  20. Use of functional analysis to reduce the cost of weapons production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Purpose of the inspection was to identify cost reduction opportunities within the Department's Weapons Production complex. Our review included visits to the major weapons production facilities within the complex, interviews with program officials and contractor representatives, and examination of relevant files, reports, studies and other documents. Additional information was obtained through interviews with Defense Programs officials at Headquarters and senior program officials at the Albuquerque Operations Office (ALOO), as well as examination of documents obtained from these officials.

  1. Chinese strategic weapons and the plutonium option (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, John W.; Xui Litai

    1988-04-01

    In their article "Chinese Strategic Weapons and the Plutonium Option," John W. Lewis and Xue Litai of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University's International Strategic Institute present an unclassified look at plutonium processing in the PRC. The article draws heavily on unclassified PRC sources for its short look at this important subject. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the recently available works referenced in the article.

  2. Developing Non-Lethal Weapons: The Human Effects Characterization Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Review Board ( HERB ). The board provides Non-Lethal Weapons Program Managers and Milestone Decision Authorities with: • An assessment of the...quality and completeness of human effects information • Potential human effects risks • Recommendations to mitigate these risks The HERB consists of...and U.S. Coast Guard. The DoD Instruction states that “… the HERB review ensures human effects of NLWs are evaluated consistently.” In addition to

  3. National Security to Nationalist Myth: Why Iran Wants Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    28 See what Scott Sagan notes is the “seminal text of neorealism,” Kenneth N. Waltz , Theory of International Politics...Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.” IAEA Information Circular. INFCIRC/140. Geneva: 22 April 1970. Waltz , Kenneth N. Theory of International...that includes both the new Iraqi government and Iran. A. BALANCE OF POWER AND MILITARY DOCTRINE: THE THEORY Neorealist theory predicates that

  4. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  5. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

  6. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2013-07-22

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues.

  7. Predicting metabolic pathways of small molecules and enzymes based on interaction information of chemicals and proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Fei; Chen, Lei; Cai, Yu-Dong; Feng, Kai-Yan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathway analysis, one of the most important fields in biochemistry, is pivotal to understanding the maintenance and modulation of the functions of an organism. Good comprehension of metabolic pathways is critical to understanding the mechanisms of some fundamental biological processes. Given a small molecule or an enzyme, how may one identify the metabolic pathways in which it may participate? Answering such a question is a first important step in understanding a metabolic pathway system. By utilizing the information provided by chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions, and protein-protein interactions, a novel method was proposed by which to allocate small molecules and enzymes to 11 major classes of metabolic pathways. A benchmark dataset consisting of 3,348 small molecules and 654 enzymes of yeast was constructed to test the method. It was observed that the first order prediction accuracy evaluated by the jackknife test was 79.56% in identifying the small molecules and enzymes in a benchmark dataset. Our method may become a useful vehicle in predicting the metabolic pathways of small molecules and enzymes, providing a basis for some further analysis of the pathway systems.

  8. Legal Weapons of Mass Destruction Consequence Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    LEGAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT SEMINAR REPORT Defense Threat Reduction Agency Advanced Systems ...guidance documents pertinent to WMD CM ; • Contribute to the development of a Federal Legal Reference Deskbook for WMD consequence management . The...of medical responders during a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)–Consequence Management ( CM ) event. Use of the Military Posse Comitatus

  9. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  10. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  11. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  12. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-16

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  13. [Myocardial infarction after conduction electrical weapon shock].

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, H; Bouzouita, K; Selmi, K; Chelli, M; Mokaddem, A; Ben Ameur, Y; Boujnah, M R

    2013-04-01

    Controversy persists over the safety of conducted electrical weapons, which are increasingly used by law enforcement agencies around the world. We report a case of 33-year-old man who had an acute inferior myocardial infarction after he was shot in the chest with an electrical weapon.

  14. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  15. Space weapon-The arms control dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Jasani, B.

    1985-01-01

    Anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, rather than ballistic missile defense, is the main focus of this volume, prepared by SIPRI. There are many authors from the West and the East. The volume as a whole argues a consistent case for a bilateral moratorium on the testing of ASAT weapons, to be followed by a complete ban.

  16. Understanding Networks of Computing Chemical Droplet Neurons Based on Information Flow.

    PubMed

    Gruenert, Gerd; Gizynski, Konrad; Escuela, Gabi; Ibrahim, Bashar; Gorecki, Jerzy; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present general methods that can be used to explore the information processing potential of a medium composed of oscillating (self-exciting) droplets. Networks of Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) droplets seem especially interesting as chemical reaction-diffusion computers because their time evolution is qualitatively similar to neural network activity. Moreover, such networks can be self-generated in microfluidic reactors. However, it is hard to track and to understand the function performed by a medium composed of droplets due to its complex dynamics. Corresponding to recurrent neural networks, the flow of excitations in a network of droplets is not limited to a single direction and spreads throughout the whole medium. In this work, we analyze the operation performed by droplet systems by monitoring the information flow. This is achieved by measuring mutual information and time delayed mutual information of the discretized time evolution of individual droplets. To link the model with reality, we use experimental results to estimate the parameters of droplet interactions. We exemplarily investigate an evolutionary generated droplet structure that operates as a NOR gate. The presented methods can be applied to networks composed of at least hundreds of droplets.

  17. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    PubMed

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  18. Strategic defense and directed-energy weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.K.N.; Bloembergen, N.

    1987-09-01

    About 8 months after President Reagan called on the US scientific community to develop SDI, the American Physical Society commissioned a study to evaluate the status of directed-energy weapons (DEW). Focus was on DEW because they would be needed in almost all stages of the destruction of a missile, including: detecting the launch; locating and tracking the target; distinguishing warheads from decoys; and destroying the target itself and verifying the kill. Results of the study were released in the spring of 1987, and SDI partisans have attacked and SDI critics have invoked the findings of the APS committee. The authors were cochairmen of the 17-member committee, and here summarize their conclusions, namely: (1) although substantial progress has been made in many technologies of DEW over the last two decades, significant gaps remain in these technologies; (2) successful resolution of these issues is critical for extrapolation to performance levels needed for an effective BMD systems; (3) at present, there is insufficient information to decide whether the required extrapolations can be achieved; improvements of several orders of magnitude are needed; (4) under the best of circumstances, another decade of intensive research is needed to provide the knowledge needed for an informed decision; and (5) important issues of overall system integration and effectiveness depend critically upon information that does not yet exist.

  19. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  20. SDIO (Strategic Defense Initiative Office) Technical Information Management Center Bibliography of unclassified reports: January-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    This bibliography lists to Strategic Defense Initiative Organization Technical Information Management Centers holdings of publications pertaining to such topics as Liquid Droplet Radiators, Relay Lasers, Precision-Guided Munitions, Short-Wavelength Chemical Laser, Electromagnetic Rocket Guns, Space Weapon, and Antimissile Defense Systems.

  1. Tenth anniversary of CAS ONLINE service : What CAS services should be in the new era of chemical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostakos, Charles N.

    Chemical Abstracts Service celebrated 10th anniversary of CAS online information service in 1990. A speech given on the occasion reviewed history of the CAS ONLINE, in relation to its most important benefits for scientists and engineers. The development of STN international, the network through which CAS ONLINE is accessible around the world, was also discussed in the speech. The CAS ONLINE now contains a wide variety of files relating to chemical field including CA file, Registry file. CA previews,. CASREACT, CIN. MARPAT, etc for supplying chemical information worldwide.

  2. Sample Collection Information Document for Chemical & Radiochemical Analytes – Companion to Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM) 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sample Collection Information Document is intended to provide sampling information to be used during site assessment, remediation and clearance activities following a chemical or radiological contamination incident.

  3. Iraq's secret nuclear weapons program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C. ); Kay, D.A. )

    1992-07-01

    UN inspectors discovered an electromagnetic isotope separation factory that put Iraq just 18-30 months away from having enough material for a bomb. They also found European centrifuge technology and plans for an implosion device. The inspections of Iraq mandated by the United Nations as a cease-fire condition at the end of the Gulf War in February 1991 have revealed a clandestine nuclear materials production and weapons design program of unexpected size and sophistication. The total value of that program, in terms of equipment and personnel deployed between 1981 and 1991, may be on the order of $5-10 billion. The program employed an estimated 7000 scientist and 20,000 workers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    PubMed

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  5. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    PubMed

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  6. Electronic eyebox for weapon sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Wagner, Kevin; Nobes, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    We expand the effective size of the eyebox of a magnified telescopic weapon sight by following the movements of the operator's eye to create a larger, `electronic eyebox'. The original eyebox of the telescope is dynamically relocated in space so that proper overlap between the pupil of the eye and the exit pupil of the device is maintained. Therefore, the operator will perceive the entire field of view of the instrument in a much bigger spatial region than the one defined by the original eyebox. Proof-of-the-concept results are presented with a more than 3.5X enlargement of the eyebox volume along with recommendations for the next phase of development.

  7. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  8. Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2003-07-01

    Full body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited for the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel, since millimeter waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging techniques and a full-body, planar, millimeter-wave imaging system are described.

  9. Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2003-07-16

    Full-body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited for the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel, since millimeter waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging techniques and a full-body, planar, millimeter-wave imaging system are described.

  10. Using phylogenetic information and chemical properties to predict species tolerances to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Guillaume; Carsten von der Ohe, Peter; Carlisle Walker, Steven; Lek, Sovan; Legendre, Pierre

    2014-08-22

    Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species-substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species-substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on the phylogeny of species and physico-chemical descriptors of pesticides, with both kinds of information combined in a bilinear model. This bilinear modelling approach predicts tolerance in untested species-compound pairs based on the facts that closely related species often respond similarly to toxic compounds and that chemically similar compounds often have similar toxic effects. The three tolerance models (median lethal concentration after 96 h) used up to 25 aquatic animal species and up to nine pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates). Phylogeny was estimated using DNA sequences, while the pesticides were described by their mode of toxic action and their octanol-water partition coefficients. The models explained 77-84% of the among-species variation in tolerance (log10 LC50). In cross-validation, 84-87% of the predicted tolerances for individual species were within a factor of 10 of the observed values. The approach can also be used to model other species response to multivariate stress factors.

  11. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information

    PubMed Central

    Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

  12. Using phylogenetic information and chemical properties to predict species tolerances to pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Guénard, Guillaume; Carsten von der Ohe, Peter; Carlisle Walker, Steven; Lek, Sovan; Legendre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species–substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species–substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on the phylogeny of species and physico-chemical descriptors of pesticides, with both kinds of information combined in a bilinear model. This bilinear modelling approach predicts tolerance in untested species–compound pairs based on the facts that closely related species often respond similarly to toxic compounds and that chemically similar compounds often have similar toxic effects. The three tolerance models (median lethal concentration after 96 h) used up to 25 aquatic animal species and up to nine pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates). Phylogeny was estimated using DNA sequences, while the pesticides were described by their mode of toxic action and their octanol–water partition coefficients. The models explained 77–84% of the among-species variation in tolerance (log10 LC50). In cross-validation, 84–87% of the predicted tolerances for individual species were within a factor of 10 of the observed values. The approach can also be used to model other species response to multivariate stress factors. PMID:25009056

  13. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information.

    PubMed

    Manassa, R P; McCormick, M I; Chivers, D P; Ferrari, M C O

    2013-08-22

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context.

  14. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    SciTech Connect

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  15. Setting the most robust effluent level under severe uncertainty: application of information-gap decision theory to chemical management.

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Naito, Wataru; Tanaka, Yoshinari; Kamo, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    Decisions in ecological risk management for chemical substances must be made based on incomplete information due to uncertainties. To protect the ecosystems from the adverse effect of chemicals, a precautionary approach is often taken. The precautionary approach, which is based on conservative assumptions about the risks of chemical substances, can be applied selecting management models and data. This approach can lead to an adequate margin of safety for ecosystems by reducing exposure to harmful substances, either by reducing the use of target chemicals or putting in place strict water quality criteria. However, the reduction of chemical use or effluent concentrations typically entails a financial burden. The cost effectiveness of the precautionary approach may be small. Hence, we need to develop a formulaic methodology in chemical risk management that can sufficiently protect ecosystems in a cost-effective way, even when we do not have sufficient information for chemical management. Information-gap decision theory can provide the formulaic methodology. Information-gap decision theory determines which action is the most robust to uncertainty by guaranteeing an acceptable outcome under the largest degree of uncertainty without requiring information about the extent of parameter uncertainty at the outset. In this paper, we illustrate the application of information-gap decision theory to derive a framework for setting effluent limits of pollutants for point sources under uncertainty. Our application incorporates a cost for reduction in pollutant emission and a cost to wildlife species affected by the pollutant. Our framework enables us to settle upon actions to deal with severe uncertainty in ecological risk management of chemicals.

  16. Educational and Commercial Utilization of a Chemical Information Center. Biannual Summary, June 25, 1968 to June 25, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Eugene S.; And Others

    The design, implementation and operation of the Computer Search Center of IIT Research Institute, an information center to educate and link industry and academic institutions to chemical and other scientific information systems, is described. Format conversion, profile input, search and output programs developed over a two-year period are detailed…

  17. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  18. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  19. Spatial data in geographic information system format on agricultural chemical use, land use, cropping practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial data in geographic information system format described in this report consist of estimates for all counties in the conterminous United States of the annual use of 96 herbicides in 1989; annual sales of nitrogen fertilizer, in tons, for 1985-91; and agricultural expenses, land use, chemical use, livestock holdings, and cropping practices in 1987. The source information, originally in tabular form, is summarized as digital polygon attribute data in the 18 geographic information system spatial data layers (coverages) provided. The information in these coverages can be used in estimating regional agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices and in producing visual displays and mapping relative rates of agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices across broad regions of the United States.

  20. Atmospheric Black Carbon: Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Individual Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, M. K.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Marten, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of aerosols from both natural and anthropogenic sources affects the Earth's temperature and climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere. Aerosols containing black carbon (BC) that are released into the atmosphere from the burning of biomass, natural fires and the combustion of coals, diesel and jet fuels, contribute a large positive component to this radiative forcing, thus causing a heating of the atmosphere. A distinct type of biomass burn aerosol referred to as "tar balls" has recently been reported in the literature and is characterized by a spherical morphology, high carbon content and ability to efficiently scatter and absorb light. At present, very little is known about the exact nature and variation of the range of BC aerosols in the atmosphere with regards to optical, chemical and physical properties. Additionally, the similarity of these aerosols to surrogates used in the laboratory as atmospheric mimics remains unclear. The local chemical bonding, structural ordering and carbon-to-oxygen ratios of a plethora of black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecular mass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric aerosols from a variety of sources are examined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. STXM/NEXAFS enables single aerosol particles of diameter upwards of 100 nm to be studied, which allows the diversity of atmospheric aerosol collected during a variety of field missions to be assessed. We apply a semi-quantitative peak fitting method to the recorded NEXAFS spectral fingerprints allowing comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS to BC aerosol originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burning events. This method allows us to distinguish between anthropogenic combustion and biomass burn aerosol using both chemical bonding and structural ordering information. The STXM/NEXAFS technique has also been utilized to